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MANGO

Introduction:
Mango is one of the popular fruits in the world due to its attractive color, delicious taste and excellent
nutritional properties. Known for its sweet fragrance and flavor, the mango has delighted the senses for
more than 4000 years. A celebrated fruit, mango, now produced in most of the tropical parts of the globe.
The mango is believed to have been discovered as long as five to six thousand years in eastern
India, Thailand, Myanmar, the Andaman Islands or Malaysia.
Mango is the national fruit of India, where it is known as the 'King of Fruits'. Not only is it one
of the most highly prized fruits of South Asia, it is also intimately connected with folklore and
legends across many religions.
Mango trees can grow up to 40 m high and are topped with a rounded canopy of foliage. They
may live for more than 100 years.
In plantations they are usually grafted onto the roots of smaller trees so that they can't grow as
tall.
There are hundreds of mango cultivars distributed throughout the world, of which Asia and
India have over 500 and perhaps even 1000. Leaves - long and leathery.
The mango fruit is a large, fleshy drupe, containing an edible mesocarp of varying thickness.
The mesocarp is resinous and highly variable with respect to shape, size, color, presence of fiber
and flavour.
They have fibres which 'crackle' when they are crushed. They contain a chemical called
mangiferin, or 'Indian Yellow' which was used as a dye.
Flowers - both male and female and are beautifully fragrant. Mango flowers are borne on
terminal pyramidal panicles and are glabrous or pubescent; the inflorescene is rigid and erect,
up to 30 cm long and is widely branched, usually tertiary, although the final branch is always
cymose.
Fruits - the skin may be green, yellow, or red. The fruits have a small point, known as the beak.
It is cultivated for its edible orange-colored flesh. The seed within is large and flattened.
No matter its coloring or variety, a ripe, medium size mango provides carbohydrates, fiber,
vitamins A, B1, B6 and C, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, iron,
phosphorus, potassium, pantothenic acid, and niacin.

Used Nutritional Value:

Mango fruit is rich in pre-biotic dietary fiber, vitamins, minerals, and poly-phenolic
flavonoid antioxidant compounds.

According to new research study, mango fruit has been found to protect against colon,
breast, leukemia and prostate cancers. Several trial studies suggest that polyphenolic antioxidant compounds in mango are known to offer protection against breast and colon
cancers.

Mango fruit is an excellent source of Vitamin-A and flavonoids like beta-carotene,


alpha-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin. 100 g of fresh fruit provides 765 IU or 25% of
recommended daily levels of vitamin-A. Together; these compounds have been known to
have antioxidant properties and are essential for vision. Vitamin A is also required for
maintaining healthy mucos and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotenes is
known to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers.

Fresh mango is a good source of potassium. 100 g fruit provides 156 mg of potassium
while just 2 mg of sodium. Potassium is an important component of cell and body fluids
that helps controlling heart rate and blood pressure.

It is also a very good source of vitamin-B6 (pyridoxine), vitamin-C and vitamin-E.


Consumption of foods rich invitamin C helps the body develop resistance against
infectious agents and scavenge harmful oxygen-free radicals. Vitamin B-6
or pyridoxine is required for GABA hormone production within the brain. It also
controls homocystiene levels within the blood, which may otherwise be harmful to
blood vessels resulting in coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke.

Further, it composes moderate amounts of copper. Copper is a co-factor for many vital
enzymes, includingcytochrome c-oxidase and superoxide dismutase (other minerals function
as co-factors for this enzyme are manganese and zinc). Copper is also required for the
production of red blood cells.

Additionally, mango peel is also rich in phytonutrients, such as the pigment antioxidants
like carotenoids and polyphenols.

Varieties:
AVAILABLE THROUGHOUT THE SEASONS

Throughout the year, you'll most likely find at least one mango of the six varieties described
below. Each mango has a unique flavor and texture, so try different varieties at different stages
of ripeness and at different times of the year. You'll be glad you did.

ATAULFOS

Ataulfos have a very small seed, so there is a high flesh to seed ratio.
Flavor: Sweet and creamy
Texture: Smooth, firm flesh with no fibers
Color: Vibrant yellow
Shape: Small, flattened oval shape
Ripening Cues: Skin turns to a deep golden color and small wrinkles appear when fully ripe.
Squeeze gently to judge ripeness.
Peak Availability: March to July
Primary Source Country: Mexico
FRANCIS

The Francis grows on small farms throughout Haiti.


Flavor: Rich, spicy and sweet
Texture: Soft, juicy flesh with fibers
Color: Bright yellow skin with green overtones
Shape: Oblong and sigmoid S-shape
Ripening Cues: Green overtones diminish and the yellow becomes more golden as the Francis
ripens. Squeeze gently to judge ripeness.
Peak Availability: May to July
Primary Source Country: Haiti

HADEN

The fruiting of the Haden mango in 1910 inspired the creation of a large-scale mango industry in South
Florida. The industry has since then been greatly reduced by the impact of development and hurricanes.
Flavor: Rich, with aromatic overtones
Texture: Firm flesh due to fine fibers
Color: Bright red with green and yellow overtones and small white dots
Shape: Medium to large with an oval to round shape
Ripening Cues: Green areas of the mango turn to yellow as it ripens. Squeeze gently to judge
ripeness.
Peak Availability: April and May
Primary Source Country: Mexico
KEITT

Keitts are popular in Asian cultures, where they are enjoyed in its mature-green stage or even as pickles.
Flavor: Sweet and fruity
Texture: Firm, juicy flesh with limited fibers
Color: Dark to medium green, sometimes with a pink blush over a small portion of the mango
Shape: Large oval shape
Ripening Cues: Skin stays green even when ripe. Squeeze gently to judge ripeness.
Peak Availability: August and September
Primary Source Countries: Mexico, United States
KENT

Originating from Florida in the 1940s, Kents are ideal mangos for juicing and drying.
Flavor: Sweet and rich
Texture: Juicy, tender flesh with limited fibers
Color: Dark green and often has a dark red blush over a small portion of the mango
Shape: Large oval shape
Ripening Cues: Kents have yellow undertones or dots that cover more of the mango as it ripens.
Squeeze gently to judge ripeness.
Peak Availability: January to March and June to August
Primary Source Countries: Mexico, Ecuador, Peru
TOMMY ATKINS

Hailing originally from Florida, Tommy Atkins is the most widely grown commercial variety coming into
the United States.
Flavor: Mildly and sweet
Texture: Firm flesh due to fibers throughout
Color: A dark red blush often covers much of the fruit with green and orange-yellow accents
Shape: Medium to large with oval or oblong shape
Ripening Cues: This mango may not provide any visual cues. Squeeze gently to judge ripeness.
Peak Availability: March to July and October to January
Primary Source Countries: Mexico, Guatemala,
Brazil,Ecuador, Peru
ADDITIONAL MANGO VARIETIES
Although the six varieties above represent the most common mango varieties available in the
U.S. marketplace, there are a few others you might find as well. With hundreds of varieties the
possibilities are endless!

Alphonse This Indian variety is a mild flavored, firm fleshed mango which can range
from purple to yellow skin with an oblong shape

Edward This sweet and spicy flavored, fiberless mango can range from pink to yellow
skin with a round or oblong shape

Kesar This Indian variety is a sweet flavored, fiberless mango which can range from
green to yellow skin with a round shape

Manila This sweet flavored, fiberless mango can range from orange to yellow to pink
skin with a slender shape

Palmer This mild flavored, firm fleshed mango can range from purple to red to yellow
skin with an oblong shape
Planting Materials:
Budded planting materials are recommended for planting. Use of these planting materials
ensure the preservation of fruit quality characteristics of the cultivar, early bearing and ease of
crop husbandry in the mango cultivation.
It is advisable to use planting materials certified by the Department of Agriculture. Those
planting materials are sold with a label indicating the cultivar name and a number of
identification on it.
Whenever seedlings are used as planting materials, it takes along time to bear. Also it is difficult
to guarantee the fruit quality characteristics of the cultivar.
Soil and Climate Requirements:
Mango tree is well adopted to tropical and subtropical environmental conditions. It can be
cultivated until up to 1300 m above mean sea level. However, commercial cultivations are
limited to areas below 600 m above mean sea level.
Optimum temperature for mango cultivation is 27-30C. Mango is successfully cultivated in
areas where annual rainfall range from 500-2500 mm. For a successful crop, most important
thing is the distribution of rainfall rather than the amount.
A dry period of 3-4 months is an essential prerequisite for successful flowering of mango. Rains
at flowering may affect yield due to pollen wash off.
Soil
Mango can be cultivated in a wide range of soil conditions. A well drained soil with 2 M depth
is the best. Soil pH must be 5.5-6.5. Soils with high clay content or with frequent water logging
is not suitable for successful cultivation of mango.
Land Preparation
Mango is cultivated both as a home garden crop and a commercial scale crop. Before
establishment of a commercial cultivation, clear the land and plow and harrow. At the same
time, take steps to adopt appropriate soil conservation measures.
Spacing
-

Within row (m)

Between row (m)

For Willard

10

For Other Cultivars

10

10

For the particular cultivar of interest, stake out land accordingly. In a land with a loose soil, a
planting hole measuring 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm is sufficient. For heavy soils use of 90 cm x 90 cm
x 90 cm planting holes recommended.
Fill the planting hole with well composted organic materials and top soil two weeks before
planting. Heap the soil to about 6 inches above the ground level over the planting hole.
Planting
Planting can be commenced with the onset of Maha rains in the dry zone. In intermediate and
wet zones, planting is possible with onset of Maha or Yala rains.
For a home garden, planting is possible at any time of the year except during periods of heavy
rains. If a prolonged dry condition exists, plants must be irrigated as and when necessary.
Use only very vigorous plants for field planting. Minimize the stress during field planting by
hardening plants exposing to direct sunlight and with less water application. This hardening
held improve the success rate of field establishment.
At planting remove the cover. Cut around the edge of the bottom of the pot and remove the
intermingled roots by pruning tap root.

Place the plant in such a way that the base of the plant in the pot is aligned with the
ground level. Then remove the polyethylene bag with two longitudinal cuts from bottom up.

After removing the polyethylene cover, fill the planting hole with soil and slightly
tighten the soil. These steps help reduce root damage due to breaking and splitting of potting
media block.

Allow the plant to grow directly up. Use a stick closer to the plant and tighten it into the
stick carefully. - To minimize water loss under dry weather conditions, remove half of each
mature leaf.

Use a mulch around the plant using easily available mulching material such as dry grass
or salvenia. Mulching helps to reduce soil temperature in the root zone. Weed control also
become easy. It also reduce drying of soil and wind erosion of soil.

After planting watering is an essential requirement. Construct a basin around plants to


control runoff of applied water.

Provide shade appropriately to protect plants from heavy sunlight.

Fertilization
Wet Zone
Un-bearing trees
Annual dose of fertlizer per plant (g)
-

Urea

Rock Phosphate

MOP

At planting

115

230

105

A year later

115

230

105

Thereafter, until the bearing stage, use the above mixture with annual increments of 60g urea,
115g rock phosphate and 55g of muriate of potash.
Bearing trees
Annual fertilizer dose per plant (g)
-

Urea

Rock Phosphate

MOP

At fruiting

215

325

380

Thereafter, until the bearing stage, use the above mixture with annual increments of 110g urea,
165g rock phosphate and 190g of muriate of potash.
After several years the maximum recommended dose per tree is 870g urea, 1295g rock
phosphate and 1515g of MOP.
Dry and Intermediate Zones
Unbearing trees
Annual dose per plant (g)
-

Urea

TSP

MOP

At planting

160

195

90

A year later

160

195

90

Thereafter, until the bearing stage, use the above mixture with annual increments of 80g urea,
100g rock phosphate and 45g of muriate of potash.
Bearing trees
Annual dose per plant (g)
-

Urea

TSP

MOP

At fruiting

235

160

515

Thereafter, until the bearing stage, use the above mixture with annual increments of 120g urea,

80g TSP and 260g of muriate of potash.


After several years the maximum recommended dose per tree is 945g urea, 630g rock phosphate
and 2055g of MOP.
Irrigation
Specially in areas when prolonged dry periods exist, it is imperative to irrigate the plants in the
first three years after planting. Frequency and amount of irrigation depend on rainfall and soil
properties.
For mango the most critical periods of moisture requirements from flowering to fruit maturity
and leaf bud burst to leaf maturity.
From leaf maturity up to flower bud burst irrigation must be withheld. Irrigation during this
period adversely affect flowering.
Weeding and Hilling Up
It is not essential to weed the whole land area in a mango cultivation. Most important thing is to
keep the area around the base of the tree weed free. Thus keep only the area under canopy cover
weed free by use of a mamoty. However until the end of first year after planting, it is important
to have an area extending up to about 60 cm away from the tree without weeds. During this
period use dry grass as a dead mulch.
Use a slasher to move down the weeds among trees. In doing so the grass in this area can be
maintained as a live mulch. Then erosion due to wind and rain can be countered.
Pest and Diseases / Recommendations
Fruit fly (Bactocera dorsalis)
Adult is brown in color. Dark yellow spot seen on the thorax. It is 8 mm long and wing span is
about 15 mm.
Female fruit fly lay eggs inside the peel of fruit after piercing it. Developing larvae use the fruit
flesh as food. As a result fruit flesh melts and become unsuitable for consumption. Fungi
causing fruit rot may also enter the fruit from the pierced whole adults made to lay eggs.
Infested fruit develop brownish rotting spots on fruit surface. Such fruit drop quickly.
Control:

Remove all dropped fruit and destroy.

Before dispatch fruit to the market, dip fruit in 40C water for 20 min.

Use methyl eugenol traps to trap and destroy fruit flies. Use traps fro flowering through
harvesting stage

Five traps are sufficient per acre. Remove all trapped insects fortnightly. Also replace the
chemical occasionally.
Spray a suitable pesticide from time of flowering . Fenthion is recommended at 30 ml in 10 l of
water. Stop spraying at two weeks before harvesting.
Mango leaf hopper
Amritordes brevistylis
Ideoscorpus clipealis
Ideoscorpus neveaspardis
This plant hopper is about 4 mm in size and is a very active insect. It lives all year round among
leaves and in stem crevices and the population explode during the dry season. At this time if a
person goes under a infested mango tree, a characteristic sound can be heard due to the
activation of hoppers.
Adults lay eggs on flower buds and on developing young leaves. Instars suck plant sap and due
to this flowers and leaves dry off. This affect the fruit set and fruit yield severely.
Hoppers excrete a sticky sugar rich solution and when that falls on leaves and other parts of the
tree, a black mold grows on such surfaces. Affected leaves and flower panicles turn black in
color. Nor fruit set on such panicles too. When the mold grows on fruit, their marketability
drops. Under heavy infestation total crop failure is a possibility.
Management:
Train trees properly and prune excessive foliage and branches. Then penetration of light inside
of the canopy checks the growth of hopper population.
At flushing and flowering use one of the following chemical sprays.
Dimethoate 30 ml in 10 l water
Imidacloprid 10 ml in 10 l water
Mango seed weevil (Sternocatus mangiferae)
An insect of about 1 cm long and reddish brown to ash in color. It is a nocturnal insect and it can
fly. Adults lay eggs on immature fruit under the peel. Larvae cross the fruit flesh and enter into
the seed of the developing immature fruit and use the developing seed as the source of food.
Weevil comes out of the husk after seeds left out of fruit after consumption and live inactively
on stem crevices and other dark places of the tree.
Path crossed by the larvae through the fruit flesh is not discernible at ripening stage. This is
however affect the germination of the seed and thus it is a pest of primary importance to
nurserymen.
Control:
Remove and destroy all dropped fruit at various stages of growth. At flowering spray
Dimethoate at 30 ml/10 l water in such a way that all leaves and developing fruit get wet.

Leaf cutting weevil


Adult insect is ash brown-black in color. It is about 5 mm long and 2 mm wide. Weevil cuts the
leaf on tree leaving about 1/4 of it on the tree. The fallen leaf pieces can be seen under the tree.
Adult insect eats the other remaining leaves on the tree. This create wholes on leaf blade. Due to
this damage, growth of plants may be affected.
Control:

Remove and destroy all fallen pieces of leaves.

Spray Dimethoate at 30 ml in 10l water at the time when damage is first observed.
Disease control
Anthracnose
Colotritricum gloesporiodes is the causative agent of this disease.
This disease is prevalent in every mango growing area of Sri Lanka. Leaves, flower panicles and
all stages of developing fruit may be affected by this disease. During hot humid weather
conditions, the severity of the disease is higher. Different varieties may have ability to resist this
disease.
Symptoms
On developing leaves the emergence of small dark brown or black spots is the first stage of
infection. With the passage of time, these spots will grow and unite each other to form irregular
shaped brownish black spots. Newly emerged leaves are more susceptible to Antracnose. If
severely infected, die back of shoots possible. This is frequently observed on mango nurseries.
When flowers contract Antracnose, panicle will turn black in color and dry off. Due to this all
flowers in the panicle may be lost.
Small developing fruit turn black in color, dried off and fall. Mature fruit shows small dark
brownish spots at the beginning . As the fruit mature these spots grow in size and turn into
black irregular shaped patches. Infected fruit shows rotting at the surface. Such fruit are
unmarketable.
Fungal spores on infected fruit and flowers wash off during rains and get deposited on
developing fruit which cause formation of small disease spots. After harvesting, as the fruit
ripens its natural resistance to the disease fades away. Therefore, fungus present on unripe fruit
as a latent infection begins to develop rapidly as the fruit ripens.
However, after harvesting it is very rare to observe spread of disease to a fruit by another
infected fruit.

Management of Antracnose
Prune excess foliage to allow penetration of sun light inside of the canopy.

Use on of the fungicides listed below just before and after flowering. For effective spray
penetration onto leaves and flowers, use a nozzle connected to a rubber tube fixed to a wooden
pole.
Fungicide

Mixture

Benlate

6g /10 l water

Daconil

20g/10 l water

Maneb

20g/10 l water

Dip fruit at least with in 24 hr. after harvesting in hot water at 50C for 5 minutes. For this
purpose mix 100g Benomil per 100 l of water. However, care must be taken to control water
temperature properly to avoid any damaged to fruit.
Stem End Rot
A disease of importance in harvested fruit. A number of fungi including Ladiodiplodia
theobromea, Coletritricum gloeosporiodes and Fotogercis mangiferea cause the stem end rot
disease in mango. Disease symptoms develops around the stem end of the fruit as it begins to
ripen after harvesting.
Fungal spores are prevalent on dead leaves and twigs in orchards. As the spores spread on to
flowers and fruit before harvesting, the fungi may form latent infection on fruit.
Symptoms
Symptoms become clear as the fruit ripens. At the stem end of the fruit, brownish patches
begins to develop. Due to this both the peel and the inside flesh begins to rot. Infected fruit also
gives a bad smell.
Management
In cultivations where this disease is severe, adopt a spray program from the time of flowering.
Use Benlate at the rate of 6g in 10 l water. Sprays must be repeated in 14 day intervals. In
addition,
Never let leaves and twigs to fall and rot near the trees.
Avoid harvesting fruit that is not sufficiently mature.
Use hot Benlate dips as recommended for Antracnose control above.
Store harvested fruit at a low temperature.

Harvesting
Grafted plants commence bearing 3-4 years after planting. Fruit need to be harvested only after
it mature sufficiently, but before ripening. In most cultivars, when fruit is mature enough, the
color of peel change from dark green to light greenish yellow in color. However, to ascertain the
level of maturity a number of fruit should be picked randomly, cut and inspected. If fruit show a
yellow color around the seed, they are mature and ready for harvest. If the flesh color is white, it
is not yet ready for harvest.
Hand pick fruit if possible. Else, use a wooden pole with a hook or knife attached with a cloath
bag or net below. This prevent bruising and fruit injury. Never let fruit fall on the ground.
There is a simple device for harvesting as given above. As shown in the figure, it is fabricated
with 1 mm galvanized iron and below the tooth-shaped ring is a pouch made out of fish net or
cloath. Pedancle of the fruit is inserted in between the teeth and make sure the fruit is inside the
pouch and pull the pole. Detached fruit is then fall into the pouch.
To minimize sap exudation, harvest fruit between 9 AM - 3 PM. Avoid humid rainy weather
conditions at harvesting.
Yield
Age of tree

Fruit Number per tree

5-8

450

9-10

800

11-25

1250

Handling harvested fruit


Never leave harvested fruit under direct sun. Take those to the pack house safely. Thereafter,
sort fruit to remove damaged, cut and bruised, immature and over-ripe fruit.
Wash sorted fruit in a water bath with Benomyl or Thiobendazol. This is important to remove
sap on the fruit and to give it a good appearance. Due to the action of fungicide, development of
diseases like Antracnose is checked.
However, for effective control of post harvest diseases, 1-3 min. dip in 52C water is more
suitable. This can be done with or without fungicide. If a fungicide is not mixed with hot water,
spray a solution of 1% fungicide on washed fruit.
Packing
Before packing fruit may be sorted again. At this time if there are any unmarketable fruit, those

are discarded.
For export purposes, selected fruit is packed according to size. For European markets, high
demand exist for fruit weighing 200-250g. However, sort and pack fruit according to the
requirements of the buyer.
Pack fruit in cardboard boxes as a single layer of fruit to about 4-5 Kg in weight per box. Each
fruit should be wrapped to polyethylene or shredded paper and pack in the box.

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