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Title: Fabrication of G-Clamp

Abstract:
The purpose of this project is to allow students to understand the
common
manufacturing processes and learn to apply these knowledge to real life
situations. While fabricating a g-clamp, processes like filing, drilling, sawing,
thread tapping, welding, engraving, hammering and grinding are needed to
be done to successfully fabricate a g-clamp. Parts of the g-clamp were first
prepared and undergone processes before joining everything together to
ease complexity and increase effiency. These processes are performed
aided by corresponding tools and equipment. Skills, techniques and safety
precautions taken played a very important role while these tools and
equipment are handled. Since students are beginners in manufacturing
processes, most processes are taught and supervised by the instructor of
this project.
Objectives: - To learn the usage of common engineering tools and machines.
- To learn the usage of common engineering tools and machines
associated in process
planning for the fabrication of a G-Clamp.
Introduction:
G- clamps are tools commonly used in mechanical
workshops. A G-clamp holds
metal or wood workpieces while conducting other manufacturing
processes. Sometimes
G-clamps are known as C-clamp due to its C-shaped frame. Otherwise,
the name G-clamp or G-cramps are often used due to its G-shape of the
overall piece (screw + frame).
Typically, G-clamps are tough, strong, and resistant to
corrosion, not brittle and have low ductility. Therefore, materials like
steel, cast iron or pot iron are the most suitable to manufacture a Gclamp.
A G-clamp commonly have 4 parts, a bracket, rod holder,
screw rod and a rod tip. Each parts have their corresponding fuctions.
Bracket :
-C-shaped frame
-Hold workpiece &
screw rod
Screw rod:
- rod with taped threads
externally
- tighten-:screw clockwise
-loosen: screw anticlockwise
Rod End:
-blind hole
-Tapped internally
- trough hole
(drilled)
-To hold the

Rod Tip:
-through hole
-to hold the workpiece
firmly
Rod Holder:
-Tapped internally
-through hole
-to hold the screw rod

The first step before clamping the workpiece is unscrewing the


screw in a anticlockwise direction and slip the mouth opening into a
corner of a table. Then, place the workpiece surface facing the jaws into
the opening of the clamp and tighten the screw with clockwise direction.
A too high pressure exerted on the workpiece must be avoided to
prevent cracking and other surface defects.
Apparatus: 1. Filing (round files, flat files, Semi-round files)
2. Clamps (table clamps)
3. Grinding equipment
4. Welding equipment
5. Drilling equipment
6. Thread taping equipment(tap and dies)
7. Punching
8. Sand blasting
9. Hammer
10. Product shape mold & perpendicular measuring sheet
11. engraving machine.
Materials: 1. Sand Paper
2. Spray paints
3. Newspapers

Procedure:
Process planning:
The fabrication of the G-Clamp consists of 4 components. Each components are
prepared according to sequence.
1.
Bracket
2.
Rod holder
3.
Screw rod
4.
Rod tip

Fabrication of Bracket
1. Drawing shape
1.1.The C shape mold is placed on the workpiece.
1.2.The outline shape of the G-Clamp was traced closely according to the mold
with a marker pen so that it is smaller than the mold hole
2. Dimensions
2.1.The exact dimensions were marked on the workpeice.
2.2.Workpiece is clamped firmly onto the table clamp

2.3.The surface of the workpiece is filed until all the rust is removed and to
remove excess metal until it could pass through the mold.
2.4.Sharp edges are filed using sandpaper and files.

Fabrication of Rod Holder


1. Drilling
1.1.A small point is punched to act as a hole to be drilled.
1.2.A through hole with diameter 8.2mm was drilled in the holder using an
electric table drill.
2. Thread Tapping
2.1.The rod holder is clamp firmly to vise of the milling machine
2.2.A 3/8 in tap was tapped to fit a 9.5 mm diameter threaded screw rod.
2.3.During tapping, oil is added into the hole one drop at a time to reduce
friction.
2.4.The holder of the tap is rotated anticlockwise after being rotated at a
clockwise direction for half revolution release stresses on the sharp edges of
the tap
2.5.The tap was held vertically throughout the process.
2.6.The rod holder is removed from the vise and clamped onto the table clamp
2.7.The rod holder is then hand tapped with plug tap and bottoming tap.
2.8.Oil is added while hand tapping one drop at a time to the hole.
3. Welding (before Fabrication of Screw Rod Assembly and Fabrication of Rod
Tip)
3.1.A small section of the filler wire coating is removed by hammering.
3.2.Welding mask is wore.
3.3.The rod holder is welded on to the bracket.
3.4.The workpiece is allowed to cool down around 10minutes and then immersed
in cold water.
3.5.The surface of the weld is grinded and filed with a grinding machine and files
to achieve a smooth surface.
Fabrication of Screw Rod Assembly
Rod end
1. Drilling
1.1.The rod end with 8.2mm diameter is held firmly to vise of drilling machine.
1.2.A blind hole of 5mm is drilled.
2. Thread Tapping
2.1. The end rod is clamp firmly to vise of the milling machine.
2.2.A 3/8 in tap was tapped to fit a 9.5 mm diameter threaded screw rod.
2.3.During tapping, oil is added into the hole one drop at a time to reduce
friction.
2.4.The holder of the tap is rotated anticlockwise after being rotated at a
clockwise direction for half revolution release stresses on the sharp edges of
the tap

2.5.The tap was held vertically throughout the process.


2.6.The Rod End is removed from the vise and clamped onto the table clamp
2.7.The rod holder is then hand tapped with plug tap and bottoming tap
2.8.Oil is added while hand tapping one drop at a time to the hole
3. Welding
3.1.A small section of the filler wire coating is removed by hammering.
3.2.Welding mask is wore.
3.3.The Rod End is welded on to the Screw Rod.
3.4.The workpiece is allowed to cool down around 10minutes and then immersed
in cold water.
3.5.The surface of the weld is grinded and filed with a grinding machine and files
to achieve a smooth surface.

4. Drilling
4.1.A middle line is marked vertically on the Rod end and a 7mm height from the
bottom of the Rod End is marked with a horizontal line
4.2.A small hole is punched on the intersections of the two lines.
4.3.A through hole is drilled on the small hole
5. Handle
5.1.The handle is inserted into the hole
5.2. a hexagonal nut is screwed into the other end of the handle
5.3.Excess length of the handle is sawed and punched using a hammer to create
a blunt end and to secure the hexagonal nut from falling off.
5.4.Insert the whole screw rod assembly into the rod holder before fabrication of
rod tip and welding the rod holder onto the bracket
Fabrication of Rod Tip
1. Drilling
1.1.A through hole is drilled
2. Hammering
2.1.The Rod Tip is inserted into the smooth end of the screw rod with the smaller
diameter hole face towards the screw rod.
2.2.The G-clamp is clamped tightly to the table clamp.
2.3. The end of the screw rod is lightly hammer-punched to secure the Rod tip
without falling off but able to rotate in the screw rod
Finishing
1. Full name, student ID and course name is engraved with a engraving
machine.
2. Final surface filing is filed using a sand paper to remove sharp edges, dull
surfaces and rust.
3. The final product then spray painted with taped screw rod to avoid spoiling
the thread on the screw rod.

Precaution Taken:
1. During Welding:
1.1.Welding mask is wore throughout welding process.
1.2.The welding table is cleared of flammable objects like aerosol cans
1.3.The wires of the torch is made sure not in contact with any water or electrical
conductive liquids.
1.4.Other students are called to stay away from the welding table while welding
is undergoing.
2. During Drilling:
2.1.Long hairs are tied up and hair at fringes are pined up using booby pins
2.2.A distance is kept between students head and the chuck/ spindle of the
drilling machine.
2.3.Drilled discontinuously to prevent production of continuous chips that are
long, hot and sharp.
3. During Hammering :
3.1.Index finger and thumb is made sure to be away from the hammering site of
the workpiece to prevent injury.
4. During Thread Taping:
4.1.Stresses are released after tapping half revolution to prevent internal
cracking.
4.2.Lubricant is used to prevent friction.
4.3.Workpiece is screwed tightly to the vise.
4.4.Chips are removed before tapping to prevent cracking and dimensional
damage.
5. At all processes:
5.1.Workpiece is made sure to be clamped firmly to the table clamp.
5.2. A distance is kept between the eyes and the tools to prevent injury.
5.3.Advises and instructions given by the lab assistants are follow strictly

Problems Encountered:
During Spray Painting, the paint spray was too thick, causing the engraved
word to be nearly covered completely. Besides, the finished product was flipped
before all paints are completely dry, caused sticky surfaces sticked onto the
newspaper and ruined the paints
During engraving, uneven pressure was exerted onto the bob of the knife
causing the knife to slip while engraving. Initial engraving lines that act as a route
for the engraving knife were neglected. The word molds were not screwed tightly
before engraving cause unnecessary vibration that creates an uneven engraved
surface.
During initial thread tapping, the tap holder was rotated impatiently and with
brute force caused a slight crack inside the Rod end.
Filing was time consuming and energy consuming that caused insufficient
time to finish the project.
During drilling, some hot and sharp chips produced were bounced onto hands
while holding the vise in position during drilling.

Discussion: