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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Section V Technical Specifications


Chapter 09
HDPE (High Density Polyethylene)
PAGE
9.1
GENERAL.................................................................................................................... 1
9.1.1 Scope of Work ............................................................................................................ 1
9.2 MATERIALS................................................................................................................. 1
9.2.1 Characteristics and Requirements............................................................................ 1
9.2.2 Manufacturer............................................................................................................... 2
9.2.3 Marking........................................................................................................................ 2
9.2.4 Pipe Design................................................................................................................. 2
9.3 EXECUTION OF WORK............................................................................................... 3
9.3.1 Inspection of Materials............................................................................................... 3
9.3.2 Handling and Storage................................................................................................. 3
9.3.3 Insertion of HDPE-Pipes............................................................................................. 3
9.3.4 Joining Method ........................................................................................................... 4
9.4 TESTS AND PROPERTIES ......................................................................................... 5
9.4.1 Incoming Material Inspection and Testing................................................................ 5
9.4.2 Stress Regression Testing......................................................................................... 6
9.4.3 Welding Tests ............................................................................................................. 6
9.5 AUXILIARY WORKS.................................................................................................... 6
9.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT............................................................................... 6

NWC Al-Haer
NWC Head Quarters, P.O. Box 676, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia Waste Water Conveyor V2_SV_Technical_Specifications_Ch09HDPE_00-B.docx V-Ch09-1

9.1 GENERAL
9.1.1 Scope of Work
The scope of HDPE (High-Density Polyethylene) lining works is the protection of the structural
lining from aggressive wastewater and fumes. Damage to the concrete by aggressive
wastewater typically occurs through the fumes created by evaporation of the
wastewater, rather than by the aggressively of the wastewater itself. It is well
documented, that the soffit and walls of tunnels are therefore more likely to be
affected than the invert.
HDPE is extremely abrasion resistant, particularly when compared to other piping materials
such as concrete and has high strain capabilities. Furthermore HDPE is highly
chemically resistant and it is inert in all naturally occurring soils, including highly acidic
soils and saline groundwater.
HDPE is used for the lining of all components of the conveyor in contact with
wastewater or gases resulting from the conveyance of wastewater. These include the
tunnels and planar surfaces such as manholes, accesses and components of the
vortex shaft.
HDPE is to be used either itself, as a reinforced pipe (steel or polypropylene reinforced)
or in sheet form (for flat surfaces or lining of pre-cast concrete pipe).
9.2 MATERIALS
9.2.1 Characteristics and Requirements
The resin compound shall be qualified to meet at least the following:
1. The HDPE shall be made from a polyethylene resin compound with a minimum cell
classification as defined in ASTM D3350. Cell classification of materials shall be
according to tests of primary properties like density, melt index, flexural modulus,
tensile strength at yield, slow crack growth resistance, and hydrostatic strength
classification. Materials shall be manufactured by molding and extrusion of
polyethylene plastic in the form of powder, granules, or pellets. Colour and ultraviolet
stabilizer, thermal stability, brittleness temperature, density, tensile strength at yield,
and elongation at break shall conform to this specification.
2. The HDPE shall be made from materials meeting the designation of PE 4710 (old PE 3408) as
assigned by the Plastics Pipe Institute.
3. The materials shall conform PPI TR4 (Plastic Pipe Institute's Technical Report 4),
which describes the testing, calculations and theory by which plastic materials are
tested to determine their long term strength properties primarily for pressure piping
applications and long-term strength properties (up to 50 years or more)
4. The material shall contain 2-2.5% well dispersed carbon black. Additives which can
be conclusively proven not to be detrimental to the HDPE may also be used,
provided the pipe produced meets the requirements of this specification.

5. The HDPE shall contain no recycled compound except that, which is generated in
the manufacturers own plant, from resin of the same specification and from the
same raw material supplier.
6. Compliance with the requirements of this Clause shall be certified in writing by the
supplier, upon request.

.2.2 Manufacturer
All HDPE pipes, sheets and fittings shall be from a single manufacturer, who is fully experienced,
reputable and qualified in the manufacture of the HDPE pipe to be furnished. The pipe shall be
designed, constructed and installed in accordance with the best practices and methods and
shall comply with these Specifications
The manufacturers Quality System shall be certified by an appropriate independent body to
meet the requirements of the ISO 9002 Quality Management Program.
The general Quality Assurance practices and methods shall be in accordance with ISO
9001-2000 or equivalent.
The Engineer shall be allowed free access to the manufacturers plant facilities to audit,
witness and inspect the methods, practices, tests and procedures of the quality
assurance program.
9.2.3 Marking
Pipe shall be continuously indent printed or spaced at intervals not exceeding 150 cm
as follows:
1. Name and/or trademark of the manufacturer
2. Nominal pipe size
3. Dimension ratio
4. The letters PE followed by the polyethylene grade per ASTM D3350, followed by the
Hydrostatic Design basis in 100s of psi e.g. PE 3408
5. Manufacturing Standard Reference e.g. ASTM F714
6. A production code from which the date and place of manufacture can be determined.
Sheets shall be similarly marked.
9.2.4 Pipe Design
The pipe shall be designed in accordance with the relationships of the ISO modified
formula as stated in ASTM F714:
S= Hydrostatic Design Stress (psi)
P= Design Pressure Rating (psi)
D0= OD avg. for IPS pipe and OD min for ISO pipe
T= Minimum Wall Thickness
D0/t= Dimension Ratio

1. The design pressure rating P shall be derived using the ISO modified formula above,
and shall be its normal working pressure in bar or pounds per square inch at
temperatures up to 23C (73.4F)
2. The Hydrostatic Design Test (HDS) at 23C (73.3F) shall be 800 psi (55.16 bar) for
PE 3408 materials and shall be a Plastic Pipe Institute listed compound.
3. The pipe dimensions shall be specified in manufacturers literature
4. For larger diameters than 900 mm, where increased strength and robustness is
required, the wall thickness shall be greater than 3.0 mm,

The polyethylene pipe manufacturer shall provide certification that stress regression testing has
been performed on the specific polyethylene resin being utilized in the manufacture of this
product. This stress regression testing shall have been done in accordance with ASTM D2837
and the manufacturer shall provide a product supplying a minimum Hydrostatic Design Basis
(HDB) of 1,600 psi as determined in accordance with ASTM D2837.
9.3 EXECUTION OF WORK
9.3.1 Inspection of Materials
The Engineer shall inspect all pipes and accessories for shortages, loss or damage upon receipt
of the shipped material at the time of unloading, recording this information directly on
the waybill received from the carrier.
Acceptable limits for cuts, gouges or scratches are as follows:
1. Pipe outer surface shall not be cut, scratched or gouged to a depth greater than 10%
of the pipe minimum wall thickness.
2. Pipe internal surface shall be free of all cuts, gouges or scratches.
During installation care shall be taken in loading, transporting and unloading to prevent damage to
the pipe. Pipe or fitting shall not be dropped. All pipe or fitting shall be examined before
installation, and no piece shall be installed which is found to be defective. Any damage to the
pipe shall be repaired as directed by the Engineer. If any defective pipe is discovered after it has
been installed, it shall be removed and replaced with a sound pipe in a satisfactory manner by
the contractor, at his own expense.
9.3.2 Handling and Storage
Pipes shall be stored on clean, level ground to prevent undue scratching or gouging of the pipe.
Stacked pipe shall be stored in accordance with manufacturers recommendations to
minimize pipe ovalization.
Pipe shall be handled using suitable slings or lifting equipment as recommended by the
manufacturer. Also, pipe shall not be dragged over sharp objects or surfaces.
Ropes, fabric or rubber protected slings and straps shall be used when handling pipes.
Chains, cables or hooks inserted into the pipe ends shall not be used. Two slings
spread apart shall be used for lifting each length of pipe.
9.3.3 Insertion of HDPE-Pipes
Installation of internal lining in the formworks and other surfaces shall be considered a highly
technical activity and the staff performing such works in the pipes and culvert factory
should be trained on the installation methods. The staff should prove their capabilities
to the independent representative of the laboratory.
HDPE Pipe shall be installed in accordance with the instruction of the manufacturer.
Pipe shall be laid to lines and grade shown on the Drawings with bedding and cement
backfill.

If a defective pipe is discovered after it has been installed, it shall be removed and
replaced with a sound pipe in a satisfactory manner if thats possible. Otherwise the
defective pipe shall be repaired to satisfaction of the engineer. Both measures shall be
executed at no additional cost to the Employer.
HDPE experiences expansion and contraction in length due to changes in temperature
but being buried the surrounding backfill provides a restraining effect against any
movement. This results in minimal expansion or contraction in pipe length. However,
consideration needs to be given to thermal expansion during the installation process at
high ambient temperatures where contraction of the pipeline can occur after backfilling.
9.3.4 Joining Method
Wherever possible, the polyethylene pipe should be joined with butt, heat fusion joints as
outlined in ASTM D2657 and conform to the Generic Butt Fusion Joining Procedure
for Field Joining of Polyethylene Pipe, Technical Report TR-33/2005, published by the
Plastic Pipe Institute (PPI). All joints shall be made in strict compliance with the
manufacturers recommendations. A factory qualified joining technician as designated
by pipe manufacturer or experienced, trained technician shall perform all heat fusion
joints in the presence of one experienced Inspector named by the Engineer.
On days butt fusions are to be made, the first fusion shall be a trial fusion in the
presence of an Inspector named by the Engineer. The following shall apply:
1. Heating plate surfaces shall be inspected for cuts and scrapes and shall be free of
dirt and residue. Heater surfaces should be between 204C (400F) (minimum) to
232C (450F maximum). Measure the temperature at 12:00, 3:00, 6:00 and 9:00
oclock positions using a pyrometer of infrared thermometer at locations where the
heating plate will contact the pipe/fitting ends. The maximum temperature difference
between any two points on a single heating surface must not exceed 5C 0.25C
(25F 5F). If this temperature is exceeded, the heating plate shall be cleaned per the
manufacturers recommendations.
2. The joining pressure should not exceed 1, 7 bar (25 pounds per square inch) of
project end area for European style fusion machines or 5.2 bar (75 pounds per
square inch) for American style fusion machines
3. The fusion or test section shall be cut out after cooling completely for inspection.
4. The test section shall be 12 or 30 times (minimum) the wall thickness in length
and 1 or 1.5 times the wall thickness in width (minimum).
5. The joint shall be visually inspected as to continuity of beads from the melted
material, and for assurance of cold joint prevention (i.e. joint shall have
visible molded material between walls of pipe). Joint spacing between the walls
of the two ends shall be a minimum of 1/16 to a maximum 3/16.
6. Polyethylene pipes of the same outside diameter but different wall thickness shall
be joined by means of a flange assembly as designated above.
The pipe supplier shall be consulted to obtain machinery and expertise for the joining by butt fusion
of polyethylene pipes. No pipe shall be joined by fusion by any contractor unless he is
adequately trained and qualified in the techniques involved.
HDPE sheets shall also be joined by the same method.

9.4 TESTS AND PROPERTIES


9.4.1 Incoming Material Inspection and Testing
A) All incoming materials shall be inspected and tested by the manufacturer for verification of
the resin suppliers adherence to the material specification. The test shall include:
1. Density ASTM D792
2. Melt Flow Rate ASTM D1238
3. Thermal Stability (DSC) ASTM D3350
B) In addition, the resin supplier shall provide certification of the following physical
properties with each lot shipment of material:
1. Density ASTM D1505/D792
2. Melt Flow Rate ASTM D1238
3. Tensile Strength ASTM D638
4. Elongation ASTM D638
5. E.S.C.R. (Environmental Stress-Cracking Resistance) ASTM D1693 condition C
6. Thermal Stability, DSC ASTM D3350
7. Notched constant ligament stress test ASTM D 2136
C) For pipes, the following shall be checked or verified on a daily and controlled basis:
1. Pipe dimensions and tolerances as per ASTM F714
2. Pipe workmanship as per ASTM F714
3. Pipe attributes of density and melt flow rate
4. Reverse bend DSC testing
5. Carbon black content
D) In addition to the above Pt. C), pipe physical test requirements shall be verified on a
periodic basis with the emphasis of accumulating data to demonstrate conformance for
each respective pipe size range to ASTM F714. Test reports shall be submitted for
review to the Engineer to qualify a manufacturer for conformance purposes. This report
shall include as a minimum the following:
Test Date dating over one year covering the following production per plant location:
1. Two pipe sizes manufactured in each of the three size ranges: 4 to 12 (100 to
300mm), greater than 12 to 24 (300 to 600mm) and greater than 24 (600mm)
shall be tested by elevated temperature sustained pressure test as per Table 3 in
ASTM F714m for each polyethylene resin used.

2. Two pipe sizes manufactured in each of the three size ranges: 4 to 12 (100 to
300mm), greater than 12 to 24 (300 to 600mm) and greater than 24
(600mm) shall be tested for tensile properties. One of the following tests may
be used to verify pipe tensile properties:
Tensile test as per ASTM D638
Apparent tensile test as per ASTM D2290
E) Additional tests to be performed on pipes to meet the requirements of AWWA C906
(American Water Works Association) shall be as follows (minimum once a year):
1. Apparent ring tensile test as per ASTM D2290
or
Quick burst hydrostatic pressure test as per ASTM D1599
2. Elevated temperature sustained pressure test as per ASTM D1598 at 80C
or
Short term 5 second hydrostatic pressure test at four times the working
pressure rating
9.4.2 Stress Regression Testing
The polyethylene pipe manufacturer shall provide certification that stress regression testing has
been performed on the specific polyethylene resin being utilized in the manufacture of
this product. This stress regression testing shall have been done in accordance with
ASTM D2837 and the manufacturer shall provide a product supplying a minimum
Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB) of 1,600 psi as determined in accordance with ASTM
D2837.
9.4.3 Welding Tests
Welding methods and testing shall be in accordance with DVS 2207-1 (German Association for
Welding Technology) or equivalent and as stated in Clause 9.3.4.
100 % of HDPE welds shall be tested. Any repair of welds declared unacceptable by
the Engineer as well as any further tests which may be required after repair shall be
performed by the Contractor at his own expense.
In this case it must to be pointed some major facts:
1. The welding workmanship must be certified in accordance with DVS 2212-1
2. The welding machines which are used have to meet the requirements indicated in
DVS 2208-1. The capacity of the welding equipment has to be calculated for the
pipe diameter which has to be welded.
9.5 AUXILIARY WORKS

Unless otherwise specified, all work, training, materials, equipment, services, safety measures,
etc., required for the manufacture, delivery and installation of HDPE pipes or sheets
shall be included in the unit prices.
9.6 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT
Measurement and payment shall be as specified in the BoQ.

HDPE PIPELINES. OPEN TRENCH.


Raw material for pipe manufacturing will be:

PE 4710, a polyethylene with a density cell class of 4 and a slow crack


growth (SCG) cell class of 7 (in accordance with ASTM D 3350). It has a
1000-psi maximum recommended HDS for water at 73F (23C).

Or PE 100 +, this type of polyethylene is consider a PE 100 as per Standard


ISO 4427-1,

Pipeline Static Design shall be provided by contractor or manufacturer in


accordance with ATV-DVWK-A 127E for approval by Consultant before beginning
of the production.
Selected pipes must be design in accordance with EN 13476 part 1 to 3( ISO
21138 part 1 to 3), or EN 12666 part 1(ISO 8772).
Pipe dimensions must be tested as per ISO 3126
Pipe resistance to chemical attack must be ensure by

ISO 4433-1:1997
Thermoplastics pipes -- Resistance to liquid chemicals -- Classification -- Part 1: Immersion te

ISO 4433-2:1997
Thermoplastics pipes -- Resistance to liquid chemicals -- Classification -- Part 2: Polyolefin pip

Pipe tests must ensure the capacity to support the static loads inside the trench as
per ATV-DVWK-A 127E, for this reason pipe characteristics must tested on
laboratory to ensure the assumptions use in the static calculus.

Pipe installation must be in accordance with ASTM D 2321 Standard Practice for
Underground Installation of Thermoplastic Pipe for Sewers and Other Gravity-Flow
Applications, or EN 1610 Construction and testing of drains and sewers, as per the
highest qualities described in the selected standard.

Pipe welded joints must ensure the waterthigtness of the pipeline for a long period
and the capacity to support the ground loads without affecting the stability of the
structure.
In another parts of the project extrusion welding has been use alone for the final
waterproof (tunnel works), but in this case a two steps welding will be use for to
ensure the absence of leaks in the pipeline.
1- Electrofusion of the joint in the inner part of a spigot-socket structure.

2- Extrusion welding in the internal circular joint between spigot and socket.

Extrusion welding in the inner contact between spigot and socket

As per instructions of the system patent owner, steps for electrofusion welding are:
1. Power source: The power of the generator must be at least 15 kVA. Ensure the
stable characteristics of the current!
2. Fusion can only be performed by authorized personnel.
3. The fusion areas must be free from dirt and humidity and be out of direct
sunlight.
4. If the outside temperature is below +5C, additional measures must be used,
such as a tent and heating fan.
5. Check the sockets and spigots for possible damage during transportation.
6. Remove the protective film only when you are ready to start cleaning the pipes
and are going to joint immediately.
7. Install the pipe in a way that the welding wire is easily accessible.
8. The sockets and spigots must be cleaned with detergent and paper which is not
fluffy or colored.
9. Mark the spigot with waterproof marker on the length of the pipe which enters
the socket (at least 120mm).
10. Joint the pipes and make sure that the spigot goes into the socket as far as the
previously marked line. Make sure that there is no moisture between the sockets
and spigots.
11. In cases where the pipes are larger than DN/ID 800, an internal support ring for
the spigot must be installed (ca 20 mm from the end of the pipe).

12. After finishing these preparations start immediately with the fusion process.
13. Place the pulling chain into the special channel at the end of the socket. The
tensioner must be placed at least 25 cm away from the welding wire.
14. Pull the chain until the value of the tightening torque is reached, as presented in
the chart below.
15. In cases where the pipeline is short make sure the sockets and spigots are fixed
properly and cannot move.
16. Joint the fusion equipment with the welding wire using the adapter. If necessary,
bend and cut the ends of the welding wire for the adapter so it is as close as
possible to the socket. Make sure the welding wires wont touch each other (short
circuit).
17. Enter the fusion parameters (read from the barcode with special equipment or
enter manually). Begin the fusion process.
18. At the beginning of the last third of the fusion, pull the pulling chain again until
the required value of the tightening torque is reached in the chart below.
19. When the fusion time is over mark the fusion with waterproof marker (No. of
fusion, date, voltage used, time, name of operator).
20. Remove the adapter from the welding wires.
21. Do not move the pipe during the cooling period.
22. After the cooling period (about 35 45 mins) remove the pulling chain and the
inside support ring.
23. Checking and testing of the drainage and sewage piping joints is regulated with
the standard EN 1610.

For posterior extrusion weld, main steps will be:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remove any oxidation material from the surface of the two pipes, manual
tools or a grinder can be use.
Clean the welding areas . Machine/power wash the surfaces if required.
Dry moist surfaces
Comfirm that the joining areas of the parts to be welded are not damaged
or contaminated.
Installing welding strips if required When installing capstrips, mark and
measure where the cap strip will be applied. Install the capstrip in place,
such that each joining piece will have 23 inches of capstrip overlay, and
extrusion weld all around the perimeter (both sides) of the cap strip.

6.

7.
8.
9.
10.

Proceed to extrusion welding, an appropriate plastic rod and welding


machine foot must be prior selected for the work. The velocity of the
works will depend of the time require to preheat both surfaces.
Grinding and post welding finishing
After welding, perform spark tests to ensure complete seal in the liners
If the weld sections do not pass the spark test, any areas that concerned
need to be stripped back to parent materials and rewelded.
If vacuum test is required after the spark test, contractor is responsible
with it unless otherwise noted.

Standards to be consider during design, performance and control of welding


works are:
EN 13067: 2012 Plastics welding personnel. Approval testing of welders. Thermoplastic
welded assemblies.
EN 14728: 2005 Imperfections in thermoplastic welds. Classification.
EN 16296: 2012 Imperfections in thermoplastics welded joints. Quality levels.
CEN/TS 16892: 2015 Plastics. Welding of thermoplastics. Specification of welding
procedures
EN 12814 Testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products.
aEN 12814-1: 1999 (+AC:2003) Bend tests.
EN 12814-2: 2000 Tensile tests.
EN 12814-3: 2014 Tensile creep test.
EN 12814-4: 2001 Peel test.
EN 12814-6: 2000 Low temperature tensile test.
EN 12814-7: 2002 Tensile test with waisted test specimens.
EN 12814-8: 2001 (+AC:2003) Requirements.
EN 13100 Non destructive testing of welded joints of thermoplastics semi-finished products.
EN 13100-1: 1999 Visual examination.
EN 13100-2: 2004 X-ray radiographic testing.
EN 13100-3: 2004 Ultrasonic testing.
ISO 12176 Plastics pipes and fittings. Equipment for fusion jointing polyethylene systems.
ISO 12176-2: 2008 Electrofusion.
ISO 12176-3: 2011 Operator's badge.

ISO 12176-4: 2003 Traceability coding.


ISO 13950: 2007 Plastics pipes and fittings. Automatic recognition systems for electrofusion
joints.
DVS 2207 Welding of thermoplastic materials.
DVS 2207-1: 2015 Heated tool welding of pipes, pipeline components and sheet made of PE
DVS 2207-4: 2013 draft Extrusion welding. Panels and pipes.
DVS 2207-4 Supplement 1: 2013 draft Welding parameters.
DVS 2207-4 Supplement 2: 2013 draft Requirements for welding equipment and
components.
DVS 2207-5: 2015 draft Welding of PE-pipe cladding, pipes and pipelines.
DVS 2207-5 Supplement 1: 2015 draft Welding of PE coated pipes; forms and fittings.
DVS 2207-6: 2003 Contactless heated tool stub welding of pipes, pipe connections and
panels. Testing, equipment, parameters.
DVS 2210 Industrial piping made of thermoplastics. Project and design.
DVS 2210-1: 1997 Planning and execution. Above-ground pipe systems.
DVS 2210-1 Supplement 1: 2003 Calculation example.
DVS 2212 Examination of plastic welders.
DVS 2212-1: 2015 Qualification testing of plastics welders. Qualification test groups I and
II.
DVS 2212-1 Supplement 1: 2006 Planned monitoring of the certified plastics welders
according to DVS 2212-1.
DVS 2212-4: 2013 Qualification testing of plastics welders. Welding of PE shell pipes. Pipes
and piping parts.
DVS 2213: 2010 Specialist for plastics welding: examination.
DVS 2213 Supplement 1: 2010 Qualification testing regulations for the qualification test to
become a specialist for plastics welding.
DVS 2201 Testing of semi-finished products made of thermoplastics
DVS 2201-1: 1989 Bases. Indications
DVS 2201-1 Supplement 1: 2004 Material and abbreviations
DVS 2201-1 Supplement 2: 2004 Directives for creep rupture curves of pipes

DVS 2201-1 Supplement 3: 2004 Linear thermal expansion coefficients


DVS 2201-1 Supplement 5: 2006 draft Service life temperature time limits due to thermal
ageing
DVS 2201-2: 1985 Weldability; test methods; requirements
DVS 2202 Imperfections in thermoplastic welded joints
DVS 2202-1: 2006 +2015 draft Features, descriptions, evaluation. Partially replaced by
Supplements 1-3
DVS 2202-1 Supplement 1: 2014 Heated tool butt welding (HS, IR)
DVS 2202-1 Supplement 2: 2012: Evaluation of defects in joints of thermoplastics plastics
on pipe components and boards - electrofusion (HM)
DVS 2203 Testing of welded joints of thermoplastics. Sheet and pipes
DVS 2203-1: 2003 Test methods and requirements
DVS 2203-1 Supplement 1: 2010 Tensile test
DVS 2203-1 Supplement 2: 2014 Tensile creep test
DVS 2203-1 Supplement 3: 2012 Technological bend test, bend angle/ram displacement
DVS 2207 Welding of thermoplastic materials.
DVS 2207-5: 2015 draft Welding of PE-pipe cladding, pipes and pipelines.
DVS 2208 Welding of thermoplastic materials.
DVS 2208-1: 2007 Machines and equipment for heated tool welding of pipes, pipeline
components and sheet
DVS 2208-1 Supplement 1: 2012 Tools and devices for heated tool welding of pipes and
pipeline parts