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Trouble Shooting IP Phones

by
Matias Trevino

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Pre IP Deployment
Network Assessment
Compatible with voice network readiness
guidelines for Avaya products
Helps with implementation and
troubleshooting
CIR Minimum guaranteed bandwidth

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Avaya IP phones connect to the LAN


and a minimum of 3 servers

Media server running Communication Manager Call Server

DHCP Dynamic Host configuration Protocol. Provides options and IP-addresses. This Minimizes
maintenance for IP Telephone network by removing the need to individually assign and maintain
addresses and other parameters for each IP telephone on the network.

It is the responsibility of the customer to install and configure the DHCP server correctly.

The DHCP server provides the following information to IP Telephone:

IP address of the IP telephone

IP address of the gatekeeper board (CLAN or S8300 processor)

IP address of the TFTP server or HTTP server

Subnet mask

IP address of the router

DNS server IP address

When an IP phone is initializing, the "Discovering" message appears when the IP phone begins
looking for the DHCP server. This message remains on the display until the phone successfully
registers with the gatekeeper (the CLAN or S8300 Media Server), at which point the display
shows the date and time.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Avaya IP phones connect to the LAN


and a minimum of 3 servers

HTTP Hypertext and transfer file for 1600 or 9600 series phones or TFTP Trivial file and transfer
protocol for 4600 series phones.

You can store the same application software, script file, and settings file on an HTTP server as you
can on a TFTP server. With proper administration, the telephone seeks out the use of this material.
For subsequent software upgrades, the call server provides the capability to remotely reset the
telephone, which then initiates the same process for contacting a file server. The IP Desk phone
then downloads a 46xxsettings.txt file. The settings file contains options you have administered for
any or all of the IP Desk phones in your network. . After the settings file has been downloaded, any
language or certificate files required by the settings will be downloaded. Finally, any new software
files will be downloaded, if necessary. Download the 46xxsettings.txt template file from
support.avaya.com and edit it to add your own custom settings.

Both HTTP or TFTP and DHCP can be on the same server.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Data switch and router


responsibilities

Data switches understand MAC addresses and allows data transfer via VLAN with
QoS.

VLANS in a switched network is a collection of devices grouped together to form a


virtual network within a larger network. The reason to establish a VLAN is to
segment a large subnet. This simplifies user mobility and network administration
while providing broadcast controls. A filtering switch keeps track of which ports
belong on which VLAN. Every port belongs to a VLAN. VLANS are implemented
with 802.1Q standards, which allows a VLAN ID to be included in the packet frame
header over the switch and QoS thru prioritization. Priorities range from 0 -7 with
0 being the lowest priority and 7 the highest priority. IP telephones are usually
assigned a priority of 6.

Routers send and receive packets from one network to another network. Routers
understand IP addresses. Host or end points on different VLANs can not
communicate without a router. IP-addresses have to be mapped on a router for 2
different VLANS to communicate. Each VLAN can have only one router interface
with only one IP subnet.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Where do I start trouble


shooting?
In general a combination of the following three strategies provides the fastest resolution to IP
telephony problems.
1.
2.

3.

Hardware Problems Phone, RJ45 jack, Cat 5 cable, port on data switch, power supply or
PoE switch, router and CM.
Software Firmware, CM configuration, data switch port configuration 100 duplex, router
configuration, TFTP or HTTP 46xx.txt settings file, DHCP SCOPE 176 for 4600 series phones
and 242 for 1600 and 9600 series phones.
Network Changes in the network that uses bandwidth during peak hours. Packet loss,
Jitter or Latency.

Latency, also referred to as packet delay, is the length of time it takes a packet to travel the
network round-trip. Users will have trouble carrying on a normal conversation when the oneway network delay exceeds 50 milliseconds(ms). Delays in excess of 180 ms can cause the well
known problem of talk over, when each person starts to talk because the delay prevents them
from realizing that the other person has already started talking. Each element of the network
adds to packet delay including switches, routers, distance traveled through the network, and
firewalls.
Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Where do I start trouble


shooting?
Jitter is a measure of variance in the time it takes for communications to travel from the sender
to the receiver. Jitter can create audible voice-quality problems if the variation is greater the
20ms. Symptoms of excessive jitter are very similar to symptoms of high delay, discarded packets
results when delay exceeds half the jitter buffer size.
Network packet loss occurs when a packet sends but does not reach the final destination. The
final destination does not receive them due to network problems. Specifically, packets discard
when they arrive later than the jitter buffer can hold them. Network packet mis-order is very
much like packet loss. Because it makes no sense to play the packet out of order, the packet
simply gets discarded.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Simple questions when


trouble shooting IP phones
1. Does the phone have power?
2. Does it have dial tone?
3. Is the problem just on one phone?

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Complex questions may


include?
1. Has the customer had a network readiness
assessment done?
2. Has the network changed since the assessment
readiness?
3. Do other IP phones on the same subnet/VLAN, floor,
switch port, router, media processor, CLAN, network
region, campus, software or firmware version, or
communication manager have the same problem?
4. Does the problem repeat itself at a specific time of
day?
Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Resetting IP phones and


configuration
Verifying and changing IP phone configuration:
4600 series phones depress menu button > select network configuration to see configuration.
Depress mute and type addr(2337) to configure.
1600, 9600 series phones depress menu button > select network configuration and use the
arrow keys scroll and see the configuration. depress mute and type craft(2723) to configure.

Resetting phones:
unplug and plug back in

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Resetting IP phones and


configuration
The phone must be on-hook and idle to reset the phone. Click the following sequence of keys on
the faceplate of the telephone for 4600 and 9600 series phones:
Mute 7 3 7 3 8 #
Mute 27238 #
(Mute R E S E T #)
(Mute C R A F T #) scroll down to the reset values
option
(Note: If the phone has a dedicated Hold button, you can also use Hold instead of Mute.)

When the message Reset Values? displays, press the * button to continue a restart without
resetting the values.
You would press the # button to reset values to their defaults; however, if you press # and the IP
phone values are statically assigned, you will have to reconfigure the phone.

As described in the phone initialization process, when an IP phone is initializing, the "Discovering"
message appears when the IP phone begins looking for the DHCP server. This message remains
on the display until the phone successfully registers with the gatekeeper (the CLAN or S8300
Media Server), at which point the display shows the date and time.
Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Trouble shooting scenarios


1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

6.

No power Possible bad power supply if using a power supply, bad port on POE switch,
Bad phone.
PoE switch is always a data switch, but a data switch in not always a PoE switch.
No dial tone IP-Phone is not talking to the call server(S8XX), the problem could be with
the wiring, bad port, connection, configuration in data port or phone.
No audio MEDPRO provides talk path to a non IP device. Connects TDM to IP.
IP phone that stays in DISCOVER mode points to DHCP issue - not seeing DHCP server, port
not programmed for DHCP, IP phone configured with wrong VLAN.

Check phone configuration for correct VLAN

Ping DHCP server IP address


IP phone Waiting for LLDP phone not seeing option 176 or 242 "Waiting for LLDP" usually
means the phone could not find the HTTP server.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Trouble shooting scenarios


When the phone gets a DHCP Offer packet from your DHCP server, apart from the offered IP
address, within the packet, it also gets the HTTSRVR parameter, which is the IP address of the
HTTP server.
Your phone either did not get this Offer Packet at all from the DHCP server, or on the DHCP, the
scope options are incorrect: the HTTPSRV is incorrect or missing.
The failure of a DHCP server at boot time will leave all the affected voice terminals unusable. The
phones will be in discovery mode and will have a large count on the display.
While the Avaya IP Telephones can operate without a HTTP or TFTP server once software has
been downloaded, some functionality can be lost if the server is not available when they are
reset. Check the Avaya Support site (http://support.avaya.com) frequently for the latest firmware.
If the media server is down or connectivity to the media server is lost, the phone will be out of
service.
If connection to the gatekeeper (S8300 or CLAN) is lost, the phone will be out of service.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Clipping

Has a network assessment ever been done? Has the network been modified since the
assessment was done?

If yes, there might be a Media Processor, IP Telephone or IP network problem. Or the


IP Telephone might have outdated firmware.

If no, the network might not be compliant, If the problem cannot be resolved, an
assessment may be required.
Look at the large pattern first. Do other IP telephones on the same VLAN/Sub-network or
floor have the same problem?
Is the a separate VLSN or sub-network used for voice?
Is the number of broadcast messages lower than 1000 messages per second? This is the
number that can be safely handled by the IP Telephone. Check this by using the network
management system.
Is the Ethernet switch connected to the Media Processor set up for auto negotiation?
Check the Media Processor by using ASA. The Media Processor supports auto/auto by
default.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Clipping (continued)

Are 802.1p QoS and IP DiffServ properly and consistently used in switches, routers, the
Media Processor and the TN799 CLAN? Check if the QoS usage is consistent by checking
the following:

At an IP Telephone press the keypad sequence HOLD Q O S # and use the # key to walk
through the menu to verify if the following recommended values are used for voice
priorities:

Layer 2: Audio( 802.1p) value = 6

Layer 3:Audio DSCP value = 40 to 46

Layer 3 Signaling DSCP value = 40 to 46

In Communication Management execute the status station command to determine to


which CLAN board the IP Telephone is registered.

Run the display or list ip-interface command to find the network region for the CLAN.

Run the display ip-network region command to check the QoS settings for the region.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Clipping

Does the call traverse a WAN link? Does it have sufficient bandwidth and QoS/packet
fragmentation? NOTE: Avaya recommends using G729 which requires 24 Kbps
(uncompressed, excluding Layer 2 overhead). IP packet fragmentation should be turned on
when no DiffServ QoS facilities are available. On Avaya and CISCO router it is possible to
minimize bandwidth for audio usage by using the CRTP (compressed RTP). Are 801.1p QoS
and IP DiffServ properly and consistently used in switches, routers, the Media Processor
and the TN799 CLAN? Check if the QoS usage is consistent by checking the following:
Is the codec set to G729 for calls across the WAN? This can be checked with an active call
in progress by using the status station command. Scroll to Page 3 (Call Control Signaling),
In the Audio Channel section, it should indicate G.729 as the encoder used.
Is the end to end packet loss less than 1%? Packet loss greater than 1% may be perceived
as poor voice quality, IP Telephony packet loss can be measure using:
List trace station ext# or tac

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Delay
Step 1: You can use the VOIP Monitor Manger to determine how much delay is on the
network. The levels in the diagram in the next slide show the expected quality.
Step 2: Use the status station command to verify what resources are being used. Use
the trace-route command to verify how many hops are taken to the network. Check
the IP-network-region screen to verify how the network is set up with shuffling, hairpinning, QoS and phb values.

Step 3: Ping the LAN. Check the QoS parameters on the data switch, the rsvp and the
dscp parameters on the layer 3 switch, and if the stp is enabled on the switch. Check
the QoS,rsvp and dscp parameters on the ip-network regions screen.
Step 4: Ping across the WAN. Check the bandwidth constraints. The customer may
have a 10M hub or a 512 WAN link. Check the ports on their layer 2 switch to see
what they are set to. Check the codec set in ip-codec set in the Communication
Manager.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Continuation

Gauges

Acceptable

Warning

Not Acceptable

Jitter (ms)

0-50 ms Conversation
was smooth

50-150 ms Crackling,
static or intermittent delay
could be detected

>150 ms

Round Trip Time (ms)

0180 ms No delay
between each endpoint

180500 ms - Slight pause


at the lower end of the
range to more lengthy
delays at the top end of
the range could be
reported.

>500 ms

Loss

010 ms No drop out in


conversation

10-30 ms Drop out and


missing parts of the
conversation could be
reported.

>30 ms

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Sound Quality Problems with IP


Softphone
Check the LAN:
To check sound quality over the LAN, shut down IP SoftPhone and start up NetMeeting to initiate
a call. This completely bypasses the Communication Manager. If you still experience sound quality
problems, the source must be somewhere within the LAN. If this resolves the sound quality
problem, the issue is within the Communication Manager setup. If there is a voice quality
problem within the network, there are some easy points to consider to determine if the problem
exists in the PC, LAN or Communication Manager setup.
Check the PC:
To check the PC sound quality, create and play back a sound file using the PC sound recorder or
similar audio recording utility. If the sound quality is unacceptable, the problem exists in the
headset or sound card.

Checking the PC Volume Control:


SoftPhone has its own volume controls, but sometimes the volume controls on the PC need to be
adjusted. If the PC volume controls are set too loud, it can cause sound quality to distort. If the PC
volume controls are set too low, it may be difficult to hear clearly. Try adjusting the volume
Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
control on the PC to resolve the problem.

Sound Quality Problems with IP


Softphone
Checking the Mute:
The mute test can also help determine the source of a sound quality problem. To run this test, set
up an IP SoftPhone test call between two users who are experiencing voice quality problems.
Have one user mute their phone and have the other user count aloud from 1 to 10. If the sound
quality improves, then the problem is in the sound card, microphone, or headset of the muted
phone. If the sound quality does not improve, have the users reverse roles and try the test again.

Copyright 2011 CCC Technologies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.