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According to current economic trends, it is estimated that
Industry in Zimbabwe is now operating at between 30% and 40%
and more companies are scaling down rendering many workers
jobless. Many of these folding companies are foreign owned and
did have an agenda of profit making only thus affecting local
industries which are largely downstream. The current Macroeconomic environment requires Government to take a
deliberate, sober and holistic approach in order to deal with
unemployment and other social ills.
This paper seeks to put into perspective the state of human
capital development in Zimbabwe
as mandated by the
Manpower Planning and Development Act (Chapter
28:02) of 1984 and revised in 1996 and as enunciated by
ZIMASSET (p40) 2013.
By nature, Human Capital Development is a sensitive and
controversial but critical agenda for any developing
country. No wonder it is a source of conflict in class struggles
because, at conceptual level, it involves a choice between
development of talent for individual empowerment, socioeconomic development and national sovereignty or susceptibility
to foreign machinations and control.
The Greek Wiseman Tiresias has been credited with having saidWhatever a nation wants to be, it implants in its
From the above, if it is correct and true, every parent,
community, society, country and race, should therefore be
seized with the business of leveraging the school curriculum to
produce dream adults out of their children. They should also be
equally preoccupied with hedging against wrong stuff finding its

way into the curriculum modelling their children for it is

true of Tiresias words that-


Whatever a nation does not want to be, it will not

implant in its Curriculum.
In colonial Rhodesia, the ruling Rhodesia Front (RF) party sought
every opportunity to stifle the development of African talent and
it devised a scheme of either retarding African progression in
school or ejecting African learners from the education system on
flimsy grounds. Hence Grade 7 was a juice squeezing passage
which was reserved for only 12% of the mass of children. The
drop-outs were encouraged to form Study Groups to no avail.
Access to Education and Training is an instrument of
emancipation and denial of the same is a tool for oppression.
This is why the same party left no stone unturned to absorb into
its educational structures and tap the potential of even the most
hopeless of cases. There were various schools and colleges. For
example, the poor performers went through what was called
Rhodesia Certificate of Education (RCE) Lower which was below
ZJC and Rhodesia Certificate of Education (RCE) Higher which
was lower than an Ordinary Level Certificate and almost
equivalent to ZJC. At each exit point, the learners were recruited
into apprenticeship to acquire skills to empower them for the
world of work. Completion of apprenticeship gave them a beeline
to the middleclass while African drop-outs were fast-tracked to
poverty, submission and manual labour.
A revolution that intentionally and consciously condemns its
nationals to chains of ignorance is a revolution that has not only
lost its course but betrayed itself. My Ministry is geared to
produce and is producing high quality graduates. The
dwindling employment cake should not demean the
education system that is highly appreciated the world
1.1 Skills and Qualification Structure in Zimbabwe
Higher and Tertiary Education programmes begin from a
foundational level that enables learners to perform basic tasks in

a trade/profession and to prepare them for progression. The

qualifications are classified as follows National Foundation Certificate- Occupation-specific
skills equivalent to and taken together with other Ordinary
Level Subjects.
National Certificate-Technical competency level which
when buttressed with the prescribed rigorous industrial
attachment for on-the- job learning, will be equivalent to a
journeyman/artisan capable of completing servicing,
maintenance and repair work without supervision.
National Diploma-Technician level of performance, able to
handle and control sophisticated work processes.
Higher National Diploma- Technologist calibre, capable
of modifying and adapting processes and functions at
systemic levels.
Bachelors/First Degree -Engineer entrusted with the
designing, development, manufacturing and commissioning
of industrial systems.
Masters Degree- Acquisition of higher and more
specialised knowledge and expertise in a field of study or
Doctorate- Generation of new knowledge to solve societal
This qualification framework translates into industrial job grading
structures expressed in a pyramidal form with specific prescribed
industrial ratios of higher level positions to lower category
The calibre of graduates produced by an educational system is
predicated on the quality of the curricula followed by its
institutions of learning. The Curriculum is a declaration of
national intent and a predictor of the class and quality of
citizens a country wishes to model for its future.

The curriculum has historically been a cause for clashes between

the oppressors and the oppressed. The SOWETO uprising can be
traced back to the imposition of curricula that was anathema to
learners aspirations. It was a classical model of weaponization
of education meant to subjugate and ultimately make South
African indigenous languages extinct. In the 1970s, the Catholic
Bishops Conference protested against the UDI curriculum
imposed upon African Schools.
In Zimbabwe, the development of human capital in Technical and
Vocational Education and Training (TVET) is informed by a robust
and needs-driven National Curriculum. In turn, this curriculum is
developed using a dynamic process of continuous improvement
centred on quality systems tenets administered by the Ministrys
Higher Education Examinations Council (HEXCO).
In order to achieve high standards of compliance with job
demands in the real world of work, the Ministry adopted the
Qualification Standards Development international best practices
called Develop A Curriculum Methodology (DACUM).
approach produces an accurate, adequate and up-to-date
Research Profile that defines the performance demands, the
technology and intelligence applied as enablers of successful
task execution. For preparedness and global appeal, the content
even overlaps into the future skills trends for the job that have
not yet reached our industries, including soft skills and the
career roadmap.
The process involves a focus group of the
crme de la crme from industry unpacking their job under the
guidance and direction of a Facilitator.
1.2 Promotion of Entrepreneurship Education
In response to the economy-rooted challenge of unemployment,
the Ministry has taken deliberate and calculated measures
targeted at breaking with the traditional education of creating
job seekers to a philosophy that promotes the production of job
creators. In this vein, a number of interventions have been

1.2.1 Compulsory Business Course in Polytechnics

At polytechnic and apprenticeship level, Ministry introduced a
compulsory Entrepreneurship National Certificate course which is
taken across all fields of study. The programme inculcates
business acumen in learners so that upon completion of their
technical courses, they can form and run their own enterprises in
their areas of specialisation.
As the learners progress the
entrepreneurship is articulated to the National Diploma, Higher
National Diploma and degree level. Every graduate from a
polytechnic is, therefore, a walking potential business owner and
operator with technical expertise. Granted financial support, the
graduates are equipped to set up shop to supply both local and
export markets.
1.2.2 University Entrepreneurship Programmes
At many local universities, exclusive degree programmes in
Entrepreneurship have been progressively introduced over the
last decade or so. Tracer studies reveal that some university
graduates of Entrepreneurship are faring very well. One such
graduate from the Midlands State University won a Businessman
of the Year Award. The Harare Institute of Technology has even
taken its Technical and Entrepreneurship programmes further to
introduce what is called Technopreneurship which combines
Technical expertise with Entrepreneurship.
In addition, universities also offer the conventional business
studies programmes that also develop business-minded
Administration designed for Technical people who rise to
Managerial positions.
1.2.3 Graduate Entrepreneurship Employment Promotion
To assist graduates who want to set up businesses in their areas
Entrepreneurial Employment Promotion Programme (GEEPP) with

support of the Office of the President and Cabinet. The initiative

provides financial assistance to groups of graduates to establish
companies that they run under a mentorship programme.
They operate within the framework of a Revolving Fund with a
loan scheme providing for monies paid to be back by the
companies for circulation among new ventures. The GEEPP funds
are administered in terms of a legal instrument approved by the
Attorney Generals Office.
1.2.4 Continuous Improvement of Curricula
After initial development, the curriculum is sanitised by HEXCO
on a
quarterly basis to keep it up to date. This procedure
underwrites the incorporation of new knowledge and
technologies into the curriculum and the removal of obsolete
content. In short, Ministry has both advisory and technical
systems and structures in place to produce human capital that

Relevant to the skills demands of the local job market

Primed for the present national occupational requirements
Groomed to fit the global performance standards
Positioned to tackle the occupational challenges of the

Accordingly, our graduates are ready for the nation, the world
and for tomorrow. As a result, Zimbabwean graduates are able to
hold their own anywhere in the world be it in Medicine, Aviation,
Information and Communication Technologies, Engineering and
other disciplines. It is no wonder why Zimbabwean-trained
experts easily rise to commanding heights of the corporate and
professional worlds in more advanced countries not to mention
the SADC and Africa. If anything, our polytechnic education is
way above SADC standards hence Member States equate our
skilled worker class two to their artisan thus elevating our
artisan to Technician status. It would therefore be
counterproductive to lose the gains made over the last 34 years
because of unemployment caused by factors outside education
and training.

Assuming it is accepted that diagnosis precedes prescription, it

also needs to be acknowledged that applying educational
solutions to non-educational problems will only serve to
disillusion all concerned. Whatever macro-economic challenges
Zimbabwe is facing must be Correctly identified and located according to their origin,
nature, and scale
Squarely acknowledged and accepted
Dimensioned in terms of their potential to damage and
long-term impact
Addressed using intelligence-based and discipline-specific
tools and strategies
1.2.5 Linkages with Industry
Conscious of the destination of the products of education and
training, Ministry established a framework of systems and
structures for operating viable and dynamic linkages with
industrial networks. These take different forms and function at
various levels as dictated by educational needs. Below are the
focal structures that facilitate the engagement of industry and
commerce in human capital development to underwrite jobreadiness of graduates.
Private Public Sector Partnerships (PPPs).
The Ministry and its various institutions have embarked on
various PPPs in the following areas;
Income Generation.
Infrastructure Development Especially students
High Performance Computing (HPC).
Through the HPC, government and the private sector will be able
to strengthen linkages through joint research programmes and
collaborative programmes in Human Capacity Building in a
number of areas were HPC technology use is earmarked will also
bring government and industry closer.

Industrial Training and Trade Testing Department

One of the key Ministry sub-structures linking education and
training with industry demands and expectations is the Industrial
Training and Trade Testing Department. Its purpose is to monitor
and co-ordinate apprenticeship training, skilled worker up-grade
training, trade testing and on-the-job training of students on
industrial attachment.
It is staffed with technical experts trained in industry whose brief
is to closely monitor training that takes place on the shop floor in
liaison with industrialists. This involves appraisal of the training
environment for suitability for learning, developing the requisite
training programmes and verifying progress stage by stage
using comprehensive logbooks and practical tests. The
Department is Ministrys official industry arm that interfaces with
technical operations involving off-campus acquisition of skills. It
is ultimately responsible, in agreement with industry-based
experts, for testing and licensing the trainees for performance of
technical work in industry and commerce.
2.0 OUTPUT FROM INSTITUTIONS: (excluding Health and
Zimbabwe has transformed from just being a literate to a
knowledgeable country as evidenced by high demand for higher
and tertiary education as the above statistics show. In general,
there has been a yearly upward trend in total human capital
output since 2012 from higher and tertiary institutions.
Zimbabwe requires 11000 Early Childhood Development (ECD)
teachers by 2018. In response to this vacancy rate my Ministry
has increased the production of inclusive teachers for all levels.
Focus is also on production of inclusive Education Teachers who
can handle learners with special needs.
The ministry, through the University of Zimbabwe introduced
Open and Distance electronic Learning (ODeL) programme to
produce the much needed Mathematics and Science teachers in
secondary schools to alleviate the critical shortage. The

programme is on offer at Belvedere, Mutare and Hillside

Teachers Colleges. This is an ICT based programme where the
learners access their learning experiences through the use of
ICT. However face -to- face sessions and print media are also
Bindura university of Science Education is taking a leading role
in capacitating science and mathematics teachers. In the same
light Great Zimbabwe University is taking an active role in the
production of Indigenous language teachers. J.M Nkomo is
spearheading Research and development of indigenous
languages in line with the new constitution.


Recent Advances in computer technology including access smart
to telephones have opened up new horizons in manipulation of
big data allowing scientific researches into new materials and
possibilities. Real time Operations activities in medicine,
commerce and industry, education, information exchange,
computer aided designs are now taken for granted. It is against
this background that the gap between the haves (North) and
have-nots (South) continues to widen.
The developed countries in the North have naturally provided a
pull factor for brain drain as these countries offer attractive
salaries and standards of living. It is this pull factor that, even
within SADC region, countries such as South Africa literally
drained our nation of a significant number of our prized human
capital - both skilled and non-skilled. In the event of their return,
their reintegration into the economy will demand a wellcoordinated approach.
3.1 Demands in science and technology
In order for a nation to realize its full potential, greater

efficiencies in all productive sectors are critical. Of note, is

placing greater emphasis on the exploitation of new and
emerging technologies particularly in the area of energy.
Increasingly Nobel Prizes for science are awarded to
breakthrough technologies in battery power packs made of
graphene (2012) and blue Light Emitting Diode (LED) light
(2014). Solutions to environmental challenges have driven the
research to produce laser technology used in medical procedures
and solar power technologies, to mention but a few.
3.2 Zimbabwean context
Zimbabwe inherited a system of innovation anchored on mining,
agriculture and tourism. These sectors including their
downstream industries were supported by a network of research
infrastructure designed to enrich a relatively small population
(the whites). The rapid increase in demand for goods and
services for a growing population as a result of majority
participation overstretched the supply and demand chain.
Coupled with this was significantly decreased allocation of
resources for research and development including under
capacity in laboratory facilities at all levels since limited
resources had to cater for a bigger education and training
3.3 Ministry involvement in Science and Technology
With a mandate to implement the Science, Technology and
Innovation Policy (2012), the Ministry continues to support
initiatives and activities that promote the development of
science and technology in the country.


Some of the projects and activities in which the Ministry is

involved include the conversion of Coal to Fuel and Biodiesel
Production. Our universities and polytechnics are involved in a
number of research and development projects which include
Nanotechnology, drug discovery, energy, water purification and
Intellectual Property rights.
Resources mobilization including Promotion and
advocacy initiatives (Primary Goal 5)
Efforts to mobilize resources are underway through PPP
arrangements. In addition, the Ministry has entered into
bilateral agreements to advance the development and
introduction of science and technology in all sectors with
South Africa, Mozambique as far back as 2008. Greater
efforts need to be made to strengthen the effective
implementation of the obligations contained in each of
these agreements on cooperation in science and
Other agreements with Brazil, Iran, Malaysia, Malawi,
Zambia, India, China, and South Korea are at advanced
stages of negotiation and ready for signature.
These efforts naturally present opportunities for engagements
with other countries opening up vast areas for technology
transfer and exchange of experiences.
Promotion and advocacy
The Ministry is been active in locally organized fairs including
Zimbabwe International Trade Fare (ZITF), Harare Agricultural
Show (HAS), provincial and district events. Other events include
celebrations for Science Day, Annual Science week held in

conjunction with Research and Intellectual Exposition (RIE).

New Partnership for Africas Development (NEPAD) supported the
development of the National Innovation survey for inclusion into
the Africa Innovation Outlook by Research Development and
UNESCO provides resources to promote effective engagements
with institutions of higher learning, industry and commerce
partners including Non-Governmental Organizations and private
individuals. The result of this cooperation is demonstrated by
the production of the Review of the Status of Science,
Technology and Innovation (STI) in Zimbabwe by the Zimbabwe
Academy of Science (ZAS) and the second STI Policy
coordinated by the Research Council of Zimbabwe (RCZ).

The Ministry facilitates the representation by national experts in

various fields of science to participate in International workshops
coordinated by Non-Aligned Movement Science and Technology
(NAM ST) in New Delhi and hosted either in India or on the
invitation of member states. Since 2012 when Zimbabwe
became an active participant in the programmes and to date, 13
experts have presented technical papers in 12 international
workshops. Two nationals have served as editors of the
proceedings of these workshops. Two Centres of Excellence are
hosted in Africa; one on Lightning protection in Uganda launched
in 2013 and the other one under development in Zimbabwe
focusing on Minerals Processing and Beneficiation scheduled for

launch late 2015 or 2016.

In February 2015 the Minister will lead a delegation to Tehran for
the NAM Ministerial conference on Science and Technology. It is
envisaged the ministerial resolution will endorse the Centre of
Excellence (COE) for Zimbabwe among its key outcomes.
Use of Open and Distance electronic Learning (ODeL)
The Ministry is responsible for teacher education, technical and
vocational education and training and university education. In
these sectors of education, Open and Distance Learning is
offered in teacher education and university education. In teacher
education, ODL is the mode used to produce secondary and
primary teachers.
The ministry, through the University of Zimbabwe introduced
Open and Distance electronic Learning (ODeL) programme to
alleviate the critical shortage of the much needed Mathematics
and Science teachers in secondary schools. The programme is
on offer at Belvedere, Mutare and Hillside teachers colleges.
In this regard, the Ministry is responding to current global trends
whereby ICT is applied in human capital development. All
qualified teachers from teachers colleges and universities are
ICT literate and they can effectively utilise the ICTs in the
delivery of their lessons, tutorials and lectures.
ICT has greater advantage over the sole use of print medium in
that information flow is fast, reliable and can reach large
numbers of learners who may be scattered across the country.
Higher and tertiary education institutions are equipped and
being equipped with appropriate ICTs to facilitate the teaching
and learning processes so that the human capital produced is
globally competitive and that is fundamentally why Zimbabwean
graduates are sought after regionally and globally. As a Ministry
responsible for human capital development and in line with ZIM13

ASSET, there is more promotion and utilisation of ICTs in higher

and tertiary education institutions.


4.1 Entrepreneurship
Higher and tertiary curriculum now includes Entrepreneurship as
a mandatory discipline to cultivate a business consciousness and
culture in all our graduates as already outlined above.
4.2 Integrated Skills Outreach Programme (ISOP)
The Integrated Skills Outreach Programme was conceived by the
Ministry in a bid to address the promotion of entrepreneurial
initiatives and employment creation for youths who failed to
access Tertiary and Higher education. However the expansion
and growth of the programme was adversely affected by lack of
adequate funding from the fiscus.

4.3 Research and Development for Innovation

The state of science and technology in Zimbabwe is not at its
best and faces a lot of challenges mainly to do with funding and
infrastructure availability. In order to leapfrog development the
following are some of the initiatives that the ministry is currently
involved in.
Technology Transfer.
The Ministry now has a full-fledged department that will focus on
issues to do with technology transfer.
Technology Parks.
Current global trends have shown that technology parks are an
integral part in the development of science and technology in
any country. The Ministry is therefore now working on a
programme that will see the development of institutional

technology parks at our institutions of higher learning. The

institutional technology parks will act as technology incubation
4.4 Structure of the Science and Technology Sector in
It worth noting that for any sector to be truly effective in playing
a positive role to national development, it must be properly
organised and structured. Whilst many endeavours have been
made to drive the national Science and Technology thrust over
the years, the current structure of the sector is suboptimal. This
is manifested in the current scenario were premier institutions
set up to spearhead research and innovation are outside the
purview of the Ministry responsible for science and technology.
It is difficult to see how for example government expects
sustained tangible S&T outputs when key institutions like the
Research Council of Zimbabwe and SIRDC do not report nor are
accountable to the Ministry responsible for science and
technology. Such a fragmented approach to the organisation of
science and technology cannot be expected to produce much.

4.5 Linkages between Industry and Institutions of Higher

The National Manpower Advisory Council (NAMACO) is a
statutory body established in terms of the Manpower Planning
and Development Act (Chapter 28:02) of 1984 and revised in
1996. The mandate of NAMACO is to provide policy advice on
manpower development matters to the Ministry in terms of
section 19 of the said Act.
The Council is comprised of captains of industry and commerce
from across a spectrum of production and service operations
totalling twenty sectors including Parastatals, professional
institutions and government departments. Through its sector15

specific Committees, NAMACO investigates and makes

recommendations on measures to address the countrys human
capital-based challenges, for Ministry consideration.
Accordingly, the NAMACO Sector Committees, Council and Joint
meetings provide an apt platform for guaranteeing the
production of quality human capital which is relevant for industry
and commerce at any given time. It is through this framework
that ministry came to introduce such policy mechanisms as,
inter alia

Industrial Attachment for students

Industrial Attachment for Lecturers
DACUM Job Profiling
Re-tooling of technical institutions
Compulsory Entrepreneurship Courses
Continuous Professional Development
Skills Retention Schemes for example, Housing for
Apprenticeship Special Scheme-this a future-centric scheme
providing for government to continue training apprentices
when industry is incapacitated so that upon recovery, the
gearing ratio of human capital will not impinge on national
skills sovereignty.
4.6 College Advisory Councils
For purposes of the smooth delivery of learning programmes and
to ensure quality and relevance the college administration is
beefed up by industrialists who constitute College Advisory
Councils. Departmental Advisory Committees then advise on the
effective running of programmes to fulfil the requirements of the
4.7 University Councils
At university level, the University Administration is assisted by
University Councils in directing the institutions business to
ensure that social expectations are met. Renowned practitioners,
business leaders and other personages from industry,

commerce, public enterprise and professional institutes are

appointed to the boards of the university councils.
4.8 Higher Education Examinations Council (HEXCO)
In order to ensure that the evaluation of the performance of the
education and training system for TVET measures up to
industrial quality
demands, the Ministry recruits industrial
specialists to assist in the examination Paper Setting, Marking
and Moderation. The recruitment is done through NAMACO as
the human capital development conduit between industry and
Ministry. Therefore, industry and commerce participate and
contribute towards making education and training up-to-date
and relevant to the job market reality.
4.9 Higher and Tertiary as a ZIMASSET Sub-Structure
Higher and Tertiary Education is in essence, a sub-structure of
ZIMASSET in that it should produce human capital with
capabilities to serve and fulfil the objects of ZIMASSET.
4.10 Value Addition and Beneficiation
The more local people are equipped with competencies to
operate at a specialist level, the greater the justification to
establish locally industries that are involved in adding value to
our natural resources and beneficiation. It is therefore, now time
to target production of more graduates with these capabilities if
we are to realize the national Beneficiation and Value Addition
4.11 Diaspora Engagement
One of the strategies to attract experienced Zimbabwean
workforce abroad was the establishment of information and
interactive website and database.
This tool is used to engage professionals in the Diaspora for their
contribution towards the economic and social development of
Zimbabwe and redress the flight of skilled professionals from the
country. To this effect, the Ministry has managed to reduce

vacancy rates in critical shortage areas in most of the State

4.12 Zimbabwe Manpower Development Fund (ZIMDEF)
To date ZIMDEF has managed to mobilise resources for Retooling
and Equipmentation of most of the institutions of Higher
Learning. The resource base for ZIMDEF has been critically
reduced due to continued company closures and companies
scaling down in recent years.
5.0 Recommended Conclusions
It is clear that in each of its major educational functions, Ministry
engages industry and commerce through and through. It is the
solemn and exclusive business of Government and stakeholders
to articulate and project the human capital interests and dreams
of their constituencies so that these can be captured in the
curriculum as highlighted in this document. There is no space for
complacence and failure to satisfy the skills needs of the
employment market and employment generation or selfemployment.
As things are, Zimbabwe is a continental leader in producing
quality and competitive human capital. That is why the
graduates from Higher and Tertiary Education Institutions are
sought-after globally.
Zimbabweans are emulated and at the same time respected for
their technical and knowledge prowess. Zimbabweans are
viewed with so much vituperation and admiration by their fellow
Africans purely because of their intangible skills. If this proud
national performance deserves anything, it should be sustained
till the economic boom in the offing.
If this particular period of our national history is entitled to
anything, it is entitled to the augmentation of its human capital
development structures, systems, infrastructure and other
enablers of talent development as enshrined in Section 75 of the
Constitution, which places a mandatory responsibility on the
state, (through its arms such as the Ministry of Higher and

Tertiary Education, Science and Technology Development), to

make education available and accessible to all its citizens.
That way, Zimbabwe may edge closer to satisfying the learning
needs of its populace and empower the millions of its schoolleavers some of whom have to secure education and training
opportunities abroad on account of capacity limitations on the
part of our institutions.
5.1 Recommended Conclusions
5.1.1: Shortage of Science Teachers
For over three decades now, there has been and there continues
to be a chronic and acute shortage of Science and Mathematics
Teachers in Zimbabwe. Because industrialization is driven by
science education, the less science teachers there are, the less
capacity there will be for producing scientists, engineers,
technologists and innovators to propel industrial growth. There is
therefore need for calculated and targeted efforts to induce the
uptake of Sciences and Mathematics among learners.
In this regard, it is therefore recommended thatEnrolment in Science and Mathematics should be
promoted through various incentives for both teachers
and learners, including support for the girl child pursuing
Science studies at degree level.
5.1.2 Science





Acknowledging the great strides that have been made to

establish Science and Technology Education institutions such as
Harare Institute of Technology (HIT), Chinhoyi University of
Technology (CUT), Bindura University of Science Education
(BUSE), National University of Science and Technology (NUST)
and Scientific Industrial Research and Development Centre
(SIRDC), it is of great concern to note that the institutions are not
adequately equipped. As a result of limited facilities and
equipment these institutions are enrolling extremely low
numbers of students compared not only to the pool of students

who qualify but also to the levels prescribed in their mandate,

for instance 70% of total enrolment at NUST
should be in
Science and Technology disciplines but they are at 20%.
In order to increase intakes of these institutions to the target
levels, it is recommended that Government, through the Ministry of Finance, urgently
provides budgetary support for equipping and re-tooling
institutions of Science and Technology to enable them to
raise their student intakes to the required levels.
5.1.3 Science Parks and Technology Incubators
Recognizing the strategic role of facilities for the gestation of
scientific inventions and technology innovations prior to
transitioning into production at an industrial scale, there is need
for deliberate efforts to be made to promote the setting up of the
aforesaid facilities.
In this regard, it is recommended thatScience Parks and Technology Incubators should be
established equipped and maintained through financial
support from the Zimbabwe Manpower Development

5.1.4 National Human Capital Requirements

Apart from fragmented estimates and projections of skills
demands that have been made by specific industries, there has
not been undertaken an integrated and overarching exercise to
establish the bigger picture of national human capital
requirements ever since the early 1980s when a country-wide
manpower survey was last conducted.
technological advancements that have taken place compounded
by the migration of skilled personnel in the last 30 years, it is
incumbent upon Government to establish the national human

resources needs in order to re-define the supply and demand

imperatives in the human capital value chain.
To this end, it is recommended thatA National Human Resources Survey be conducted to
establish the status of human capital in relation to the
socio-economic needs of the country and sustainable

5.1.5 Contributions towards Employment Creation

According to my Ministry, the number of graduates from
institutions of higher learning has been increasing from year to
year but there is no corresponding job creation in the market. As
alluded to earlier, industry is shrinking day by day thereby
increasing unemployment as the those who were in employment
are retrenched and those from institutions are not absorbed by
the job market.
It is therefore recommended thatGovernment strengthens job creation interventions
such as GEEPP and ISOP already initiated by my

5.1.6 Resuscitation





Most of the current unemployment woes stem from but are not
limited to the closure of big manufacturing enterprises that fed
on and stimulated the growth of agricultural and mining
industrial production. Had these companies survived and
expanded, a good part of the prevailing unemployment
challenges would not be as pressing as is the case today.
In order to revive industry so as to provide employment
opportunities for graduates and also facilitate the re21

engagement of the retrenched labour force, it is recommended

manufacturing and exporting industries which will drive
economic recovery and absorb graduates from our

5.1.7 Deployment of Zimbabwean English to Non-Englishspeaking Countries

Acknowledging the high English Language competencies among
Zimbabwean teachers and the need for the country to realize
some measure of return on investment into education and also
realizing the communication challenges faced by some Regional
and International partner states, it is only logical for us to
respond to the evident linguistic needs of these countries.