Modulation techniques in digital communication

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Modulation techniques in digital communication

© All Rights Reserved

Als PDF, TXT **herunterladen** oder online auf Scribd lesen

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Manjunatha. P

manjup.jnnce@gmail.com

Professor

Dept. of ECE

J.N.N. College of Engineering, Shimoga

January 1, 2016

Overview

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Coherent Quadrature Modulation Techniques

NonCoherent Binary Modulation Techniques

Comparison of Binary and Quaternary Modulation Techniques

M-ary Modulation Techniques

Power Spectra, Bandwidth Efficiency

M-ary Modulation formats viewed in the Light of the channel capacity

Theorem

Effect of Intersymbol Interference

Bit Versus Symbol Error Probabilities

Synchronisation

Applications

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

2 / 118

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

3 / 118

Trigonometric identities

Manjunatha. P

cos(x)cos(y )

1/2[cos(x y ) + cos(x + y )]

sin(x)sin(y )

1/2[cos(x y ) cos(x + y )]

sin(x)cos(y )

1/2[sin(x + y ) + sin(x y )]

cos(x)sin(y )

1/2[sin(x + y ) sin(x y )]

(JNNCE)

sin(x y )

cos(x y )

January 1, 2016

4 / 118

varying the amplitude, frequency,or phase or a combination of them of an RF carrier.

The general form the the carrier wave is

s(t) = A(t) cos(t)

(1)

where A(t) is the time varying amplitude and (t) is the time varying angle.

s(t) = A(t) cos[t + (t)]

(2)

where is the angular frequency of the carrier and (t) is the phase. The frequency f in in hertz and

is in radians per second and are related by = 2f .

The carrier wave amplitude coefficient

The general form the the carrier wave is

s(t) = A cost

(3)

where A is peak value of the waveform. The peak value of the sinusoidal waveform equals

root-mean square(rms) value. Hence

q

p

2 times the

s(t) = 2P coswt

(4)

(5)

r

2E

s(t) =

cost

T

(6)

The energy of a received signal is the key parameter in determining the error performance of the

detection process, hence it is often more convenient to use the amplitude notation because it facilitates

solving the probability of error Pe as a function of signal energy.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

5 / 118

The term noise refers to unwanted electrical signals that are always present in electrical systems.

The noise arises from a variety of sources, both man made and natural.

The man made noise includes such sources as spark-plug ignition noise, switching transients, and other

radiating electromagnetic signals.

Natural noise includes such elements as the atmosphere, the sun and other galactic sources,thermal

noise or Johnson noise.

Noise can be eliminated through filtering, shielding, the choice of modulation and the selection of an

optimum receiver.

Thermal noise is caused by the thermal motion of electrons in all dissipative components like resistors,

wires and so on.

Thermal noise cannot be eliminated due to the same electrons are responsible for electrical conduction.

The thermal noise can be described by a zero mean Gaussian random process.

A Gaussian process n(t) is a random function whose value n at any arbitrary time t is statically

characterized by the Gaussian probability density function.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

6 / 118

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian) distribution is a continuous probability distribution,

defined by the formula:

(x)2

1

2 2

f (x) = e

2

The parameter is the mean or expectation of the distribution (and also its median and mode). The

parameter is its standard deviation; its variance is therefore 2 .

A random variable with a Gaussian distribution is said to be normally distributed and is called a normal

deviate.

If = 0 and = 1, the distribution is called the standard normal distribution or the unit normal

distribution, and a random variable with that distribution is a standard normal deviate.

(x)2

1

2

f (x) = e

2

Heights of people

Size of things produced by machines

Errors in measurements

Blood pressure

Marks on a test

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

7 / 118

Figure 1:

Gaussian Distribution

Figure 2:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Gaussian Distribution

January 1, 2016

8 / 118

White Noise

White Noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal with a flat (constant) power spectral density (PSD).

White noise draws its name from white light, which is commonly (but incorrectly) assumed to have a

flat spectral power density over the visible band.

The thermal noise is that its PSD is same for all frequencies from dc to 1012 Hz.

The thermal noise is assumed that its PSD Gn (f )

Gn (f ) = N0 /2

watts/hertz

(7)

The autocorrelation function of white noise is given by the inverse Fourier transform of the PSD

Rn ( ) = F {Gn (f )} =

N0

( )

2

(8)

The autocorrelation of white noise is a delta function weighted by the factor N0 /2 and occurring at

= 0 as shown in Figure 3.

Rn ( ) = 0 for 6= 0 that is any two different samples of white noise no matter how close together in

time they are uncorrelated.

Figure 3:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

9 / 118

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

10 / 118

The carrier is shifted in phase according to the input data stream, frequency and amplitude of the

carrier are constant.

Binary PSK (BPSK): two phases (0o 180o ) represent two binary digits:

Figure 4:

BPSK waveform

In binary PSK (BPSK) symbols 1 and 0 are represented by S1 (t) S2 (t) and are defined as

s

s1 (t) =

s

2Eb

2Eb

0

cos[2fc t + 0 ]=

cos[2fc t]

Tb

Tb

0 t Tb

s

2Eb

2Eb

0

cos[2fc t + 180 ] =

cos[2fc t]

0 t Tb

Tb

Tb

s

2Eb

0

0

cos[2fc t + (t)] i = 1, 2 (t) = 0 or 180

si (t) =

Tb

s2 (t) =

Eb =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

A 2 Tb

2

A=

2Eb

Tb

January 1, 2016

11 / 118

s

2

cos(2fc t)

1 (t) =

Tb

p

s1 (t) = Eb 1 (t)

p

s2 (t) = Eb 1 (t)

0 t Tb

Binary PSK

wave

Eb or Eb

1 ( t ) =

Figure 5:

(JNNCE)

0 t Tb

Product

Modulator

Binrary Wave

Manjunatha. P

0 t Tb

2

cos ( 2 f ct )

Tb

BPSK Tranmitter

January 1, 2016

12 / 118

BPSK system is having a signal space with one dimension and having two message points that have the

coordinate points as follows:

TB

Z

s11 =

TB

s21 =

TB

Z

s1 (t)1 (t)dt =

TB

Z

s2 (t)1 (t)dt =

2Eb

cos(2fc t)

Tb

cos x =

2Eb

cos(2fc t)

Tb

p

2

cos(2fc t)dt = Eb

Tb

p

2

cos 2fc t)dt = Eb

Tb

1

(1 + cos2x)

2

Decision

Boundary

Region Z1

Region Z2

Eb

Eb

1 ( t)

Message

Point 1

Message

Point 2

Figure 7: Signal Space diagram

The signal space has two regions z1 and z2 corresponding to message 1 and 0.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

13 / 118

An important measure of performance used for comparing digital modulation schemes is the probability

of error Pe .

The probability of the detector making an incorrect decision is termed the probability of symbol error Pe .

It is often convenient to specify system performance by the probability of bit error Pb even when

decisions are made on the basis of symbols for which M > 2.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

14 / 118

Probability of Error

Channel

Transmitted

Signal

si(t)

Received

Signal

x(t)=si(t)+w(t)

P(t )

x (t )

Sample at

every Tb Sample at

every Tb

t

Noise

w(t)

x1 < 0 0

Binary

Data

dt

2

cos(2fc t )

Tb

1 (t ) =

x1 > 0 1

Vth=0

The received signal x(t) in the presence of AWGN w(t)with the assumption that symbol 0 or s2 (t) is

transmitted

x(t) = s2 (t) + w (t)

0 t Tb

Z Tb

Z Tb

x1 =

x(t)1 (t)dt =

[s2 (t) + w (t)]1 (t)dt

0

0

Tb

Z

=

Tb

Z

s2 (t)1 (t)dt +

w (t)1 (t)dt

0

x1 = s21 + w1

p

s21 = Eb

p

x1 = Eb + w1

w1 is the sample value of random variable W1 having Gaussian distribution with mean zero and variance

N0 /2 The expected value of the random variable X1

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

15 / 118

Probability of Error

p

p

p

E [X1 ] = E [ Eb + w1 ] = Eb + 0 = Eb

Var [X1 ] = Var [

p

N0

N0

E b + w1 ] = 0 +

=

2

2

"

#

(x)2

1

(x1 + Eb )2

1

2 2

fX1 (x1 |0) =

exp

e

f (x) =

N0

N0

2 2

When symbol 0 is transmitted, an error will occur, if x1 > 0 in which case a decision is made in favor of symbol

1 Pe (0) = P(x1 > 0|symbol 0 is transmitted) Pe (0) can be computed by integrating conditional pdf fX1 (x1 |0)

Z

Pe (0) =

0

N0 du

Manjunatha. P

N0

"

exp

0

(x1 + Eb )2

dx1

N0

(x1 + Eb )2

dx1

N0

N0 0

(x1 + Eb )

Let u =

N0

p

Lower limits when x = 0 u = Eb /N0 and higher limit is

Z

h

i

1

2

Pe (0) =

exp u du

Eb /N0

Pe (0) =

dx1 =

(JNNCE)

"

exp

January 1, 2016

16 / 118

1

Pe (0) =

Probability of Error

2

erf (u) =

h

i

2

exp u du

Eb /N0

u

exp(x )dx

0

Z

2

2

erfc(u) = 1 erf (u) =

exp(x )dx

u

s

Eb

1

Pe (0) = erfc

2

N0

Similarly when symbol 1 is transmitted, if error occurs, then a decision is made in favor of symbol 0. The

probability of error when symbol 1 is transmitted is Pe (1) = P(x1 < 0|symbol 1 is transmitted. Pe (0) can be

computed by integrating conditional pdf fX1 (x1 |0)

s

1

Eb

Pe (1) = erfc

2

N0

Symbols 0 and 1 are equiprobable, that is Pe (0) = Pe (1) = 1/2 then the average probability of symbol error is

Pe =

1

1

Eb

2

2

N0

s

1

Eb

Pe = erfc

2

N0

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

17 / 118

x

erfc(x)

1.000000

0.5

0.479500

0.157299

1.5

0.01

0.988717

0.51

0.470756

1.01

0.153190

1.51

0.02

0.52

0.462101

erfc(x)

1.02

0.149162

1.52

erfc(x)

0.033895

x

2

0.032723 2.01

0.031587 2.02

erfc(x)

0.004678

2.5

0.000407

0.00002209

0.004475 2.51

0.000386

3.01

0.00002074

0.004281 2.52

erfc(x)

0.000365

erfc(x)

3.02

0.00001947

0.03

0.966159

0.53

0.453536

1.03

0.145216

1.53

0.030484 2.03

0.004094 2.53

0.000346

3.03

0.00001827

0.04

0.954889

0.54

0.445061

1.04

0.141350

1.54

0.029414 2.04

0.003914 2.54

0.000328

3.04

0.00001714

0.05

0.943628

0.55

0.436677

1.05

0.137564

1.55

0.028377 2.05

0.003742 2.55

0.000311

3.05

0.00001608

0.06

0.932378

0.56

0.428384

1.06

0.133856

1.56

0.027372 2.06

0.003577 2.56

0.000294

3.06

0.00001508

0.07

0.921142

0.57

0.420184

1.07

0.130227

1.57

0.026397 2.07

0.003418 2.57

0.000278

3.07

0.00001414

0.08

0.909922

0.58

0.412077

1.08

0.126674

1.58

0.025453 2.08

0.003266 2.58

0.000264

3.08

0.09

0.898719

0.59

0.404064

1.09

0.123197

1.59

0.024538 2.09

0.003120 2.59

0.000249

3.09

0.00001243

0.1

0.887537

0.6

0.396144

1.1

0.119795

1.6

0.023652

0.002979

2.6

0.000236

3.1

0.00001165

0.11

0.876377

0.61

0.388319

1.11

0.116467

1.61

0.002845 2.61

0.000223

3.11

0.00001092

0.12

0.865242

0.000211

3.12

0.00001023

0.854133

0.63

0.372954

1.13

0.110029

1.63

0.021157 2.13

0.002593 2.63

0.000200

3.13

0.00000958

0.843053

0.64

0.365414

1.14

0.106918

1.64

0.020378 2.14

0.002475 2.64

0.000189

3.14

0.00000897

0.65

0.380589

0.357971

1.12

1.15

0.113212

0.103876

1.62

0.022793 2.11

1.65

0.021962 2.12

0.019624 2.15

0.002716 2.62

0.00001326

0.13

0.832004

0.62

2.1

0.14

0.15

0.002361 2.65

0.000178

3.15

0.00000840

0.16

0.820988

0.66

0.350623

1.16

0.100904

1.66

0.018895 2.16

0.002253 2.66

0.000169

3.16

0.00000786

0.17

0.810008

0.67

0.343372

1.17

0.098000

1.67

0.018190 2.17

0.002149 2.67

0.000159

3.17

0.00000736

0.18

0.799064

0.68

0.336218

1.18

0.095163

1.68

0.017507 2.18

0.002049 2.68

0.000151

3.18

0.00000689

0.19

0.788160

0.69

0.329160

1.19

0.092392

1.69

0.016847 2.19

0.001954 2.69

0.000142

3.19

0.00000644

0.2

0.777297

0.7

0.322199

1.2

0.089686

1.7

0.016210

0.001863

0.000134

3.2

0.00000603

0.21

0.766478

0.001776 2.71

0.000127

0.755704

0.72

0.308567

1.22

0.084466

1.72

0.014997 2.22

0.001692 2.72

0.000120

3.22

0.00000527

0.744977

0.73

0.301896

1.23

0.081950

1.73

0.014422 2.23

0.001612 2.73

0.000113

3.23

0.00000493

0.000107

3.24

0.00000460

0.288845

1.25

0.077100

1.75

0.013328 2.25

0.001463 2.75

0.000101

3.25

0.00000430

0.282463

1.26

0.074764

1.76

0.012810 2.26

0.001393 2.76

0.000095

3.26

0.00000402

1.77

0.012309 2.27

0.001536 2.74

0.00000564

0.75

0.072486

0.013865 2.24

3.21

0.76

1.27

1.74

0.015593 2.21

0.723674

0.276179

0.079495

1.71

0.713100

0.77

1.24

0.087045

0.25

0.702582

0.295322

1.21

0.26

0.27

0.74

0.315335

2.7

0.22

0.734300

0.71

2.2

0.23

0.24

0.001326 2.77

0.000090

3.27

0.00000376

0.28

0.692120

0.78

0.269990

1.28

0.070266

1.78

0.011826 2.28

0.001262 2.78

0.000084

3.28

0.00000351

0.29

0.681717

0.79

0.263897

1.29

0.068101

1.79

0.011359 2.29

0.001201 2.79

0.000080

3.29

0.00000328

0.3

0.671373

0.8

0.257899

1.3

0.065992

1.8

0.010909

2.3

0.001143

2.8

0.000075

3.3

0.00000306

0.31

0.661092

0.81

0.251997

1.31

0.063937

1.81

0.010475 2.31

0.001088 2.81

0.000071

3.31

0.00000285

0.32

0.650874

0.82

0.246189

1.32

0.061935

1.82

0.010057 2.32

0.001034 2.82

0.000067

3.32

0.00000266

0.33

0.640721

0.83

0.240476

1.33

0.059985

1.83

0.009653 2.33

0.000984 2.83

0.000063

3.33

0.00000249

0.34

0.630635

0.84

0.234857

1.34

0.058086

1.84

0.009264 2.34

0.000935 2.84

0.000059

3.34

0.00000232

0.35

0.620618

0.85

0.229332

1.35

0.056238

1.85

0.008889 2.35

0.000889 2.85

0.000056

3.35

0.00000216

0.36

0.610670

0.86

0.223900

1.36

0.054439

1.86

0.008528 2.36

0.000845 2.86

0.000052

3.36

0.00000202

0.37

0.600794

0.87

0.218560

1.37

0.052688

1.87

0.008179 2.37

0.000803 2.87

0.000049

3.37

0.00000188

0.38

0.590991

0.88

0.213313

1.38

0.050984

1.88

0.007844 2.38

0.000763 2.88

0.000046

3.38

0.00000175

0.39

0.581261

0.89

0.208157

1.39

0.049327

1.89

0.007521 2.39

0.000725 2.89

0.000044

3.39

0.00000163

0.4

0.571608

0.9

0.203092

1.4

0.047715

1.9

0.007210

0.000689

0.000041

3.4

0.00000152

0.41

Manjunatha. P

0.977435

erfc(x)

0.91

0.198117

1.41

0.046148

1.91

0.006910 2.41

2.9

0.000039

3.41

0.00000142

0.42

0.552532

0.92

0.193232

1.42

0.044624

1.92

0.006622 2.42

0.000621 2.92

0.000036

3.42

0.00000132

0.43

0.543113

0.93

0.188437

1.43

0.043143

1.93

0.006344 2.43

0.000589 2.93

0.000034

3.43

0.00000123

0.533775

0.94

0.183729

0.000032

3.44

0.00000115

(JNNCE)

0.44

0.562031

2.4

0.000654 2.91

Digital

Modulation

Formats:[1,

2, 3, 4] 2.94

1.44

0.041703

1.94 0.006077

2.44 0.000559

January 1, 2016

18 / 118

2

erf(x) =

x

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.2

0

0.00000

0.11246

0.22270

0.32863

0.42839

0.52050

0.60386

0.67780

0.74210

0.79691

0.84270

0.88021

0.91031

0.93401

0.95229

0.96611

0.97635

0.98379

0.98909

0.99279

0.99532

0.99702

0.99814

0.99886

0.99931

0.99959

0.99976

0.99987

0.99992

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

1

0.01128

0.12362

0.23352

0.33891

0.43797

0.52924

0.61168

0.68467

0.74800

0.80188

0.84681

0.88353

0.91296

0.93606

0.95385

0.96728

0.97721

0.98441

0.98952

0.99309

0.99552

0.99715

0.99822

0.99891

0.99935

0.99961

0.99978

0.99987

0.99993

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

2

0.02256

0.13476

0.24430

0.34913

0.44747

0.53790

0.61941

0.69143

0.75381

0.80677

0.85084

0.88679

0.91553

0.93807

0.95538

0.96841

0.97804

0.98500

0.98994

0.99338

0.99572

0.99728

0.99831

0.99897

0.99938

0.99963

0.99979

0.99988

0.99993

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

3

0.03384

0.14587

0.25502

0.35928

0.45689

0.54646

0.62705

0.69810

0.75952

0.81156

0.85478

0.88997

0.91805

0.94002

0.95686

0.96952

0.97884

0.98558

0.99035

0.99366

0.99591

0.99741

0.99839

0.99902

0.99941

0.99965

0.99980

0.99989

0.99994

0.99997

0.99998

0.99999

1.00000

et dt

2

Hundredths digit of x

4

5

0.04511 0.05637

0.15695 0.16800

0.26570 0.27633

0.36936 0.37938

0.46623 0.47548

0.55494 0.56332

0.63459 0.64203

0.70468 0.71116

0.76514 0.77067

0.81627 0.82089

0.85865 0.86244

0.89308 0.89612

0.92051 0.92290

0.94191 0.94376

0.95830 0.95970

0.97059 0.97162

0.97962 0.98038

0.98613 0.98667

0.99074 0.99111

0.99392 0.99418

0.99609 0.99626

0.99753 0.99764

0.99846 0.99854

0.99906 0.99911

0.99944 0.99947

0.99967 0.99969

0.99981 0.99982

0.99989 0.99990

0.99994 0.99994

0.99997 0.99997

0.99998 0.99998

0.99999 0.99999

1.00000 1.00000

6

0.06762

0.17901

0.28690

0.38933

0.48466

0.57162

0.64938

0.71754

0.77610

0.82542

0.86614

0.89910

0.92524

0.94556

0.96105

0.97263

0.98110

0.98719

0.99147

0.99443

0.99642

0.99775

0.99861

0.99915

0.99950

0.99971

0.99983

0.99991

0.99995

0.99997

0.99998

0.99999

1.00000

7

0.07886

0.18999

0.29742

0.39921

0.49375

0.57982

0.65663

0.72382

0.78144

0.82987

0.86977

0.90200

0.92751

0.94731

0.96237

0.97360

0.98181

0.98769

0.99182

0.99466

0.99658

0.99785

0.99867

0.99920

0.99952

0.99972

0.99984

0.99991

0.99995

0.99997

0.99999

0.99999

1.00000

8

0.09008

0.20094

0.30788

0.40901

0.50275

0.58792

0.66378

0.73001

0.78669

0.83423

0.87333

0.90484

0.92973

0.94902

0.96365

0.97455

0.98249

0.98817

0.99216

0.99489

0.99673

0.99795

0.99874

0.99924

0.99955

0.99974

0.99985

0.99992

0.99995

0.99997

0.99999

0.99999

1.00000

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

9

0.10128

0.21184

0.31828

0.41874

0.51167

0.59594

0.67084

0.73610

0.79184

0.83851

0.87680

0.90761

0.93190

0.95067

0.96490

0.97546

0.98315

0.98864

0.99248

0.99511

0.99688

0.99805

0.99880

0.99928

0.99957

0.99975

0.99986

0.99992

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

1.00000

3-1

January 1, 2016

19 / 118

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

20 / 118

The carrier frequency is shifted in according to the input data stream, phase and amplitude of the

carrier are constant.

s

si (t) =

2Eb

cos[2fi t]

Tb

0 t Tb

where i=1,2 and Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit, and the transmitted frequency fi = nTc +i for

b

some fixed integer nc and i=1,2.

In binary FSK (BFSK) two different carrier frequencies (f1 f2 ) are used and symbols 1 and 0 are

represented by S1 (t) S2 (t) and are defined as

s

s

2Eb

2Eb

s1 (t) =

cos[2f1 t]

0 t Tb

s2 (t) =

cos[2f2 t]

0 t Tb

Tb

Tb

There is set of orthonormal basis function 1 (t) and 2 (t) and is given by:

s

2

i (t) =

cos(2fi t)

0 t Tb

Tb

s1 (t) =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Eb 1 (t)

0 t Tb

s2 (t) =

Eb 2 (t)

i = 1, 2

0 t Tb

January 1, 2016

21 / 118

BFSK system is having a signal space with two dimension and having two message points represented by

coordinate points as follows

s

Z T

Z T s

p

B

B

2Eb

2

s11 =

s1 (t)1 (t)dt =

cos(2f1 t)

cos(2f1 t)dt = Eb

T

T

b

b

0

0

and

TB

Z

s12 =

TB

Z

s1 (t)2 (t)dt =

2Eb

cos(2f1 t)

Tb

Eb

S1 =

0

2

cos(2f2 t)dt = 0

Tb

2 ( t )

Similarly the coefficients of s2 (t) are s21 and s22

Z

s21 =

TB

s2 (t)1 (t)dt = 0

and

TB

Z

s22 =

Region Z2

Message

Point S2

( 0, 0 )

s2 (t)2 (t)dt =

Eb

Eb

Decision

Boundary

Eb , 0

Message

Point S1

S2 =

( 0,

1 ( t)

Region Z1

Eb

Eb +

Eb = 2Eb

Figure 10:

BPSK system

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

22 / 118

Probability of Error

m(t )

Tb

+

Binary wave

1 ( t ) =

m(t )

2

cos ( 2 f1t )

Tb

Binary FSK

wave

Received

Signal

x(t )

2

cos ( 2 f1t )

Tb

Decision

Device

m(t )

Choose 1 if l f 0

Choose 0 if l p 0

Tb

Figure 11:

x1 (t )

+

1 ( t ) =

Inverter

2 ( t ) =

dt

2 ( t ) =

2

cos ( 2 f 2t )

Tb

x2 (t )

2

cos ( 2 f 2t )

Tb

Figure 12:

dt

The observation vector has two elements x1 and x2 (message points)which are defined by

TB

Z

x1 =

x(t)1 (t)dt

0

TB

Z

x2 =

x(t)2 (t)dt

x(t) = s1 (t) + w (t)

and when symbol 0 is transmitted

x(t) = s2 (t) + w (t)

where w (t) is the sample function of white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and variance (PSD) is N0 /2

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

23 / 118

Probability of Error

l = x1 x2

The mean value of the random variable L depends on which binary symbol was transmitted. When symbol 1

was transmitted

the Gaussian random variables X1 and X2 and whose sample values x1 and x2 have mean

equal to Eb and zero. The conditional mean value of the random variable L given that symbol 1 was

transmitted is given by

p

E [L|1] = E [X1 |1] E [X2 |1] = Eb

Similarly the conditional mean value of the random variable L given that symbol 0 was transmitted is given by

p

E [L|0] = E [X1 |0] E [X2 |0] = Eb =

Var [L] = Var [X1 ] + Var [X2 ] = N0 /2 + N0 /2 = N0

Suppose when symbol 0 was transmitted, then the conditional value of the conditional probability density

function of the random variable L equals

"

#

(x)2

1

(l + Eb )2

1

2 2

f (x) =

e

fL (l|0) =

exp

2N0

2N0

2 2

Since the condition x1 > x2 or l > 0 then the receiver is making decision in favor of symbol 1 the conditional

probability of error, given that symbol 0 was transmitted is given by,

Z

Pe (0) = Pe (l > 0| symbol 0 was sent) =

fL (l|0)dl

0

Pe (0) =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

1

2N0

Z

0

(l + Eb )2

exp

dl

2N0

"

January 1, 2016

24 / 118

Pe (0) =

1

2N0

Probability of Error

"

exp

0

Let

(l + Eb )2

dl

2N0

Eb )

=z

2N0

p

dl = 2N0 dz

Z

h

i

1

2

r

Pe (0) =

exp z dz

E

b

(l +

2N0

Eb

1

Pe (0) = erfc

2

2N0

Similarly conditional probability of error Pe (1), when symbol 1 was transmitted has the same value of Pe (0)

i.e.,

s

1

Eb

Pe (1) = erfc

2

2N0

The average probability of symbol error Pe for coherent binary FSK is

s

1

1

1

Eb

2

2

2

2N0

In order to maintain the same average errorrate as in coherent BPSK system, the BFSK system should have

twice the bit energy to noisedensity ratio, Eb /2N0 . In coherent BPSK

system the distance between the two

message points is equal to 2 Eb whereas in coherent BPSK system it is 2Eb . Larger the distance between

the message points smaller is the average probability of error Pe .

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

25 / 118

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

26 / 118

The important goal in design of a digital communication system is to provide low probability of error and

efficient utilization of channel bandwidth.

In QPSK, the phase of the carrier takes on one of four equally spaced values, such as /4, 3/4 5/4 7/4

as given below

r

si (t) =

2E

T

4

0tT

where i=1,2,3,4, E is the transmitted signal energy per symbol, T is symbol duration, and the carrier frequency

fc equals nc /T for some fixed integer nc .

r

si (t) =

r

2E

2E

cos (2i 1)

cos 2fc t

sin (2i 1)

sin 2fc t

T

4

T

4

b1 (t )

contained in the si (t)

+

Binary wave

b(t )

r

1 (t) =

r

2 (t) =

Serial to

parallel

converter

0tT

2

sin(2fc t)

T

0tT

QPSK

wave

b2 (t )

2 ( t ) =

Figure 13:

(JNNCE)

2

cos ( 2 f ct )

T

2

cos(2fc t)

T

Manjunatha. P

1 ( t ) =

2

sin ( 2 f c t )

T

QPSK Transmitter

January 1, 2016

27 / 118

Constellation Diagram

amplitude and phase of a signal when we are

using two carriers, one in quadrature of the

other.

The X-axis represents the in-phase carrier and

the Y-axis represents quadrature phase carrier.

Figure 14:

Figure 15:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Constellation Diagram

Constellation Diagram

January 1, 2016

28 / 118

2 ( t )

Decision

Boundary

Si =

E cos (2i 1) 4

E sin (2i 1) 4

Region Z3

i = 1, 2, 3, 4

Region Z4

Message

Point 3

01

E /2

Message

Point 4

11

Decision

Boundary

Input dibit

0tT

Phase of

QPSK signal

10

00

01

11

/4

3/4

5/4

7/4

Coordinates of

message points

si1

si2

p

p

+ pE /2

pE /2

pE /2

p E /2

p E /2

+pE /2

+ E /2

+ E /2

E /2

Message

Point 2

00

Region Z2

Figure 16:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

1 ( t)

E/ 2

E/2 Message

Point 1

10

Region Z1

QPSK-signalspace

January 1, 2016

29 / 118

QPSK

Probability of Error

In phase channel

0tT

Tb

i = 1, 2, 3, 4

The observation vector x of a coherent QPSK receiver

has 2 elements x1 and x2 and are defined by

Received

Signal

1 ( t ) =

x(t )

x(t)1 (t)dt =

0

E cos (2i 1)

+ w1

4

2 ( t ) =

Decision

Device

2

sin ( 2 f c t )

T

Output

Binary

wave

Multiplexer

Tb

x1

2

cos ( 2 f ct )

T

x1 =

dt

x2

dt

Decision

Device

Figure 17: QPSK Receiver model

+ w2

x(t)2 (t)dt = E sin (2i 1)

4

0

Suppose signal s4 (t) was transmitted, then the receiver will make correct decision if the observation vector x

lies inside the region Z4 . The probability of a correct decision Pc , when signal s4 (t) is transmitted is given by

Z

x2 =

The probability of P(x1 > 0 and x2 > 0)

fx1 (x1 |s4 (t)) transmitted) =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

1

N0

1

N0

"

exp

"

exp

(x1

E /2)2

E /2)2

N0

(x2

p

N0

January 1, 2016

30 / 118

QPSK

Pc =

0

1

N0

exp

Probability of Error

2

2

p

p

Z

x1 E /2

x2 E /2

1

exp

dx1 .

dx2

N0

N0

N0

0

2

p

p

x1 E /2

x2 E /2

=

=z

N0

N0

#2

"

Z

1

2

exp z dz

Pc =

E /2N0

1

E /2N0

E

2

exp z dz = 1 erfc

2N0

2

s

1

E

Pc = 1 erfc

2

2N0

s

= 1 erfc

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

E

1

E

2

+ erfc

2N0

4

2N0

January 1, 2016

31 / 118

QPSK

Probability of Error

s

Pe = 1 Pc = erfc

1

E

E

erfc 2

2N0

4

2N0

s

Pe = erfc

2N0

Signal points s1 ,s2 ,s3 and s4 are symmetrically located in the two dimensional signal space diagram, then

Pe (s4 (t)) = Pe (s3 (t)) = Pe (s2 (t)) = Pe (s1 (t))

(9)

Pe =

1

[Pe (s4 (t)) + Pe (s3 (t)) + Pe (s2 (t)) + Pe (s1 (t))]

4

(10)

s

Pe = erfc

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Eb

N0

January 1, 2016

32 / 118

QPSK

Figure 18:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Probability of Error

QPSK Waveform

January 1, 2016

33 / 118

QPSK

Probability of Error

b1 (t )

+

Binary wave

b(t )

Serial to

parallel

converter

1 ( t ) =

2

cos ( 2 f ct )

T

QPSK

wave

+

b2 (t )

2 ( t ) =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

2

sin ( 2 f c t )

T

Figure 19:

Figure 20:

January 1, 2016

34 / 118

QPSK

Figure 21:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Probability of Error

January 1, 2016

35 / 118

QPSK

Figure 22:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Probability of Error

January 1, 2016

36 / 118

QPSK

Probability of Error

In phase channel

Tb

Received

Signal

1 ( t ) =

x(t )

(JNNCE)

Decision

Device

2

sin ( 2 f c t )

T

Output

Binary

wave

Multiplexer

Tb

Manjunatha. P

x1

2

cos ( 2 f ct )

T

2 ( t ) =

dt

x2

dt

Decision

Device

Figure 23:

Figure 24:

January 1, 2016

37 / 118

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

38 / 118

The performance of the FSK receiver is improved by the proper utilization of phase. Continuous-phase

frequency-shift-keying (CPFSK) signal is defined as follows:

q

2Eb

cos[2f1 t + (0)]

q Tb

s(t) =

2Eb

T cos[2f2 t + (0)]

for symbol 1

for symbol 2

Eb is the transmitted signal energy per bit and Tb is the bit duration, phase (0) is the value of the phase at

time t = 0, depends on the past history of the modulation process. Frequencies f1 and f2 represent the symbol

1 and 0 respectively.

The conventional form of an angle modulated wave as follows:

s

s(t) =

2Eb

cos[2fc t + (t)]

Tb

The nominal frequency fc is chosen as the arithmetic mean of the two frequencies f1 and f2

fc =

1

(f1 + f2 )

2

The phase (t) increases or decreases linearly with time during each bit period of Tb seconds

(t) = (0)

h

t

Tb

0 t Tb

where the plus sign to send symbol 1 and the minus sign to send symbol 0. The parameter h is defined by

h = Tb (f1 f2 )

where h refers to deviation ratio, when t = Tb

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

39 / 118

h for symbol 1

h for symbol 0

4 h

(t ) (0), radians

(Tb ) (0) =

send symbol 0, phase is reduced by h radians. The phase is an

odd or even multiple of h radians at odd or even multiples of the

bit duration Tb respectively. Since all phase shifts are modulo-2

, the case of h = 1/2 is of special case in which phase can take

on only two values /2 at odd multiples of Tb and only the two

values 0 and at even multiples of Tb . This graph is called a phase

trellis.

s

2Eb

s(t) =

cos[2fc t + (t)]

Tb

s

s

2Eb

2Eb

cos[(t)] cos(2fc t)

sin[(t)] sin(2fc t)

=

Tb

Tb

p

Consider the in-phase component 2Eb /Tb cos[(t)] with deviation h = 1/2 then

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

2Tb

4Tb

6Tb

8Tb

3 h

4 h

Figure 25:

0 t Tb

where the plus sign corresponds to symbol 1 and the minus sign

corresponds to symbol 0. A similar results holds for (t) in the

interval Tb t 0. The phase (0) is 0 or depending on the

past history of the modulation process.

2 h

(t ) (0), radians

(t) = (0)

t

2Tb

3 h

2 h

/2

/ 2

2Tb

Figure 26:

Phase tree

4Tb

6Tb

8Tb

January 1, 2016

40 / 118

(t) = (0)

t

0 t Tb

2Tb

s

s

s

2Eb

2Eb

2Eb

cos[(t)] =

cos[(0)] cos

t =

cos

t

sI (t) =

Tb

Tb

2Tb

Tb

2Tb

where plus sign corresponds to (0) = 0 and the minus corresponds to (0) = . Similarly in the interval

0 t 2Tb the quadrature component sQ (t) consists of half sine pulse and depends on (Tb ) and is given

by

s

s

s

2Eb

2Eb

2Eb

sQ (t) =

sin[(t)] =

sin[(Tb )] sin

t =

sin

t

Tb

Tb

2Tb

Tb

2Tb

where plus sign corresponds to (Tb ) = /2 and the minus corresponds to (Tb ) = /2. Consider the

equation h = Tb (f1 f2 ) with h = 1/2, then the frequency deviation equals the half the bit rate. This is the

minimum frequency spacing in FSK signals to make f1 and f2 orthogonal to each other. For this reason

CPFSK signal with deviation ratio of one-half is referred to as minimum shift keying (MSK).The phase states

of (0) and (Tb ) can each assume one of two possible values, and has any four possible combinations and are

as follows:

1 The phase (0) = 0 and (Tb ) = /2 to transmit symbol 1.

2 The phase (0) = and (Tb ) = /2 to transmit symbol 0.

3 The phase (0) = and (Tb ) = /2 to transmit symbol 1.

4 The phase (0) = 0 and (Tb ) = /2 to transmit symbol 0.

s

s

2Eb

2Eb

cos[(t)] cos(2fc t)

sin[(t)] sin(2fc t)

s(t) =

Tb

Tb

There are two orthonormal basis functions in si (t)

s

2

1 (t) =

cos

t cos(2fc t)

Tb

2Tb

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

s

2 (t) =

2

sin

Tb

t

2Tb

sin(2fc t)

January 1, 2016

41 / 118

2

Decision

Boundary

Region Z3

Region Z4

[ (0) = 0, (Tb ) = / 2]

[ (0) = , (Tb ) = / 2]

Message Point 4

Message Point 3

Eb

Decision

Boundary

Tb

Z

s1 (t) =

s(t)1 (t) =

Eb cos[(0)]

Eb

Tb t Tb

Tb

Message Point 2

Eb

Eb

[ (0) = , (Tb ) = / 2]

Message Point 1

[ (0) = 0, (Tb ) = / 2]

Region Z2

2Tb

Z

s2 (t) =

s(t)2 (t) =

Region Z1

Eb sin[(Tb )] 0 t 2Tb

The signal constellation diagram for an MSK signal is of two dimensional with four message points.

The

ofthe message

points

areas follows:

coordinates

(+ Eb , - Eb ), (- Eb , - Eb ), (- Eb , + Eb ),(+ Eb , + Eb ).

The possible values of (0) and (Tb ) are as shown in Table

Table 1:

Input bit

0 t T

1

0

1

0

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Phase states

radians

(Tb )

+/2

+/2

-/2

-/2

(0)

0

Coordinates of

message points

s1

s2

p

p

+ pEb

pEb

pEb

p Eb

p Eb

+pEb

+ Eb

+ Eb

January 1, 2016

42 / 118

where s(t) is the Tx signal, and w (t) is sample value

of white Gaussian noise process of zero mean and power

spectral density of N0 /2. In order to determine whether

symbol 1 or 0 was transmitted, determine (0) and

(Tb ) To determine the phase (0) is as follows

In phase channel

Tb

Z

x1 (t) =

Tb

Tb

Received

Signal

1 ( t ) =

x(t )

Tb

2Tb

2Tb

Z

x2 (t) =

x1

Decision

Device

x2

dt

Phase estimate ( 0 )

wave

interleaving

phase

decisions

2

cos

cos ( 2 fc t )

Tb

2Tb

0 the receiver decides (0) = 0, otherwise when x1 < 0

the receiver decides (0) = . Similarly the detection

of (Tb ) is as follows

dt

Decision

Device

Quadrature phase

channel

Phase estimate ( Tb )

2

2 ( t ) =

sin

sin ( 2 f ct )

Tb

2Tb

Figure 27:

MSK Receiver

If x2 > 0 the received signal decides (Tb ) = /2, otherwise when x2 < 0 the receiver decides

(Tb ) = /2. The MSK and QPSK signals have similar signal space-diagram. It follows that the same

average probability of symbol error for coherent MSK

s

E

1

E

2

Pe = 1 Pc = erfc

erfc

2N0

4

2N0

By ignoring the second term probability of symbol error of MSK

s

Eb

Pe = erfc

N0

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

43 / 118

1 (t )

BPF

(f1)

+

cos ( 2 f c t )

m1 ( t )

MSK

wave

s (t )

t

cos

2Tb

BPF

(f2)

2 (t )

m2 ( t )

Figure 28:

MSK Transmitter

In phase channel

Tb

Tb

Received

Signal

1 ( t ) =

x(t )

dt

x1

Decision

Device

wave

interleaving

phase

decisions

2

cos

cos ( 2 fc t )

Tb

2Tb

2Tb

x2

dt

Decision

Device

Quadrature phase

channel

2 ( t ) =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Phase estimate ( 0 )

Phase estimate ( Tb )

2

sin

sin ( 2 f ct )

Tb

2Tb

January 1, 2016

44 / 118

Figure 30:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

MSK waveform

January 1, 2016

45 / 118

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

46 / 118

(FSK)

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

47 / 118

( q

Si (t) =

Eb

2Tb

cos(2fi t)

0 t Tb

elsewhere

Non coherent FSK receiverq

consists of a pair of matched filters followed by envelope detectors.

q The filter in the

2

2

upper path is matched to

T cos(2f1 t) and in the the lower path of the is matched to

T cos(2f2 t).

b

The upper and lower envelope outputs l1 and l2 are sampled at t = Tb and their values are compared. If

l1 > l2 the receiver decides in favor of symbol 1 and if l1 < l2 the receiver decides in favor of symbol 0.

Sample at t=Tb

Filter matched to

2

cos(2 f1t )

Tb

Envelope

detctor

l1

Received

Signal

If l1 is >l2

then chose 1

Compariso

n device

x(t )

Filter matched to

2

cos(2 f 2 t )

Tb

Figure 31:

l2

Envelope

detctor

If l1 is <l2

then chose 0

Sample at t=Tb

The noncoherent binary FSK is special case of noncoherent orthogonal modulation with T = Tb and E = Eb .

The average probability of error for non coherent FSK is given by

1

Eb

Pe = exp

2

2N0

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

49 / 118

Differential Phase Shift Keying (DPSK) is noncoherent version of the binary PSK system. DPSK eliminates

need for a coherent reference signal at the receiver. It consists of differential encoder and phase shift keying.

To transmit the symbol 0 the phase is advanced the current signal waveform by 180 and to send symbol 1 the

phase of the current signal waveform is unchanged. The differentially encoded sequence dk is generated by

using the logic equation and is given by:

dk = bk dk1

Input

binary

sequence

bk

Binrary Wave

Amplitude

Level

Shifter

Product

Modulator

DPSK

Signal

Eb or Eb

Table 2:

dk-1

dk

Delay Tb

A

0

0

1

1

2

1 ( t ) =

cos ( 2 fct )

Tb

Figure 32:

Table

AB

0

1

1

0

B

0

1

0

1

AB

1

0

0

1

DPSK Transmitter

Table 3:

bk

dk1

dk

Transmitted Phase

1(Initial assumption)

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

1

1

0

1

1

1

0

Note: means 1800 phase shift with respect to unmodulated carrier. Phase shift is 1800 when the inputs to

Ex-Nor gate are dissimilar.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

50 / 118

dk = bk dk1

bk

dk1

dk

Transmitted Phase

1 (Initial assumption)

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

1

1

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

0

Note: means 1800 phase shift with respect to unmodulated carrier. Phase shift is 1800 when the inputs to

Ex-Or gate are similar.

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(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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The receiver is equipped with a storage capability, so that it measure the relative phase difference between the

waveforms received during two successive bit intervals.

Correlator

Product

modulator

x (t )

p(t )

BPF

Sample at

every Tb

Tb

dt

l > 0 1

l <00

Decision

device

Delay Tb

Binary

Data

Vth=0

Let S1 (t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal for 0 t 2Tb for the case when binary symbol 1 at the

transmitter input for the second part of this interval namely Tb t 2Tb . The transmission of 1 leaves the

carrier phase unchanged, and so S1 (t) is as follows:

q

Eb

cos(2fc t)

0 t Tb

q 2Tb

(11)

S1 (t) =

Eb

Tb t 2Tb

2T cos(2fc t)

b

Let S2 (t) denote the transmitted DPSK signal for 0 t 2Tb for the case when binary symbol 0 at the

transmitter input for the second part of this interval namely Tb t 2Tb . The transmission of 0 advances

the carrier phase by 1800 , and so S2 (t) is as follows:

q

Eb

cos(2fc t)

0 t Tb

q 2Tb

S2 (t) =

(12)

Eb

Tb t 2Tb

2T cos(2fc t + )

b

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Let the x(t) is the received signal. The BPF passes only the spectrum of the DBPSK signal and rejects the

noise components. In the absence of the noise, the received signal is same as the transmitted signal

s

Eb

cos(2fc t + i (t)) Tb t 2Tb

2Tb

q

q

Eb

E

where i=1,2 and i (t) = 00 or 1800

2Tb cos(2fc t)

2T cos(2fc t) or

b

IF the bits bk = dk1 (both 0 or 1) then the input to the product modulator are inphase and hence the

product modulator output is:

Eb

Eb 1

2

cos [2fc t] =

[1 + cos 2(2fc t)]

2Tb

2Tb 2

p(t) =

at t = Tb the integrator output is:

Z

=

Tb

Eb

[1 + cos 2(2fc t]dt = Eb /4

4Tb

IF the bits bk = 0 and dk1 = 1 or bk = 1 and dk1 = 0 then the input to the product modulator are out of

phase by radians hence the product modulator output is:

p(t) =

Eb

Eb 1

2

cos [2fc t] =

[1 + cos 2(2fc t)]

2Tb

2Tb 2

Tb

Z

=

0

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Eb

[1 + cos 2(2fc t+)]dt = Eb /4

4Tb

January 1, 2016

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Techniques

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

54 / 118

Error Function

In mathematics, the error function (also called the Gauss error function) is a special function (non-elementary)

of sigmoid shape which occurs in probability, statistics and partial differential equations. It is defined as

Z u

2

2

erf (u) =

exp(x )dx

0

The complementary error function, denoted erfc, is defined as

2

erfc(u) = 1 erf (u) =

exp(x )dx

u

Q Function

In statistics, the Q-function is the tail probability of the standard normal distribution. It is defined as

1

Q(u) =

2

exp(x /2)dx

u

The Q-function can be expressed in terms of the error function, or the complementary error function, as

Q(u) =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

1

1

1

erfc(u/ 2) = erf (u/ 2)

2

2

2

January 1, 2016

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Table 4:

Modulation

Detection Method

BPSK

Coherent

FSK

Coherent

QPSK

Coherent

MSK

Coherent

Error Probability Pe

p

1

Eb /N0

2 erfc

p

1

Eb /2N0

2 erfc

p

p

erfc

Eb /N0 14 erfc 2

Eb /2N0

p

p

erfc

Eb /N0 14 erfc 2

Eb /2N0

DPSK

FSK

Non Coherent

Non Coherent

1

2 exp

1

2 exp

(Eb /N0 )

(Eb /2N0 )

The error rates for all the systems decease monotonically with increasing values of Eb /N0 .

Coherent PSK produces a smaller error rate than any of other systems.

Coherent PSK and DPSK require an Eb /N0 that is 3 dB less than the corresponding values for

conventional coherent FSK and non coherent FSK respectively to realize the same error rate.

At high values of Eb /N0 DPSK and noncoherent FSK perform almost as well as coherent PSK and

conventional coherent FSK, respectively, for the same bit rate and signal energy per bit

p

p

In QPSK two orthogonal carriers 2/T cos(2fc t) and 2/T sin(2fc t) are used, where the carrier

frequency fc is an integral multiple of the symbol rate 1/T with the result that two independent bit

streams can transmitted and subsequently detected in the receiver. At high values of Eb /N0 coherently

detected binary PSK and QPSK have about the same error rate performance for the same value of

Eb /N0 .

p

p

In MSK two orthogonal carriers 2/Tb cos(2fc t) and 2/Tb sin(2fc t) are modulated by the two

antipodal symbol shaping pulses cos(t/Tb ) and sin(t/Tb ) respectively over 2Tb intervals.

Correspondingly, the receiver uses a coherent phase decoding process over two successive bit intervals to

recover the original bit stream. MSK has the same error rate performance as QPSK.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Probability of Error

10

10

10

BPSK

FSK

QPSK

DPSK

Noncoherent FSK

10

10

Figure 34:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

5

Eb/No, dB

10

15

Digital Modulation Formats:[1, 2, 3, 4]

January 1, 2016

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Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

58 / 118

In M-ary signaling scheme, M possible signals s1 (t), s2 (t)..sM (t) are sent during each symbol interval T.

M = 2n possible states where n is an integer.

The symbol duration T = nTb where Tb is the bit duration.

These M signals are generated by changing the amplitude, frequency or phase of a carrier in M discrete

steps.

Hybrid form: M-ary QAM

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(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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M-Ary PSK

M-Ary PSK

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

60 / 118

M-Ary PSK

In M-ary PSK the phase of the carrier takes one of M possible values.

i = 2i/M where i = 0,1,M - 1

r

si (t) =

2E

cos

T

2i

M

2fc t +

r

si (t) =

2E

cos

T

2i

M

cos 2fc t

2E

sin

T

2i

M

sin 2fc t

r

1 (t) =

2

cos 2fc t

T

0tT

2

sin 2fc t

T

0tT

r

2 (t) =

Figure 35:

Signal Space

Constellation for octaphase shift

keying

sMPSK (t) =

Manjunatha. P

E cos

(JNNCE)

2i

M

E sin

2i

M

i = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4

January 1, 2016

61 / 118

Probability of Error

The optimum M-ary PSK receiver consists of pair of correlators with reference signals in phase quadrature.

The two correlator outputs xI and xQ are fed to phase discriminator to compute the phase estimate.

xQ

1

= tan

xI

The phase discriminator selects the set {si (t), i = 0, ..M 1} to a particular signal whose phase is closest to

In the presence of noise, the input to the phase discriminator is:

the estimate .

2i

2i

+ wI

xQ = E sin

+ wQ

xI = E cos

M

M

where wI and wQ are samples of two independent Gaussian random variables WI and WQ whose mean is zero

and common variance 2 = N0 /2.

The probability of error is approximately given by

r

2

Pe = 1

E sin( )

N0

M

x I (t )

2

exp(z )dz

s

Pe = erfc

E

sin

N0

Received

Signal

x (t )

cos(2 f ct )

Phase

Discriminator

(JNNCE)

Parallel-toReconstructed

serial

binary data

converter

For large values of E /N0 and M 4 the probability of symbol error is approximately given by

s

2E

Pe = erfc

sin

M 4

N0

2M

Manjunatha. P

dt

sin(2 f c t )

Figure 36:

dt

xQ (t )

January 1, 2016

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Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

63 / 118

the carrier amplitude as well as phase modulation is

done.

In this modulation the modulated signal envelope is

not constant.

By using this higher spectral efficiency can be

achieved.

The general form of an M-ary QAM signal is :

r

si (t) =

2E0

ai cos(2fc t) +

T

2E0

bi sin(2fc t)

T

the signal with the lowest amplitude, ai and bi are the

pair of independent integers.

The basis function for the si (t):

r

1 (t) =

2

cos 2fc t

T

2 (t) =

a i , bi =

E and bi

2

sin 2fc t

T

Figure 37:

a i , bi =

(3, 3)

(3, 1)

(3, 1

(3, 3)

(1, 3)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(1, 3)

(1, 3)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(1, 3)

(3, 3)

(3, 1)

(3, 1)

(3, 3)

E are:

(L + 1, L 1)

(L + 1, L 3)

(L + 3, L 1)

(L + 3, L 3)

...

...

(L 1, L 1)

(L 1, L 3)

.

.

.

(L + 1, L + 1)

(L + 3, L + 1)

...

(L 1, L + 1)

where L =

M

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

64 / 118

s

1

E0

Pe = 2 1

erfc

N0

M

M 4

2-to-L

converter

Binary

Data

a bit rate Rb = 1/Tb and produces two parallel binary

sequences whose bit rates are Rb = 1/2.

cos(2 f ct )

Serial-toParallel

converter

M-ary Qam

wave

2-to-L

converter

sin(2 f c t )

Figure 38:

Received

Signal

x (t )

cos(2 f ct )

sin(2 f c t )

Figure 39:

(JNNCE)

Decision

Circuit

(L-1)

Thresholds

Manjunatha. P

dt

dt

M-ary-QAM Transmitter.

Parallel-toserial

converter

Demodulated

binary data

Decision

Circuit

(L-1)

Thresholds

M-ary-QAM Receiver.

January 1, 2016

65 / 118

M-ary FSK

M-ary FSK

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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M-ary FSK

M-ary FSK

Frequencies are chosen in a special way so that they are easily separated at the demodulator

(orthogonality principle).

M-ary FSK transmitted signals are:

r

si (t) =

2E

cos

(nc + i)t 0 t Ts i = 0, 1, ..., M

T

Ts

The M transmitted signals are of equal energy and equal duration.

The signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T Hz, making the signals orthogonal to one another.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Power Spectra

Power Spectra

Power Spectra

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

68 / 118

Introduction

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

Pulse Duration Modulation (PDM)

Pulse Position Modulation (PPM)

Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM)

PAM Systems are preferred as they are most efficient in terms of power and bandwidth utilization.

Digital data, a sequence of binary digits is coded into electrical pulses or waveforms for the purpose of

transmission over the channel.This process is called line coding or transmission coding.

Line codes are also called as signaling formats.

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(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Introduction

1

2

A pulse shape v (t)

1

2

3

Unipolar

Polar

Bipolar

1

2

3

NRZ (Nonreturn-to-zero)

RZ (Return to Zero)

Manchester (split phase)

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Introduction

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Introduction

Power Spectral Density (PSD) of a random process is a function describing the distribution of power as

a function of frequency[?].

This process is important when considering filtering in communication systems while evaluating the

signal and noise at the filter output.

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(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Introduction

PSD can be evaluated by using

1

Deterministic approach - the waveform for a line code that results from a

particular data sequence.

Stochastic approach - line codes with a random data sequence.

Stochastic approach

The line code is viewed as a random process X(t) defined by

X (t) =

Ak v (t kT )

k=

T is the duration of one symbol

Ak is the discrete random variable.

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(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Introduction

In general the PSD of a digital signal is described by the equation

Sx (f ) =

X

1

2

j2fnT

|v (f )|

RA (n)e

T

n=

where v(f) is the Fourier Transformer of the pulse shaping function v(t)

RA (n) is the autocorrelation function of the data.

The autocorrelation function RA (n) is,

RA (n) = E [Ak Akn ]

I

P

=

[Ak Akn ]i Pi

i=1

where Ak and Akn are the voltage levels of the data pulses at the k th and

k nth symbol positions,

Pi is the probability of the i th product Ak Akn .

I is the number of possible products Ak Akn .

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Figure 42: Polar NRZ PSD

The Amplitude is represented by Ak and takes the value

Ak =

+a

symbol 1

symbol 0

The value Ak is assumed to be equally likely to occur and the data are independent.

P[Ak = +a] = P[Ak = a] =

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

1

2

January 1, 2016

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rect

t

Tb

=

1,

|t| <

Tb

2

|t| >

Tb

2

0,

v (t) = rect(

V (f ) =

t

) v (f )

Tb

v (t)e j2ft dt

Tb

R2

e j2ft dt = Tb

T

b

2

sin(fTb )

fTb

= Tb sin c (fTb )

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

76 / 118

Ak .Akn

axa

-axa

ax-a

-ax-a

1

2

for n = 0

3

2

P

RA (0) =

(Ak Ak )i Pi

i=1

= a2 21 + (a)2 12 = a2

RA (n) = E [Ak Akn ]

4

P

=

[Ak Akn ]i Pi = a2

1

4

i=1

1

4

+ (a)(a)

1

4

+ (a)(a)

1

4

+ (a)2

=0

Summarizing we get

RA (n) =

a2

0

n=0

n 6= 0

Sx (f ) =

X

1

2

j2fnT

|v (f )|

RA (n)e

T

n=

2

Sx (f ) = a Tb sin c (fTb )

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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1

4

Power Spectra

Introduction

Power Spectra

The description given by s(t) for a pass-band signal contains the definitions of ASK, PSK and FSK

signals,depending on the way in which the in-phase component sI (t) and the Quadrature component

sQ (t) are defined.

The analysis of these kind of signals may be simplified by using complex notation.The signal s(t) may

be expressed as

s(t) = sI (t) cos(2fc t) sQ (t) sin(2fc t)

= Re[

s (t) exp(j2fc t)]

Also we have

And

exp(j2fc t) = cos(2fc t) + j sin(2fc t)

is called the complex envelop of the band-pass signal s(t).

The signal s(t)

The signals SI (t) ,SQ (t) and

s (t) are all low pass signals.They are uniquely defined in terms of the

band-pass signal s(t) and the carrier frequency fc provided that the half-bandwidth of s(t) is less than

the carrier frequency fc .

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(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Power Spectra

Introduction

s (t), where SB (f ) is referred to as

the baseband power spectral density.

The power spectral density SS (f ), of the original band-pass signal s(t) is a frequency shifted version of

SB (f ), except the scaling factor shown as

SS (f ) =

1

[SB (f fc ) + SB (f + fc )]

4

Since

s (t) is a low-pass signal,the calculation of SB (f ) would be simpler than the calculation of

SS (f ).Therefore it is sufficient to evaluate the baseband power spectral density SB (f ).

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Power Spectra

Binary PSK

The Binary PSK wave has an In-phase component only.

Depending on whether we have a symbol 1 or 0 at the modulator input during the signaling interval

0 t Tb we find that this in-phase component equals +g(t) or -g(t) respectively, where g(t) is the

symbol shaping function defined by,

q

2Eb

0 t Tb

Tb

g (t) =

0

elsewhere

The baseband power spectral density of a binary PSK wave equals

SB (f ) =

(Tb f )2

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Power Spectra

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

81 / 118

Power Spectra

Binary FSK

The Binary FSK wave, the two transmitted frequencies f1 and f2 differ by an amount equal to the bit

rate 1/Tb and their arithmetic mean equals the nominal carrier frequency fc

with the assumption that phase continuity is always maintained, Binary FSK signal is given by

s

2Eb

t

s(t) =

cos(2fc t

)

0 t Tb

Tb

Tb

With the trigonometric identity,we get

q

q

2Eb

2Eb

t

t

s(t) =

Tb cos( Tb ) cos(2fc t)

Tb sin( Tb ) sin(2fc t)

q

q

2Eb

2E

t

t

b

=

T cos( T ) cos(2fc t)

T sin( T ) sin(2fc t)

b

The plus sign corresponds for symbol 0 transmission, and the minus sign for symbol 1.

The Binary FSK wave has an In-phase component and quadrature component.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Power Spectra

Binary FSK

The In-phase component is completely independent of the input binary wave. It is equal to

s

2Eb

t

cos(

)

for all values of time t

Tb

Tb

The Power Spectral density of this component therefore consists of two delta functions, weighted by the

factor Eb /2Tb and occurring at f = 1/2Tb .

The Quadrature component is directly related to the input binary wave.

During the signaling interval 0 t Tb it equals +g(t) when symbol 1, and -g(t) when we have

symbol 0 where g(t) is the symbol shaping function defined by,

( q

2Eb

t

0 t Tb

Tb sin( Tb )

g (t) =

0

elsewhere

The energy spectral density of this symbol shaping function is

g (f ) =

2 (4Tb2 f 2 1)2

g (f )

Tb

The In-phase component and quadrature component of Binary FSK wave are independent of each other.

The base-band power spectral density of the binary FSK wave equals the sum of the power spectral

densities of these components and is given by,

Eb

1

1

8Eb cos2 (Tb f )

SB (f ) =

f

+ f +

+ 2

2Tb

2Tb

2Tb

(4Tb2 f 2 1)2

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Power Spectra

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

84 / 118

Power Spectra

QPSK

The binary wave at the input of the modulator is random with symbol 1 and 0 being equally likely and

the symbols transmitted during the adjacent time slots are statistically independent.

The QPSK has In-phase component and quadrature component.

Depending on dibit sent during the signaling interval 0 t Tb the in-phase component equals +g(t)

or -g(t) and similarly for quadrature component, where g(t) is the symbol shaping function defined by,

( q

g (t) =

E

T

0 t Tb

elsewhere

The In-phase component and quadrature component have a common Power spectral density given by

2

E sin c (Tf )

The In-phase and quadrature component are statistically independent.

The base-band power spectral density of the QPSK signal is the sum of the individual power spectral

densities of the In-phase and quadrature components and hence

SB (f ) = 2E sin c 2 (Tf )

= 4Eb sin c 2 (2Tb f )

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Power Spectra

MSK

The binary wave at the input of the modulator is random with symbol 1 and 0 being equally likely and

the symbols transmitted during the adjacent time slots are statistically independent.

Depending on the value of phase state (0) in-phase component equals +g(t) or -g(t), where g(t) is the

symbol shaping function defined by,

( q

g (t) =

0

2Eb

Tb

t

cos( 2T

)

Tb t Tb

elsewhere

g (f ) =

32Eb Tb

2

"

cos(2Tb f )

(16Tb2 f 2 1)

#2

g (f )

2Tb

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

86 / 118

Power Spectra

MSK

Depending on the value of phase state (Tb ) quadrature component equals +g(t) or -g(t), where g(t) is

defined by,

( q

2Eb

t

0 t Tb

Tb sin( 2Tb )

g (t) =

0

elsewhere

The energy spectral density of this symbol shaping function is

g (f ) =

32Eb Tb

2

"

cos(2Tb f )

(16Tb2 f 2 1)

#2

The In-phase and quadrature component have same power spectral density.

The In-phase and quadrature component are statistically independent.Hence The base-band power

spectral density of the MSK signal is given by

h (f ) i

g

SB (f ) = 2 2T

b

2

32E

cos(2Tb f )

= 2b

2 2

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

(16T f 1)

b

January 1, 2016

87 / 118

Power Spectra

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

88 / 118

Power Spectra

M-ary Signals

M-ary PSK

Binary PSK and QPSK are the special cases of M-ary PSK signals. The symbol duration is defined by

T = Tb log2 M

With the same procedure as that of QPSK the base-band power spectral density of M-ary PSK signal is

given by,

SB (f ) = 2E sin c 2 (Tf )

= 2Eb log2 M sin c 2 (Tb f log2 M)

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

89 / 118

Power Spectra

M-ary Signals

M-ary FSK

A particular case of interest occurs when the frequencies assigned to the multilevels make the frequency

spacing uniform and the frequency deviation ratio k=0.5.

M signal frequencies are separated by 1/2T where T is the symbol duration.

For k=0.5, the base-band power spectral density of M-ary FSK signals is defined by

M

M

M

1 X sin i 2

1 XX

sin i 2 sin j 2

SB (f ) = 4Eb

+ 2

cos(i + j )

2M i=1

i

M i=1 j=1

i

j

where

i = (fTb

i

)

4

i = 2i (M + 1)

i = 1, 2, ..., M

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

90 / 118

Bandwidth Efficiency

Bandwidth Efficiency

Bandwidth Efficiency

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

91 / 118

Bandwidth Efficiency

Bandwidth Efficiency

Bandwidth Efficiency

The channel bandwidth and transmitted power are two primary communication resources which provides

spectral efficiency.

Spectral (bandwidth) efficiency is defined as the ratio of data rate to the channel bandwidth.

It is measured in units of bits per second per hertz.

The Bandwidth Efficiency is expressed as =

Rb

B

bits/s/Hz

Bandwidth Efficiency of M-ary PSK Siginals

The power spectra of M-ary PSK signals possess a main lobe bounded by well defined spectral nulls.

Most of the signal power of an M-ary PSK signal contains in the main lobe.

The channel bandwidth required to pass M-ary PSK signals is given by B =

2

T

where T is the symbol duration and T is related to the bit duration Tb as Rb = 1/Tb .

The channel bandwidth is defined in terms of the bit rate Rb as

B =

2Rb

log2 M

=

M

bps/Hz

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

2

.5

4

1

log2 M

Rb

=

B

2

8

1.5

16

2

32

2.5

64

3

January 1, 2016

92 / 118

Bandwidth Efficiency

Bandwidth Efficiency

M-ary FSK signal consists of an orthogonal set of M frequency-shifted signals.

The adjacent signals are separated from each other by frequency difference 1/2T to maintain

orthogonality.

The channel bandwidth required to pass M-ary FSK signals is given by

B =

M

2T

where T is the symbol duration and T is related to the bit duration Tb as Rb = 1/Tb and M is the

number of symbols.

The most of the signal power will be contained in the bandwidth B defined in the previous expression.

The channel bandwidth is defined in terms of the bit rate Rb as

B =

Rb M

2log2 M

=

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Rb

2log2 M

=

B

M

January 1, 2016

93 / 118

Bandwidth Efficiency

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Bandwidth Efficiency

January 1, 2016

94 / 118

Synchronization

Synchronization

Synchronization

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(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

95 / 118

Synchronization

Synchronization

Synchronization

Two sequences of events (Tx and Rx) are synchronous relative to each other when the events in one

sequence and the corresponding events in the other occur simultaneously.

The process of making a situation synchronous, and maintaining it in this condition is called

synchronization.

To demodulate the received signal the following two basic modes of synchronization are necessary:

1

is necessary. The estimation of frequency and phase is called carrier recovery

or carrier synchronization.

Symbol Synchronization: The receiver has to know the starting and finishing

times of the individual symbols. The estimation of these times is called clock

recovery or symbol synchronization.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

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Synchronization

Carrier Synchronization

Carrier Synchronization:

Coast loop method is used to recover the carrier frequency.

The loop consists of two paths, one in-phase and the other referred to as quadrature that are coupled

together via common voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) to form a negative feedback.

VCO is a circuit module that oscillates at a controlled frequency .

The Oscillating Frequency is controlled using Voltage VControl .

When synchronization attains the demodulated output appears at the output of in-phase path, and the

output is zero at quadrature path under ideal condition.

Demodulated

binary wave

Low pass

filter

Received

BPSK

Signal

Voltage

controlled

oscillator

Phase

discrimanator

-900

phase

shifter

Figure 50:

Low pass

filter

Figure 49:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Coast loop.

January 1, 2016

97 / 118

Synchronization

Carrier Synchronization

PLL:

PLL is an Electronic Module (Circuit) that locks the phase of the output to the input.

Figure 51:

PLL.

Figure 52:

PLL is a feedback system that detects the phase error and then adjusts the phase of the output.

The Phase Detector (PD), detects between the output and the input through feedback system

Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) adjusts the phase difference

Figure 53:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Implementation of PD.

January 1, 2016

98 / 118

Synchronization

Symbol Synchronization

Simple PLL:

Structure.

Low Pass Filter ( to smooth )

Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO)

Basic Idea

If VI and Vout are out of phase (unlocked), then the PD module detects the

error and the LPF smoothes the error signal.

The control signal slows down or speeds up the VCO module; hence, the phase

is corrected (locked)

Figure 54:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Simple PLL.

January 1, 2016

99 / 118

Synchronization

Symbol Synchronization

Symbol Synchronization:

Symbol synchronization is achieved by transmitting clock along with the data-bearing signal in the

multiplexed form.

At the receiver the clock is extracted by filtering of the modulated waveform.

This approach minimizes the time required for carrier/clock recovery but the fraction of the transmitted

power is allocated to transmit the clock.

In another approach the clock is extracted by processing demodulated baseband waveforms, thereby avoiding

any wastage of transmitted power.

Consider a rectangular pulse defined by

g (t) =

a

0

g (t )

0tT

Otherwise

t = T and that it is symmetric about this point.

Figure 55:

sample the matched filter output is at t = T .

Suppose the matched filter output is sampled early at

t = T 0 T or late at t = T + 0 T .

The absolute values of the two samples will be equal

and smaller than the peak value at t = T .

Matched

filter

output

a 2T

values of the two samples is zero, and the proper

sampling time is the midpoint between t = T 0 T

and t = T + 0 T .

This special condition is viewed as an equilibrium

point, in that if it is deviated from it the error

becomes nonzero.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Figure 56:

T - 0T

T + 0T

2T

to g(t).

January 1, 2016

100 / 118

Synchronization

Symbol Synchronization

The early-late gate symbol synchronizer consists of correlators and these correlators will integrate over a

full symbol interval T , with one starting 0 T early relative to the transition time estimate and the

other starting 0 T late.

An error signal e(kT ), is generated by taking the difference between the actual transition times t(kT )

and their local estimate t (kT ), the error signal is zero when no transition occurs at t(kT ), otherwise it

is linearly proportional to irrespective of the polarity of .

The error signal is low pass filtered and then applied to a voltage controlled oscillator that controls

(symbol waveform generator) the charging and discharging instants of the correlators.

The instantaneous frequency of the local clock is advanced or retarded in an iterative manner until the

equilibrium point is reached, and symbol synchronization is thereby established.

Absolute

value

calculator

dt

Advance by

0T

Received

Signal

Symbol

waveform

generator

Voltage

Contolled

oscillator

Low pass

Filter

Retard by

0T

Symbol Timing

dt

Absolute

value

calculator

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

101 / 118

Applications

Applications

Applications:

Voice Grade Modems

1 Existing Telephone network developed for voice communication operates in the range 300-3400Hz.

2 FSK with two frequencies 1300 and 2100 with 1200 bps (Simplicity and economical).

3 DPSK with 1800 Hz operating at 4000 bps

4

Digital Radio.

Digital Communications by Satellite.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

102 / 118

Problems

Problems

Problems

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

103 / 118

Problems

Problems

Hari Bhat

8.4 An FSK system transmits binary data at a rate of 106 bits per second. Assuming channel AWGN with zero

mean and power spectral density of N0 /2 = 2 1020 W/Hz. Determine the probability of error. Assume

coherent detection and amplitude of received sinusoidal signal for both symbol 1 and 0 to be 1.2 microvolt.

Solution:

s

1 2

2Eb

A=

Eb = A Tb

Tb

2

Signal energy per bit

Eb =

1 2

1

6 2

6

18

A Tb = (1.2 10 ) 10

= 0.72 10

Joulels

2

2

N0 = 4 1020 W/Hz

The average probability of error for coherent PSK is

Pe =

1

Eb

0.72 1018

= 0.5 erfc

= 0.5 erfc

erfc

0.09 100 = 0.5 erfc(3)

2

2N0

8 1020

erfc(3) = 0.00002

6

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

104 / 118

Problems

Problems

8.8 A binary FSK system transmits binary data at a rate of 2 MBPS. Assuming channel AWGN with zero

mean and power spectral density of N0 /2 = 1 1020 W/Hz. The amplitude of the received signal in the

absence of noise is 1 microvolt. Determine the average probability of error for coherent detection of FSK.

Solution:

s

2Eb

1 2

A=

Eb = A Tb

Tb

2

Signal energy per bit

Eb =

1 2

1

6 2

6

18

A Tb = (1 10 ) 0.5 10

= 0.25 10

Joulels

2

2

N0 = 2 1020 W/Hz

The average probability of error for coherent PSK is

Pe =

1

Eb

0.25 1018

= 0.5 erfc

= 0.5 erfc( 6.25) = 0.5 erfc(2.5)

erfc

2

2N0

4 1020

erfc(2.5) = 0.000407

Pe = 0.5 0.000407 = 0.0002035

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

105 / 118

Problems

Problems

8.10 A binary data is transmitted over an AWGN channel using binary PSK at a rate of 1MBPS. It is desired

to have average probability of error Pe 104 . Noise power spectral density is N0 /2 = 1 1012 W/Hz.

Determine the average carrier power required at the receiver input, if the detector is of coherent type.

Solution:

Let P be the power required at the receiver then Eb = PTb where Tb is the bit duration.

Since N0 /2 = 1 1012 W/Hz

N0 = 2 1012 W/Hz

Tb =

1

1

6

=

= 10

bit rate

106

Eb

N0

=

P Tb

P 106

6

= 0.5 P 10

=

N0

2 1012

s

1

Eb

Pe = erfc

2

N0

4

Pe = 0.5 erfc(0.5 P 10 ) 10

4

erfc(0.5 P 10 ) 2 10

From complementary error function table

erfc(2.63) = 0.0002

6

0.5 P 10 2.63

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

P 1.315 10

W

January 1, 2016

106 / 118

Problems

Problems

Proakis 5.18 Suppose that binary PSK is used for transmitting information over an AWGN with a power

spectral density of N0 /2 = 1010 W/Hz. The transmitted signal energy is Eb = 1/2A2 T where T is the bit

interval and A is the signal amplitude. Determine the signal amplitude required to achieve an error probability

of 106 when the data rate is a) 10 kbits/s, b) 100 kbits/s, and c)1 Mbits/s

Solution:

q

2Eb

A=

Eb =

T

b

1 2

2 A Tb

and Pb =

1

2 erfc

q

s

Pb = Pb =

Pb =

1

erfc

2

Eb

N0

Eb

0.5 A2 Tb

1

= erfc

N0

2

N0

1

0.5 A2 Tb

0.5 A2 Tb

= 106 erfc

= 2 106

erfc

2

N0

N0

6

We

p know that erfc(x) = 2 10 2 and from erfc table the value of x=3.36

0.5A2 Tb /N0 = 3.36 0.5A Tb /N0 = 11.2896

A2 Tb = 22.579N0 A2 = 22.5792 p

1010 (1/Tb ) = 4.515 109 (1/Tb )

A2 = 4.515 109 (1/Tb ) A = 4.515 109 (1/Tb )

If the data rate is 10 Kbps, then

p

3

A = 4.515 109 10 103 = 6.7193 10

A=

A=

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Digital Modulation Formats:[1, 2, 3, 4]

January 1, 2016

107 / 118

Problems

Problems

5.18 Suppose that binary PSK is used for transmitting information over an AWGN with a power spectral

density of N0 /2 = 1010 W/Hz. The transmitted signal energy is Eb = 1/2A2 T where T is the bit interval

and A is the signal amplitude. Determine the signal amplitude required to achieve an error probability of 106

when the data rate is

a) 10 kbits/s

b) 100 kbits/s

c) 1 Mbits/s

For binary phase modulation, the error probability is

s

2Eb

A2 T

= Pb = Q

Pb = Q

N0

N0

With Pb = 106 from the table it is found that 4.74

Since in Q(x) x > 3

!

1

(x)2

6

6

10

=

= 4.05 10

exp

2

4.47 2

s

A2 T

2

10

= 4.74 A T = 44.9352 10

N0

If the data rate is 10 Kbps, then the bit interval is T = 104 and therefore, the signal amplitude is

p

3

A = 44.9352 1010 104 = 6.7034 10

p

2

A = 44.9352 1010 105 = 2.12 10

p

2

A = 44.9352 1010 106 = 6.7034 10

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

108 / 118

Problems

Problems

Problems:Sklar

4.2 A continuously operating coherent BPSK system makes errors at the average rate of 100 errors per day.

The data rate is 1000 bits/s. The single-sided noise power spectral density is N0 = 1010 W /Hz.

If the system is ergodic, what is the average bit error probability?

If the value of received average signal power is adjusted to be 106 W will, this received power be

adequate to maintain the error probability found in part (a)?

Solution:

The total bit detected in one day= 1000 86400 == 8.64 107

100

6

= 1.16 10

8.64 107

s

!

r

2Eb

2ST

=Q

Pb = Q

N0

1010

Pb =

1

1000

s

Pb = Q

2 106

= Q( 20) = Q(4.47)

1000 1010

Pb =

1

exp

4.47 2

(4.47)2

2

!

6

= 4.05 10

No

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

109 / 118

Problems

Problems

Find the expected number of bit errors made in one day by the following continuously operating coherent

BPSK receiver. The data rate is 5000 bps. The input digital waveforms are s1 (t) = Acos0 t and

s2 (t) = Acos0 t where A= 1 mV and the the single-sided noise power spectral density is

N0 = 1011 W /Hz. Assume that signal power and energy per bit are normalized to a 1 resistive load.

Solution:

s

A=

2Eb

Tb

Eb =

A 2 Tb

2

s

1

1

Eb

= erfc

Pe = erfc

2

N0

2

Tb =

1

Rb

A 2 Tb

2N0

1

(1 103 )2

1

= erfc(3.1622)

Pe = erfc

2

2 1011 5000

2

Pe =

1

6

0.00000786 = 3.93 10

2

Average no of errors in one day = 5000bits 24 60 60 3.93 106 ' 1698 bits in error

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

110 / 118

Problems

Problems

Find the expected number of bit errors made in one day by the following continuously operating coherent

BPSK receiver. The data rate is 5000 bps. The input digital waveforms are s1 (t) = Acos0 t and

s2 (t) = Acos0 t where A= 1 mV and the the single-sided noise power spectral density is

N0 = 1011 W /Hz. Assume that signal power and energy per bit are normalized to a 1 resistive load.

Solution:

s

2Eb

A2 T

=Q

Pb = Q

N0

N0

where

Q(x) '

s

Pb = Q

Pb =

1

exp

x 2

x 2

2

!

x >3

106

=Q

20 = Q(4.47)

5000 1011

1

exp

4.47 2

(4.47)2

2

!

6

= 4.05 10

Average no of errors in one day = 5000bits 86400 4.05 106 ' 1750 bits in error

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

111 / 118

Problems

Problems

Find the error probability for a BPSK system with a bit rate of 1 MBPS. The received waveform

s1 (t) = Acos0 t and s2 (t) = Acos0 t are coherently detected with a matched filter. The value of A is 10

mV. Assume that the single-sided noise power spectral density is n0 = 1011 W /Hz and that signal power and

energy per bit are normalized to a 1 load.

Solution:

r

2Eb

1

2

6

A=

= 10 V

T =

= 10 S

T

R

s

s

A2

2Eb

11

Eb =

T = 5 10

J

= 3.16

2

N0

s

2Eb

= Q(3.16)

Pb = Q

N0

From Q table Pb = 8 104

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

112 / 118

Problems

Problems

Problem 7.34

Suppose that binary PSK is used for transmitting information over an AWGN with power-spectral density of

No/2 = 1010 W/Hz. The transmitted signal energy is Eb = A2 T /2, where T is the bit interval and A is the

signal amplitude. Determine the signal amplitude required to achieve an error probability of 106 , if the data

rate is (a) 10 kbps, (b) 100 kbps, (c) 1 Mbps.

Solution

s

2Eb

A2 T

=Q

P2 = Q

(13)

N0

N0

With P2 = 106 we find from tables that

s

A2 T

2

3

= 4.74 A T = 44.9352 10

N0

If the data rate is 10 Kbps, then the bit interval is T = 104 and therefore, the signal amplitude is

A=

(14)

Similarly we find that when the rate is 105 bps and 106 bps, the required amplitude of the signal is

A = 2.12 102 and A = 6.703 102 A respectively.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

January 1, 2016

113 / 118

Problems

Problems

Problem 7.47

Consider a digital communication system that transmits information via QAM over a voice-band telephone

channel at a rate 2400 symbols/second. The additive noise is assumed to be white and Gaussian.

1

Determine the [hi No required to achieve an error probability of 105 at 4800 bps.

k =

4800

4800

=

=2

R

2400

Thus, a 4-QAM constellation is used for transmission. The probability of error for an M-ary QAM system with

M = 2k, is

#!2

"s

1

3kEb

PM = 1 1 2 1

Q

(M 1)N0

M

With PM = 105 and k = 2 we obtain

s

Q

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

2Eb

E

= 5 106 = b = 9.7682

N0

N0

January 1, 2016

114 / 118

Problems

Problems

k =

4800

9600

=

=4

R

2400

s

2

1

3 4 Eb

PM = 1 1 2 1

Q

4

15 N0

Thus,

With PM = 105 and k = 2 we obtain

s

Q

1

E

3Eb

= 105 = b = 25.3688

15N0

3

N0

k =

4800

19200

=

=8

R

2400

s

2

1

3 8 Eb

Q

PM = 1 1 2 1

16

255 N0

Thus,

With PM = 105 and k = 2 we obtain

s

Q

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Eb

1

E

= 105 = b = 659.8922

N0

3

N0

Digital Modulation Formats:[1, 2, 3, 4]

January 1, 2016

115 / 118

Problems

Problems

x

erfc(x)

erfc(x)

0.5

0.479500

0.157299

1.5

0.51

0.470756

1.01

0.153190

1.51

0.02

0.977435

0.966159

0.52

0.53

0.462101

0.453536

1.02

1.03

0.149162

0.145216

1.52

1.53

erfc(x)

0.033895

x

2

0.032723 2.01

0.031587 2.02

0.030484 2.03

erfc(x)

0.004678

2.5

0.000407

0.00002209

0.004475 2.51

0.000386

3.01

0.00002074

0.004281 2.52

0.004094 2.53

erfc(x)

0.000365

0.000346

erfc(x)

3.02

3.03

0.00001947

0.00001827

0.04

0.954889

0.54

0.445061

1.04

0.141350

1.54

0.029414 2.04

0.003914 2.54

0.000328

3.04

0.00001714

0.05

0.943628

0.55

0.436677

1.05

0.137564

1.55

0.028377 2.05

0.003742 2.55

0.000311

3.05

0.00001608

0.06

0.07

0.932378

0.921142

0.56

0.133856

1.56

0.025453 2.08

0.003266 2.58

0.000264

3.08

0.00001326

1.59

0.024538 2.09

0.003120 2.59

0.000249

3.09

0.00001243

0.023652

2.1

0.002979

2.6

0.000236

3.07

0.00001508

1.58

0.123197

1.6

0.000278

3.06

0.126674

0.119795

0.003418 2.57

0.000294

1.08

1.09

1.1

0.026397 2.07

0.003577 2.56

0.130227

0.412077

0.404064

0.396144

1.57

0.027372 2.06

1.07

0.58

0.59

0.6

0.420184

1.06

0.909922

0.898719

0.887537

0.57

0.428384

0.08

0.09

0.1

3.1

0.00001414

0.00001165

0.11

0.876377

0.61

0.388319

1.11

0.116467

1.61

0.022793 2.11

0.002845 2.61

0.000223

3.11

0.00001092

0.12

0.865242

0.62

0.380589

1.12

0.113212

1.62

0.021962 2.12

0.002716 2.62

0.000211

3.12

0.00001023

0.13

0.14

0.854133

0.843053

0.63

1.63

0.021157 2.13

0.019624 2.15

0.002361 2.65

0.000178

3.15

0.00000840

1.66

0.018895 2.16

0.002253 2.66

0.000169

3.16

0.00000786

0.018190 2.17

0.002149 2.67

0.000159

3.14

0.00000958

1.65

1.67

0.000189

3.13

0.103876

0.100904

0.098000

0.002475 2.64

0.000200

1.15

1.16

1.17

0.020378 2.14

0.002593 2.63

1.64

0.357971

0.350623

0.343372

1.14

0.110029

0.106918

0.65

0.66

0.67

0.365414

1.13

0.832004

0.820988

0.810008

0.64

0.372954

0.15

0.16

0.17

3.17

0.00000897

0.00000736

0.18

0.799064

0.68

0.336218

1.18

0.095163

1.68

0.017507 2.18

0.002049 2.68

0.000151

3.18

0.00000689

0.19

0.788160

0.69

0.329160

1.19

0.092392

1.69

0.016847 2.19

0.001954 2.69

0.000142

3.19

0.00000644

0.2

0.21

0.777297

0.016210

2.2

0.001863

2.7

0.001692 2.72

0.000120

3.22

0.00000527

0.014422 2.23

0.001612 2.73

0.000113

3.23

0.00000493

1.24

1.25

0.079495

0.077100

1.74

1.75

0.013865 2.24

0.013328 2.25

0.001536 2.74

0.001463 2.75

0.000107

0.000101

3.21

0.00000603

0.014997 2.22

0.295322

0.000127

3.2

1.72

1.73

0.288845

0.001776 2.71

0.000134

0.015593 2.21

0.084466

0.081950

0.74

0.087045

1.7

1.71

1.22

1.23

0.75

1.21

0.089686

0.308567

0.301896

0.734300

0.315335

1.2

0.72

0.73

0.723674

0.71

0.322199

0.755704

0.744977

0.24

0.766478

0.7

0.22

0.23

0.25

3.24

3.25

0.00000564

0.00000460

0.00000430

0.26

0.713100

0.76

0.282463

1.26

0.074764

1.76

0.012810 2.26

0.001393 2.76

0.000095

3.26

0.00000402

0.27

0.702582

0.77

0.276179

1.27

0.072486

1.77

0.012309 2.27

0.001326 2.77

0.000090

3.27

0.00000376

0.28

0.692120

0.78

0.269990

1.28

0.070266

1.78

0.011826 2.28

0.001262 2.78

0.000084

3.28

0.29

0.681717

0.79

0.263897

1.29

0.068101

1.79

0.011359 2.29

0.001201 2.79

0.000080

3.29

0.00000328

0.3

0.671373

0.8

0.257899

1.3

0.065992

1.8

0.010909

0.001143

0.000075

3.3

0.00000306

0.31

0.32

0.661092

0.650874

0.81

0.82

0.251997

0.246189

1.31

1.32

0.063937

0.061935

1.81

1.82

2.3

0.010475 2.31

0.010057 2.32

2.8

0.001088 2.81

0.001034 2.82

0.000071

0.000067

3.31

3.32

0.00000351

0.00000285

0.00000266

0.33

0.640721

0.83

0.240476

1.33

0.059985

1.83

0.009653 2.33

0.000984 2.83

0.000063

3.33

0.00000249

0.34

0.630635

0.84

0.234857

1.34

0.058086

1.84

0.009264 2.34

0.000935 2.84

0.000059

3.34

0.00000232

0.35

0.620618

0.85

0.229332

1.35

0.056238

1.85

0.008889 2.35

0.000889 2.85

0.000056

3.35

0.00000216

0.36

0.610670

0.86

0.223900

1.36

0.054439

1.86

0.008528 2.36

0.000845 2.86

0.000052

3.36

0.00000202

0.37

0.600794

0.87

0.218560

1.37

0.052688

1.87

0.008179 2.37

0.000803 2.87

0.000049

3.37

0.00000188

0.38

0.39

0.590991

0.581261

0.88

0.89

0.213313

0.208157

1.38

1.39

0.050984

0.049327

1.88

1.89

0.4

0.571608

0.9

0.203092

1.4

0.047715

1.9

0.41

0.562031

0.91

0.198117

1.41

0.046148

1.91

0.42

0.43

0.552532

0.543113

0.92

0.193232

1.42

0.044624

1.92

0.006622 2.42

0.000689

0.000046

0.000044

3.38

3.39

0.00000175

0.00000163

2.9

0.000041

3.4

0.00000152

0.000039

3.41

0.00000142

0.000621 2.92

0.041703

1.94

0.006077 2.44

0.000559 2.94

0.000032

3.44

0.00000115

0.040305

1.95

0.005821 2.45

0.000531 2.95

0.000030

3.45

0.00000107

0.005574 2.46

0.000503 2.96

0.000028

3.43

0.00000132

1.44

1.45

1.96

0.000034

3.42

0.006344 2.43

0.183729

0.179109

0.038946

0.000589 2.93

0.000036

1.93

0.94

0.95

1.46

0.043143

0.000763 2.88

0.000725 2.89

0.000654 2.91

0.533775

0.174576

1.43

2.4

0.524518

0.96

0.188437

0.007210

0.44

0.515345

0.93

0.007844 2.38

0.007521 2.39

0.006910 2.41

0.45

0.46

(JNNCE)

erfc(x)

1.000000

0.988717

0.03

Manjunatha. P

0

0.01

3.46

0.00000123

0.00000099

0.47

0.506255

0.97

0.170130

1.47

0.037627

1.97

0.005336 2.47

0.000477 2.97

0.000027

3.47

0.00000092

0.48

0.497250

0.98

0.165769

1.48

0.036346

1.98

0.005108 2.48

0.000453 2.98

0.000025

3.48

0.00000086

0.49

0.488332

0.99

0.161492

1.49

0.035102

1.99

0.004889 2.49

0.000429 2.99

0.000024

3.49

0.00000080

January 1, 2016

116 / 118

Problems

Problems

2

erf(x) =

x

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

3.0

3.1

3.2

0

0.00000

0.11246

0.22270

0.32863

0.42839

0.52050

0.60386

0.67780

0.74210

0.79691

0.84270

0.88021

0.91031

0.93401

0.95229

0.96611

0.97635

0.98379

0.98909

0.99279

0.99532

0.99702

0.99814

0.99886

0.99931

0.99959

0.99976

0.99987

0.99992

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

1

0.01128

0.12362

0.23352

0.33891

0.43797

0.52924

0.61168

0.68467

0.74800

0.80188

0.84681

0.88353

0.91296

0.93606

0.95385

0.96728

0.97721

0.98441

0.98952

0.99309

0.99552

0.99715

0.99822

0.99891

0.99935

0.99961

0.99978

0.99987

0.99993

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

2

0.02256

0.13476

0.24430

0.34913

0.44747

0.53790

0.61941

0.69143

0.75381

0.80677

0.85084

0.88679

0.91553

0.93807

0.95538

0.96841

0.97804

0.98500

0.98994

0.99338

0.99572

0.99728

0.99831

0.99897

0.99938

0.99963

0.99979

0.99988

0.99993

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

3

0.03384

0.14587

0.25502

0.35928

0.45689

0.54646

0.62705

0.69810

0.75952

0.81156

0.85478

0.88997

0.91805

0.94002

0.95686

0.96952

0.97884

0.98558

0.99035

0.99366

0.99591

0.99741

0.99839

0.99902

0.99941

0.99965

0.99980

0.99989

0.99994

0.99997

0.99998

0.99999

1.00000

et dt

2

Hundredths digit of x

4

5

0.04511 0.05637

0.15695 0.16800

0.26570 0.27633

0.36936 0.37938

0.46623 0.47548

0.55494 0.56332

0.63459 0.64203

0.70468 0.71116

0.76514 0.77067

0.81627 0.82089

0.85865 0.86244

0.89308 0.89612

0.92051 0.92290

0.94191 0.94376

0.95830 0.95970

0.97059 0.97162

0.97962 0.98038

0.98613 0.98667

0.99074 0.99111

0.99392 0.99418

0.99609 0.99626

0.99753 0.99764

0.99846 0.99854

0.99906 0.99911

0.99944 0.99947

0.99967 0.99969

0.99981 0.99982

0.99989 0.99990

0.99994 0.99994

0.99997 0.99997

0.99998 0.99998

0.99999 0.99999

1.00000 1.00000

6

0.06762

0.17901

0.28690

0.38933

0.48466

0.57162

0.64938

0.71754

0.77610

0.82542

0.86614

0.89910

0.92524

0.94556

0.96105

0.97263

0.98110

0.98719

0.99147

0.99443

0.99642

0.99775

0.99861

0.99915

0.99950

0.99971

0.99983

0.99991

0.99995

0.99997

0.99998

0.99999

1.00000

7

0.07886

0.18999

0.29742

0.39921

0.49375

0.57982

0.65663

0.72382

0.78144

0.82987

0.86977

0.90200

0.92751

0.94731

0.96237

0.97360

0.98181

0.98769

0.99182

0.99466

0.99658

0.99785

0.99867

0.99920

0.99952

0.99972

0.99984

0.99991

0.99995

0.99997

0.99999

0.99999

1.00000

8

0.09008

0.20094

0.30788

0.40901

0.50275

0.58792

0.66378

0.73001

0.78669

0.83423

0.87333

0.90484

0.92973

0.94902

0.96365

0.97455

0.98249

0.98817

0.99216

0.99489

0.99673

0.99795

0.99874

0.99924

0.99955

0.99974

0.99985

0.99992

0.99995

0.99997

0.99999

0.99999

1.00000

Figure 58:

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

9

0.10128

0.21184

0.31828

0.41874

0.51167

0.59594

0.67084

0.73610

0.79184

0.83851

0.87680

0.90761

0.93190

0.95067

0.96490

0.97546

0.98315

0.98864

0.99248

0.99511

0.99688

0.99805

0.99880

0.99928

0.99957

0.99975

0.99986

0.99992

0.99996

0.99998

0.99999

0.99999

1.00000

3-1

January 1, 2016

117 / 118

References

Wiley, 1988.

B. Sklar and P. K. Ray, Digital Communications: Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd ed.

Education, 2001.

J. G. Proakis, Digital communications, 4th ed.

Technical Publishers, 2005.

Manjunatha. P

(JNNCE)

Pearson

Sanguine

January 1, 2016

118 / 118

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