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a)

From the equation of continuity:


m& V
= S = constant.

Where

m&

= mass flowrate of the flowing stream.

= density of the flowing stream.


S = area of cross-section of the pipe in which the fluid is flowing.

V1S1 V2 S2
(As is constant for in-compressible fluids).

Since the pipe is circular so its area is

2
D
4

The above equation is finally written as


2
m

m 2 V2 S2 D2 2
S 1
D
1

4
sec

m
sec

V1

D12 m 2 V 2

sec

V1

m
2
D2 2 m

sec

Substitute the values in the equation as follows:


D
V1 1
D2
2.5
2
5

V2

V2

0.5 m/sec
The velocity at location (2) =

2
m