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TRANSMISSION

ENGINEERING & PROJECT

COMMISSIONING SERVICES DEPARTAMENT

Electrical System
Commissioning
Manual

Prepared by: CSD Staff.

TRANSMISSION
ENGINEERING & PROJECT

COMMISSIONING SERVICES DEPARTAMENT

Electrical System
Commissioning
Manual
SECTION - A
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVES

INDEX
SECTION A

Paragraph

page

01

1 - 116

INTRODUCTION

1-1

1 - 116

General Commissioning Plan

1-2

1 - 116

Types of testing methods

1-3

6 - 116

Insulation testing

1-4

6 - 116

Switch / Circuit Breaker Testing

1-5

11 - 116

Transformer Testing

1-6

12 - 116

Protective Relays

1-7

13 - 116

Ground System Testing

1-8

14 - 116

TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE


GENERAL SYSTEM TESTING REQUIREMENTS

COMPONENT TESTING

02

Introduction To Component Testing

2-1

15 - 116

Circuit Switchers

2-2

15 - 116

Transformers

2-3

16 - 116

Switchgear Medium Voltage

2-4

17 - 116

Switchgear Low Voltage

2-5

17 - 116

Transfer Switch

2-6

18 - 116

AC / DC Drivers

2-7

18 - 116

Batteries

2-8

18 - 116

Battery Chargers

2-9

20 - 116

Cables

2 - 10

20 - 116

UPS Systems

2 - 11

21 - 116

Description of Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) System

2 - 12

22 - 116

Operation of Uninterruptible Power Supply System

2 - 13

23 - 116

Commissioning Test Plan For The UPS System

2 - 14

24 - 116

Installation Inspections and Component Testing Of The UPS


System

2 - 15

24 - 116

Energizing and Test Of The UPS System

2 - 16

25 - 116

COMMON TESTS

03

Core Insulation Resistance Test

3-1

34 - 116

Winding Insulation Resistance Test

3-2

36 - 116

Polarization Index Test

3-3

37 - 116

Paragraph

page

3-4

38 - 116

Excitation Current

3-5

41 - 116

Insulation Power Factor

3-6

42 - 116

Vector Relation-ship Test

3-7

44 - 116

Winding Temperature Indicator (WTI) Test Hotspot


Temperature Indicator
Oil Temperature Indicator Test

3-8

45 - 116

3-9

45 - 116

Percent Impedance Test

3 - 10

45 - 116

Turn Ration Test

3 - 11

46 - 116

Insulating Oil Test

3 - 12

49 - 116

Dielectric Strength (Electrical Test)

3 - 12A

49 - 116

Neutralization Number (Acidity) {Chemical Test}

3 - 12B

50 - 116

Interfacial Tension (Physical Test)

3 - 12C

51 - 116

Color (Physical Test)

3 - 12D

51 - 116

Moisture (Water) Content (Chemical Test)

3 - 12E

52 - 116

Power Factor Test (Electrical Test)

3 - 12F

52 - 116

Dissolved Gas In Oil Analysis

3 - 12G

53 - 116

Resistivity, Sediment and / or Precipitable Sludge

3 - 12H

54 - 116

CT & PT Insulation Resistance Test

3 - 13

55 - 116

CT & PT Winding Resistance Measurement

3 - 14

56 - 116

CT & PT Polarity Test or Flick Test with Battery and Phase


Identification Test
CT & PT Ratio Test by Current Primary Injection

3 - 15

58 - 116

3 - 16

59 - 116

CT Magnetizing (Saturation) Current Test

3 - 17

60 - 116

CT & PT Loop Resistance Test (Burden Test)

3 - 18

61 - 116

CT & PT Insulation Powder Factor Test

3 - 19

61 - 116

CT & PT Intercore Coupling Check

3 - 20

62 - 116

CT & PT Demagnetization of CT

3 - 21

63 - 116

Contact Resistance Test (Resistance Measurement of Main


Circuit)
Gas Leakage Test (Gas SF 6 Gas Tightness Test)

3 - 22

64 - 116

3 - 23

64 - 116

Moisture Content Measurement In Sf6 Gas (Dew Point Test)

3 - 24

64 - 116

Gas Density Switch Test

3 - 25

64 - 116

Air Pressure Switch Test (APS Calibration)

3 - 26

65 - 116

Operating Characteristics Test (Timing Test)

3 - 27

66 - 116

MCS Test

3 - 28

66 - 116

Winding Resistance Test

Paragraph

page

Auxiliary Relay Test

3 - 29

67 - 116

VT Secondary Injection (Injection Of Voltage And Measurement


Of Voltage In LCC)

3 - 30

67 - 116

Function Test

3 - 31

67 - 116

CT Primary Injection (Turn Ratio) Injection Of Current

3 - 32.A

67 - 116

Measurement of Current in LCC only

3 - 32.B

67 - 116

Bus Bar Stability (Injection Of Current And Measurement Of


Current In LCC Only)

3 - 33

68 - 116

Inter Lock Test

3 - 34

68 - 116

10kv Insulation Test On External Earthing Switchs Pole (10kv


Es Insulation)

3 - 35

68 - 116

Power Frequency Withstand Voltage Test (Hi Voltage Test)

3 - 36

68 - 116

GIS High Voltage Test

3 - 36.1

69 - 116

VT High Voltage Test

3 - 36.2

69 - 116

Partial Discharge Measurement

3 - 37

70 - 116

Phase Identification

3 - 38

70 - 116

DC Sheath Test

3 - 39

71 - 116

DC Conductor Resistance Test

3 - 40

71 - 116

Measurement of Capacitance

3 - 41

72 - 116

Earth Resistance Measurement

3 - 42

72 - 116

Verification of Cross Bonding Test

3 - 43

73 - 116

Zero Sequence Impedance

3 - 44

73 - 116

Positive Sequence Impedance

3 - 45

74 - 116

Oil Flow Test

3 - 46

74 - 116

Oil Impregnation Test

3 - 47

75 - 116

High Voltage Test

3 - 48

75 - 116

LIST OF TABELS
Table

Title

Page

1-1

Recommended minimum insulation resistance values at 40C (all values in MP)

8 - 116

2-1

Medium-voltage cables maximum field acceptance test voltages (kV, dc)

21 - 116

2-16

Possible failures and corrective actions of the UPS system

3.2.1

Megohmmeter Connections for Testing Two Winding and Three Winding


Transformers

75 - 116

3.2.2

Temperature Correction Factors for Winding Insulation Resistance

77 - 116

3.2.3

Rule of Thumb Test Values

77 - 116

3.2.4

Insulation Condition according to the value of the index

79 - 116

3.4.1

Formulas to Convert Winding Resistance to Reference Temperature

80 - 116

3.5.2

Measurement of Ie in a Delta-Connected Transformer Winding (Routine


Method)

85 - 116

3.6.1

Standard series of power factor tests applied to windings in-service.

87 - 116

3.6.2

Measurements for Insulation Power-Factor Tests

89 - 116

3.6.3

Temperature Correction Factors for Insulation Power Factor

91 - 116

3.6.4

Acceptable Power Factor Values

92 - 116

3.10.1

Three-Phase Power Transformer Percent Impedance (Typical Values)

93 - 116

3.12.e.1

Recommended maximum limit of water content in mineral insulating oil of


operating gas blanketed, sealed, or diaphragm conservator transformers

96 - 116

3.12.g.1

Evaluation of the total combustible gas

96 - 116

3.12.g .2

A list of the types and amounts of gases in oil at normal temperature

97 - 116

3.12.g.3

Solubility of Gases in Transformer Oil

97 - 116

3.12.1

Acceptance Values of Insulating oil Tests

98 - 116

3.19.1

Measurements to be made in insulation power-factor tests

103 - 116

3.19.2

Temperature correction factors for insulation power factors

104 - 116

28/30 - 116

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure

Title

page

1-2

Step-voltage versus time

10 - 116

1-3

Step-voltage high-potential test current

10 - 116

2-1

Static UPS system 150 to 750 WA (courtesy of Liebert).

22 - 116

2 -2

Uninterruptible power supply system single line diagram

30 - 116

2-3

Uninterruptible power supply system block diagram

31 - 116

2-4

Uninterruptible power supply system wiring diagram

32 - 116

3.2.1

Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Insulation-Resistance of a Typical


Single-Phase (Two-Winding) Transformer

78 - 116

3.2.2

Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Insulation-Resistance of a Typical


Three-Phase Delta-Wye Transformer

79 - 116

3.4.1

Wheatstone Bridge

80 - 116

3.4.2

Kelvin Bridge

81 - 116

3.4.4

Bridge Network Connections

82 - 116

3.4.5

Front Face of a Kelvin Bridge

83 - 116

3.4.6

Top View of a Digital Low-Resistance Ohmmeter

84 - 116

3.4.7

Top View of a Ducter

84 - 116

3.5.1

Measurement of Ie in a Wye-Connected Transformer Winding


(Routine Method)

85 - 116

3.5.2

Measurement of Ie in a Delta-Connected Transformer Winding


(Routine Method)

85 - 116

3.6.1

Typical Two-Winding Transformer Simplified Diagram

86 - 116

3.6.2

Dielectric Loss of Each Capacitor Divided by Capacitive Volt-Amperes is


Equal to Power Factor

86 - 116

3.6.3

3.6.4
3.6.5

Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Capacitance and Insulation Power factor
from the High-Voltage Winding to the Low-Voltage Winding and Ground for
a Two-Winding, Single-Phase Transformer (Method 1, Table 6.1)
Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Capacitance and Insulation Power factor
from the High-Voltage Winding to the Low-Voltage Winding and Ground for
a Three-Phase Delta-Wye Transformer (Method 1, Table 6.1)
Ungrounded Specimen Test on Transformer Bushings

87 - 116

88 - 116

90 - 116

Figure

Title

page

3.6.6

Hot-Collar Test Method for Testing of Bushing Insulators

91 - 116

3.8.1

Hot-Spot Indicating Circuit

92 - 116

3.10.1

Impedance Measurement for Transformer

93 - 116

3.11.1

Front Panel and Leads of a TTR Test Set

94 - 116

3.11.2

Schematic Diagram for Transformer Turns-Ratio (TTR) Test Set

94 - 116

3.11.3

Transformers turns ratio test connection chart

95 - 116

3.12.f.1

Liquid Insulation Cell Connected for Ungrounded Specimen Testing

96 - 116

3.14.1

Connections for voltmeter-ammeter method of resistance measurement

99 - 116

3.15.1

Windings: subtractive polarity

99 - 116

3.15.2

Windings: additive polarity

99 - 116

3.15.3

Polarity Test with Dc Voltage

99 - 116

3.15.4

Polarity by Inductive Kick

100 116

3.16.1

Ratio Test by Current Method

100 - 116

3.16.2

Voltage Readings inside the Transformer Delta Windings

100 - 116

3.17.1

Excitation Test

101 - 116

3.17.2

Excitation Curve for Current Transformer

101 - 116

3.18.1

CT Burden Test

102 - 116

3.21.1

Circuit for demagnetizing current transformers

104 - 116

3.21.2

Method 2: Circuit for demagnetizing current transformers

105 - 116

3.21.3

Method 3: Circuit for demagnetizing current transformers

105 - 116

3.38.1

Phasing check

106 - 116

3.39.1

10KV D.C. Sheath Test

107 - 116

3.40.1

Measurement of Dc Resistance Of Conductor

108 - 116

3.41.1

Capacitance Measurement

109 - 116

3.42.1

Earth Resistance Measurement

110 - 116

3.43.1

Verification of cross bonding test at link boxes

111 - 116

Figure

Title

page

3.44.1

Zero Sequence Impedance Measurement

112 - 116

3.45.1

Positive Sequence Impedance Measurement

113 - 116

3.48.1

Schematic Diagram of a resonant circuit with variable frequency

113 - 116

3.48.2

Circuit diagram of AC H.V.T

114 - 116

COMMISSIONING SERVICES DEPARTMENT


COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 1 of 116

1 GENERAL SYSTEM TESTING REQUIREMENTS


1-1 Introduction
The purpose of electrical testing on systems and their components is two-fold. The first is to check the
installation of the equipment and perform component and systems tests to ensure that, when energized,
the system will function properly. The second is to develop a set of baseline test results for comparison
in future testing to identify equipment deterioration. The system should be initially checked for damage,
deterioration, and component failures using specific component checks, inspections, and tests defined
by the equipment manufacturer. Then the interconnection of the system components should be checked,
using de-energized and energized methods, to verify the proper interconnection and operation of the
components, including on/off control, system process interlocks, and protective relaying functions. Once
the above tests are complete, the system can be energized and operational tests and measurements
should be performed. All steps and results of the testing should be carefully documented for review and
for use in the future for comparison with the results of future tests. Many of the same component tests
initially run will be performed at regular intervals as part of a maintenance program. The new results will
be compared to the initial results, where variations may be indicative of problems like deterioration of
insulation or dirty equipment. The steps involved are to review the system and equipment, develop a
general system and specific equipment test plan, provide inspection and checks, perform component
testing, verify and check the continuity of wiring, check control functions, calibrate instruments and
relays, energize portions of the circuits and check for proper operation in a specific order, and, once
complete, perform specific checks and control tests on the complete system during initial period of
operation.

1-2 General Commissioning Plan


There are management, economic, and technical requirements associated with every Commissioning
plan. The development and use of a comprehensive Commissioning plan is like an insurance policy.
While it has specific costs, it does not usually show any direct paybacks as the systems will usually
startup without significant problems such as equipment failure or lost time. The cost of the tests will rise
with the complexity of the test program. Many inspections and tests are redundant, but are used as
checks and balances before system energization to ensure successful startup and operation. Many
times, if the equipment is in the same operating condition as when it left the factory and the system
design and installation are adequate.
Once the equipment is identified, the manufacturer's manuals should be used to identify the required
receipt inspections, handling and installation procedures, energized and de-energized component tests,
drawing and wiring verification, minimum report requirements for on-going maintenance and testing
baseline, and requirements for repair and retesting if certain checks and tests produce unsatisfactory
results. The technical requirements for a commissioning plan can be stated as follows.
A. Survey of system equipment.
An accurate and complete description of a power system and its equipment is required for sufficient
commissioning plan. This will include written system description, one-line diagrams, short circuit and
coordination studies, three line diagrams, control logic diagrams, schematic logic diagrams, cable block
and interconnecting diagrams, equipment physical and wiring drawings, equipment manuals, and
auxiliary system manuals and drawings for support systems. These documents serve to depict the
design and operation of the system for use during installation, testing, startup, operation, and
maintenance. Various standards groups such as the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 2 of 116

(IEEE) and National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have developed standards for these
materials. Typical drawings and their definitions are as follows:
(1)

One-line (single-line) diagram shows, single line and graphic symbols, flow of electrical
power or the course of electrical circuit symbols, and their connection. In this diagram,
physical relationship usually disregarded.

(2)

Block diagram. Shows a group of interconnected blocks, each of which


represents a device or subsystem.

(3)

Schematic (elementary) diagram. Shows all circuits and device elements of the
equipment. This diagram emphasizes the device elements and their functions and it is
always drawn with all devices shown in deenergized mode.

(4)

Control sequence (truth table) diagram shows a description of the contact


positions, connections, made for each position of control action or device.

(5)

Interconnection diagram shows only the external connection between controllers and
associated equipment or between various housing units of an assembly of switchgear
apparatus.

(6)

Wiring diagram (connection diagram) locates and identifies electrical devices, terminals,
and interconnecting wires in an assembly. This diagram may show interconnecting wiring
by lines or terminal designations.

(7)

Circuit layout and routing diagram shows the physical layout of the facility and equipment
and how the circuit to the various equipment runs.

(8)

Short-circuit coordination study. Electrical power system data, diagrams, and drawings
are needed during maintenance and testing of electrical equipment. This may involve
information and data relating to protective devices and relays. Such data are usually
found in a short-circuit coordination study and usually encompass all the short-circuit
values available in the power system, relays, and trip device settings. Normally, this study
performs during the construction phase of the facility. It would be much more desirable to
perform this engineering study as part of the initial facility design, and then validate it
during the construction phase to assure that equipment and values specified have met.
When accepting the facility, the study data should use as a benchmark, and any changes
that might had made during construction in the system should incorporate to update the
study for future references.

B. Listing of critical system equipment.


The major equipment of a system is vital to its operation and failure of this equipment could be a threat
to personnel and system operation, i.e., potential single point failures. From a review of the system
documentation, especially the single line diagram, a list of critical equipment and the order in which the
items should be inspected, tested, and energized should be developed. From this list, the plan and
schedule for the test program can be developed. Normally the listing in order of criticality of the
equipment is from the normal power source into the system with onsite sources failing after the main
power source and distribution equipment. The listing maybe difficult to prepare as it will vary for each
system, and therefore a team from system engineering, operations, and maintenance may be required.

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TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 3 of 116

This will also serve to provide the operations and maintenance personnel an opportunity to review the
system during the early stages of a project, which helps them in the performance of their work.

C. Steps for the test program.


A test program will commence after completion of installation and will usually include field inspection
and installation checks, de-energized component testing, verify instrument and relay operation and
calibration, visual check of all wiring, continuity checking of control circuits, energized functional testing
of control circuits, megger testing of power circuits, test of power circuits phasing, energizing of
equipment, and service testing. If problems are found during the testing; an analysis should be
performed, and a repair and retest should be performed that is approved by the commissioning
authority, manufacturer, engineer, and system operator. Many of these initial tests will be repeated
periodically as part of the system maintenance program depending on the load conditions, duty cycle,
environmental conditions, and the critical nature of the equipment. Because of this, the completeness
and clarity of the test reports is important as they supply baseline data for comparison with the results of
the maintenance tests.
D. General definition of test steps.
Prior to testing, overall completion of installation should be verified including setting, wiring, grounding of
the equipment, and conditioning of the overall area, i.e ., clean complete site to work in. This is
considered a pretest. Note: all of the items below should be performed in strict accordance with the
drawings, systems operations documents, systems operation and maintenance manuals (provided by
contractor), and the engineer's and manufacturer's instructions for each piece of equipment. The
manufacturer typically provides the instructions in the form of diagrams indicating how to connect the
test instruments as well as charts indicating acceptable and unacceptable values. The engineer's
instructions will be found in the system specifications and drawings, and the manufacturer's instructions
are found in the equipment manuals and drawings. IEEE, NEMA, National Fire Protection Association
(NFPA), and other standards also include acceptable procedures for the performance of the tests. As
the acceptance tests and energization is performed; failures and repairs, availability of equipment and
personnel, schedules, weather, and other items may cause the delay or nonperformance of a test. In
any of these cases, the missing, failed, newly required, or postponed test should be noted in the test
documentation along with the reason for missing the test and the technical consequences. An evaluation
should be made as to whether the system can be energized without this test noting the possible effect
on safety, personnel, and equipment operation; and noting when or even if the test should be performed
in the future. If the test yet to be performed or needs to be performed to prove the adequacy of a repair,
the test should be scheduled with the system operations personnel as part of an ongoing maintenance
program.
(1)

Field inspection and installation checks include inspection of impact recorders, verification
of removal of shipping braces.
Inspection of installation against drawings and
nameplates, inspecting of components for damage and cleanliness, inspection of
insulators for cracking, inspection of anchorage and grounding, sizing check of fuses and
breakers, alignment and adjustment checks, mechanical operation and interlock checks,
lubrication application, verification of insulating liquid or gas level or pressure, and
verification that local safety equipment is in place.

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Section A - Page 4 of 116

(2)

De-energized component testing includes pressure and level checks, megger and
insulation resistance testing of equipment and connections including grounds, turns ratio
measurements, polarity tests, insulating liquid dielectric and moisture testing, power
factor or dissipation factor tests, over potential tests, contact resistance measurements,
operation time travel analysis, battery and cell voltage measurements, charger/UPS
(uninterruptible power supply)/generator current and voltage measurements, and
equipment / systems impedance or resistance tests.

(3)

Verification of instrument and relay operation and calibration. Include verification of


auxiliary device operation, calibration of instruments and relays, functional testing of
individual instruments/gauges/alarms/relays/limit switches etc.

(4)

Visual check of all wiring. Include visual inspection of all wiring against the schematic and
wiring, both internal and external, diagrams.

(5)

Continuity checking of control circuits. Include continuity and voltage testing of all control
circuits against schematic diagrams.

(6)

Energized functional testing of control circuits. Include energizing of control circuits and
checking all remote and local close/trip operations, protective relay operations, safety and
interlock operations, and all process and communication operations.

(7)

Megger testing of power circuits. Include megger testing of power, current


transformer, and potential transformer buses and cables after connection.

(8)

Phase out testing of power circuits. Include primary and/or secondary


injection testing for circuit impedance and polarity checks.

(9)

Energizing of equipment. Include energizing of equipment in specific order after all above
testing is complete and evaluated.

(10)

Service testing. Include measurement of value and relationship of power,


potential, and current on sources, buses, feeders, and neutrals in the power system.

(11)

Post acceptance tests. Include on-going maintenance and operation tests, corrective
action tests, and deferred testing.

E. Reports, form, and records.


Accurate and complete reports, forms, and records should be developed and kept updated after the
testing for the equipment and the system for initial evaluation of the results before energization and ongoing evaluation by operations and maintenance. Analysis of the data and results should provide a
decision to startup and a guide for future maintenance requirements and its cost. Figures should be kept
for the time, cost, and equipment used for each test for input to the development of the maintenance
program. Care should be taken to ensure that extraneous information does not become part of the
record, because record keeping might hamper future use. Test reports giving test description and basic
procedure, components, drawing and other document references, test circuit diagrams, test equipment
model and age and calibration date, special tools required, test forms with results filled in, time to run the
test, acceptance criteria, failure or unusual event information, recommended repair, and when the test
should be performed again for equipment maintenance should be developed for the tests. Summary logs
developed from the information can be used for developing and scheduling an on-going maintenance
program. Forms should be used to document the results of testing procedures. They should be detailed

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TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 5 of 116

and direct, but simple and durable enough to be used in the field. The forms should be used as input to
the development of the test reports. A well designed form will contain checklist information for
inspections, test procedures, safety and special precautions, required equipment and tools, reference
drawings and manuals, acceptance criteria, estimated time to perform the test, and remarks/event
recording area. Sample forms for basic equipment and tests are attached.

F. Special precautions and safety.


Many tests on electrical equipment involve the use of high voltages and currents that are dangerous,
both from the standpoint of being life hazards to personnel and because they are capable of damaging
or destroying the equipment under test. Adequate safety rules should be instituted and practiced to
prevent injury to personnel, both personnel who are performing the tests and others who might be
exposed to the hazard. Also, the test procedures used should be designed to ensure that no intentional
damage to equipment will result from the testing process. It should be recognized, as the name implies,
that over-potential or high-potential testing is intended to stress the insulation structure above that of
normal system voltage. The purpose of the test is to establish the integrity of the insulation to withstand
voltage transients associated with switching and lightning surges and hence reduce the probability of inservice equipment failures. Direct voltage over-potential testing is generally considered a controlled,
nondestructive test in that an experienced operator, utilizing a suitable test set, can often detect marginal
insulation from the behavior of measured current. It is therefore possible; in many cases to detect
questionable insulation and plan for replacement without actually breaking it down under test.
Unfortunately, some insulation might break down with no warning. Plans for coping with this possibility
should be included in the test schedule. Low-voltage insulation testing can generally be done at the
beginning of the planned maintenance shutdown. In the event of an insulation failure under test,
maximum time would be available for repair prior to the scheduled system startup. Equipment found in
wet or dirty condition should be cleaned and dried before high-potential testing is done or a breakdown
can damage the equipment. Low-voltage circuit breakers, which require very high interrupting ratings,
are available with integral current-limiting fuses. Although the fuse size is selected to override without
damage to the time-current operating characteristics of the series trip device, it is desirable to bypass or
remove the fuse prior to applying simulated overload and fault current. If a testing program is to provide
meaningful information relative to the condition of the equipment under test, then the person evaluating
the test data must be ensured that the test was conducted in a proper manner and that all of the
conditions that could affect the evaluation of the tests were considered and any pertinent factors
reported. The test operator, therefore, must be thoroughly familiar with the test equipment used in the
type of test to be performed and also sufficiently experienced to be able to detect any equipment
abnormalities or questionable data during the performance of the tests.
G. Test equipment.
It is important that in any test program the proper equipment is used. The Equipment should be
calibrated, in good condition, and used by qualified operators. Any test equipment used for calibration
shall have twice the accuracy of the equipment to be tested. Care should be taken to use a quality or
regulated power source for the equipment as voltage, frequency, and waveform variation can produce
invalid results. All equipment should be operated in accordance with its instruction manual.

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TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 6 of 116

1-3 Types of testing methods


Types of testing methods include the four categories of tests as well as the tests themselves.
A. Categories of tests.
There are four categories of tests for electrical equipment; factory, acceptance, routine maintenance,
and special maintenance. Factory tests are performed at the factory to prove the equipment was
manufactured properly and meets specific design parameters. Commissioning tests, the main subject of
this document, are also proof tests performed on new equipment and systems usually after installation
and before energization. They are run to determine whether the equipment is in compliance with
specifications, to establish benchmarks for future tests, to determine the equipment was installed
correctly and without damage, and to verify whether the equipment meets its intended design operation
and limits . Routine and special maintenance tests are run after the equipment has been in service for a
certain amount of time to determine the degree of deterioration of certain equipment physical
parameters as operating time increases. Routine tests are performed on a periodic basis and special
tests are performed on defective equipment to help determine the cause of a failure and/or the extent of
the damage. The same type of tests and measurements are performed for all of the categories using
different voltage values. The acceptance tests are usually run at 80% and the maintenance tests are
usually run at 60% of the factory test voltage values to help indicate deterioration without being
destructive.
B. Types of testing methods.
The testing of electrical power system equipment involves checking the insulation adequacy, electrical
properties, protection and control, operation, and other items as they relate to the overall system. Some
of these checks are accomplished using de-energized component tests, instrumentation and relay
operation and calibration tests, energized functional testing of control circuits, megger testing of power
circuits, phase out testing of power circuits, and service testing.
1-4 Insulation testing
Insulation can either be solid, liquid, or gaseous dielectric materials that prevent the flow of electricity
between points of different potential. Insulation testing is performed to determine the integrity of the
insulation. This usually consists of applying a high potential voltage to the item and measuring the
leakage current that may flow to ground. Excessive leakage current is an indication of dielectric
breakdown and/or impending failure. Insulation may weaken over time at a rate tightly related to the
operating time and temperature of operation. Therefore, these tests are run periodically to track the
insulation deterioration. Insulation testing, the most common electrical testing performed, can be
reformed by applying a direct current (dc) or alternating current (ac) voltage. The type and value of the
voltage determines whether the test is considered non-destructive or destructive. The higher the voltage
the more destructive the test. Usually destructive tests are only run one time in the factory to verify the
initial strength of the insulation, and non-destructive tests are run as acceptance and maintenance tests
to erasure deterioration from the original value. Both the do and ac tests are "go no-go" tests. In
addition, he do test can indicate the amount of deterioration and forecast the remaining time for safe
operation by comparing the leakage current and test voltage to values from previous tests.
A. Advantage of direct-current testing.
Direct-current test is preferred on equipment whose charging capacitance is very high, such as cables.
Direct-current voltage stress is considered much less damaging o insulation than ac voltages. The time
of voltage application is not as critical with do voltage as with ac voltage. The test can be stopped before
equipment failure. Measurements can be taken concurrently.

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B. Disadvantage of direct - current testing.


The stress distribution for transformers, motors, and Generator winding is different for dc voltage than for
ac voltage. The residual charge after a dc voltage must be carefully discharged. The time required to
conduct a do high-potential test is longer than for an ac high-potential test.
C. Direct-current (dc) testing.
When a dc potential is applied across an insulation, the resultant current flow is composed of several
components as follows:
(1)

Capacitance-charging current. Capacitance-charging current is the current resulting from


charge absorbed by the capacitor formed by the capacitance of the bushing. This current
is a function of time which also depends on applied do voltage, insulation resistance and
the time constant of the circuit.

(2)

Dielectric-absorption current. Dielectric-absorption current is the current that is absorbed


and trapped in the dielectric during the charging of the piece of equipment and released
after the equipment is discharged. This current can be calculated from test voltage,
capacitance, and time. In air-cooled and hydrogen-cooled ac rotating machines, dielectric
absorption varies with temperature.

(3)

Surface leakage current. The passage of current over the surface of insulation rather than
through its volume is surface leakage current. In measuring insulation resistance of
armature and field windings in rotating machines (rated 1 hp, 750 W or greater), a high
surface leakage current is usually caused by moisture or another type of partly conductive
contamination present in the rotating machine.

(4)

Partial discharge (corona current). This is a type of localized discharge resulting from
transient gaseous ionization in an insulation system when the voltage stress exceeds a
critical value. Partial discharge is not desirable and should be eliminated. It is caused by
overstressing of air at sharp corners of the conductor due to high test voltage. In shielded
power cable systems (rated > 5 kV), humidity or wind can increase the corona current.

(5)

Volumetric leakage current. The current that flows through the volume insulation itself is
volumetric leakage current. It is the current that is of primary interest in the evaluation of
the condition of the insulation. In shielded power cable systems (rated > 5 kV), humidity,
condensation, and precipitation on the surface of a termination can increase surface
leakage current and volumetric leakage current. Surface leakage current and volumetric
current added together is the quotient of the applied do voltage and insulation resistance.
In large ac rotating machines rated 10,000 kVA or greater and rated 6000Vor higher,
moisture, on the end windings, increases surface leakage current and volumetric leakage
current especially when dirt is also on the winding. Since the insulation may weaken over
time, age may cause an increase in the various currents during testing.

D. Insulation-resistance (megger) testing.


For equipment containing electronic components, megger testing must not be performed. However, this
equipment should be tested according to manufacturer specifications. In an insulation-resistance test,
an applied voltage, from 600 to 5000 volts, supplied from a source of constant potential, is applied
across the insulation. The usual potential source is a megohmeter, also known as a megger, either hand

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or power operated that indicates the insulation resistance directly on a scale calibrated in megohms. A
megohmeter that is a hand cranked, a rectifier type, or battery-operated instrument is suitable for testing
equipment rated up to 600 volts. For equipment rated over 600 volts, use of a 1000-volt or 2500-volt
motor-driven or rectifier-type megohmeter is recommended for optimum test results. The quality of the
insulation is evaluated based on the level of the insulation resistance. The insulation resistance of many
types of insulation is variable with temperature, so the data obtained should be corrected to the standard
temperature for the class of equipment under test. Published charts similar to table 1-1 are available for
this purpose. The megohm value of insulation resistance obtained will be inversely proportional to the
volume of insulation being tested. For example, a cable 1000-ft (304.8 m) long would be expected to
have one-tenth the insulation resistance of a cable 100-ft (30.48 m) long if all other conditions were
identical. The insulation-resistance test is relatively easy to perform and is a useful test used on all types
and classes of electrical equipment. Its main value lies in the charting of data from periodic tests,
corrected for temperature, over the life of the equipment so that deteriorative trends might be detected

Table 1-1 Recommended minimum insulation resistance values at 40C (all values in
Ma.)
Minimum Insulation Resistance after 1 minute
(MCI)
kV + 1
(Example: 15 kV machine is 1S + 1= 16 MS2)
100
5

Test specimen
For most windings made before about 1970, all
field windings, and others not described below
For most do armature and ac about 1970 (formwound coil windings built after
For most machines with random-wound stator coils
and form-wound coils rated below 1 kV

Notes: kV is the rated machine terminal to terminal voltage, in rms (root mean square) kV.
Recommended minimum insulation resistance values above, in megohms, at 40C of the entire
machine winding for over voltage testing or operation of ac and do machine stator windings and rotor
windings .
E. Dielectric absorption testing.
In a dielectric-absorption test, a voltage supplied from a source of constant potential is applied across
the insulation. The test voltage used may have to be sign if significantly higher than the insulationresistance test in order to obtain measurable current readings. The potential source can be either a
meg-ohmmeter, as described above or a high-voltage power supply with an ammeter indicating the
current being drawn by the specimen under test. The voltage is applied for an extended period of time,
from 5 to 15 minutes, and periodic readings are taken of the insulation resistance or leakage current.
The test data is evaluated on the basis that if insulation is in good condition, its apparent insulation
resistance will increase as the test progresses. Unlike the insulation-resistance test, the dielectricabsorption test results are independent of the volume and the temperature of the insulation under test.
For the dielectric absorption test, the values recorded at each one minute interval are plotted on log-log
paper with coordinates for resistance versus time. The slope of the resulting curve gives a good
indication of the insulation condition. A good insulation system will have a slope that is a straight line
increasing in respect to time. The characteristic slope of a poor insulation system will be a curve that
flattens out with respect to time.

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F. Polarization index testing.


The polarization index is a specialized application of the dielectric absorption test. The index is the ratio
of insulation resistance at two different times after voltage application, usually the insulation resistance
at 10 minutes to the insulation resistance at 1 minute. The use of polarization-index testing is usually
confined to rotating machines, cables, and transformers. A polarization index less than 1 .0 indicates
that the equipment needs maintenance before being placed in service. References are available for
polarization indexes for various types of equipment as well as in table 1-2. Acceptance testing
specifications for Electrical Power and Distribution Equipment and Systems NETA 1999 and
Recommended Practice for Testing Insulation Resistance of Rotating Machinery (IEEE Std. 43-2000)
are references available for polarization indexes for various types of equipment. The polarization index
test lasts for 10 minutes. The insulation resistance is recorded after 1 minute, then again after 10
minutes. The polarization index is the quotient of the 10-minute and 1 minute readings as shown in the
following equation:
PI = RIO/R, (dimensionless)
Where:
PI = polarization index
R = resistance.
For polarization indexes in transformers an acceptable value would be 2 or higher, values between 2
and 1 indicate marginal condition, and values below 1 indicate poor condition. After insulation resistance
readings have been made, the test voltage is returned to zero and the insulation is discharged.
G. High potential testing.
A high-potential test (hi-pot) consists of applying voltage across insulation at or above the do equivalent
of the 60-Hz operating crest voltage. The do equivalent of the 60- Hz operating crest voltage is
calculated using the following equation:
Vac= Vdc/42Where:
Vdc is the equivalent do voltage
Vac is the operating crest ac voltage
The hi-pot test can be applied either as a dielectric-absorption test or a step-voltage test. DC high
potential tests are "go no-go" tests. The cable is required to withstand the specified voltage for the
specified time duration .These tests will normally reveal major problems due to improper field handling,
improperly installed accessories or mechanical damage. Recommended test voltages are given in
standard tables for do and ac. To perform the do Hi-pot test the input voltage to the test set should be
regulated. The current sensing circuits in test equipment shall measure only the leakage current
associated with the cable under test and shall not include internal leakage of the test equipment. Record
wet bulb and dry-bulb temperatures or relative humidity and temperature. The wet bulb temperature is
defined as the temperature given by a thermometer bulb which is covered with an absorbent material
(linen wet with distilled water) and exposed to the atmosphere so that evaporation will cool the water and
the thermometer bulb. The dry-bulb temperature is defined as the temperature of the atmosphere given
by an ordinary thermometer. Test each section of cable individually with all other conductors grounded.
All shields must also be grounded. Terminations shall be adequately corona suppressed by guard ring,
field reduction sphere, or other suitable methods as necessary. Precaution should betaken to insure that
the maximum test voltage does not exceed the limits for terminations specified in IEEE Standard 48 or
manufacturers specifications. When applied as a dielectric-absorption test, the maximum voltage is
applied gradually over a period of from 60 to 90 seconds. The maximum voltage is then held for 5
minutes with leakage-current readings being taken each minute. In cables, high ambient temperature or

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humidity at the ends of improperly prepared cables can rais the do leakage current to many times its
normal value. When applied as a step-voltage test, the maximum voltage is applied in a number of equal
increments, usually not less than eight, with each voltage step being held for an equal interval of time.
Atypical voltage versus time graph as shown in figure 1-2. The time interval between steps should be
long enough to allow the leakage current to reach stability, approximately 1 or 2 minutes. A leakagecurrent reading is taken at the end of each interval before the voltage is raised to the next level.

Figure 1-2. Step-voltage versus time


A plot of test voltage versus leakage current or insulation resistance is drawn as the test progresses. A
nonlinear increase in leakage current can indicate imminent failure, and the test should be discontinued.
See figure 1-3.

Figure 1-3. Step-voltage high potential test current


After the maximum test voltage is reached, a dielectric absorption test can be performed at that voltage,
usually for a 5-minute period.
H. AC high potential testing.
Alternating-current high-potential tests are made at voltages above the normal system voltage for a short
time, such a 1 minute. The test voltages to be used vary depending on whether the device or circuit is
low or high voltage, a primary or control circuit, and whether it was tested at the factory or in the field.
Manufacturers' instructions and the applicable standards should be consulted for the proper values.

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I. Insulation power factor testing.


The power factor of insulation is a measure of the energy component of the charging current. Powerfactor testing is used to determine the power factor of an insulation system. Power-factor testing is a
useful tool in evaluating the quality of insulation in power, distribution, and instrument transformers;
circuit breakers; rotating machines, cables, regulators and insulating liquids. The equipment to be tested
should be isolated from the rest of the system, if practical, and all bushings or terminations should be
cleaned and dried. The test should be conducted when the relative humidity is below 70 percent and
when the insulation system is at a temperature above 32F (0C). The test equipment used should be
such that the power factor or dissipation factor can be read directly or such that the charging voltamperes and the dielectric losses can be read separately so that a ratio might be computed. The test
equipment should also have sufficient electromagnetic interference cancellation devices or shielding to
give meaningful test results even when used in an area of strong interference, such as an energized
substation. Electromagnetic interference distorts the readings, yielding incorrect values. The desired
measurements should be performed following the operating instructions supplied with the test
equipment. The lead connections may have to be changed several times, depending on the complexity
of the apparatus and test equipment. A meaningful evaluation will include comparison to manufacturer's
results taken at the factory and/or nameplate data. On transformer tests, obtain the power factor of each
winding with respect to ground and each winding with respect to each other winding. In addition, tests
should be made of each bushing with a rated voltage above 600 volts, either using the power factor or
capacitance tap if the bushing is so equipped or by use of a "hot-collar" test using a test electrode
around the outside shell of the bushing. On higher voltage circuit breakers, the power factor of each lineside and load-side bushing assembly complete with stationary contact and interrupters, with the circuit
breaker open, and each pole of the circuit breaker with the breaker closed should be obtained. On ac
rotating machines, the neutral connection on the stator should be removed and a test of each winding
with respect to the other two windings and ground should be obtained. For cables, the power factor of
each conductor with respect to ground should be obtained and a hot collar test should be made of each
pothead or termination. Power-factor testing of insulating oil should be performed in accordance with
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)D924, Standard Test Method for Dissipation Factor
(or Power Factor) and Relative Permittivity (Dielectric Constant) of Electrical Insulating Liquids.

1-5 Switch/Circuit Breaker Testing


In addition to the insulation testing mentioned above, for large switches and circuit breakers the following
tests can be applied.
A. Circuit breaker time-travel analysis.
This test, used on medium and high-voltage circuit breakers provides information as to whether the
operating mechanism of the circuit breaker is operating properly. This test can be used to determine the
opening and closing speeds of the breaker, the interval time for closing and tripping, and the contact
bounce. The test provides information that can be used to detect problems such as weak accelerating
springs, defective shock absorbers, dashpots, buffers, and closing mechanisms. The test is performed
by a mechanical device that is attached to the breaker. One device, a rotating drum with a chart
attached, is temporarily connected to the chassis or tank of the breaker. A movable rod with a marking
device attached is installed on the lift rod portion of the breaker. As the breaker is opened or closed, the
marking device indicates the amount of contact travel on the chart as the drum rotates at a known
speed. With another available device, a transducer is attached to the movable rod, and the breaker
operation is recorded on an oscillograph.

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B. Contact-resistance testing.
This test is used to test the quality of the contacts on switches and circuit breakers. A test set designed
for this purpose is available with direct-scale calibration in microhms, capable of reading contact
resistances of 10 microhms or less. An alternate method is to pass a known level of direct current
through the contact structures and to measure the do millivolt drop across the contacts. The data
obtained can then be converted to resistance by applying Ohm's Law. The alternate method requires a
source of at least 100 amperes with a mill volt meter of approximately 0-20 mV range.

1-6 Transformer Testing


Transformers are subject to the following tests in addition to the insulation testing mentioned above in
paragraph 1-4. However, dry-type transformers would not be subject to fault-gas analysis and insulating
liquid analysis due to the fact that these types of transformers usually feature a gaseous or dry
compound insulating medium. Cast coil transformers, which are defined as a transformer with highvoltage coils cast in an epoxy resin, would also not be subject to fault-gas analysis and insulating liquid
analysis due to the fact that the core and coils of these types of transformers are not immersed in an
insulating liquid. Cast coil transformers are considered to be dry-type transformers.
A. Transformer turns-ratio and polarity tests.
The turns-ratio test is used to determine the number of turns in one winding of a transformer in relation
to the number of turns in the other windings of the same phase of the transformer. The polarity test
determines the vectorail relationship of the various transformer windings. The tests are applicable to all
power and distribution transformers. See figure 2-4 for a diagram of a typical fluid filled power
transformers. Cast coil transformers are also subject to these tests. The turns-ratio test and the polarity
test can be done on transformers of all sizes. The turns-ratio test is also commonly performed on
instrument transformers. The test equipment used will ordinarily be a turns-ratio test set designed for the
purpose, although, If not available, two voltmeters or two ammeters (for current transformers only) can
be used. When two ac voltmeters are used, one is connected to the high-voltage winding and the other
is connected to the low voltage winding. The high voltage winding is excited to a voltage not exceeding
the rating of the voltmeter. Both voltmeters are read simultaneously. A second set of readings should be
taken with the metering instruments interchanged. The values indicated should be averaged to calculate
the ratio. A meaningful ratio measurement maybe made using only a few volts of excitation. The
transformer should be excited from the highest voltage winding in order to avoid possibly unsafe high
voltages. Care should be taken during the application of voltage and during the measurement. It is
important that simultaneous readings for both voltmeters be made. The voltmeters used should have
accuracy's matching with the requirements of a 0.5 %ratio calculation. When a turns-ratio test is
performed, the ratio should be determined for all no load taps. If the transformer is equipped with a
load-tap changer, the ratio should be determined for each load-tap changer position.
B. Fault-gas analysis.
The analysis of the percentage of combustible gases present in the nitrogen cap of sealed, pressurized
oil-filled transformers can provide information as to the likelihood of incipient faults in the transformer.
Fault-gas analysis can be performed on mineral-oil-immersed transformers of all sizes. When arcing or
excessive heating occurs below the top surface of the oil, some oil decomposes. Some of the products
of the decomposition are combustible gases that rise to the top of the oil and mix with the nitrogen above
the oil. The test set for this test is designed for the purpose. A small sample of nitrogen is removed from
the transformer and analyzed.

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C. Insulating-liquid analysis.
Insulating-liquid analysis can be performed in the field on oil-immersed power transformers of all sizes.
1-7 Protective Relays
Protective relays are used to sense abnormalities and cause the trouble to be isolated with minimum
disturbance to the electrical system and the least damage to the equipment at fault. Protective relays
should be set and acceptance tested prior to being placed in service and tested periodically thereafter to
ensure reliable performance. In a normal industrial application, periodic testing should be done at least
every 2 years. The person performing the test should be given the settings to be applied to each
particular relay by the engineer. There are two types of protective relays addressed in this manual. The
first types are solid state relays. These are electronic "black box" devices. As all electronic devices, solid
state
relays should never be subject to hi-pot or megger testing. They typically come equipped with internal
testing capabilities. Any diagnostic tests shall be performed as indicated in the manufacturer's manual.
The second type is induction disk relays . They are subject to the following tests.
A. Inspection.
If recommended or desirable, each relay should be removed from its case (if relay design permits) for a
thorough inspection and cleaning. If the circuit is in service, one relay at a time should be removed so as
not to totally disable the protection. The areas of inspection are detailed in the manufacturer's instruction
manual. These generally consist of inspection for loose screws, friction in moving parts, iron filings
between the induction disk and permanent magnet, and any evidence of distress with the relay. The fine
silver contacts should be cleaned only with a burnishing tool.
B. Settings.
Prescribed setting should be applied or it should be ascertained that they have been applied to the relay.
C. Pickup test.
In the case of a time-over-current relay, its contacts should eventually creep to a closed position with a
magnitude of current introduced in its induction coil equal to the tap setting. The pickup is adjusted by
means of the restraining spiral-spring adjusting ring. A pickup test on a voltage relay is made in much
the same manner.
D. Timing test.
A timing test should be made on most types of relays. In the case of a time-over current relay, one or
more timing tests are made at anywhere from two to ten times the tap setting to verify the time-current
characteristic of the relay. One timing point should be specified in the prescribed settings. Tests should
be made with the relay in its panel and case, and the time test run at the calibration setting.
E. Instantaneous test.
Some protective relays are instantaneous in operation, or might have a separate instantaneous element.
In this context, the term instantaneous means "having no intentional time delay." If used, the specified
pickup on the instantaneous element should be set by test. Again referring to the relay used in the
example above, at two times pickup, its instantaneous element should have an operating time of
between 0.016 and 0.030 seconds.

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F. Test of target and seal-in unit.


Most types of protective relays have a combination target and sealin unit. The target indicates that the
relay has operated. The seal-in unit is adjustable to pickup at either 0.2 or 2.0 amperes. The pickup
setting is established by the relay coordination study. The setting for the seal-in unit should be specified
with the relay settings. It should be verified by test that the contacts will seal in with the minimum
specified direct current applied in the seal-in unit.
G. Test of tripping circuit.
A test should be made, preferably at time of testing the relays, to verify that operation of the relay
contacts will cause the breaker to trip.
1-8 Ground System Testing
In addition to the general component tests stated in the preceding paragraphs, there are tests to be
performed on the system as a whole after the components are installed. They are as follows:
A. Equipment ground-impedance testing.
This test is used to determine the integrity of the grounding path from the point of test back to the source
panel or supply transformer. A low-impedance grounding path is necessary to facilitate operation of the
over current device under ground-fault conditions as well as provide a zero voltage reference for reliable
operation of computers and other microprocessor-based electronic equipment. Instruments are available
to measure the impedance of the grounding path. When using these instruments, the user should
remember that, although a high-impedance value is an indication of a problem, for example a loose
connection or excessive conductor length, low-impedance readout does not necessarily indicate the
adequacy of the grounding path. A grounding path that is found to have low impedance by the use of
relatively low-test currents might not have sufficient capacity to handle large ground faults. Ground loop
or grounding conductor impedance cannot be measured reliably in situations where metallic conduits are
used or where metallic boxes or equipment are attached to metal building frames or interconnected
structures. Such situations create parallel paths for test currents that make it impossible to measure the
impedance of the grounding conductors; or even to detect an open or missing grounding conductor.
Visual examinations and actual checking for tightness of connections are still necessary to determine the
adequacy of the grounding path.
B. Grounded conductor (neutral) impedance testing.
On solidly grounded low-voltage system (600 volts or less) supplying microprocessor-based electronic
equipment with switching power supplies, this test is used to determine the quality of the grounded
conductor (neutral) from the point of test back to the source panel or supply transformer. The same
instruments used to perform the equipment ground impedance tests can be used to perform grounded
conductor (neutral) impedance tests.
C. Grounding-electrode resistance testing.
Grounding-electrode resistance testing is used to determine the effectiveness and integrity of the
grounding system. Periodic testing is necessary because changes in soil temperature, soil moisture,
conductive salts in the soil, and corrosion of the ground connectors cause variations in soil resistivity.
The test set used will ordinarily be a ground-resistance test set, designed for the purpose, using the
principle of the fall of potential of ac-circulated current from a test spot to the ground connection under
test.

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E. Neutral-current testing.
Situations exist where it is possible for the neutral current of three-phase systems to exceed the
ampacity of the neutral conductor in normal operation. This is usually due to unbalanced phase loading,
non sinusoidal load currents (harmonics), or a combination of the two. Also nonlinear loads, such as
rectifiers, computers, variable speed drives, electrical discharge lighting fixtures, and switching mode
power supplies, cause phase currents that are not sinusoidal . The problem can be detected using a true
root mean square (RMS) ammeter to measure the current flowing in the neutral conductor. The use of
an average responding ammeter calibrated to read the RMS value of a sine wave should not be used,
as it will not yield valid results when used on non sinusoidal waveforms. If the neutral current is found to
be excessive, the current in each phase should be measured to determine if an abnormal condition
exists. If excessive neutral current exists and the phase currents are not excessive, harmonic content is
the most likely cause. A means of analyzing neutral current containing harmonic components is through
the use of a wave or spectrum analyzer.
2 COMPONENT TESTING
2-1 Introduction To Component Testing
The component inspection and checks are the key to the success of any commissioning program. Each
component of the system should be initially checked for damage, deterioration, and failures by a
procedure using inspections and tests as defined by the specific equipment manufacturer. The
equipment manuals from the manufacturer identify the minimum required receipt inspections, handling
and installation procedures, drawing and wiring verification, de-energized and energized component
tests, minimum testing baseline and report requirements for on-going maintenance, and requirements
for repair and retesting if certain checks and tests produce unsatisfactory results. After the systems
components are
Interconnected, the system should be checked, using de-energized and energized methods, to verify the
proper interconnection and operation of the components including on/off control, system process
interlocks, and protective relaying functions. Once these tests are complete, the system can be
energized and operational tests and measurements are performed. This chapter of the manual gives a
typical listing of the commissioning test and testing procedures that are recommended (manufacturers'
recommendations should always be incorporated into component testing) for each of the following
system components before the interconnection and operation of the components as a system is verified
and tested The components/systems to be verified and tested are circuit switchers, transformers,
switchgear low voltage, switchgear -medium voltage, transfer switch, motors, ac/dc drives, generators,
batteries, battery chargers, UPS systems, and cables . For equipment containing electronic components,
megger testing must not be performed. However, this equipment should be tested according to
manufacturer's specifications.

2-2 Circuit Switchers


A circuit switcher is a device that consists of a disconnect switch and a circuit-breaking interrupter. They
are used for switching and protecting equipment such as transformers, lines, cables, capacitor banks,
and shunt reactors from small short circuit currents . The first step towards acceptance of any device is
verification of nameplate data and equipment conditions. All the equipment shall be checked against
nameplate, one-line, schematic, and wiring diagrams. All equipment shall be carefully examined upon
receipt to ensure that no damage has occurred during shipment. Upon receipt a visual inspection of the
circuit switcher and associated hardware shall be made including nameplate, parts, drawings, and
Condition. Any discrepancies should be sent to the manufacturer for a resolution. After installation, the
circuit switcher shall be checked to ensure that it has been bolted to its permanent foundation, all
shipping braces have been removed, and that it has been properly grounded. The alignment of the

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disconnect should be checked to ensure that the blade tongue contact enters the jaw contact on center,
rotates fully and comes to rest within 1/8" of the stop. The interrupter action should be checked for
proper operation as described in the operation manual. The circuit switcher shall be manually operated
to check that the
mechanism works smoothly and correctly. The contact surfaces should be checked for proper
lubrication. The control wiring installation shall be checked per the drawings. The low-pressure indicator
should be checked by measuring the pressure in psig and recorded along with the ambient temperature
at the time the measurement was taken and then comparing this value with the manufacturers data.
Checks shall be made to insure that the grounding connections have been installed. Simulate a fault by
activating the protective relay circuit and check electrical operation. Check key interlocks both
mechanically and electrically. Testing shall include timing, contact resistance, contact part time, and
charging motor
operation. Descriptions of these tests are found in paragraph 2-5. The timing test shall be performed at
the normal operating voltage for both trip command and close command.
2-3 Transformers
There are two basic types of power transformers, oil-filled and dry-type. Both are subject to many of the
same tests. Therefore, the following test procedures apply to both types unless otherwise noted. Since
cast coil transformers are considered dry-type, the following tests also apply unless the test is noted to
only apply to oil-filled transformers.
A. Inspection on receipt.
A thorough inspection for the transformer shall be completed upon arrival and before unloading. This
inspection shall include a detailed visual inspection of the external of the transformer. Since the largest
transformer we are concerned with in this manual is 10 MVA, the transformers do not require impact
recorder. The minimum size of transformer for impact recording is approximately 20 MVA. Oil-filled type
transformers are typically shipped filled with either dry air or nitrogen. The pressure condition, nitrogen
content, and dew point shall be measured before unloading of the transformer. A positive pressure
should be maintained on nitrogen-blanketed transformers. The oxygen content should be less than one
percent. The seals of the transformer shall be inspected to ensure that they are properly seated. For an
acceptable transformer installation it is imperative that the foundation is level. This should be checked
well in advance of receipt of the transformer. Upon completion of the equipment inspections, the
transformer shall be unloaded and set into its final installation position. The shipping bracing shall be
removed and it shall then be anchored to its foundation. The bolts (if used) securing the transformer to
its foundation shall be checked to ensure that they are installed at the proper torque. For large
transformers (above 20 MVA approximately), a visual inspection of the transformer internals shall be
performed on air and oil-filled transformers filled with nitrogen. Transformers shipped filled with oil will
not need internal inspections unless the electrical testing described below indicates a problem. Then the
oil must be drained, inspection performed, and repair completed. After the repair is inspected, the
transformer shall be filled with clean dielectric fluid in strict accordance, with the manufacturer's
instructions. The purpose of this internal inspection is to determine that no displacement has occurred in
transit or during unloading. Items to be verified include the tap-changer, end braces and current
transformers. This inspection must be performed with dry air in the main tank. If the transformer has
been delivered filled with nitrogen, it must be evacuated from the tank replaced with dry air. Personnel
performing the inspection must wear clean cotton clothing, mouth covers and oil-resistant, clean, rubber
soled shoes that contain no metallic parts. All transformer nameplates, wiring, and accessories shall be
visually inspected and compared against the drawings. These accessories include but are not limited to
radiators, fans, bushings, and instrument controls.

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B. Installation checks.
After the preceding inspections have been completed, the transformer shall be assembled. Transformer
assembly includes but is not limited to, mounting of radiators, fans, bushings, thermometers, oil level
indicators, relays and expansion tank. Transformer assembly must be in accordance with manufacturer's
instructions and design drawings. After all of the accessories have been installed, protection circuits
shall be wired and checked. A pressure test can now be performed and the transformer filled with oil.
The alarm, control, and trip settings on temperature indicators shall be inspected to verify that they are
set as specified. The cooling pumps shall operate correctly, and the fan and pump motors shall have
correct over current protection. Operation of all alarm, control, and trip circuits from temperature and
level indicators, pressure relief device, and fault pressure relays shall be checked. Liquid level in all
tanks and bushings shall be verified. Grounding shall be verified. Once the above is complete the
following tests shall be performed on insulation resistance, dielectric absorption, polarization index,
transformer turns ratio test, and power factor test. Descriptions of these tests are found in paragraphs 14 and 1-6. Once completed and passed, the transformer is ready for energization.
2-4 Switchgear - Medium Voltage
The first step towards acceptance of any device is verification of nameplate data. The nameplate on all
equipment shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. The Switchgear shall be checked for
completeness of assembly. All equipment shall be carefully examined upon receipt to ensure that no
damage has occurred during shipment. A visual inspection of the area where the switchgear is installed
should be performed to confirm that there is adequate aisle space at the front and rear of the equipment
for proper ventilation, service and maintenance of the equipment. The Switchgear should be checked to
insure it is properly anchored to its foundation. Visually inspect that the high voltage connections are
properly insulated. Electrically disconnecting contacts, machined parts, shutter, etc., should be checked
or lubrication and operation. The breaker alignment and manual operation shall be checked. All blocking,
supports and other temporary ties should be removed from breakers, instruments, relays, etc . Verify
proper fuses are correctly placed. Verify proper voltage and phase connections. Verify correct
component and installation of potential and current transformers (PTs and CTs) and control fuse size
and check continuity. Also check PT and CT polarity and transformer turns ratio. Temporary wiring
jumpers should be removed. Verify ground connections properly made. Verify incoming primary and
secondary connections properly made and checked for shorts or undesired grounds. Verify all
equipment that has been removed during assembly has been replaced. Verify relays are coordinated
with other relays and protective devices on the system. Refer to relay instructions before making any
adjustments. Consult local utility before making any connections to the power supply. Verify storage
battery fully charged and provided with charger.
2-5 Switchgear - Low Voltage
The first step towards acceptance of any device is verification of nameplate data. The nameplate on all
equipment shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. All equipment shall be carefully
examined upon receipt to ensure that no damage has occurred during shipment. A visual inspection of
the area where the switchgear is installed should be performed to confirm that there is adequate aisle
space at the front and rear of the equipment for proper ventilation, service and maintenance of the
equipment. The
Switchgear should be checked to insure it is properly anchored to its foundation. All switches, circuit
breakers, and other operating mechanisms should be manually exercised to make certain they are
properly aligned and operate freely. An insulation resistance test should be performed to make sure the
Switchgear is free from short circuits and grounds. This should be done both phase-to-ground and
phase-to-phase and with the switches or circuit breakers both opened and closed. Any electrical relays,
meters, or instrumentation should be checked to determine that connections are made properly and the
devices

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function properly. Electrically exercise all electrically operated circuit breakers, and other mechanisms
(but not under load), to determine that the devices operate properly. An auxiliary source of control power
may be necessary to provide power to the electrical operators. Test the ground fault protection system (if
furnished) in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. Check the settings of the adjustable
current and voltage trip mechanisms to confirm that they are at the proper values. Make certain that field
wiring is clear of live bus and, where necessary, physically secured to withstand the effects of fault
currents. Check to determine that all grounding connections are made properly. Remove all debris;
scrap wire, etc., from the Switchgear interior before closing the enclosure. Install covers, close doors,
and make certain that no wires are pinched and that all enclosure parts are properly aligned to be
tightened. Once the above is complete perform an insulation resistance test. Before performing
insulation tests precautions should be made to eliminate damage to electronic controls/sensitive
equipment attached to the bus. The Insulation Resistance test is described in paragraph 2-4. Once
completed and passed, the switchgear is ready for energization.
2-6 Transfer Switch
The first step towards acceptance of any device is verification of nameplate data. The nameplate on all
equipment shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. The transfer switch shall be checked for
completeness of assembly. All equipment shall be carefully examined upon receipt to ensure that no
damage has occurred during shipment such as loose parts and insulation damage. The Switch shall be
checked for proper alignment and manual operation. The switch insulation resistance (phase-to-phase
and phase-to-ground) shall be measured in normal and emergency positions. The wiring of the potential
transformer to the control device should be checked for continuity and the control fuse should be
checked to confirm size. The potential transformer should be tested as described in paragraph 3-3. The
transfer switch should be checked for proper grounding. The timer settings should be checked against
design parameters.
2-7 AC/DC Drives
The first step towards acceptance of any device is verification of nameplate data. The nameplate on all
equipment shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. All equipment shall be carefully
examined upon receipt to ensure that no damage has occurred during shipment. Drives are controllers
used to vary the speed of a motor. Controllers are electronic devices that should never be megger
tested. They typically come equipped with internal testing capabilities. Any diagnostic tests shall be
performed as indicated in the manufacturer's manual. A visual inspection of the controller, enclosure,
nameplates, connections, and drawings shall be performed. After removal of the controller enclosure
cover, the controller shall be checked for physical damage and any debris from installation such as wire
strands shall be removed using clean, dry, low-pressure air. All terminal connections shall be checked
for tightness. The drive should be energized with no connection to the load and diagnostic test should be
run. Motors should be tested separately as indicated in the motor paragraph.
2-8 Batteries
Although battery type varies (e.g., NiCad, Lead Acid), the acceptance criterion remains generally the
same. The fast step towards acceptance of any device is verification of nameplate data. The nameplate
on all equipment shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. All equipment shall be carefully
examined upon receipt to ensure that no damage has occurred during shipment. Any apparent physical
damage shall be recorded. If the battery is delivered filled, it shall be inspected to verify that no
electrolyte has leaked during transit If the battery cells are not delivered filled, it is recommended that
they be filled according to manufacturers recommendations before installation on racks. The individual
cell condition check shall include visual inspection of cell integrity investigating evidence of corrosion at
terminals, connections, racks, or cabinet the general appearance and cleanliness of the battery, the
battery rack or cabinet and battery area including accessibility shall be observed. The cells shall be

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checked for cracks in cell or leakage of electrolyte as well as the integrity of the cover. Electrolyte should
be added to any cell in which the electrolyte level is below the top of the plates. Before installation, the
voltage of each cell shall be measured. The voltage measured should be equal to or less than 0.05 V
below the manufacturers open circuit voltage. If it is not, the manufacturer shall be contacted to
determine the next course of action. The cell polarity for positive to negative connections shall be
checked. The battery shall be assembled as shown on drawings. Each battery cell is then checked to
ensure the electrolyte level is at the maximum level. The interconnection of the battery cells shall be
checked for polarity. The connector bolts shall be checked to ensure that they have been tightened to
the manufacturers recommended torque values. The cell internal ohmic values and the inter cell
connection resistances shall be then measured. This is accomplished by applying a load across the
battery and measuring the step change in voltage and current for each cell taken between the positive
and negative terminal posts of adjacent cells as well as the battery as a whole. The ohmic value is the
change in voltage divided by the change in current The resistance values for each cell shall then be
averaged and any interconnection that varies more than 10%or 5 AQ over the average shall be remade
and then rechecked for its resistance value. These values shall become baseline values for comparison
in future tests. The presence of flame arresters, adequacy of battery support racks, mounting,
anchorage, grounding, and clearances, ventilation of battery room enclosure, and existence of suitable
eyewash equipment shall be verified. After completion of the above inspections the battery is ready to be
connected to the charger. After charging, the following should be measured: each cell voltage and total
battery voltage with charger in float mode of operation; ripple current; specific gravity; electrolyte
temperature; electrolyte fill level; overall float voltage measured at the battery terminals; charger output
current and voltage, ambient temperature, condition of ventilation and monitoring equipment; and
temperature of the negative terminal of each cell of the battery. When the battery is charged, use a
voltmeter to check the polarity of the series connections. The total voltage shall be measured both
across the battery and between adjacent cells and then shall be compared to the specified voltage. The
total voltage should approximately be the resultant of the quantity of cells multiplied by the typical cell
voltage. A variation is an indication that the battery maybe improperly assembled.
A. Discharge test.
The values for discharge time and end point voltage should be selected from the battery manufacturer's
published ratings and the values used for the acceptance test should be approximately the same as that
of the intended application. The discharge rate should be at a constant current or constant power load
equal to the selected manufacturer's rating of the battery. The charging method used as the basis for the
published data is an important factor. For a stationary float application, data based on prolonged
constant potential charging should be used. If constant current charging has been used to establish the
published data, appropriate float charging correction factors should be obtained from the manufacturer.
Note that the test discharge current is equal to the rated discharge current divided by the temperature
correction factor for the initial electrolyte temperature. Set up a load and the necessary instrumentation
to maintain the test discharge rate determined in above. Disconnect the charging source, connect the
load to the battery, start the timing, and continue to maintain the selected discharge rate. If the charging
source cannot be disconnected, the current being drawn by the load has to be increased to compensate
for the current being supplied by the charging source to the battery. Read and record the individual cell
voltages and the battery terminal voltage. The readings should be taken while the load is applied at the
beginning and at the completion of the test and at specified intervals. There should be a minimum of
three sets of readings. Individual cell voltage readings should be taken between respective posts of like
polarity of adjacent cells so as to include the voltage drop of the inter cell connectors. Maintain the
discharge rate and record the elapsed time at the point when the battery terminal voltage decreases to a
value equal to the minimum average voltage per cell as specified by the design of the installation times
the number of cells.

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B. Capacity check.
The capacity of the battery is checked using the following equation:
Percent Capacity at the test rate at 25C (77F) = (ta / ts) x 100
Where: ta is the actual time of the test to specified terminal voltage as corrected for
temperatures ts is the rated time to specified terminal voltage
2-9 Battery Chargers
The first step towards acceptance of any device is verification of nameplate data. The nameplate on all
equipment shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. All equipment shall be carefully
examined upon receipt to ensure that no damage has occurred during shipment. A visual inspection
should be performed to verify the completeness of the equipment, correctness of installations, supports,
grounding, and wiring. The rating plate shall be checked to ensure that both the ac supply to the charger
and the battery to be connected corresponds to the charger's parameters. Confirm that all shipping and
other debris in and around the charger cabinet have been removed. Check settings of the charger and
calibrate per manufacturer's manual to match the battery (float and equalizing levels). If the battery
charger has been factory set, check the charger float and equalizing voltage levels against drawings and
specifications. If not, set the charger float and equalizing voltage levels to those listed on drawings and
specifications. Before connecting to the battery, measure the output voltage provided by the charger and
record. Verify that all charger functions and alarms operate correctly. Verification that the battery is
connected to the battery charger properly is extremely important. The negative wire from the negative
terminal of the battery must be connected to the negative terminal of the charger. Similarly, the positive
wire from the negative terminal of the battery must be connected to the positive terminal of the charger.
A battery charger is an electronic device that converts ac power to dC power. The charger supplies this
dC power to the battery. As with all electronic devices, this device should not be megger tested.

2-10 Cables
For commissioning of cables, the receipt inspection and testing is performed while the cable is still on
the reel. The exposed sections of the cables are visually inspected for signs of physical damage, the end
caps are checked for tightness. The cable types and configuration are checked for correctness against
drawings and purchasing documents. Continuity tests are performed on each conductor and the shield.
For power cables, insulation resistance tests are performed between each conductor, each conductor,
and the shield. The cable installation shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. After
installation, the cables are inspected for damage, proper trained bending radius, adequate spacing for
ampacity, and proper installation of fireproofing, proper size, termination, and identification. Next,
conductors are checked for continuity. The following tests shall be performed before the cables are
energized. They are the insulation resistance (Megger) test and the do hi pot test. For medium and high
voltage shielded cables the acceptance is dependent on the do hi pot test. A satisfactory test is the
exponential decrease of current with time with a fixed do voltage applied. Non-shielded cables are not
subject to the hi-pot test because only the sections of cable in contact with ground (such as cable tray
rungs) are actually tested and therefore the test is not meaningful, Test duration should not exceed 5
minutes for no shielded cable or 15 minutes for shielded cable. When performing a do High potential test
on cables, all precautions and limits as specified in the applicable NEMA/ICEA (Insulated Cable
Engineers Association) standard for the specific cable should be followed. Tests should be performed in
accordance with ANSMEEE Standard 400. Test voltages shall not exceed 80 percent of cable
manufacturer's factory test value or the maximum test voltage in table 3.1 below. The test procedure
should be as follows and the results for each cable test shall be recorded. Test each section of cable
individually with all other conductors grounded. All shields must also be grounded. Terminations shall be

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adequately corona-suppressed by guard ring, field reduction sphere, or other suitable methods as
necessary. Precaution should be taken to insure that the maximum test voltage does not exceed the
limits for terminations specified in IEEE Standard 48 or manufacturers specifications. Reduce the
conductor test potential to zero and measure residual voltage at discrete intervals. Upon the completion
of the test, apply grounds for a time period adequate to drain all insulation-stored charge. When new
cables are spliced to existing cables, the do high-potential test shall be performed on the new cable prior
to splicing. After test results are approved for the new cable and the splice is completed, an insulation
resistance test and a shielding continuity test should be performed on the length of the new and existing
cable including the splice. After a satisfactory insulation resistance test, a do high potential test shall be
performed on the cable utilizing a test voltage acceptable to owner and not exceeding 60 percent of
factory test value.

Insulation Type
Elastomeric:
Butyl and Oil Base

Elastomeric: EPR

Polyethylene

Rated Cable Voltage


5kV
5 kV
15 kV
15 kV
25 kV
5 kV
5 kV
8 kV
8 kV
15 kV
15 kV
25 kV
25 kV
28 kV
35 kV
5 kV
5 kV
8 kV
8 kV
15 kV
15 kV
25 kV
25 kV
35 kV

Insulation Level
100 %
133 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
100 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
133 %
100 %
133 %
100 %

Test Voltage kV (dc)


25
25
55
65
80
25
25
35
45
55
65
80
100
85
100
25
25
35
45
55
65
80
100
100

Table 2-1. Medium-voltage cables maximum field acceptance test voltages (kV, dc)

2-11 UPS Systems


The first step towards acceptance of any device is verification of nameplate data. The nameplate on all
equipment shall be checked against one-lines and schematics. All equipment shall be carefully
examined upon receipt to ensure that no damage has occurred during shipment. The Static UPS System
consists of the battery charger, inverter, battery, transfer switch, circuit breakers, and cables. A picture of
a typical UPS system is seen in figure 2-1. Of the UPS system, the component testing for the battery
charger, battery, transfer switch, circuit breakers, and cables are described individually in this manual.
The

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Inverter is similar in construction to the charger. It converts do power to ac power using solid state
electronics. Therefore, this device should not be megger tested. The completeness of the assembly shall
be confirmed. A visual inspection should be performed to verify the correctness of installations, supports,
grounding, and wiring. Verify that the air inlets are not obstructed. The interconnections shall be checked
against the wiring schematic to ensure the proper phasing and voltage connections. For example, both
the battery charger connections to the battery and the battery to the inverter should be checked to insure
that they have the correct polarity. Measure the input voltage provided by the battery and record.
Measure the output voltage and current from the inverter and record. Verify that these values
correspond to the design values.

Figure 2-1. Static UPS system 150 to 750 WA (courtesy of Liebert)

2-12 Description Of Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) System


The following is a sample uninterruptible power supply (UPS) system with associated one-line and wiring
diagrams for use as a guide for implementing the test procedures described in the preceding chapters of
this manual.
A. Figure description.
The uninterruptible power supply system consists of the following equipment: 480V utility feeder breaker,
480V generator feeder breaker, 480V transfer switch, 200 kVA redundant UPS, 125 VdcNi Cad batteries
and a 208/120V UPS switchboard panel. The 200 kVA UPS consists of the following equipment: 480V
incoming breaker, 125 Vdc rectifier, redundant 120/208 VAC inverters, static switches, bypass switches
and miscellaneous breakers. The equipment, accessories, interconnection, ratings, cabling, etc. are
shown on figures 2-2 through 2-4.
B. Switching.
The utility and generator breakers are metal enclosed free standing, manually operated, air power circuit
breakers. The breakers have instantaneous, short time, and long time trip settings with manual control
and position indication on the door of the breaker compartment. The 480V transfer switch is metal

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enclosed, break before make, dead bus transfer, automatic on loss of voltage, solenoid operated, and
mechanically held complete with microprocessor controls and indication, four-pole switch. Transfer time
and time delay settings are adjustable. The transfer switch will supply start and stop signals to the backup diesel generator upon loss of and restoration of utility power. These controls are timed and must be
coordinated with the diesel generator manufacturer for start-up, loading, and cool down times. Remote
indication, control, alarm, etc. functions are also available.
C. UPS operation.
The UPS is a static solid state system with a battery for back-up power. The rectifiers convert ac to do
power for supply to the redundant inverters and for charging the battery. The inverters receive power
from either the rectifier or battery, and convert it from do to ac. The inverters also include power
conditioning equipment and circuits to remove harmonics developed in the system. Because the input
power is converted from ac to do to ac, power system disturbances are also removed from the UPS
output. This makes UPSs ideal for use with sensitive electronic equipment and computers. The rectifiers
and inverters are constructed with power diodes or silicon control rectifiers along with controls and
filtering circuitry. The UPS also contains thermal magnetic molded case circuit breakers and two bump
less static switches. The switches will transfer the output of the UPS from one redundant inverter to the
other upon failure of the lead inverter. The transfer between the inverters is accomplished with
absolutely no loss of continuity of power to the load. In the sample system, as shown in figure 2-2, the
two UPS modules are both sized to supply the entire load independent of one another. The 208/120 V
switchboard is a metal enclosed, wall-mounted distribution panel with incoming and feeder uneducable
thermal magnetic molded case circuit breakers . The switchboard also receives a backup power supply
from the utility power center for use during the maintenance of the UPS through two bypass switches.
D. Battery description.
The nickel cadmium (NiCad) batteries are individual 1 .2 volt cells in plastic or steel cases with nickel
and cadmium plates in a potassium hydroxide solution . The cells are sealed, maintenance free and
connected together in series on racks to supply 125 Vdc. The 120/208V UPS switchboard panel
contains two main and numerous molded case thermal magnetic circuit breakers to distribute the power.
The breakers have instantaneous and over current elements trip characteristics. The UPS systems
provide normal and uninterruptible regulated power to sensitive emergency plant loads, like computers,
communications, radar, security systems, lighting, etc.

2-13 Operation Of Uninterruptible Power Supply System


The operating modes for the UPS system are as follows:
A. Normal condition.
Utility breaker closed, diesel generator not running but in auto mode, diesel generator breaker closed,
transfer switch connected to utility, inverter A connected through UPS static switch to UPS bus and UPS
switchboard connected to the UPS.
B. Loss of rectifiers battery charger A.
UPS incoming breaker feeding rectifier/battery charger A opens, circuit breaker connecting
rectifier/battery charger A to battery bus opens and battery fed by rectifier/battery charger B

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C. Loss of inverter A.
UPS static switch A switches UPS bus to inverter B and Inverter A circuit breaker opens.
D. Loss of utility power.
Battery supplies power to UPS bus through inverter A or B, transfer switch supplies start signal to diesel
generator, diesel generator starts and ramps up to speed and transfer switch connects to diesel
generator.
E. Restoration of utility.
Utility power restored, transfer switch switches to utility bus and diesel generator shut down by transfer
switch.
2-14 Commissioning Test Plan For The UPS System
A system verification and functional performance test should be performed on the UPS system. These
tests will include installation inspections, individual component testing, testing on wiring, control and
interlock functional checks, equipment energization and system operating measurements and functional
Checks.
2-15 Installation Inspections and Component Testing Of The UPS System
The installation of the main components (i.e. utility and generator circuit breakers, transfer switch, UPS,
battery, battery charger, and UPS switchboard) will be inspected as
Follows:
A. Utility and generator circuit breakers.
Completeness of assembly, verification of nameplate, sizes and settings against drawings, loose parts
and insulation damage, breaker alignment and manual operation (leave circuit breaker open) and bus
insulation resistance (if not previously energized) .
B. Transfer switch.
Completeness of assembly, verification of nameplate, sizes and settings against drawings, loose parts
and insulation damage, switch alignment and manual operation (leave open), switch insulation
resistance (phase-to-phase and phase-to-ground), PT and control fuse size and continuity, ground
connection and check timer settings.
C. UPS.
Completeness of assembly, verification of nameplate, sizes and settings against drawings, loose parts
and insulation damage, proper settings, control fuse size and continuity, ground connection, proper
neutral connection, proper phase and voltage connections (incoming, battery, inverter A, and inverter B)
and manual operation of circuit breakers (leave open).
D. NiCad battery.
Completeness of assembly, verification of nameplate, sizes and connection against drawings, loose
parts, leaks, or damage, electrolyte level, vents sealed and plugs installed, grounding and measure
voltage.

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E. -UPS switchboard.
Completeness of assembly, verification of nameplate, sizes and settings against drawings, loose parts
and insulation damage, ground connection, proper phase and voltage
F. Visual and electrical wiring inspections.
The termination of each cable, shown on the cable block and wiring diagrams, should be checked to
insure each conductor matches the wiring and schematic diagrams . This is performed by yellowing
each connection from the schematic to the wiring diagram; visually inspecting each connection for cable
number, wire number/color, and terminal; and checking point-to-point continuity or "ringing out" each
wire from end to end including grounds. For example (figure 6-3) Cable BGATS1 from Automatic
Transfer Switch to the Backup Generator should be checked to verify that the "black" wire is terminated
as follows as shown on the schematic and wiring diagrams:
Equipment
Automatic Transfer Switch
Backup Generator

Terminal No.
B1
T1

As this is done, the wire on each drawing should be colored or highlighted to show its termination has
been checked. This process should be completed for all field wiring as a minimum and internal wiring if
not previously performed at the factory.

2-16 Energizing and Test Of The UPS System


The following steps are performed to energize and test the UPS system.
A. Initial Energization.
Individual components of the UPS system shall be sequentially energized from the source through the
loads. As each item is energized, control functions, interlocks, and alarms should be checked for proper
operation. Voltage, phasing, and current measurements should be made at each step.
B. Utility breaker.
Verify diesel generator breaker open, verify incoming voltage, manually close the utility breaker,
measure outgoing voltage and phasing of breaker, measure incoming voltage of transfer switch and note
position of transfer switch and manually open breaker.
C. Diesel generator breaker.
Verify utility breaker open, start diesel generator, verify diesel generator voltage, verify diesel generator
and utility voltage have same magnitude and phasing, manually close diesel breaker, measure outgoing
voltage and phasing, measure voltage at transfer switch and note position of transfer switch, manually
open breaker and stop diesel generator and place in auto.

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D. Transfer switch.
Verify diesel generator stopped and in auto, verify utility bus energized, manually close utility breaker.
Verify position of transfer switch and indication light status, measure input and output voltage of transfer
switch, check phasing of utility bus to output of transfer switch. Manually open utility breaker. Diesel
generator should start and switch should transfer to diesel generator. Note timing of diesel generator
start and transfer from opening of utility breaker. Manually close utility breaker. Switch should transfer to
utility and diesel generator should stop. Note timing of transfer and diesel generator stop from closing of
utility breaker. Push test switch to simulate normal source failure. Verify diesel generator starts and
transfer switch switches to diesel generator, return switch to utility feed and verify diesel generator stops.
E. UPS (rectifier/ battery charger/battery).
Verify UPS incoming breaker open. Verify utility feed closed through to input of UPS and measure
voltage and phasing. Verify rectifier/battery charger output A breaker open. Verify rectifier/battery
charger output B breaker open. Verify battery breaker A open and measure battery voltage and polarity.
Verify battery breaker B open and measure battery voltage and polarity. Verify inverter A and inverter B
incoming breakers open. Close UPS incoming breaker A and measure rectifier/battery charger A output
voltage, check do output meter. Press battery "pre charge" button, if available, and close rectifier/battery
charger A output breaker and close battery breaker A. Measure battery charger voltage. Allow unit to run
until battery fully charged or for a minimum of24 hours. Record time. Measure rectifier/battery charger A
output current and read meter every 4 hours. Open UPS incoming breaker A. Operate UPS from battery
until minimum voltage recorded (1 to 4 hours). Open battery breaker A. Close UPS incoming breaker B
and measure rectifier/battery charger B output voltage, check do output meter. Press battery "pre
charge" button, if available, and close rectifier/battery charger B output breaker and close battery
breaker B. Measure battery charger voltage. Allow unit to run until battery fully charged or for a minimum
of 24 hours. Record time. Measure rectifier/battery charger B output current and read meter every 4
hours.
F. UPS (inverter/static switch).
Verify UPS operational through rectifier/battery charger and battery.
(1)

Verify UPS normal condition operation.


(a)

Verify battery charged and on float.

(b)

Measure float voltage

(c)

Verify inverter A and inverter B breakers open.

(d)

Verify static switch switched to inverter A.

(e)

Close inverter A and B input breakers.

(f)

Measure inverter A and inverter B output voltage and read meters.

(g)

Verify inverter A and inverter B outputs in phase.

(h)

Verify static switch in inverter A position.

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(2)

(3)

Verify proper operation of static switches.


(a)

Open inverter A incoming breaker.

(b)

Verify static switch switches to inverter B.

(c)

Measure voltage and ensure bumpless.

(d)

Close inverter A incoming breaker and verify static switch switches to A.

(e)

Measure voltage and ensure bumpless.

(f)

Open inverter B incoming breaker and verify static switch stays connected to inverter A.

(g)

Measure voltage and ensure bumpless.

Verify low voltage trip.


(a)

Open rectifier/battery charger output breakers.

(b)

Open battery breakers.

(c)

Verify inverter A and B trip on low voltage.

(d)

Close rectifier battery charger B output breaker and battery breakers.

(e)

Close inverter A and B input breakers.

(f)

Open UPS incoming breakers.

(g)

Verify inverter A and B output (feed from battery).

(h)

Measure voltage and current.

(i)

Close rectifier battery charger A output breaker and battery breakers.

(/)

Open UPS incoming breaker.

(k)

Verify inverter A and B output present (feed from battery).

(I)

Measure voltage and current.

G. Loading UPS.
Close incoming breaker to UPS bus. Verify UPS is energized through static switch . Verify all UPS loads
connected properly and ready to start Close load breaker on UPS bus sequentially. Measure voltage
and read UPS meters at each step. Add load until UPS loads equal normal design load. Run for 4 hours
and check for overheating.

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H. Utility trip test.


Verify UPS loaded and connected to utility. Manually open utility breaker. Verify battery picks up load.
Read current. Verify diesel generator starts, transfer switch transfers to diesel generator, diesel
generator picks up load, and battery returns to float mode. Measure voltage and current at UPS and
ensure bumpless transfer. Close utility breaker. Verify transfer switch transfers to utility, battery picks up
load during transfer, diesel generator stops, and battery returns to float after utility picks up load.
Measure voltage and current at UPS bus and ensure bumpless transfer.
I. Inverter A to inverter B loaded transfer test.
Verify UPS loaded and connected to utility. Open inverter A incoming breaker. Verify static switch
switches to inverter B. Measure voltage and current at UPS bus and ensure bumpless transfer. Close
inverter A incoming breaker. Verify that static switch switches to inverter A. Measure voltage and current
at UPS bus and ensure bumpless transfer.
J. Battery discharge test.
Verify UPS loaded and connected to utility. Notify plant of pending UPS trip. Open diesel generator
breaker and block auto and manual start. Open utility breaker. Verify battery picks up load. Measure
battery voltage and current. Measure UPS voltage and current and ensure bumpless transfer. Operate
UPS from battery until battery minimum voltage reached (1 to 4 hours) . Record voltage. Verify inverter
A and B trip when batteries reach minimum voltage. Notify plant of pending UPS re-energization.
Reclose utility breaker. Close diesel generator breaker and return to auto start mode. Verify battery on
float and charging, measure current. Verify when battery fully charged and record time to charge.
Table 2-2 Possible failures and corrective actions of the UPS system
Utility and Generator Circuit Breaker Problem
Breakers will not close/trip
Breaker trip inadvertently

Transfer Switch
Switch will not transfer

Areas to Check
Mechanical alignment/ interlocks
Relay and protective device setting and operation
Mis-wired circuits
Ground on cable or system
Relay and protective device setting and operation
System overload
Mis-wired circuits

Areas to Check
Solenoid operating mechanism
Time delay settings
Control panel
Mis-wired circuits

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UPS-Rectifier/ Battery Charger


No output voltage/ current

Low output voltage

High output voltage


Output voltage not adjustable
High output current
Low output current

UPS-Battery
Low battery voltage/ current/ capacity

Breaker trip

UPS-Inverters/ Static Switch


No output voltage/ current

Low output voltage

UPS-Inverters/ Static Switch


High/Low output frequency

No transfer from Inverter A to Inverter B

Areas to Check
Input voltage/ breaker
Rectifier (SCR) and rectifier fuse
Input transformer
Control board
Dead input phase
Rectifier (SCR) and rectifier fuse
Voltage control settings or potential
Control board
Input voltage high
Voltage control setting or potential
Control board
Voltage control potential
Control board
System overload/ short
Current limit setting
Control board
Current limit setting
Control board
Areas to Check
Battery and cell connections
Electrolyte level
Cell voltage
Cell condition, cleanliness, and age
Float voltage/ current
Battery room temperature
Battery design versus actual load
Battery/ system ground
Battery/ system short
System overload
Areas to Check
Input voltage/ breaker
SCR or diode
Static switch
Constant voltage transformer
Control boards
Input voltage
System overload
System frequency
Control board
Areas to Check
Input voltage
Alternate source
Frequency control setting
Control board
Primary/ alternate source
Static switch,Synchronizing circuit control board

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UPS System
No output voltage/ current
No transfer to Diesel generator
Low/High output voltage/ current

Transfers not bumpless


Inadequate UPS capacity

Areas to Check
Incoming voltage
Circuit breakers
System components
Diesel generator equipment/ breaker
Transfer switch
Incoming voltage
System components
Battery sizing/ capacity
System sizing/ capacity
Battery connection
Static switch
Control board
UPS sizing/ capacity
Battery sizing/ capacity

Figure 2-2. Uninterruptible power supply system single line diagram

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Backup Generator
(BG)

Utility Power Center


(UPC)
CABLE
UPCATS1

CABLE
UPCIT1
Transformer
(IT)
CABLE
ITUPP1

CABLE
BGATS2

CABLE
BGATS1

Automatic
Transfer Switch
(ATS)
CABLE
ATS UPS1
Uninterruptible Power
Supply
(UPS)

CABLE
UPSSUPP1

Battery
(BA)
CABLE
UPSBT1

UPS Switchboard
Panel
(UPP)

Figure 2.3 Uninterruptible power supply system block diagram

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Figure 2-4. Uninterruptible power supply system wiring diagram

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TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
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3 Common tests
The common tests which are applicable for more than one power equipments are listed below and
explain in details in the following pages.
1. Core Insulation Resistance Test
2. Winding Insulation Resistance test
3. Polarization Index
4. Winding Resistance Test (all taps)
5. Excitation Current test
6. Insulation Power Factor test
7. Vector Relationship Test
8. Winding Temperature Indicator (WTI) test, Hot-spot Temperature Indicator
9. Oil Temperature Indicator Test
10. Percent impedance test.
11. Turn Ratio Test
12. Insulating Oil Tests
13. CT & PT Insulation resistance test
14. CT &PT Winding resistance measurement
15. CT &PT Polarity test or flick test with battery & Phase Identification Test
16. CT &PT Ratio test by current primary injection
17. CT Magnetizing (Saturation) current test
18. CT &PT Loop resistance test (Burden test)
19. CT &PT Insulation Power Factor Test
20. CT &PT Inter-core coupling Check
21. CT &PT Demagnetization of CT
22. Contact resistance test (Resistance measurement of main circuit)
23. Gas Leakage Test (Gas SF 6 Gas tightness test)
24. Moisture content measurement in SF6 Gas (Dew point test)
25. Gas density switch test
26. Air Pressure switch test (APS Calibration)
27. Operating characteristics test (Timing test)
28. MCS Test
29. Auxiliary relay test
30. VT Secondary injection (injection of voltage and measurement of voltage in LCC)
31. Function Test
32. CT Primary injection (Turn Ratio) Injection of current and measurement of current in LCC only)
33. Bus bar stability (Injection of current and measurement of current in LCC only)
34. Interlock Test
35. 10kV insulation test on external earthling switchs pole (10kV ES insulation)
36. Power Frequency withstand voltage test (Hi voltage test)
37. Partial Discharge Measurement
38. Phase checking for conductor and sheath every link box
39. 10. KV D.C. for sheath.
40. D.C conductor resistance measurement.
41. Capacitance measurement.
42. Earth resistance measurement.
43. Verification of cross bonding test at link boxes.
44. Zero sequence impedance
45. Positive sequence impedance.
46. Oil flow test for oil field cable
47. Oil impregnation for oil field cable
48. AC H.V.T.

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ITEM

DESCRIPTION

Definition

EXPLANATION
The core ground test verifies that the proper grounding system of
the transformer has been installed and that all of the connections
are correct. There is an intentional ground from the transformer
core to the tank.

Applicable
Regulation/ Rule IEC 76-1
(Standard)

CORE INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST

Purpose

The purpose of measuring the core-to-ground insulation is to


verify that the condition of the insulation is satisfactory and that
no other core grounds exist.
Insulation Testing (Megger Test) - A megohmmeter insulationresistance test is made in the field and compared with
measurements made at the factory to determine if the
transformer is sufficiently dry to energize.
This test is most important as a check for shipping damage
when the transformer arrives at the installation site that will
affect the core-to-ground insulation. Therefore, it is
recommended that it be tested before unloading the transformer
from the railroad car or truck on which it was shipping.
This test gives an overall indication of the condition of the
insulating system.
Most transformers have one ground; others may have two grounds.
The core ground test should be performed prior to the initial
energization of the transformer.
The megger test is used a lot on smaller transformers with lower
rated insulation systems (less than 5000 volts).

Making A Test

Grounds are accessed through removal of the covers on the top of


the transformer. To perform the test, the ground strap or straps
should be disconnected from the tank. A 1000 volt megger is then
connected between the tank and the ground straps.
The most common method of performing this measurement is to
measure the resistance of the insulation using a megohmmeter
which applies a DC voltage and indicates the resistance in
megohms. The result is a function of the leakage current which
passes through either the insulation or over external leakage
surfaces.

Test Equipments
(Sets)

The core ground test should be performed prior to the initial


energization of the transformer.
Meggers (mega ohm meters).
Megohmmeters can commonly be divided into three general types
those with :
(1) Hand-cranked generators
(2) Motor driven megohmmeter
(3) Battery operated megohmmeter.
Megohmmeter contains a hand driven D.C generator and moving

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coil instrument which indicate the value of resistance being


measured. The parts of hand driven megger is :
(1) Crank
(2) Range switch
(3) Meter face
(4) The terminals
The scale of megger is graduated in megaohms with lowest mark
zero and highest mark infinity.
A megohmmeter has a relatively high internal resistance, making
the instrument less hazardous to use in spite of the higher voltages
A megohmmeter usually is equipped with three terminals.

Test
Connections
(Circuit)

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Safety
Precautions &
Test
Preparations

The "LINE" (or "L") terminal is the so-called "hot" terminal and is
connected to the conductor whose insulation resistance you are
measuring. Remember: These tests are performed with the circuit
deenergized.
The "EARTH" (or "E") terminal is connected to the other side of the
insulation, the ground conductor.
The "GUARD" (or "G") terminal provides a return circuit that
bypasses the meter. For example, if you are measuring a circuit
having a current that you do not want to include, you connect that
part of the circuit to the "GUARD" terminal.
The insulation resistance should be 200 megaohms or more. If a
low resistance is found, the core is grounded and must be cleared
before proceeding.
A reading of only several ohms suggests a dead ground that may
require repair. A reading of 300 to 400 ohms usually indicates
foreign material between the core and tank.
Make sure that the transformer is de-energized, grounded and
tagged.(*1)
Verify that the transformer is disconnected and separated from
the load circuit and all normal sources of energy.(*1)
Restrict access to the work area which can usually be secured
by placing barriers, ropes, or warning signs around the area.(*1)
The core ground procedures should first be compared with the
manufacture's instructions supplied with the particular megohm
meter.
Never attempt to clear a core ground unless the transformer is
completely immersed in insulating fluid. This could prevent
possible tank internal explosion.
Several factors can cause large fluctuations in megger readings.
Equipment temperature
Duration of the test
External leakage due to dirty insulators and bushings
These variables must be controlled to prevent getting
confusing test data.

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Definition

Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)

Insulation Resistance is the resistance of insulation between


two conducting parts or between a conducting part and earth. It is
measured in terms of applied d.c voltage divided by total current
through the insulation ,
In R = Vdc / It
IEC 76-1

WINDING INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST

Purpose

Making A Test

Test Equipments
(Sets)
Test Connections
(Circuit)

Test Readings
(Results) &

To make sure that the current that flows through a piece of


electrical equipment does not go where it is not supposed.
To detect problems in time to prevent failure because of
factors that must be considered like its type, thickness, age,
condition, relative cleanliness of the insulation, dirt,
temperature and moisture.
To measure the condition of a major insulation system (the
insulating system between a winding and the ground (core) or
between two windings.
The Megger tester should have a field calibration test performed
as per manufacturers recommendation prior to performing the
test.
To measure insulation resistance:
1. Verify that the transformer is de-energized and that all
devices disconnecting sources of power are locked-out.
2. Verify that the transformer is properly grounded.
3. Connect together all of the bushing terminals of each
winding circuit.
4. Make connections to the megohmmeter terminals (Figures
3.2.1 and 3.2.2).
5. Read the scale (or numerical display) of the megohmmeter
after voltage has been applied for one minute and record
the reading.
6. Read and record the temperature of the winding
temperature.
7. Record the voltage level used.
The insulation resistance values are recorded on a test data sheet
or in the appropriate Saudi Electricity Company precommissioning form
Meggers (mega ohm meters).
Insulation resistance measurements are made by applying
megohmmeter voltage to transformer windings individually and in
combination (see Table 3.2.1). All windings not under test are
connected to ground. Connections are made so that no winding
floats at an unknown electric potential with respect to ground
potential.
The insulation resistance of a transformer can vary due to
moisture content,

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Acceptance Values

cleanliness,
Temperature of the insulation parts.
Since the value of the resistance varies with temperature, all
measurements are corrected to 20C for comparison purposes.
Table 3.2 provides a list of temperature correction factors used for
liquid-filled transformers. To correct measurements to their 20C
reference, multiply the measured value by the corresponding
correction factor shown in the table.
Example:
The megohmmeter reading for a winding insulation resistance test
is found to be 256 megohms with the winding temperature at
45C.
To correct the resistance measurement to the 20C reference,
determine the correction factor for the measurement temperature
and use it to multiply resistance reading.
Correction Factor (45C) = 4.5
R20C = (R45C)(Correction Factor (45C))
R20C = (256 megohms)(4.5) = 1152 megohms
Insulation resistance measurements should be compared to their
factory and historical baseline values for acceptable level. Table
3.3 provides a Rule of Thumb that can be used as a guide for
minimum acceptable insulation resistance values for power
transformers as per coil ratings and minimum DC test voltage
used.

POLARIZATION
INDEX

Safety Precautions
& Test
Preparations

Definition
Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)
Purpose
Making A Test

Low insulation resistance readings are usually an indication of


accumulated dirt or the presence of moisture. Dirt and other
foreign materials should be cleaned from the bushing
connections.
The benefit of using a voltage as high as possible is to
enhance the sensitivity of the test, meaning a larger megohm
value can be measured. The risk of high test voltage is that
the insulation might actually begin to break down which
would yield a meaningless resistance reading and possibly
cause damage.
Take care to discharge the capacitance of each winding
before and after each test.
Never perform an insulation resistance test on a transformer
that is under vacuum.

A ratio of the Megohm resistance at the end of ten minutes


compared to the results at the end of a one-minute test.
IEC 76-1

The purpose of the Polarization Index test is to determine if the


equipment is suitable to be operated.
Perform the test in this manner using a constant DC voltage:
1. Take a Megohm reading at the end of one minute of

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Test Equipments
(Sets)
Test Connections
(Circuit)

operation and record the results.


2. Take the second set of readings at the end of each minute
of operation (one minute intervals) for ten minutes. Record
and carefully evaluate the readings at each one minute
interval in case there is breakdown. Calculate the ratio of
the 1 minute reading to the reading at the end of the ten
minutes. Do this by dividing the one minute reading by the
ten minute reading.
The result is the ratio (index).
Meggers (mega ohm meters).
Connections are the same as part 2.
Results must be taken at a constant voltage. The megger
produces a high DC voltage that is applied to the insulation being
tested. The best voltage is one that is near the specified line
voltage. This DC voltage causes a small current to flow through
and over the surface of the insulation. The total current through
and over the insulation is made up of three components:

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance Values

1. Charging current due to the capacitance of the insulation


being measured. This value drops from maximum to zero
very quickly
2. Absorption current due to molecular charge shifting in the
insulation. This transient current drops to zero more
slowly.
3. Leakage current which is the true conduction current of the
insulation. The leakage current varies with the test voltage.
It may also have a component due to the surface leakage,
particularly due to surface contamination. That is why all
surfaces must be clean.
If moisture is present, the leakage current increases at a faster
rate than the absorption current.
Under these conditions, the Megohm readings will not increase as
fast as insulation in good condition. This results in a lower
Polarization Index (value).

WINDING
RESISTANCE
TEST (ALL

Safety Precautions
& Test
Preparations

Definition

Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)

Table 3.3.1 allows you to evaluate the condition of the insulation


according to the value of the index.
Ensure that the DC voltage used is absolutely constant.
There can be no variation. Any variation at the source will give
different readings and thus give false results.
Winding resistance measurements are made to determine if any
changes have occurred in the current carrying path of the
transformer. The DC Winding resistance test will indicate a
change in dc winding resistance when there are short circuited
turns, poor joints or bad contacts.
IEC 76-1 , Clause 10.2

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Calculation of power (I2R) component of conductor losses


To determine the temperature rise under load and for
Calculation of winding temperatures at the end of a
temperature test
As a base for assessing possible damage
To show changes in winding resistance due to short circuited
winding turns, poor joints, or bad contacts.
To determine if damage to the windings and/or their
connections exist.
To calculate the resistance component of the voltage drop
under load
To ascertain that the internal connections are correct.
1. Wheatstone Bridge (Figure 3.4.1)
The circuit consists of four resistance arms, a source of
current, and a null detector. The measurement of the Runknown
is made in terms of the three known resistances. The three
resistors RA, RB and Rvariable are adjusted for zero current in the
null detector circuit. When the bridge is balanced, as indicated
by a null reading of the detector, the unknown resistance is
obtained. The formula for calculating the Runknown resistance is
as follows:
Runknown = RA Rvariable / RB
where RA and RB = Values of the ratio resistors
Rvariable
= Value of the standard resistor
Runknown = Unknown resistance to be measured

Purpose

Making A Test &


Test Connections
(Circuit)

2. Kelvin Bridge (Figure 3.4.2)


A four-terminal low-resistance ohmmeter that operates
on the principle of a double bridge. The Kelvin bridge is
similar to the Wheatstone bridge; however, the Kelvin
circuit contains an additional set of ratio arms. When the
bridge is balanced, the unknown resistance is given in the
following equation (if RA/RB is exactly equal to Ra / Rb):
Rx = Rs (RA / RB)
3. Modem digital low resistance ohmmeters (DLRO)
The voltage drop across the resistance under test is
measured by an accurate digital voltmeter reading directly in
ohms.
4. Potential drop method (Ducter): A trade name for a fourterminal moving-coil type low-resistance test set made by
AVO International Company
5. Calculation Method
Equipments: Battery, Voltmeter and Ammeter (see Figure 4.3)
Note: This is a second method that can be used to determine
the winding resistance.
The DC battery can be a 6V or 12V car battery supply power
to the windings. When meters stabilize, take voltage and AMP
reading and calculate resistance V = IR R = V / I (Ohms'
Law) can find resistance of primary and secondary windings
same way.

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Test Equipments
(Sets)

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

The terminal-to-terminal resistance measurement can be made


with :
1. Wheatstone Bridge (Figure 3.4.4)
2. Kelvin Bridge (Figure 3.4.5)
It measures resistance in the range of 0.01 micro-ohm to
approximately 1000 ohms.
3. Modem digital low resistance ohmmeters (DLRO) (Figure 4.6)
It measures resistance in the range of 1 micro-ohm to 60
ohms.
4. Potential drop method (Ducter) (Figure 3.4.7)
It can measures resistance in the range of 1 micro-ohm to
1 ohm.
5. Calculation Method : Battery, Voltmeter and Ammeter
When calculating the winding resistance, it is very important to
note that most manufactures report the winding resistance
measurements as if all three windings are connected in series.
For wye connected transformers:
Take the readings from phase to neutral (A-N; B-N; C-N)
and sum the readings
Or Take the readings from phase to phase (A-B; B-C; CA), then sum the readings and multiply by 0.5 gives total
resistance value
RPhase = (1/2) R L-L
For delta-connected transformers:
Take the readings from phase to phase (A-B; B-C; C-A),
then sum the readings and multiply by 1.5 gives total
resistance value
RPhase = (3 /2 ) R L-L
The results should indicate:
For new transformer, +/- 2 percent of factory test values
For old transformer, Winding resistance test results should
compare within one (1%) percent of adjacent windings.
Because resistance varies as a function of temperature, the
resistance readings are corrected or normalized to one reference
temperature. The normalized reference temperature used for
transformers is equal to the rated average windings temperature
rise plus 20C.
Correction Factors:
For transformers with a rated 55C rise, the normalized
reference temperature is 75C.
In a like manner, transformers with a rated 65C rise use
85C as the reference temperature.
Table 3.4.1 shows the formulas used to convert winding
resistance readings to their normalized reference.

Safety
Precautions &
Test Preparations

Measured resistance converted to the standard reference


temperature should not exceed the values measured during the
type test by more than 10%.
Verify that the transformer is deenergized, that power supply
devices are properly "locked-out."

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Definition

Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)

EXCITATION CURRENT

Purpose

Making A Test

Test Equipments /
Method

Testing (Circuit)
Connections

Remove winding circuit grounds only as needed to make the


measurements and replace when finished
To avoid possible damage from voltages induced by the DC
current causing the magnetic field to build up and collapse on
being switched on and off, the winding whose resistance is not
being measured should be temporarily short-circuited (see
Figure 3.4.3)
Cold resistance measurements should not be made on a
transformer when the ambient temperature is varying rapidly
or erratically.
After the transformer has been under oil without excitation for
at least 3 hours, the average oil temperature shall be
determined and the temperature of the winding shall be
deemed to be the same as the average oil temperature.

Core excitation is the amount of energy required to excite the


transformer with no load connected to the transformers
secondary.
Core Excitation = No-Load Loss
= Iron Loss
= Core Loss
IEC 76-1, Clause 10.5
To measure current that maintain the magnetic flux excitation in
the core of the transformer
The primary of transformer should have an ammeter placed in a
position to measure the exciting current when the transformer is
energized with the secondary open. This can tell if excessive
current is being supplied when transformer is energized.
Excessive current could be an indication of transformer internal
insulation problems and would be the determination to investigate
in more detail.
The following procedures should be followed for routine excitation
current tests:
1. Apply 110%, 100%, and 90% of the rated voltage to the
winding under test (normally the tertiary) with other windings
open-circuited. The voltage wave shape should be sinusoidal.
2. Measure the three phase currents and power by three watt
meter method.
3. Calculate the average current.
4. Calculate the percent excitation current with respect to the
power rating (MVA)
Core excitation tests can be performed using the same test
equipment as for power factor testing.
Others like, Average-voltage voltmeter method (Volt-Amp-Watt
meter).
Figures 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 illustrate the excitation current test
procedures for three-phase wye and delta connected units
respectively. Note that all excitation current tests are performed
by the Under grounded Specimen Test (UST) method.

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Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Safety
Precautions &
Test Preparations

Excitation current should not be higher than the guaranteed value


by more than 30%.
The following guidelines should be followed for routine excitation
current tests:
All loads should be disconnected and the transformer
deenergized.
Winding terminals normally grounded in-service should be
grounded during tests, except for the particular winding
energized for the test. For example, with a wye/wye
transformer, the neutral of the high-voltage winding would be
connected to the UST (Under grounded Specimen Test)
circuit, while the neutral of the low-voltage winding would be
connected to ground.
Test voltages should not exceed the rated line-to-line voltage
for delta connected windings or rated line-to-line neutral
voltage for wye connected windings. Generally, these tests
are made at 2.5, 5, or 10 kV as the capacity of the test
equipment permits.
Power factor is a measure of the power loss through the
insulation system to ground caused by leakage current. It is equal
to the circuit resistance (R) divided by the circuit impedance (Z).

INSULATION POWER FACTOR

PF = W / V I

Definition

or PF = (V I cos ) / (V I )

The power factor of insulation is the cosine of the angle between


the charging current vector and the impressed voltage vector. In
other words, it is a measure of the energy component of the
charging current. The amount of charging volt-amperes and the
dielectric loss in watts, at a given voltage, increases with the
amount of insulation being tested. However, the ratio (power
factor) between the charging volt-amperes and watts-loss remains
the same regardless of the amount of insulation tested, assuming
that the insulation is of a uniform quality. This basic relation
eliminates the effect of the size of electrical apparatus in
establishing "normal" insulation values and thus simplifies the
problem for the test engineer.
Actually, power factor testing is more than just "a" test. It is a
series of tests on each part of the insulation system. Insulation
power-factor tests can also be made on lightning arresters, air
and oil circuit breakers, current and potential transformers,
capacitors, cable (500 feet or less) and rotating machinery, such
as motors and generators.

Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)

IEC 76-1

Purpose

To determine the relative dryness and material quality of the


insulation. It is typically used in conjunction with other dryness
indicators, such as insulation resistance and oil dielectric

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Section A - Page 43 of 116

Making A Test

Test
Equipments/Meth
ods

Testing (Circuit)
Connections

breakdown values, to determine insulation dryness.


To measure the power loss due to leakage current through the
transformer insulation.
To detect any measurable change in the transformer winding
insulation characteristics.
Gives an overall indication of the condition of the insulating
system.
To measure the winding insulation power factor, first verify that
the transformer is deenergized and "locked-out." Then check to
see that the tank is properly grounded. Short circuit each winding
of the transformer at its bushing terminals. Connect all windings to
ground except the winding to be measured. Connect the tester
between the winding(s) to be measured and ground, and measure
the capacitance and power factor.
The Double power factor insulation test equipment measures the
charging current and watts-loss from which the power factor,
capacitance, and AC resistance can be easily computed at a
given test voltage.( see Figures 3.6.1 and 3.6.2).
Winding Insulation P.F Test:
Standard series of power factor tests applied to windings inservice shown in table 3.6.1.
CH refers to all insulation between the high voltage winding and
grounded parts, including bushings, winding insulation, structural
insulating members, and oil.
CL refers to the same parts and materials between the low
voltage windings and grounded parts.
CHL refers to all winding insulation, barriers, and oil between
high- and low-voltage windings.
Typical schematic connection diagrams for measuring the
insulation power factor of single phase and three phase
transformers are shown in Figures 3.6.3 and 6.4. When
measuring the power factor of transformer windings, the number
of measurements and their connections should be in accordance
with Table 3.6.2.
Bushing Insulation P.F Test:
1. Underground Specimen Test (UST) Method
Bushings can be tested in several different ways without removal
from the transformer. The most effective test method utilizes the
potential taps, power factor taps, or split-mounting flanges with
which most modern bushings are equipped. This method as
shown in Figure 3.6.5 is referred to as the Underground
Specimen Test (UST).
2. Hot-Collar Method
Bushings without capacitance taps may be tested by Hot-Collar
test method. This test is applied, using single or multiple collars
on transformer bushings (Figure 3.6.6) if the UST method cannot
be performed or to supplement the UST test when compound
filled bushings are involved. A single Hot-Collar test is also often
applied to oil-filled bushings not equipped with liquid level gauges
in an effort to detect low liquid levels.

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Section A - Page 44 of 116

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Safety
Precautions &
Test Preparations

VECTOR RELATION-SHIP TEST

Definition
Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)
Purpose

Measure angular displacement and phase sequence (vector


group) of the transformer.
IEC 76-1 , Clause 10.3
To determine angular displacement and relative phase sequence

Making A Test

Test Equipments /
Methods

Power factor readings vary with temperature; therefore, it is


necessary to correct all readings to 20C to allow comparison
with previous and factory readings. Table 6.3 provides a list of
temperature correction factors to be used for liquid filled
transformers. To correct measurements to their 20C
reference, divide the measured value by the corresponding
correction factor shown in the table.
Compare the temperature-corrected power factor with past
readings taken from the same equipment. A generally
accepted industry evaluation criterion is that a change of 0.3%
over a period of one year is considered a reason to call for
more detailed testing or inspections.
Table 3.6.4 provides the acceptable power factor values
For Hot-Collar Test: Since relatively low dielectric losses and
currents are normally recorded, small changes in either value
can result in misleading changes in calculated power factors.
Because of this, it is recommended that Hot-Collar tests be
evaluated by comparison of currents and losses obtained for
similar tests on similar bushings and potheads. Power-factor
values need not be calculated. As a general guideline, losses
up to 0.05 watt at 10 kV and 3 mill watts at 2.5 kV can be
considered acceptable.
It is very important that power factor measurement
instrumentation be well shielded if it is used in a substation
area where there may be a significant level of electrostatic
interference. Using a higher frequency power supply may help
solve the interference problem.
When performing the test, be aware that any cable or bus left
connected to the transformer will affect the overall test results.
Due to limitations in the test set, test voltage must not exceed
test set rated voltage.
Contamination and moisture will affect the measured losses,
so be sure the bushings are clean and dry before testing.

Measure the vector relationship between HV and LV by


exciting the HV winding with suitable 3 voltage (such as
380V AC)
Measure the Vector relationship between HV and LV by
exciting the HV winding with similar voltage and connecting
H1 with Y1
Phasor diagram
Ratio bridge
Excited voltage

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WINDING TEMPERATURE INDICATOR (WTI) TEST,


HOT-SPOT TEMPERATURE INDICATOR
Oil Temperature Indicator Test
PERCENT
IMPEDANCE TEST

10

Test Readings
(Results) And
Acceptance
Values

Purpose

Making A Test

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Vector diagram should be drawn and confirmed. Vector group


shall be as per contract.

To monitor the transformer hottest-spot temperature and provide


the most accurate temperature reading for proper loading and
operation of the transformer.
There are two types of hot spot indicating circuits:
Thermometer heat-well type
Bridge type
For oil-filled power transformers the rated maximum hottest spot
winding temperatures are 95C and 110C without any loss of
service life of transformer.
The internal winding hot-spot temperature of the transformer
winding is determined by the load it carries, its thermal
characteristics, and the temperature of its cooling liquid and the
ambient temperature around the transformer.
Typical indicators used on transformers have scales that begin at
0C and go to 120C maximum, some have 160C maximum and
the scales can be even higher scales dependent on the type of
transformer.

Testing (Circuit)
Connections
Purpose

Making A Test &


Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Definition

Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)

See Figure 3.8.1


To protect the transformer from excessive temperature and also
to permit it to be loaded to its maximum safe-operating
temperature.
To determine the nominal expected temperatures that might be
read from the indicator, consider that liquid-filled transformers are
rated to have either a 55C or a 65C average winding
temperature rise above ambient when measured by resistance.
Using a 65C rise with a 30C ambient means that the
transformer winding should not exceed 95C when operated at
nameplate rated kVA. Since all of the heat generated by the
windings is transferred to the liquid, the liquid will gradually
approach the temperature of the windings, but with a time lag. As
a result, when the transformer is operated within its rating, the
liquid temperature should never exceed 95C.
The definition of impedance volts is the percent of rated highvoltage impressed on the high-voltage winding to produce rated
full-load current in the short-circuited low-voltage winding.
This percentage is the same percentage of rated low voltage
impressed on the low-voltage winding to produce rated full-load
current in the short-circuited high-voltage winding.
IEC 76-1, Clause 10.4

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Section A - Page 46 of 116

Purpose
Making A Test
Test Equipments /
Methods

To indicate the transformers ability to support a given secondary


load with a prescribed primary voltage drop.
Transformer impedance is measured by short circuiting the
secondary winding and applying a low voltage to the primary
winding until rated current is circulating in the primary winding.
Ammeter, Voltmeter and Wattmeter.
The impedance is then calculated using the following formula:
Z

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

= Impedance = V Measured (Primary)/I Rated (Primary) ohms

The percent impedance shown on a transformer nameplate is the


impedance voltage drop of the transformer. The manufacturer
calculates the percent impedance (%Z) using the following
formula:
%Z = (V Measured (Primary)/V Rated (Primary)) x 100
See Table 3.10.1

Testing (Circuit)
Connections
Safety
Precautions &
Test Preparations

Definition

TURN RATIO TEST

11

Applicable
Regulation/ Rule
(Standard)

See Figure 3.10.1


The test must be done quickly since the windings heat-up and
change the resistance of the windings.

The turns ratio test uses the principle that the no-load voltage
ratio on a transformer nameplate is equal to the ratio of the
number of turns in its primary winding to the number of turns in its
secondary winding. The turns ratio test does not give the actual
number of turns on the primary or secondary windings. It only
gives the ratio of primary to secondary turns.
IEC 60076

Purpose

Making A Test

To determine if a transformer is providing the desired ratio of


primary to secondary voltage.
To test each phase winding turn-to-turn insulation system in a
transformer.
To detect shorted or opened windings, conduct polarity
checks or tap changer failure and alignment problems.
To verify the no-load voltage ratio of all transformer tap
positions.
To verify that the internal connections are correct and that a
transformer meets the nameplate ratings.
The test may possibly detect high resistance due to loose
connections or grounded conductors if exciting current is also
measured.
To identify short circuited turns, wrong tap settings, errors in
turn count or mislabeled terminals
A simple TTR test can be done by applying a known voltage on
one winding (primary) and measuring the voltage that is induced
in the secondary.

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Section A - Page 47 of 116

The TTR test set must be balance before reading the dials. The
test set is balanced when the following conditions occur:
The test set crank is being turned.
The voltmeter reads 8 volts.
Ammeter (excitation current meter) reading decreases
toward zero.
Null detector has no deflection.
To perform this test, first step is checking the test leads are
connected properly.
If needle on the null detector deflectsleft = test leads are
connected
If needle on the null detector deflectsright = test leads are
not connected
The next step in the testing procedure is balancing.
There are two different starting points to consider in interpretation
of TTR test data. These are balanced and unbalanced readings.
Balanced Readings: A balanced reading that is + 0.5% of the
calculated turns ratio is the normal indication. In this case, the
transformer is fine.
Unbalanced Readings: If a balanced reading cannot be
obtained, several problems are possible. These are:
Wrong connection or test method
Open circuit in windings
Short circuit in windings
Open-circuit indications are as follows:
Normal exciting current
Normal generator voltage
No deflections of the null detector

Test Equipments /
Method

Testing (Circuit)
Connections

Short-circuit indications are as follows:


High exciting current
Low generator voltage
TTR test set (Biddle). See figure 3.11.1
The basic parts of a typical turns ratio test set are:
An AC generator coil and a hand crank
A tapped reference transformer with LV winding and HV
winding
Three meters (an ammeter, a voltmeter and a null
detector)
Two pairs of test leads
See Figure 3.11.2.
The key to determining where to make the connections is on the
transformers nameplate.
For a two winding transformer:
there is only one combination LV to HV

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Section A - Page 48 of 116

For a three winding transformer:


there are three combinations
LV to HV
HV to TV
LV to TV ;
LV =low-voltage winding, HV = high-voltage
winding, TV = tertiary-voltage winding.

For transformers with a no-load tap changer:


The turn ratio is measured between the high voltage
winding on each tap position and the rated low voltage
winding.
For transformer with a load tap changer:
The test is repeated at different tap settings without changing
the test connections.

Figure 3.11.3 is a typical test connection chart that can be used


for connection of turn ratio test of various transformer
configurations. The Connection of AVO Multi Amp Model TR-700
and TR-800 is illustrated in the figure.
When calculating the ratio, be certain to use:
R = High Voltage (L-L) / Low Voltage(L-L)
After one phase of the transformer has been tested, the test leads
are removed to the next phase until all three phases have been
tested.
The following equation shows the ratio of transformer:
Expected turns ratio = High voltage rating / low voltage rating
Vp / Vs = Calculated Turns Ratio
Vp is Primary Phase Voltage
Vs is Secondary Phase Voltage

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Safety
Precautions &
Test Preparations

The winding voltage, phase to ground, not the system voltage,


phase to phase, is the low voltage rating that is used in the turns
ratio calculation.
The voltages used depend on whether the winding is wye or delta
connected and whether the transformer has a tap changer. If the
transformer has a tap changer, the position of the tap changer
must be taken into consideration.
The expected turns ratio value is equal to the calculated value +/0.5% of nameplate values. If the value that is measured is not in
this range, there is a problem with the transformer or the test set.
Before starting the test ensure that the TTR tester is calibrated
or has been calibrated within the past 6 months. If it has not,
perform a quick calibration test according to TTR
manufacturers requirements.
Make sure the test leads are connected to the appropriate
terminals on the power transformer.
Make sure the turn ratio test set is grounding.

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INSULATING
OIL TESTS

12

Section A - Page 49 of 116

Purpose
Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Definition

Applicable
Regulation/
Rule
(Standard)

DIELECTRIC STRENGTH
(ELECTRICAL TEST)

Purpose

To verify the integrity of the liquid insulating system.

A brief of acceptance values are shown in table 3.12.1.


The dielectric breakdown voltage of an insulating liquid is
important as a measure of its ability to withstand electric stress
without failure. The dielectric breakdown voltage is the voltage at
which breakdown occurs between two electrodes under
prescribed test conditions. The voltage level where the electrodes
spark over is recorded as breakdown voltage of the oil being
tested.
i. ASTM D 877
ii ASTM D 1816
The dielectric breakdown voltage test serves primarily to indicate
the presence of contaminating agents such as water, dirt, carbon,
or any other conducting particles in the liquid. It does not detect
acids or sludges.
This test is performed by applying an AC voltage between two
electrodes immersed in an oil sample. When the current arcs
across the gap between the electrodes, the voltage at that instant
is the dielectric breakdown strength.
The test cup is first cleaned, using a dry hydrocarbon solvent,
then dried and filled with the sample fluid to a prescribed level.
The liquid is gently agitated to remove air bubbles, and then
allowed to stand for 3 to 5 minutes. An oil dielectric tester set is
connected to the test cup and voltage is applied at either 3
kV/second for ASTMD-877 test cups, or 500 volts/second for
ASTM-D1816 test cups until the sample breaks down.

Application /
Making A Test

The test is repeated a total of five times, with one filling of the test
cup. The final value is the average of the five readings and must
not vary by more than 3 kV from any one reading top be
considered valid.

ASTM D 877
This test method uses thin flat-faced cylindrical electrodes
with a 2.5 mm gap.
Applied for OCB(Oil Circuit Breaker), Tap Changer, LPOF
(Low Pressure Oil Filled)
Applied Voltage = 3 KV
ASTM D 1816
This method uses spherically shaped electrodes with a 1 mm
gap.
Applied for Power Transformer
Applied Voltage = 0.5 KV

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Section A - Page 50 of 116

These are kV values for the various conditions of oil:


Old oil > 25 kV is good oil
Oil with 24 kV is bad oil
New oil 35 kV
Test
Equipments /
Method

This test should be done by Oil Tester in the laboratory of the


company.

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

The acceptance values for this test vary with the test method and
operating experience.
For KV = 69 , 115, 230
Acceptance Result = 22 KV
For KV = 380
Acceptance Result = 25 KV

Safety
Precautions &
Test
Preparations

Definition /
Purpose

The ASTM-D1816 test is more sensitive to small amounts of


contamination and is therefore primarily used to test new fluid.
The neutralization number is a measure of the acidic constituents
of the oil. Transformer oil becomes acidic due to oil oxidation. In
new oil, any acid present is likely residual from the refining
process. In a service-aged liquid, the NN is a measure of the
acidic byproducts of the oxidation of oil.

NEUTRALIZATION NUMBER (ACIDITY)


(CHEMICAL TEST)

The test specifically determines the number of milligrams of


potassium hydroxide (KOH) required neutralizing the acid in one
gram of the liquid sample.
Applicable
Regulation/
Rule
(Standard)

Making A Test

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

ASTM D 974
Acidity can be measured in the field using a spot test. The spot
test is made by applying drops of an acidity buffer solution to a
piece of filter paper, and allowing it to soak in. Two drops of oil
are then added to the same place, followed by one drop of an
indicating solution. This combination causes a color change that
is compared to a standard color chart.
The results of the test are expressed in mg KOH/gm. The rating of
the standard color chart are as follows:
_ Green and yellow - 0.3 mg KOH/gm
_ More green than yellow - less than 0.3 mg
_ More yellow than green - more than 0.3 mg
_ Orange or brown - high acidity
_ Blue alkaline

The maximum acceptance test is 0.12 mg KOH/gm


The minimum acceptance test is 0.25-0.35 mg KOH/g max

Typical neutralization numbers for insulating liquid when new are


0.01 to 0.03 mg KOH/gm.
Good = Green & Yellow , max 0.03 mg KOH/gm
New = 0.01-0.03 mg KOH/gm
Bad = Orange, brown, high acidity

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Section A - Page 51 of 116

Safety
Precautions &
Test
Preparations

INTERFACIAL TENSION
(PHYSICAL TEST)

Definition

Applicable
Regulation/
Rule
(Standard)

Purpose

Definition

COLOR
(PHYSICAL TEST)

The interfacial tension between an electrical insulating oil and


water is the measure of the molecular attractive force between the
unlike molecules at the interface. The test generally measures the
soluble contaminants or deterioration products in the insulting
fluid.
ASTM D 971

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

Be aware however that orange or brown always means high


acidity. This does not mean that the oil is good or bad, but it is a
good candidate for further laboratory tests.

Applicable
Regulation/
Rule
(Standard)

This test is extremely sensitive to the presence of oil decay


products, and soluble polar contaminants from solid insulating
materials.
The test provides a reliable means of detecting deterioration
of the insulating fluid.
The results of the test are expressed in dynes/centimeter or
millinewwtons per meter (mN/M).
The minimum acceptance test is 22 dynes/centimeter.
Good - 40 dynes/cm min.
Bad -18 dynes/cm

Interfacial tension for new insulating fluid is typically 40 to 45


dynes/cm.
Insulating fluids with IFT measurements of 24 dynes/cm or
greater are judged suitable for continued service.
Fluids with IFT measurements below 24 dynes/cm should be
reconditioned or reclaimed.
The color of insulating oil provides an indication of oil deterioration
or contamination.

Purpose

Making A Test

ASTM D-1524 is the standard field test for color of oil.


ASTM D-1500 is the lab test for color of oil.

The purpose of the color test is to establish a baseline


measure of the insulating fluid color for a specific transformer,
and then observe the rate of change in color between
inspections.
The color of insulating oil provides an indication of oil
deterioration or contamination.
The color test is performed by placing a sample of the fluid in a
hand-held device referred to as a color wheel. Light is transmitted
through the sample and its color is compared with a set of
standard colors mounted on a wheel. Each color is expressed as
a number and the color that most closely matches the fluid
sample is recorded as the measure of the sample. This test
consists of comparing a sample of oil against a series of standard
colored disk filters, in a specially built comparator.

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Section A - Page 52 of 116

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

New insulating fluid has a very light color identified by a low


number (typically 0.5).
Color had to be compared with IFT and acidity.
The test is called the Karl Fischer Method. The water content test
is performed to determine the total water, as well as soluble water
content of the oil.

Moisture (Water) Content


(Chemical Test)

Definition
It is difficult to measure, because most of the moisture in a
transformer is absorbed by cellulose winding insulation. It does
not stay in the oil.
Applicable
Regulation/
Rule
(Standard)
Purpose

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

POWER FACTOR TEST


(ELECTRICAL TEST)

Definition
Applicable
Regulation/
Rule
(Standard)

ASTM D 1533
It detects moisture in the oil in parts per million (ppm). The reason
it is important to detect moisture is that it is absorbed by the
cellulose winding insulation limiting its insulating ability.
The tests for moisture content find the ppm (parts per million)
water content of the oil. This value is then used to approximate
how wet the insulation is. The moisture content for new insulating
fluids is typically 20 to 35 ppm. The critical and maximum value
for this test is 22 ppm. To get acceptance values, you can find
results in Table 3.12.e.1.
The units of measure of water are mg/kg. New insulating oil
received from the manufacturer normally contains less than 25
mg/kg.
Power factor is the ratio of the power (in watts) dissipated in the
oil to the product of the effective voltage and current (in voltamperes). The power factor measures the leakage current
through an oil
ASTM D 924

Purpose

This is a measure of contamination or deterioration of


insulating oil because of its sensitivity to ionic contaminants.
The drawback of the power factor test is that it is not specific
in what it detects.
A high value of power factor in oil is an indication of the
presence of contaminants or deterioration products such as
oxidation products, metal soaps, charged colloids, etc.

Test
Equipments /
Method

The Double power factor insulation test equipment

Testing
(Circuit)
Connections

Oil samples are tested for power factor by the UST method as
shown in Figure 3.12.f.1.

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Section A - Page 53 of 116

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

DISSOLVED GAS IN OIL ANALYSIS

Definition

See table 6.4


The power factor of new oil is normally 0.05% or less at 25C.
When the power factor exceeds 0.5%, more investigation
should be done.
With consideration of other fluid parameter measurements,
insulating fluids with power factors of 1.0% at 25C are judged
satisfactory for continuous service.
Insulating fluids with power factors of 1.2% and above should be
reconditioned or reclaimed.
This test is the most used for gas-in-oil analysis and is called a
dissolved combustible gases (CG) analysis (CGA.). This test
which is specified in ASTM D3612 contains the method of testing
to determine the amount of dissolved gases in insulating oil and
the total amount of gases.
The key gases that are generated as a result of the electrical and
thermal stresses include hydrogen (H2), carbon monoxide (CO),
carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), ethane (C2H6), ethylene
(C2H4), and acetylene (C2H2).
This gas-in-oil analysis is accomplished according to ASTM
D3284, which is a field test. A gas-in-oil test tests total gases in
the oil and is accomplished according to ASTM D3612. It is done
in the laboratory.

Applicable
Regulation/
Rule
(Standard)

ASTM D3284 (Field Test)


ASTM D3612 (laboratory Test)

Purpose

Making A Test

Test
Equipments /
Method

To determine the amount of dissolved gases in insulating oil


and the total amount of gases.
To determine faults caused by combustible gas.
ASTM D3284 ( Field Test):
The meter registers in mill amperes which can be calibrated to
read directly in percent of total combustible gases. A standard
reference (baseline) gas is used. The standard calibrating gas is a
mixture of methane in nitrogen. The sample is mixed with a fixed
ratio of air and introduced into the tester through an orifice at a
pressure of one atmosphere. The meter then reads the
percentage of combustible gas in the sample. Ensure that the
instrument is calibrated according to the manufacturers
instructions.
ASTM D3284 (Field Test):
A portable Combustible-gas Meter.
The Gas Analyzer
ASTM D3612 (laboratory Test):
Two methods are used for detecting and analyzing the
combustible gas content in blanket gas samples and insulating
fluid samples. The two methods are:
The Gas Analyzer, and
The Gas Chromatography.

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Section A - Page 54 of 116

The only responsibility of the engineer is to ensure proper


collection and submission of the samples to the laboratory.
This test only requires that nine gases be analyzed during the
process. It measures the range of gases in ppm. In evaluating the
total combustible gas, use the tabular data (Table 12.g.1) below
for your analysis.
Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

RESISTIVITY, SEDIMENT AND/OR PRECIPITABLE SLUDGE

Safety
Precautions &
Test
Preparations
Purpose

A list of the types and amounts of gases in oil at normal


temperature is shown in Table 3.12.g.2.
In order to know if there is excessive CG's in the oil, you must first
have a base line for the normal solubility of gases in transformer
oil.
Table 3.12.g.3 shows how much the gases will dissolve into the
oil. It indicates that normal total combustible gas detection could
not detect combustible gases in these types of transformer:
Free breathers
Conservator type transformers
Transformers without air space
Gases generated in a transformer can be explosive and may
cause personal injury or death. Strict precaution should be
observed when drawing samples of blanket gas from the
transformer.
To determine any organic material in the oil.
The oil is drained, filtered and centrifuged to separating sediment.
The sediment samples are dried and weighed. Then, the sample
is ignited and any organic material is burned. The sample is
weighed again. The difference in the weight (weight loss)
determines the amount of organic material in the insulating oil.
The presence of organic matter indicates deterioration such as
sludge or contamination. The remainder of the sample is
inorganic matter which indicted contamination such as rust.

Making A Test

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

The portion of the liquid that remains after the solubles are filtered
is also tested to determine soluble sludge and organic sludge.
There are two other tests steps in this series:
1. Soluble sludge is determined by diluting it with N-pentane,
which is a hydrocarbon. This will precipitate the sludge
because it is not soluble in this solution.
2. Identify organic sludge by determining if a sample will
dissolve in acetone. If it dissolves, it is organic, not
inorganic.
There are no good or bad values in the results of the test. There
are three categories of degree of organic matter in the oil; slight,
moderate, and heavy.
Moderate indicates other tests should be performed or the
condition should be investigated.
Heavy indicates the oil should be reconditioned by filtering
but other types of test should confirm this decision.

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TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 55 of 116

CT & PT INSULATION RESISTANCE TEST

13

Definition

Test Equipments
(Sets)

Test Connections
(Circuit)

Making A Test
(Procedure)

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance Values

CURRENT TRANSFORMER: An instrument transformer that is


intended to have its primary winding connected in series with the
conductor that carries the current to be measured or controlled.
VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER: An instrument transformer that is
intended to have its primary winding connected in shunt with a power
supply circuit, the voltage of which is to be measured or controlled.
Insulation resistance tests are made to determine the insulation
resistance from individual windings to ground or between individual
windings.
Insulation resistance may be measured using the following
equipment:
A variable-voltage dc power supply with means to measure
voltage and current (generally in microamperes or mill amperes).
A megohmeter.
Insulation-resistance tests shall be made with all circuits of equal
voltage above ground connected together.
Circuits or groups of circuits of different voltage above ground shall
be tested separately. Examples of procedures include the following:
a) High voltage to low voltage and ground, low voltage to high
voltage and ground.
b) Voltage should be increased in increments of usually 1 kV to 5
kV and held for 1 min while the current is read.
c) The test should be discontinued immediately if the current begins
to increase without stabilizing.
d) After the test has been completed, all terminals should be
grounded for enough time to allow any trapped charges to decay
to a negligible value.
Remove the ground from the CT circuit. If relays are left connected
to the CTs during the test, the relay manufacturer should be
consulted before test values above 500V are used. A 500V megger
should be connected from the CT circuit to ground for the test
readings. If a fault is detected, the cables should be disconnected
from the CTs secondary in order to determine the source of the lower
reading.
The generally accepted minimum insulation resistance is 1 Megohm,
but resistance should be compared with those of similar devices or
circuits. One of the most common reasons for low readings is the
presence of moisture. Drying out the equipment and retesting should
be considered before it is dismantled.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 56 of 116

Definition

CT &PT WINDING RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

14

Purpose

Test Methods and


Connections
(Circuit)

The resistance is defined as the open-circuit voltage across the


potential terminals divided by the current entering and leaving the
current terminals.
These measurements are made on instrument transformers for the
following reasons:
To calculate relaying accuracy of type C or K current
transformers
To establish the winding resistance at a known temperature for
use in temperature rise tests
To calculate winding temperatures and temperature rises at the
completion of temperature rise tests
1. Voltmeter-ammeter method
The voltmeter-ammeter method is sometimes more convenient than
the bridge method. It should be employed only if the rated current of
the transformer winding is 1 A or more. Digital voltmeters and digital
ammeters of appropriate accuracy are commonly used in connection
with temperature-rise determinations.
To use this method, the following steps should be taken:
a) Measurement is made with direct current, and simultaneous
readings of current and voltage are taken using the connections
of Figure 3.14.1. The required resistance is calculated from the
readings in accordance with Ohms Law. A battery or filtered
rectifier will generally be found to be more satisfactory as a dc
source than will a commutating machine. The latter may cause
the voltmeter pointer to vibrate because of voltage ripple.
b) To minimize errors of observation,
1. The measuring instruments shall have ranges that will
give reasonably large deflection.
2. The polarity of the core magnetization shall be kept
constant during all resistance readings.
c) The voltmeter leads shall be independent of the current leads
and shall be connected as closely as possible to the terminals of
the winding to be measured. This is to avoid including in the
reading the resistances of current-carrying leads and their
contacts and of extra lengths of leads. To protect the voltmeter
from injury by off-scale deflections, the voltmeter should be
disconnected from the circuit before switching the current on or
off. To protect test personnel from inductive kick, the current
should be switched off by a suitably insulated switch. If the drop
of voltage is less than 1 V, a potentiometer or mill voltmeter shall
be used.
d) Readings shall not be taken until after the current and voltage
have reached steady-state values. When measuring the cold
resistance, preparatory to making a heat run, note the time
required for the readings to become constant. That period of time
should be allowed to elapse before taking the first reading when
final winding hot resistance measurements are being made. In
general, the winding will exhibit a long dc time constant. To
reduce the time required for the current to reach its steady-state
value, a non-inductive external resistor should be added in series

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 57 of 116

with the dc source. The resistance should be large compared to


the inductance of the winding. It will then be necessary to
increase the source voltage to compensate for the voltage drop
in the series resistor. The time will also be reduced by operating
all other transformer windings open-circuited during these tests.
e) Readings shall be taken with not less than four values of current
when deflecting instruments are used. The average of the
resistances calculated from these measurements shall be
considered to be the resistance of the circuit. The current used
shall not exceed 15% of the rated current of the winding whose
resistance is to be measured. Larger values may cause
inaccuracy by heating the winding and thereby changing its
temperature and resistance. When the current is too low to be
read on a deflecting ammeter, a shunt and digital mill voltmeter
or potentiometer shall be used.
2. Bridge methods
2.1. Whetstone Bridge
The Wheatstone bridge consists of a pair of ratio arms,
an adjustable resistance arm for achieving balance, and
an arm containing the resistance to be measured. In the
commercial versions, the ratio arms are equipped so that
any one of several ratios can be readily selected. Thus,
resistances can be measured over a wide range with
maximum resolution available from the adjustable arm.
2.2. Kelvin Bridge
The double-ratio arm bridge is more complex in both its
design and its operation. Text books in electrical
measurements contain excellent discussions of the bridge
in addition, should be consulted. Generally speaking, the bridge
measures a four-terminal resistance in such a way that its
points of attachment to the measuring circuit and its lead
resistances do not enter into the measurement.

Safety Precautions
& Test Preparations

To avoid errors due to the time required for the bridge current to
become constant, the time required shall be determined during the
measurement of the winding resistance reference temperature.
All secondary leads to the devices should be disconnected for this
test. Measurements should be performed at the full tap and all other
multiple ratio taps and recorded. Upon completion of this test, the
CT should be demagnetized as described in the SATURATION
TEST, because of the DC applied with the resistance bridge.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 58 of 116

Definition

Purpose

CT &PT Polarity Test Or Flick Test With Battery & Phase Identification Test

15

Test Equipments
(Sets)

The designation of the relative instantaneous directions of the


currents that enter the primary terminals and leave the secondary
terminals during most of each half cycle. Phase-relation tests are
made to determine angular displacement and relative phase
sequence.
To prove that the indicated polarities that are marked on the CT are
correct.
An analog DC meter shall be used for this test.
While testing for polarity of the CT, it should be noted that there are
additive and subtractive polarities involved with CTs.
Subtractive is the normal case, in which H1 on the high side
would be the same polarity in respect to X1 secondary.(Figure
3.15.1)
Additive polarity would have H1 polarity on the high side the
same polarity in respect to X2 secondary.(Figure 3.15.2)

Test Connections
(Circuit)

Making A Test
(Procedure)

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance Values
Safety Precautions
& Test Preparations

When testing polarity by using a battery, a battery of 6 to 12 volts,


with terminals for connections, is preferred. This is also referred to
as a DC flick test. See Figure 3.15.3 and 3.15.4 for a typical
connection. If a bushing current transformer installed in a power
transformer is being tested by connecting the battery to the power
transformer terminals, the other windings on the same phase of the
power transformer may be short circuited in order to obtain a
reading. It is necessary to demagnetize any current transformer
that is tested by using DC voltage across a winding.
To determine the polarity of instrument transformers using this
method, do the following:
1. Connect terminal 1 of the high-turn winding to terminal 1 of the
low- turn winding. In most cases, the high turn winding of a
current transformer is the X1-X2 winding, and the high-turn
winding of a voltage transformer is the H1-H2 winding.
2. Connect a dc voltmeter across the high-turn winding.
3. Connect a battery across the high-turn winding so that the
voltmeter will read up scale.
4. Disconnect the voltmeter from terminal 2 of the high-turn
winding and connect it to terminal 2 of the low-turn winding.
5. Break the battery circuit and observe the direction of kick on the
voltmeter. If the voltmeter kicks down scale, terminal 1 of the
high-turn winding and terminal 1 of the low-turn winding are of
the same polarity.
6. Check the results by remaking and breaking the battery circuit.
If both terminals 1 are of the same polarity, the voltmeter will
kick up scale on make and down scale on break.
When the pointer swings in the opposite direction (negative), the
polarity is subtractive. (Battery is disconnected)
When the pointer swings in the same direction as before
(positive), the polarity is additive. (Battery is connected)
It is preferable to apply the battery voltage to the high-turn
winding in order to minimize high inductive kicks that might
injure personnel or damage equipment.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 59 of 116

Definition

CT &PT RATIO TEST BY CURRENT PRIMARY INJECTION

16

Purpose
Test Equipments
(Sets)

Making A Test
(Procedure)

A dangerous voltage and arcing may be generated while


disconnecting the battery from the transformer winding.
Therefore, if a knife switch is not used, a hot stick or rubber
gloves must be used for connecting and disconnecting the
battery.

The CT ratio is defined as the number of turns in the secondary as


compared to the number of turns in the primary.
To verify that the CT is within its specified accuracy.
This method uses heavy cable and some type of current source,
such as a generator or a low-voltage, high-current test set.
When testing in-line CTs, the primary voltage reading can be taken
across the conductor, while the breaker bushing type will require
the breaker to be closed to take a reading across the bushings.
When taking primary readings with the bushing type CT in power
transformers or reactors, correct voltage readings can be taken at
the appropriate external winding connections. To test a donut CT
where it is not possible to read across the primary conductor, pass
a test lead one time through the core of the donut CT and take a
reading across the test lead for the primary reading.
Figure 3.16.1 shows the current method of testing for ratio. The
current method uses a high-current source to pass current (up to
the full rated value) into the primary of a CT, and the amperage of
the secondary is measured.
An exception is, for CT's in the delta winding of a power
transformer, because the impedance limits any significant current.
Current can be injected in the Delta if the bushings are not installed
and the transformer is not filled with oil by looping test leads though
the core of the CT. Breakers that have bushing CTs must be
closed to produce primary current.

Safety Precautions
& Test Preparations

For testing CTs in the Delta of a Power transformer, a special


consideration should be taken into account. See Figure 3.16.2 for
taking the measurements for the primary. The phase to phase
voltage will read 2/3 of the expected voltage. To test the other taps
on a multiple ratio CT, apply across the full winding and take
readings at each tap for calculation of other ratios. Compare tap
section voltage with the impressed voltage across the full winding.
When injecting current into a circuit containing a Bus
Differential relay, ensure the relay manufacturers instructions
are followed, such as jumpering a thyrite to prevent damage to
the relay. Precaution should also be taken to prevent tripping
of the bus.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 60 of 116

CT MAGNETIZING (SATURATION) CURRENT TEST

17

Purpose

Making A Test
(Procedure)

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance Values

Safety Precautions
& Test Preparations

To ensure that a CT will maintain its integrity under fault conditions.


The test verifies the integrity of the transformer windings and core.
Refer to Figure 3.17.1 for the correct connection. To perform this
test, AC voltage is applied to the secondary winding with the
primary winding open. Before performing the following test, the
voltage should be increased slightly beyond the knee point and
gradually decreased to zero (to demagnetize the CT).
A variable voltage source is connected to the secondary of the CT.
As the voltage is increased in equal increments, the current should
be recorded and the slope should be plotted. The slope of the curve
should remain constant until the saturation point is reached. As the
saturation point is approached, a small change of the voltage will
cause the amperage to rise rapidly. The point at which this occurs is
the knee of the curve. The curve plots the secondary excitation
current (horizontal) against the secondary excitation voltage
(vertical).
For current transformers with taps, the secondary tap should be
selected to assure that the CT can be saturated with the test
equipment available. The highest tap which can accommodate that
requirement should be used. CTs should not remain energized at
voltages above the knee of the excitation curve any longer than is
necessary to take readings.
Test results should be recorded on the data form with
approximately 8 points on the curve, with a minimum of 2 points
above the knee. To determine the knee, the manufacturers or
reliable past test results may be used. Any substantial deviation of
the excitation curve, Figure 3.17.2, for the CT under test should be
investigated. If there is a lack of information on the curves for the
CTs under test then comparison of CTs of same model or curves of
similar CTs can be used to determine the normal readings.
Deviation from expected results may indicate a turn to turn short
circuit, distortion of test supply voltage wave form, the presence of a
completed conducting path around the current transformer core or if
the core is magnetized due to a previous DC voltage test. After
readings have been recorded, a curve can be drawn by using the
graph provided in the data sheet.
During saturation and excitation tests, applied voltage should be
increased and decreased gradually. Turning off the applied
voltage abruptly will magnetize the CT core, and will affect the
test results.
The most hazardous condition is when the secondary is open
with the primary energized from the normal source. This
induces a high voltage in the secondary which is hazardous to
human life and may also destroy connected apparatus and
leads.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 61 of 116

CT &PT LOOP RESISTANCE TEST (BURDEN TEST)

18

Definition

Purpose

Making A Test
(Procedure)

Test Connections
(Circuit)

CT &PT INSULATION POWER FACTOR


TEST

19

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance Values

Definition

Test Equipments
(Sets)

Test Connections
(Circuit)

Making A Test
(Procedure)
Test Readings
(Results) and

The part of the circuit of the secondary that is connected to the


secondary winding that determines the active and reactive power at
the secondary terminals. The burden is expressed either as total
ohms impedance with the effective resistance and reactive
components or as the total volt-amperes and power factor at the
specified value of current, voltage, and frequency.
The total burden of the circuit, which is the sum of the internal CT
burden and the external connected burden, must be determined.
To verify that no noticeable change in the CT ratio within its burden
rating has occurred. A noticeable change in CT ratio is an indication
of shorted turns.
Measurements can be made of the external burden on the CT.
Apply rated nominal secondary current at the first CT shorting block
after the CT. Measure the secondary voltage across the CT circuit
and multiply the current to voltage to obtain the VA. This should not
exceed the VA rating of the CT under test. See Figure 3.18.1
The following reminders have been found useful in obtaining correct
burden data:
1. While performing the burden test, all parallel current
transformers should be disconnected, and all relays and other
external devices must be on the operate tap. If desired, the
circuit impedance can be calculated by dividing the voltage
measured by the current applied.
2. Phase-to-neutral measurements in relay circuits can be high,
particularly if ground relays with sensitive settings are involved.
3. Phase-to-neutral and phase-to-phase measurements of bus
differential circuits can be high because of the impedance of the
differential relay operating coil.
If this value is exceeded, PED should be notified to confirm circuit
burden calculated values. Burden measurements, when compared
with calculated values, help to confirm circuit wiring and satisfactory
contact resistance of terminal blocks and test devices.
Insulation power factor is the ratio of the power dissipated in the
insulation in watts to the product of the effective voltage and current
in volt-amperes when tested under a sinusoidal voltage and
prescribed conditions.
Insulation power factor may be measured by special bridge circuits
or by the volt-ampere-watt method. The accuracy of measurement
should be within 0.25% insulation power factor.
The test specimen shall have the following:
1. All windings immersed in insulating liquid,
2. All windings short-circuited,
3. All bushings in place,
4. Temperature of windings and insulating liquid near the
reference temperature of 20 C.
Insulation power-factor tests shall be made from windings to ground
and between windings as shown in Table 3.19.1.
Temperature correction factors for the insulation power factor
depend upon the insulating materials and their structure, moisture

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 62 of 116

Acceptance
Values

content, etc. Values of correction factor K listed in Table 19.2 are


typical and are satisfactory for practical purposes for use in the
following equation:

where
Fp20
Fpt
T
K

CT &PT INTERCORE
COUPLING CHECK

20

Definition

Making A Test
(Procedure)

Test Readings
(Results) &
Acceptance
Values

is the power factor corrected to 20 C,


is the power factor measured at T,
is the test temperature (C),
is the correction factor.

Intercore coupling occurs when a spurious metallic conducting path


is established which encircles more than one current transformer. It
may not be detectable with the excitation test if enough resistance
is present in the conducting path.
To determine if there is coupling between cores, the excitation test
should be repeated, and the voltage across the full winding on each
of the adjacent cores should be measured one at a time with all
other current-transformer secondary windings shorted.
A high-impedance voltmeter (20 000 /V or greater) will read less
than 1 or 2 V if there is no intercore coupling. If there is coupling,
the voltage will be substantially higher.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 63 of 116

Three methods are presented below for demagnetizing current


transformers:
1. Method1
Connect the current transformer in the test circuit as shown in figure
3.21.1. Apply enough current to the high-turn winding (usually X1X2) to saturate the core of the transformer as determined by the
ammeter and voltmeter readings, then slowly reduce the current to
zero. Rated current of the transformer must not be exceeded.

CT &PT DEMAGNETIZATION OF CT

21

2.

Method 2.
Connect the current transformer in the test circuit as shown in figure
3.21.2. Pass rated current through the low-turn winding, (usually
H1-H2). Increase the resistance R in the high-turn winding, (usually
X1-X2), circuit until the transformer core is saturated; then slowly
reduce the resistance to zero and disconnect the current source.
Saturation of the core is indicated by a reduction of current in the
high-turn winding circuit.

3.

Making A Test
(Procedure)

Safety
Precautions
&Warning

Method 3.
The method presented here applies only to multi-ratio CTs, since a
controlled direct current must be passed through a separate
secondary section from that connected to a flux meter, as shown in
figure 3.21.3. The method requires the core to be saturated with dc
in both positive and negative directions, and then to be left in a
magnetic state midway between the two extremes. The procedure
follows:
1. With the primary winding of the CT open-circuited, connect the
secondary section to a dc source and a flux meter or operational
integrator, as shown in Figure 3.21.3.
2. Make certain there are no common conductors in the dc and
flux meter circuits.
3. Set the flux meter pointer at about the center of the scale and
smoothly increase the direct current until the drop in the flux
meter pointer speed indicates that the region of saturation has
been reached.
4. Observe the level of dc at this point and the corresponding flux
meter indication, F1.
5. Reverse the dc, maintaining the same level, and obtain another
flux meter indication, F2.
6. Now apply a trial value of dc in the opposite direction to
demagnetize the core.
7. Open the dc circuit and observe the flux meter indication.
8. Repeat this operation until by successive trials the flux meter
finally indicates the arithmetic mean of F1 and F2.
A continuously variable resistance must be used to avoid opening
the high-turn winding circuit when resistance values are changed,
since, as the resistance is increased, the voltage across the
resistance will approach the dangerous open circuit value.

COMMISSIONING SERVICES DEPARTMENT


COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE

CONTACT RESISTANCE
TEST (RESISTANCE
MEASUREMENT OF MAIN
CIRCUIT)
GAS LEAKAGE TEST (GAS SF 6
GAS TIGHTNESS TEST)
MOISTURE CONTENT
MEASUREMENT IN SF6 GAS
(DEW POINT TEST)

23
24
25

GAS
DENSITY
SWITCH
TEST

22

Section A - Page 64 of 116

Purpose

Test
Equipment
Test Method

Criteria

Purpose
Test Equipment

Test Method

Criteria

The purpose is to appreciate the status of internal fabrication and


dimension of conductors which lie in GIS indirectly ensure good
contact and good tied.
Micro ohm meter
DC 0 ~ 600A
Applying DC current of (100-400A) to main circuit normally and
closing or opening each earthing S/W, the resistance of each
section (CB, DS, Bus, etc) shall be measured buy voltage drop
method. Injection and measurement point should be almost same
as factory test records (see diagram 1) R= V/I
The measured value of teach section shall not exceed 1.2Ru,
where Ru means the factory test record.

To ensure whether is any leak of SF6 gas in test object.


Gas leak detector.
Remarks 1.: should be check test equipment before start test.
Remarks 2. Should be check pressure before and after test.
After filling the reassembled sealing of point of GIS at site and
inspection holes to related gas density with SF6 gas, and wrapping
the test object with finyl, it is checked whether there is any leak in
the envelopment, using halogen detector.
The checking time shall be at least 24 hours later, after wrapping
the test object.
SF6 Gas leak rate per year shall be less than 1% (no continuous
leakage sound).

Purpose

This test is performed to ascertain moisture contents in SF6 gas.

Test Equipment

Dew point tester which shall be indicated temperature.


After filling SF6 gas in test object related to rated pressure, check
the moisture content in SF6 gas using equipment.

Test Method

Criteria

Purpose
Test Equipment

In let valve will be connected test object and out let valve will be
adjusted properly.
The moisture content and dew point temperature in SF6 gas shall
have the following criteria at rated pressure.
-CB Gas Section : Less Than-30 oC
-Other Gas section: Less Than-25 oC
The purpose is to ensure whether these switches are set to alarm
and lock out pressure correctly according to following criteria.
Calibration Gauge (standard meter)
Buzzer
Gas filling hose between SF6 Gas cylinder and Test
equipment.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 65 of 116

Test Method

Criteria

Controlling gas pressure in test equipment, alarm and lock pressure


shall be checked with buzzer and gas gauge. Also, gas density
switches together with calibration gauge to ensure the correctness
of the settings and indicators.
After completion of cabling between GIS and LCC, alarm shall be
checked again from pressure switches contact only.
0.2 bar.
0.2 bar as following table.
Operation
CONDITION
(Bar)
Gas Section
On
Off
High Pressure Alarm
CB

Low Stage 1st Stage Alarm


Low Stage 2nd Stage
Alarm
High Pressure Alarm

Other

Low Stage 1st Stage Alarm


Low Stage 2nd Stage
Alarm

Tolerance 0.2

AIR PRESSURE SWITCH TEST (APS


CALIBRATION)

26

Purpose

Test Equipment

Test Method

The purpose is to ensure whether these switches are set to alarm


and lockout pressure correctly according to following criteria.

Buzzer
Calibration gauge
Gas filling hose between SF6 Gas cylinder and test.

Using SF6 Gas instead of air, closing lock out and tripping lock shall
be checked calibration gauge. After completion of cabling between
GIS and LCC, alarm shall be checked again from pressure switches
contact only.
The pressure switch contacts of pressure switches move shall be
within the value shown in the following table, with tolerance of
0.2bar at each condition.
Condition

Criteria
Closing lock out
Tripping lock out

Operation (Bar)
On

Off

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 66 of 116

Purpose

The purpose is to ensure operating characteristics and to check


operating time of CB, DS and ES.
Breaker Analyzer system
CB
The operating time of 100% closing at 80% and Tripping at 60%
and differential time between each phase shall be checked at
normal condition as following table.
Check with factory test.

OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS TEST (TIMING TEST)

27

Criteria

Operation

Control
Voltage

Condition
%

Closing

Vdc

Air Pressure
%

BAR

Normal

Opening
C-O
DS & ES
The operating time shall be checked at normal condition as
following table. Also, it is checked the busbar protection CTs
switching scheme is satisfied or not. This test shall be carried for
only GIS excepted protection panel

Control Voltage
Operation

Condition
%

Vdc

Closing
Normal
Opening
CB at normal condition
Closing Time according to factory test
Tripping time according to factory test
Differential time between each phase < 3mS

MCS
TEST

28

DS/ES at normal condition


Closing time according to factory test result
Opening time according to factory test
The busbar protection CTs switching scheme shall be satisfied with
approved specification.

Purpose
Test Equipment

This test is performed to check whether MCB should be tripped or


not at applied over current time of trip inside the limit according to
curve and ensure of auxiliary contact is ok or not.
Current injection (up to AC/DC), Multi digital tester secondary
injection (current)

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 67 of 116

After applying over current (2-3 In) of MCB, tripping time shall be
measure and compared with specification (factory test) and limit
from curve.
100% will be checked as pre check after installation of LCC and
20% will be witnessed at site.
Shall be complied with specified MCB data or curve.

Test Method

AUXILIARY
RELAY TEST

29

Criteria
Purpose
Test Equipment
Test Method

VT SECONDARY INJECTION
(INJECTION OF VOLTAGE
AND MEASUREMENT OF
VOLTAGE IN LCC)
FUNCTION
TEST

31

30

Criteria

The purpose is to check looping VT circuit of all point and


equipment which is related voltage in control panel.
Purpose

32.A

Injection of voltage from GIS and measurement of voltage up to


LCC and control panel.

Test
Equipment
Test Method

Purpose
Test Equipment
Test Method

CT PRIMARY
INJECTION (TURN
RATIO)
INJECTION OF
CURRENT

MEASUREMENT
OF CURRENT IN
LCC ONLY

Secondary Voltage injection , Multi digital meter (Voltage)


Applying voltage of each phase (different voltage of each phase)
from VT, it is measured voltage all point (terminal block at VT and
terminal block in LCC) and control panel
Measured voltage shall be same as injected voltage.

Criteria

Criteria

32.B

This test is performed to check whether relay could be operated or


not at applied voltage.
Secondary Voltage injection, Multi digital tester.
After applying voltage to relay, operating time shall be measured
and compared with specification. 100% will be checked as precheck after installation of LCC and 20% will be witnessed at site.
Shall be compiled with specified relay data.

This test is to check all GIS function including wiring which is satisfied
with approved schematic drawings.
Multi digital meter
It is to check all point including wiring, alarm, operating of device for
GIS/LCC with approved schematic drawing
Shall be matched with approved schematic drawings.

Purpose

The purpose is to check CT turn ratio in LCC and equipment


which is related current in control panel

Test
Method

Injection of current from GIS and measurement of each CT


secondary current in LCC only. Testing in control panel.

Test
Equipment

Current injection (upto 70% of rated primary current),


Multi digital meter (Ampere)
Applying current of each CTs from GIS ES bushing, it is
measured secondary current in LCC.
Please refer to the attached format as CT primary injection.
%error shall be less than 10%

Test
Method
Criteria

COMMISSIONING SERVICES DEPARTMENT


COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
BUS BAR STABILITY
(INJECTION OF CURRENT AND
MEASUREMENT OF CURRENT
IN LCC ONLY)
INTERLOCK
TEST

Scope Of GIS
Test
Equipment
Test Method
(Bus Bar
Stability)
Criteria

Test Content
Test Method
Criteria

10KV INSULATION TEST ON


EXTERNAL EARTHING
SWITCHS POLE (10KV ES
INSULATION)

Bus bar stability: The test is related to equipment of control panel


(Accuracy, sensitivity).
Bus bar stability: This test is checked balance of current for each
CTS.
Bus bar stability: Injection of current from GIS only.
Bus bar stability: Injection of current from GIS and measurement
of secondary current in LCC and control panel.
Current injection (upto 70% of rated primary current)
Phase angle meter.
Multi digital meter (Ampere)
Applying current of each CTs from GIS ES bushing, it is
measured looping current (2 feeders, one is for object and other is
for reference) & angle between voltage and ampere in LCC
In coming current & out going current shall be equal.

Purpose

Purpose

POWER FREQUENCY WITHSTAND


VOLTAGE TEST (HI VOLTAGE
TEST)

36

35

34

33

Section A - Page 68 of 116

This purpose is to ensure whether the interlocks between CB, DS and ES


will be subjected to approved interlock table.
Electrical interlock.
As per approved interlock table, it will be checked whether operating will
correctly or not.
Shall be complied with approved interlock table

Purpose
Test
Equipment
Test Method

Criteria

The purpose is to ensure the dielectric strength is ok or not.


High voltage applying equipment (up to 15Kv)
Applying voltage through test bushing, this test shall be done under
the normal condition.
The test voltage shall be raised up to 10kVrms and kpt for 1min with
removal of earthing bar. Each phase and their phase earthed.
The test object is considered to be accepted, if no disruptive
discharge occurs during test.
Remarks. 1 This test should be done before H.V.T.
2. Should be discharge and earthed after finish.

Purpose
Test Of Equipment

Preparation

The purpose is to ensure the dielectric strength of GIS is ok.


And no defective
High voltage applying equipment and multi digital meter.
Consider all safety regulation
Valid test certificate for the equipments used and check
calibration during routine test VTs
All tests must be ok.
Start test with VTs
10KV A.C. for ES before HVT
CTs shorted and earthed.
VTs are not included in HVT for GIS
Link between power transformer & GIS should be removed.
No power cables included the test.
Apply 5000V Megger before and after HVT

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Test Method

36.1. GIS HI VOLTAGE TEST

Criteria
Purpose
Test Equipment

Test Method

36.2 VT HI VOLTAGE TEST

Criteria
Purpose
Test Equipment

Preparation

Criteria

Check corona shield


Check pressure
Check pressure position for OB CDC
Check PD before and after HVT
AC test voltage level shall be equal to 80% of the factory test.
A) Test frequency : 60Hz
- Test duration : 1 Min
- Gas pressure: Rated pressure
- Test condition
All CB & DS: Close
All ES
: Open
Enclosure
: Earthed
All VT DS : Open
- Under above condition, test shall be done next
sequence.
In case of R phase injection: Y, B phase earthed together.
In case of Y phase injection: R, B phase earthed together
In case of B Phase injection: R, Y phase earthed together
Or through resonance test range 30 to 300hz
B) through GIS voltage transformer according to TCS B 105
Ro,
Withstand
The purpose is to ensure the dielectric strength of VT
High voltage applying equipment Multi digital tester (Voltage)
During the AC HV test on GIS, this test will be done under
normal operation condition. At 76KV secondary voltage shall be
measured in LCC and 114KVrms will be applied for 1 mint.
- Gas pressure : Rated pressure.
Test Condition
All CB & DS
: Close
All ES
: Open
Enclosure
: Earthed
All VT DS
: Close
Under above condition, test shall be done next sequence.
In case of R phase injection: Y, B phase earthed together.
In case of Y phase injection: R, B phase earthed together
In case of B phase injection: R, Y phase earthed together.
At 76kV, secondary voltage will be equal to VT specification
At 114 kV according to VF.
Before and after Hi voltage test, it shall be checked in order to
verify healthy condition of GIS.
5000V Megger
- Gas pressure : Rated pressure.
Test Condition
All CB & DS
: Close
All ES
: Open
Enclosure
: Earthed
Under above condition, test shall be done next sequence.
In case of R phase injection: Y, B phase earthed together.
In case of Y phase injection: R, B phase earthed together
In case of B phase injection: R, Y phase earthed together.
Shall be more than 10 G

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Purpose
Test Equipment

PARTIAL DISCHARGE MEASUREMENT

37

Test Method

The purpose is to ensure the dielectric strength of long term in test


object.
High voltage applying equipment,
Partial Discharge Measuring System, PC meter.
The PD test shall be performed in the place which is a shield against
ambient disturbance (etc. windy) and which has a ground system.
This test shall be done under the same condition of GIS HV test and
rated pressure before and after the AC HV test on GIS. The partial
Discharge is measured at 92kV (145/ 3 x 1.1)1 min.
Also this test shall be done according to bellow sequence.
In case of R phase injection: Y, B phase earthed together.
In case of y Phase Injection: R, B Phase Earthed Together.
In case of B phase injection: R, Y phase earthed together.
Remark: IEC-60517, clause CC 4 of Annex CC.
Voltages

Check PD
92kV

Time (duration)
Criteria
Scope

PHASE IDENTIFICATION

38

Test Equipment

Shall be less than 10pC


After complete installation, the cables are to be identified with respect
to their phases and to be ensured the marked correctly or not and this
test is very important.
Megger.
One phase will be earthed while the others are unearthed.
Each Phase will be check when it is own phase is earthed and other
are unearth
Through a switch ground the other end of this conductor of the cable
under test and measure the resistance.

Test Procedure

If the resistance is negligibly very small the phase identifications is


OK and check the correct color coding is applied or not.
Other phases must be check if the resistance very high that is ok.
The method will be repeated for each phase one by one.
The test results have to be recorded in the test format.

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Pre Caution
Calibration
Scope

DC SHEATH TEST

39

Test Equipment

Preparation

Test Method

Calibration
Remarks

DC CONDUCTOR RESISTANCE TEST

The purpose is to ensure the sheath is Ok or not Ok and no damage.


High Voltage test equipment range from 0-15 KV DC
Or 0 20Kv.
Remove the semi conductive layer around 3 Cm from both end of
each phase.
Place the instrument at one end of the cable 2m away from the test
point.
Connect the instrument HV terminal bushing to the copper wire
screen of the outer sheath other terminal of the instrument must be
connected to a good around.
Insulation resistance with Megger
Apply 10 KV DC voltage step by step on the cable 1 min.
If there was not any break down during this period test is ok.
Insulation resistance with Megger
During the test period all necessary safety must be considered.
Calibration must be made according to calibration procedure.
The leakage current has to be recorded in the DC sheath test form.
One phase under test other two phases ground see Figure 3.39.1

Scope

The resistance of conductor of the cables to be measured before any


other test and the values are to be computed at 20Co.

Reference

IEC 228
Thermometer, to measure the ambient temperature.
Micro Ohm meter.
The DC current and voltage is measured
R=V/A Ohm
the conductors are Short circuited at the far end.
The other ends of the cable are connected to the bridge according to
equipment instruction.
Substituting the values in the formula, the resistance of conductor at
20o C/km will be obtained.
The measurements are recorded in the test form.

Test Equipment

40

During the test period all necessary safety measures must be strictly
applied.
Calibration must be made according to calibration procedure see
Figure 3.38.1

For Copper
Test Procedure
R20
R
L
*
T

R
R 20 =------------------------ Ohm/km
L [ 1 +0.00393,(T-20)]
For Copper
Conductor resistance at 20o C(Ohm/km)
Measured resistance of one phase (ohm)
Exact Length (Km)
Temperature coefficient at 20o (for copper 0.00393/K)
Temperature of conductor when measured in oC

The conductors are short-circuited at one end, other and connected


to suitable bridge with two cables in order to measure the resistance
of the conductor. Values which may be compared with those given in

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a resistance table based on a conductor temperature of 20o C can be


determined from above formula as resistance per kilometer. See
Figure 3.40.1
Scope

MEASUREMENT OF CAPACITANCE

41

Reference
Test Equipment

Test Procedure

Precautions
Calibration
Recording
Scope

EARTH RESISTANCE MEASUREMENT

42

Objective
Test Equipment
Frequency Of
Testing

Test Procedure

Precautions
Calibration
Recording

The capacitance shall be measured between conductor and metallic


screen. According to IEC, the measured value shall not exceed the
nominal value specified by the manufacturer by more than 8%.
IEC 840
Capacitance Meter
Bridge capable of measuring capacitance
All metallic parts (conductor, sheath, etc) will be connected to the
earthing system.
Capacitance will be measured between conductor and metallic
screen.
Capacitance value will be calculated in order to get capacitance value
per km
C=C/L (f/km)
Capacitance in F/km
Measured capacitance in F
Cable length in km
The capacitance is measured between each individual conductor and
metal sheath. A capacitance bridge is used for this measurement.
The values obtained can be converted to F/km.
During the test period all necessary safety measures must be strictly
applied.
Calibration must be made according to calibration procedure.
The test result have to be recorded in the test form see Figure 3.41.1
The measurement of earth resistance is to ensure the value inside
limit < 20. or not.
It is a guideline for the test engineer to carry out the test according to
the instructions.
Earth resistance tester.
After finishing of complete earthing.
Check the battery voltage and check all connection.
Connect the green test cord to the terminal E of the
instrument. Yellow test cord to terminal P and rest test cord
to terminal C respectively.
Make sure to stick the auxiliary earth bars deep into the moist
part of the earth so that they may be aligned at an interval of
about 5-10 meters from the earthed equipment under test.
Connect the auxiliary earth bars to the terminals of the earth
resistance tester by means of the respective test cord.
During the test period all necessary safety measures must be strictly
applied.
Calibration must be made according to calibration procedure and
schedule.
The earth resistance has to be recorded in the earthing resistance
measurement test form. See Figure 3.42.1

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VERIFICATION OF CROSS BONDING TEST

43

Scope
Test Equipment

Preparation

Test Procedure

The purpose is to be ensuring the power cables, link box and sheath
is OK. After complete erection and result inside the limit.
Generator three phase min 100A-220/380V power cable + MCB
Two multi meter
Two telephone
Check supply volt and current from generator is ok or not ok
check the cross section of supply power
Check all connection and position for L-Box tired and short other
side.
Check contents of sheath.
Check all safety
Check the far and of the cable circuit
Check good connection of testing point and the ground
Check good solid earthed connection
A three-phase current between 100-150 is injected in all 3 phases. At
the remote ends the conductors are shorted with substantial shorting
bars (300mm2 copper)
All links is the link boxes are in the as energized position
Current measured at terminations and at each link box location.
Current should not be more than 3% -- 5% of the injected valve if all
the cross bonding links are properly placed. See Figure 3.43.1

ZERO SEQUENCE IMPEDANCE

44

Test Equipment

Preparation For
O And +
Sequence

Calculations &
Formulas

Test Procedure

Power meter for measurement of current, voltage and power


factor.
Three phase variable transformer
all safety must be considered
check stable power supply test certificate
check position power cable from both sides
check position for C.B. and DC and earth switch
check good solid earthed connection
Check rated of generator supply cable test and MCB for earth.
Check good connection of the test point and the far end of the
cable circuit and cross section.
The arrangement of measurement is shown in the attached diagram.
The zero sequence impedance is given by the following formula.
Z0 = 3U0/Iph
For writing the zero sequence impedance in complex form the cos
must be measured.
Zo = Z0 cos 0
+ j Zo sin 0
3 phase power are to be injected in the cables and 3 phase
measurements are to be taken and recorded.
We are measuring the voltage (U) current I and power factor (Cos )
To be able to get a good measurement results, the following should
be observed:
Good connection at the testing point and at the far end of the cable
circuit
Solid good earthing connection.
Stable power supply. See Figure 3.44.1
Usually 100A injected current is sufficient to get a good result but

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Test
Requirement

depending on the length of the cable to be tested.


The cable circuit to be tested should be in NORMAL or ACTUAL
condition like it is ready for energization. In this case all earthing
connections, link boxes earthing connections are in NORMAL setting.
The actual measurement of zero and positive sequence will be made
first and calculations of each entity will be done based on the given
formula in the test procedures and on the test sheets.
The measured values must be recorded in the test forms.
Since the measured actual values in general can substantially deviate
from calculations no guarantee values can be indicated.

POSITIVE SEQUENCE
IMPEDANCE

45

Test Equipment

Test Procedure
For writing the positive sequence impedance in complex form the cos
must be measured.

Test
Requirement

Test Instrument

OIL FLOW TEST

Procedure

46

Power meter for measurement of Current voltage and power


factor.
Three phase variable transformer.
The arrangement of measurement is shown in the attached diagram.
The positive sequence impedance is given by the following formula.
Z + = Uo/Iph

Calculations &
Formulas

Z+ = Z+ cos + + j Z + sin +
The measured values must be recorded in the test forms.
Since the measured actual values in general can substantially deviate
from calculations no guarantee values can be indicated.
Mass cylinder (1,000cc), stop watch.
1. open the value at oil feeding side and record the pressure of test
Phase.
2. Open the valve at testing side and measure the oil valve and time.
3. Same method of test for each phase.
Measurement value is not less than theoretical value.
Theoretical oil flow:
Q=
Pr 4
X 10E (-1)
2.5 nL
Q
P
r
L
n

Oil Flow (/sec)


Pressure difference on the section
Radius of oil duct (mm)
Length of cable section (m)
Viscosity of oil at the testing temperature (cp)

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OIL IMPREGNATION TEST

47

Test Instrument
Procedure

K=
Calculations &
Formulas
V
dV
dP

HIGH VOLTAGE TEST

Purpose

48

Mass cylinder (1,000cc), stop watch.


1. open the value at oil feeding side and record the pressure of test
phase and close the valve.
2. Open the valve at testing side and measure the oil valve and time.
3. Same method of test for each phase.
K is less than 4.5 X 10E(-4)

Test
Equipments

Preparation

dV
V

1
dP

Volume of oil when installed ().


Volume of Oil withdrawn
Drop of oil pressure (kg/cm2)

AC H.V.T. at site for power cables to be ensure the P.C. is Ok or


defective after erection
AC HVT equipment as drawing, supply, control unit, step up
transformer, HV Reactor, Divider, HV Leads, Earthing system,
Voltmeter.
The single component are as following:
Power Supply
Voltage:
230/400V
50-60 Hz
3 phase
Power
> 200kVA
Control & Feeding Unit
The control and feeding unit contains all modules needed to feed the
resonance circuit with variable frequency. This includes an AC
inverter with variable out put frequency. Test sequence control; peak
value measuring instrument and all needed control and display
elements.
The control unit allows entering all test parameter using an operator
panel before starting the automatic test sequence. A personal
computer can be connected to the serial interface to set or read the
most important test parameters.
Exciter transformer
This transformer steps up the output voltage of the frequency
converter (feeding unit. to a level necessary to produce the test
voltage considering the expected quality factor of the HV circuit of
both reactor and load.
HV Reactor
The HV Reactor is the heart of the resonant system.
The reactor is an oil-filled tank, characterized by its fixed value of
inductance. A special design of the core and the windings guarantees
that a high quality factor can be achieved. Variable frequency
systems have the advantage of no mechanical drive system and
hence no moving parts to service. Elimination of the drive system
reduces weight as the high quality factor is doing.
Consider all safety regulation
Test certificate for the equipments.
V.Ts must be isolated and also link. See Figure 3.48.1
S.V.L must be isolated from all Link Box.
Check pressure of gas.
Position of power cable from both sides.

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Position of all L.B. according to drawings and correct position


Position of C.B and DC from both sides
Insulation resistance before H.V.T.
One phase under test and other phases earthed.
Check test equipment.
Check earths and connection
calculation for resonance test f = 1
2LC
Check adaptor or test bushing
Connections of phase have to be tested. See Figure 3.48.1
and Figure 3.48.2.
(*1): These safety precautions and test preparation have to be done for most types of tests.

Table 3.2.1: Megohmmeter Connections for Testing Two Winding and Three Winding Transformers

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Table 3.2.2: Temperature Correction Factors for Winding Insulation Resistance

Table 3.2.3: Rule of Thumb Test Values

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(Megger is shown connected for measuring the insulation resistance


of the high voltage to low voltage winding and ground)
Figure 3.2.1: Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Insulation-Resistance of a
Typical Single-Phase (Two-Winding) Transformer

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(Megger is shown connected for measuring the insulation resistance


of the high voltage to low voltage winding and ground)
Figure 3.2.2: Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Insulation-Resistance of a
Typical Three-Phase Delta-Wye Transformer

Table 3.2.4: Insulation Condition according to the value of the index.

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Table 3.4.1: Formulas to Convert Winding Resistance to Reference Temperature

Note:
The connections to bridge
network to the component
being tested. The test leads
to the component should be
as short as possible and as
close to the same length as
possible to minimize
errors.

Figure 3.4.1: Wheatstone Bridge

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Figure 3.4.2: Kelvin Bridge

Figure 3.4.3: Connections for Measuring Transformer Winding Resistance

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Figure 3.4.4: Bridge Network Connections

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Figure 3.4.5: Front Face of a Kelvin Bridge

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Figure 3.4.6: Top View of a Digital Low-Resistance Ohmmeter

Figure 3.4.7: Top View of a Ducter

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Figure 3.5.1: Measurement of Ie in a Wye-Connected Transformer Winding


(Routine Method)

Figure 3.5.2: Measurement of Ie in a Delta-Connected Transformer Winding


(Routine Method)
85 - 116

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Figure 3.6.1: Typical Two-Winding Transformer Simplified Diagram

Figure 3.6.2: Dielectric Loss of Each Capacitor Divided by Capacitive VoltAmperes is Equal to Power Factor

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Table 3.6.1: Standard series of power factor tests applied to windings in-service.

Figure 3.6.3: Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Capacitance and Insulation Power
factor from the High-Voltage Winding to the Low-Voltage Winding and
Ground for a Two-Winding, Single-Phase Transformer
(Method 1, Table 6.1)

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Figure 3.6.4: Schematic Diagram for Measuring the Capacitance and Insulation Power
factor from the High-Voltage Winding to the Low-Voltage Winding
and Ground for a Three-Phase Delta-Wye Transformer
(Method 1, Table 6.1)

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Table 3.6.2: Measurements for Insulation Power-Factor Tests


(Reference: ANSI/IEEE C57.12.90-1999)

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Figure 3.6.5: Ungrounded Specimen Test on Transformer Bushings

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Figure 3.6.6: Hot-Collar Test Method for Testing of Bushing Insulators

Table 3.6.3: Temperature Correction Factors for Insulation Power Factor


(Reference: ANSI/IEEE C57.12.90-1999)

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Equipment Class
New Insulating Oil
Dried and/or New HV Transformer
Dried and/or New EHV Transformer
Paper-insulated power cables
Condenser & Oil filled bushings
Silicon Insulating fluid
New oil-filled transformers
In-Service oil-filled transformers
Compound-filled bushings
Askarel(Insulating Liquid)-filled power Transformer
Rubber-insulated power cables
Varnish-cambric insulated power cables
Synthetic Insulating fluids

% P.F Acceptance Values at 20C


0.05
0.2
0.3
0.3
0.5
0.5
0.5 to 1
1 to 2
2.5
3 to 5
4.0 to 5.0
4.0 to 8.0
12

Table 3.6.4: Acceptable Power Factor Values

Figure 3.8.1: Hot-Spot Indicating Circuit

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A = Ammeter (Rated Primary Current)


V = Voltmeter (Impedance Voltage Drop)
WM = Wattmeter (Watt Loss in transformer)

Figure 3.10.1: Impedance Measurement for Transformer

Table 3.10.1: Three-Phase Power Transformer Percent Impedance (Typical Values)

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Figure 3.11.1: Front Panel and Leads of a TTR Test Set

Figure 3.11.2: Schematic Diagram for Transformer Turns-Ratio (TTR) Test Set

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Figure 3.11.3: Transformers turns ratio test connection chart

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Table 3.12.e.1: Recommended maximum limit of water content in mineral insulating oil
of operating gas blanketed, sealed, or diaphragm conservator transformers

Figure 3.12.f.1: Liquid Insulation Cell Connected for Ungrounded Specimen Testing
Range of Combustible
Gases (ppm)
0 - 500
500 - 1000
> 1000
> 2500

Indications
Satisfactory
Decomposition exceeds normal aging
Decomposition significant; requires more frequent sampling and analysis;
determine rate of trend, if increasing
Decomposition getting extreme; monitor by frequent samples and analysis;
if any increase in trend, schedule shut-down inspection, testing and
determination of repair
Table 3.12.g.1: Evaluation of the total combustible gas

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Table 3.12.g .2: A list of the types and amounts of gases in oil at normal temperature.

Table 3.12.g.3: Solubility of Gases in Transformer Oil

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Test and method

A*
Limit
value

B*

69kV

Dielectric strength
ASTM D1816-97
kV minimum,
1 mm gap:
2 mm gap:
Dissipation
factor(power factor),
ASTM D924-99e1
25C, % maximum:
100C, % maximum:
Interfacial tension
ASTM D971-99a
mN/m minimum:
Color
ASTM D1500-98
ASTM units
maximum:
Neutralization
number(acidity),
ASTM D974-02
Mg KOH/g
maximum:
Water content,
ASTM D1533-00
Mg/kg maximum:
50C:
60C:
70C:

C*

Values for voltage class


> 69230kV- 345
<230 kV <345kV
kV

Values for voltage class

> 69
69kV <230 kV 230k
V

20
35

25
45

30
52

32
55

35
60

23
40

28
47

30
50

0.05
0.30

0.05
0.40

0.05
0.40

0.05
0.30

0.05
0.30

0.5
5.0

0.5
5.0

0.5
5.0

40

38

38

38

38

25

30

32

0.5

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.5

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.015

0.20

0.15

0.10

25

20

10

10

10
27
35
55

12
20
30

10
12
15

A*: Test limits for shipments of new mineral insulating oil as received from the
supplier
B*: Test limits for new mineral insulating oil received in new equipment, prior to
energization
C*: Test limits for continued use of service-aged insulating oil
Table 3.12.1: Acceptance Values of Insulating oil Tests

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Figure 3.14.1: Connections for voltmeter-ammeter method of resistance measurement

Figure 3.15.1: Windings: subtractive polarity

X1

CT

Figure 3.15.2: Windings: additive polarity

H1

+
ma
or
mv

+
SECO ND AR Y

PRIMARY

Figure 3.15.3: Polarity Test with Dc Voltage

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Figure 3.15.4: Polarity by Inductive Kick

IR
A
H1

IT

CT X 1

CT
UNDER A
TEST

REFERENCE
CT

AC SOURCE

P RIM ARY

SECO N D A RY

PROTECT IVE
GROUND ON
BUSHING

LOADING
VARIAB LE
TRANSFORMER
AUT O
TRANSFORMER

Figure 3.16.1: Ratio Test by Current Method

H3

_
2
3V

H1
1
_
3V

H2

_1

3V
1
_
3V

H
3

_1
3V

_
1

3V

1.0 V

H2

_
1
3V

1.0 V
120V

Figure 3.16.2: Voltage Readings inside the Transformer Delta Windings

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TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 101 of 116

HIGH VOLTAGE
TEST SOURCE

X1 H1
OPEN
CIRCUIT

V
SECONDARY

PRIMARY

Figure 3.17.1: Excitation Test

Figure 3.17.2: Excitation Curve for Current Transformer

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 102 of 116

Figure 3.18.1: CT Burden Test

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 103 of 116

Table 3.19.1: Measurements to be made in insulation power-factor tests

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Section A - Page 104 of 116

Table 3.19.2: Temperature correction factors for insulation power factors

Figure 3.21.1: Method 1: Circuit for demagnetizing current transformers

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Section A - Page 105 of 116

Figure 3.21.2: Method 2: Circuit for demagnetizing current transformers

Figure 3.21.3: Method 3: Circuit for demagnetizing current transformers

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
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Section A - Page 106 of 116

PHASE CHECK

Switch

Power Cable

Megger

Figure 3.38.1: Phasing check

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
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Section A - Page 107 of 116

S/S A

S/S B

Earth Link Box


E.L.B

Power Cable

H.V.T

Figure 3.39.1: 10KV D.C. Sheath Test

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Section A - Page 108 of 116

+I
C1

+U
P1

-U
P2

-I
C2

MICRO ohm Meter

Figure 3.40.1: Measurement of Dc Resistance Of Conductor

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
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Section A - Page 109 of 116

.F

..F

Figure 3.41.1: Capacitance Measurement

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
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Section A - Page 110 of 116

RED TEST CORD


YELLOW TEST CORD
GREEN TEST CARD
E
C

MEASURING EARTHING
SYSTEM
C1

EARTH RESISTANCE
METER
10-15m

10-15m

The individual ground resistance at each earthing point shall not exceed 20hm
Figure 3.42.1: Earth Resistance Measurement

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 111 of 116

Figure 3.43.1: Verification of cross bonding test at link boxes

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 112 of 116

Figure 3.44.1: Zero Sequence Impedance Measurement

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 113 of 116

Figure 3.45.1: Positive Sequence Impedance Measurement


HV Reactor
Step-up Transformer

3 Supply

Control Unit
Divider

Test
Object

Figure 3.48.1: Schematic Diagram of a resonant circuit with variable frequency

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Section A - Page 114 of 116

R2
160kv
50A
R1

F1

Out put 320 Kv


50A

F2
Frequency Converter

Exciter Transformer

160kv
50A
R1

F1

Out put
160 kv
100A

F2
Frequency Converter

Exciter Transformer
Figure 3.48.2: Circuit diagram of AC H.V.T

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
TEST AND TEST OBJECTIVE
Section A - Page 115 of 116

Example for calculation


F=

1
2 LC
L inductance for reactor = 17 H or 18 H
Suppose Power cable 800 mm and length 5 km
Cross Section

Resistance at 20Co /KM

Cf/km

800mm

0.0221

0.19

C is measured before during test and according to cross section up is = 0.19 f/km
:- C = 0.19x5 = 0.95 f
:- f =
=

1
=
2LC

1x10 6
17x0.95

1
2II

1000
=
2 x 4.01871

1000
25.2375

= 39.62
Hz

And also from curve same value almost


Other example
for use 2 reactor to arrive freq to 60 Hz almost
f =
=

Two reactor panel

106
8.5 x 0.95

1
2

106
8.075

1
2

= 56.036
TEST PROCEDURE
Planning and connection of the equipment
The AC test equipment is composed of two trailers. Trailer A contains control unit, exciter transformer, one
HV reactor and HV test cable. Trailer B contains one HV reactor and insulation support for series
arrangement 320kV.
These 2 trailers can be connected in one of three configuration with a frequency range 30200Hz (max
300Hz)
Configuration
1
2
3

Connection
Mode
Trailer A Only
Trailer A//B
Trailer A+B

Maximum

Rated
Voltage
160KV
160KV
320KV

Inductance
17H
8.5H
34H

Current
50A
100A
50A

Test Power
8000Kva
16000kVA
16000kVA

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Section A - Page 116 of 116

The configuration depends on the system capacitance and the test voltage required and can be deducted
from the load diagram in appendix A. the dimensions and connection method of the different configuration
can be found in appendix B.
Test Equipment Connection
Depending on the type of terminations in the system, one of the following connection methods can be used.
Connection to Outdoor Termination.
In order to perform the test HV test instrument has to be connected to the outdoor termination depend on the
situation of the outdoor gantry and the place required for the test trailer.
The far end of the cable must be insolated from the other parts of the system.
If there is a GIS termination, the cable chamber must be disconnected from the busbar and filled
with SF6 gas up to 4 bars.
If there is a transformer termination, the cable chamber must be disconnected from the busbar and
filled with oil.
Connection to GIS Switchgear
In order to perform the test HV test instrument has to be connected to the GIS switchgear test bushing
SF6/air or the to the test cable with SF6. T004 depends on the kind of test bushing.

If there is a GIS termination the cable chamber must be disconnected from the busbar and
filled with SF6 gas up to 4 bars.

If there is a transformer termination, the cable chamber must be disconnected from the bus
bar and filled with Oil.

The far end of the cable must be isolated from the other parts of the system.

AC Testing
According to tcs-p-105-RO(T-PRECOM-1000-R0) and recommendation from Cigre working Group the test
voltage has to be 2Uo for the period of 1 hour. No break down should occur 152 Kv.
Precautions
During the test period all necessary safety measures must be considered.
Calibration
All used equipment must be calibrated according to calibration procedure.
Recording
The test voltage and the test frequency shall be recorded versus the test time in the test report Format.

TRANSMISSION
ENGINEERING & PROJECT

COMMISSIONING SERVICES DEPARTAMENT

Electrical System
Commissioning
Manual
SECTION - B
FACTORY TESTS

INDEX
Paragraph
SECTION B

page

FACTORY TEST
Introduction
Test Guidelines

1 - 21
1

1 - 21

Routine Tests

11

2 - 21

Type Tests

12

5 - 21

Special Requirements

13

5 - 21

7 - 21

Routine Tests

2-1

7 - 21

Special Tests

22

8 - 21

SEC Special Requirements

23

8 - 21

132 KV XLPE Power Cables

9 - 21

Routine Tests

31

9 - 21

Sample Tests

32

9 - 21

Type Tests

33

10 - 21

11 - 21

Type Tests on Cables

41

11 - 21

Routine Test on Cables

4-2

11 - 21

Special Test on Cables

43

11 - 21

Routine Test on Accessories

44

12 - 21

Type Test on Accessories

45

12 - 21

13 - 21

Routine Test

51

13 - 21

Type Tests

52

13 - 21

380 KV & 132 KV Shunt Reactors

132KV / 380KV oil filled and paper insulated


cables and accessories

132KV and 380KV Gas Insulated Switchgears


(GIS)

Paragraph

page

17 - 21

Routine Tests

61

17 - 21

Type Tests

62

17 - 21

Special Tests SEC Special Requirements

63

17 - 21

17 - 21

Routine Test

71

18 - 21

Type Tests

72

18 - 21

Special Tests SEC Special Requirements

73

18 - 21

19 - 21

Routine Tests

8-1

19 - 21

Type Tests

82

19 - 21

20 - 21

9-1

20 - 21

10

21 - 21

10 - 1

21 - 21

Outdoor Insulators

11

21 - 21

Visual Examination

11 - 1

21 - 21

132KV and 380KV Electromagnetic Voltage


Transformers for Gas Insulated Switchgear.

132KV and 380KV Capacitor Voltage


Transformers

Current Transformers

Oil/SF6 Transformer and Oil Impregnated


Paper High Voltage Bushings
Tightness Test
Outdoor Surge Arresters
Tightness Test on Each Individual Unit

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 1 of 21

INTRODUCTION:
Purpose of this document is to verify that the factory tests being performed by the
manufacturers on the contractual electrical equipment are in line with latest IEC standards read
with SEC specifications. It is also a guideline for SEC inspectors to check and approve the factory
procedures submitted prior to the tests executions. Factory Inspection is carried out to ensure that
various equipments ordered are manufactured/assembled with good engineering work meeting
contract specifications and design and all related tests prior to shipment are performed.
It is full responsibility of manufacturer to deliver zero defect equipment. This also needs to be
supported by all documentation which includes Factory Test Records.

SEC exercises right to do factory inspection & witness the tests and ask to fulfill deficiencies
pointed out prior to shipment of equipments. This inspection may be by SEC engineers or their
appointed Consultants/Inspecting agency.
PURPOSE:
The purpose of this section is to specify the guidelines for witnessing of factory routine, special
and type tests on the new equipments used in Saudi Electricity Company transmission network.

NOTE:
Factory tests would be consisted of following kind of tests:

Routine tests (to be performed on all units manufactured for client)


Type tests (to be performed on one identical or same sample for design
confirmation purpose)
Special tests (to be performed on few unit as agreement with client)
SEC Requirements (to be provided with all units for client)

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Section B - Page 2 of 21

1
NO

TEST GUIDELINES
EQUIPMENT TEST
DESCRIPTION

1.0

1.1

CHECKS, TEST LEVELS AND


ACCEPTANCE CRITERIAS

POWER TRANSFORMERS

Quality of paint and welding, serial


no, height, width, wheels, name
plate data, fans radiators, valves
open close positions, etc.

Measurement of insulation
resistance (IR) and
polarization index (PI) tests.

Measurements by 5kv megger


between phase-ground and phasephase with guard used.
PI = insulation resistance (IR) at ten
minutes value / one minute value.PI
should be greater than 1.1and IR at
10 minutes value not less than 1000
mega ohms at room temperature.

1.1.3

Measurement of voltage ratio


and vector relationship.

Turn ratio error within 0.5% at


principal tap.
Vector group shall be as per
contract.

1.1.4

Measurement of winding
resistance of all taps and all
windings.

Resistance shall increase or


decrease with regular steps along
the taps. Any abrupt change
indicates loose connection.

1.1.2

1.1.5

1.1.6

IEC 60076-1
IEC 60076-2
IEC 60076-3
IEC 60076-4
IEC 60076-5

ROUTINE TESTS
Visual inspection and
dimensional checks.

1.1.1

REFERENCE
STANDARD AND
REMARKS

No load loss and magnetizing


current measurement at 90%,
100 % & 110% rated voltage
and at rated frequency (60hz)

Short circuit impedance and


load loss test.

At 100% rated voltage, no load loss


deviation shall be within 15% to
the guaranteed value and for no
load current within + 30% of the
declared value.
Tolerance limit at principal tap for
short circuit impedance volts shall
be within 7.5 %, for load loss
within 15 % and for overall total
losses including auxiliary power
within 10 %.

Load losses can be


asked to be referred to
105c instead 75c.

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1.1.7

Switching impulse test (SI).

1.1.8

Lightening impulse test (LI).


Test with lightening impulse
chopped on tail.

1.1.9

Separate source voltage


withstand test.

1.1.10

1.1.11

Long duration induced ac


voltage test (ACLD) with partial
discharge measurements as per
IEC-60076-3 (2000) clause 7.4
(3 phase test)

Operation tests on on-load tap


changer.

1.1.12

Insulation resistance tests and


2kv ac withstand test on
auxiliary wiring and secondary
circuits in local control panel
(mkbox.)wiring function checks

1.1.13

Insulation resistance tests on


windings.

1.1.14

Capacitance and power factor


(pf) test on windings and
bushings

1.1.15

No load loss and exciting


current measurement, after all
dielectric tests finished.

380/132/33 kv Power Transformer


SI (250/2500s impulse shape) at
test voltage 1050kv.

380/132/33 kv Power Transformer


LI (1.2/50s) test levels 1425kv
LI test level at 1425kv
132-115-110/33KV/8.8 KV Power
Transformer
Li (1.2/50s) test levels 650 kv.
Three impulses of ve polarity to be
applied
38kv for graded insulation
Test sequence (um = 420kv)
raise from zero to
1.1um/3=266kv for 5 minutes
u2 = 1.5um/3= 364kv 5 minutes
u1=1.732um/3=420kv 5 sec
u2 = 1.5um/3= 364kv 60minutes
with pd measurements, pd < 500pc
pd at 1.1um/3 (266kv-5minutes) <
100pc switch off to zero kv. Run eight
complete cycles. No breakdown shall
occur.
Eight complete cycles without
voltage. On local controls.
AC/DC supply supervision checks.
Outputs for AVC panel.
Check cooler fans scheme, ac/dc
supply supervision
Check functions of bucholze,
oil/wdgs. Temp. Indicators, oil level
indicators, pressure relief devices
etc. at mk box terminals. By using
2.5 KV megger, IR > 100 Mega
Ohms
By 5kv megger, ir > 1 gegga ohms
pf < 0.4%
Loss within 15% deviation
Current within 30% declared vale.

Make sure induced


voltage test
(ACLD) with pd
measurements
shall be performed
at the end of all
tests on windings.

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Section B - Page 4 of 21
Gas

1.1.16

Complete oil analysis for


dissolved gas analysis (dga)

1.1.17

Leakage test by vacuum and


overpressure test

1.1.18

Bushings current transformers


tests for ratio, polarity,
magnetizing characteristics and
verification of terminals
markings after completed
assembly.

1.1.19

Core ad clamp megger test by


2kv megger.

1.1.20

Separate source voltage


withstand test.

1.1.21

Short duration ac withstand


voltage test (ACSD) as per
clause 7.2.1- IEC-60076-3(2000) to the uniformly
insulated HV windings

1.1.22

Capacitance and power factor


test on windings and bushings.

max
limits
(ppmv)
100
70
700
5000
70
5
90
500

hydrogen (h2)
methane (ch4)
Carbon monoxide (co)
Carbon dioxide (co2)
Ethane (c2h6)
ASTM d3612
Acetylene (c2h2)
Ethylene (c2h4)
Total combustible gas
continents
ppmv = part per million volume
note:
serious or danger level s starts when
the gas contents are 5 to 10 times
the values given in the above table
Vacuum better than 1mbar for 30
minutes. Maximum permanent
deflection 0.1% of the horizontal
length of the tank wall allowed.
Over pressure test 0.35 bars (35kpa,
5psi) above atmospheric pressure
with all radiators and accessories
connected position applied on top of
conservator for 24hours.
No deformation shall take place
This test is performed for verification
of correct ct ratio and class as per
approved protection schemes and
drawings
Carry out prim. Inj. And check sec.
currents at mk box terminals
IR value shall be more than 10 mega
ohms.
33/8.8 KV Power Transformers
Test voltage for 8.8kv winding at
38kv for one minute.
Test voltage for 33kv windings at
75kv for one minute.
ACSD test performed by balanced
three phase injection on LV side and
voltage raised, and not exceed
double the phase-phase voltage on
line (66kv for 33kv windings and
27.5kv for 8.8kv windings). No pd
measurements required normally.
Pf < 0.5%

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Section B - Page 5 of 21

1.2
1.2.1

1.2.2

1.2.3

TYPE TESTS
Gas analysis, before, during For analysis and comparison of gas
and after temperature rise tests results before and after temperature
rise test
In case of prior agreement with
contractor / manufacturer, the
Temperature rise tests ONAN
temperature rise test can be
and ONAF conditions at rated
performed at an ambient temperature
powers.
of 55c.
Pressure test

1.2.4

Lightening impulse test.

1.2.5

Gas analysis, before, during


and after temperature rise tests

1.3

1.3.1

Tank pressure limit 203kpa


(2.03bar) absolute

33/8.8 KV Power Transformers


Li test for 33kv = 170kv PK and for
8.8kv = 95kv PK. Thee ve polarity
impulses to be applied with no failure.

SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS
Short duration ac withstand 380/132/33KV Power Transformer
voltage test (ACSD) as per ACSD test sequence (um = 420kv)
clause 7.3- (a) & (b) IEC-60076 raise from zero to
3- (2000) phase to earth and
1.1um/3=266kv for 5
phase to phase tests. If this test
minutes
is specified as routine test then
u2 = 1.3um/3= 285kv 5
switching impulse test no 7 as
minutes
routine test above shall be
u1=test level 570kv 36 sec
cancelled.
measure pd level at u2 =
1.3um/3= 285kv- 5minutes,
pd < 300pc
1.1um/3 =266kv-5minutes.
Lower voltage and switch off
132-115-110/33KV/8.8 KV Power
Transformer
Test sequence (um = 145kv)
raise from zero to
1.1um/3=92kv for 5 minutes
u2 = 1.5um/3= 125kv 5 minutes
u1=1.75um/3=253kv 5 sec
u2 = 1.5um/3= 125kv 60minutes
pd at 1.1um/3 (92kv-5minutes) <

IEEE
c57.7.00.1993

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 6 of 21
500pc
switch off to zero kv
Run eight complete cycles.
No breakdowns
132-115-110/33KV/8.8 KV Power
Transformer
Test sequence (um = 420kv)
raise from zero to
Long duration induced ac
voltage test (ACLD) with partial 1.1um/3=266kv for 5 minutes
discharge measurements as per u2 = 1.5um/3= 364kv 5 minutes
IEC-60076-3 (2000) clause 7.4. u1=1.75um/3=420kv 36 sec
measure pd level at u2 = 1.5um/3=
364kv- 5minutes,
1.1um/3 =266kv-5minutes
lower voltage and switch off
Test certificates of all auxiliary
protection devices like winding
and oil temperature gauges,
bucholze relays. Pressure relief
devices. Bushings, bushing
CTs, fan motors and any other
device installed on the test
object.
Name plate, all labels, wiring
ferrules, terminal blocks, paints,
wheels, and control panel shall
be as per sec approved and
prequalified materials.
1.3.2

Acoustic sound level


measurement.

1.3.3

Zero
tests.

1.3.4

Measurement of harmonics on
the no load current.

1.3.5

Tank wall vibration


measurement.

1.3.6

Measurement of cooling
equipment power consumption.

sequence

Maximum sound level shall not be


more than 65 db (a)
impedance

Vibration amplitude less than 100


micro meter (peak to peak

IEC-60076-10

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Section B - Page 7 of 21
2.0

2.1

2.1.1

380 KV & 132KV SHUNT REACTORS

ROUTINE TESTS

Visual inspection and


dimensional checks.

2.1.2

Measurement of insulation
resistance

2.1.3

Measurement of tan delta and


capacitance of bushings and
winding.

2.1.4

Measurement of winding
resistance and inductance.

2.1.5

Separate source withstand test.

2.1.6

Full wave lightening impulse


test at line and neutral.

2.1.7

Short duration ac withstand


voltage test (ACSD) as per
clause 7.3- (b) IEC-60076-3(2000) phase to phase tests
with partial discharge
measurements.

2.1.8

Acoustic noise level


measurement

2.1.9

Tank vibration measurement


test.

2.1.10

Measurement of loss and


reactance.

2.1.11

Impedance measurement test

2.1.12

Zero sequence measurement


tests.

2.1.13

Mutual reactance measurement


test.

Quality of paint and welding, serial


no, height, width, wheels, name plate
data, fans radiators, valves open
close positions, etc.
Measurements by 5kv megger
between phase-ground and phasephase with guard used.
Pi = ir (10 minutes value)/one minute
value > 1.1. Ir at 10 minutes value
not less than 1000 mega ohms.
Pf less than 0.4%

38kv for hv neutral graded insulation


Refer to IEC 60076

Refer to IEC 60076

Noise level < 85 db (a)


Vibration amplitude less than 100
micro meter (peak to peak

IEC 60076

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Section B - Page 8 of 21

2.1.14

Leakage test by tank


overpressure and full vacuum.

Insulation resistance tests on


auxiliary wiring. in mk box
2.1.15

Wiring functions check in mk


box.

2.1.16

Complete oil analysis tests.

2.1.17

Bushings current transformers


tests for ratio, polarity, and mag
curve & verification of terminals
markings after completed
assembly.

2.2

Vacuum better than 1mbar for 30


minutes. Maximum permanent
deflection 0.1% of the horizontal
length of the tank wall allowed.
Over pressure test 0.35 bars (35kpa,
5psi) above atmospheric pressure
with all radiators and accessories
connected position applied on top of
conservator for 24hours.
No deformation shall take place
By 1kv megger.
Ir > 100 mega ohms
Check - ac/dc supply supervision
Check functions of bucholz, oil level
indicators, and oil/wdg. Temp.
Indicators, pressure relief devices
etc. At mk box terminals
Refer to clause 1.1.16 above
Carry primary inj. And check sec
currents in mk box terminals, check
ct short & isolate facility

SPECIAL TESTS

2.2.1

Harmonics & magnetic characteristics


measurements.

2.2.2

Measurement of power taken by cooling


fans if applicable.

2.3

2.3.1

2.3.2

SEC SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS


Test certificates of all auxiliary
protection devices like winding
and oil temperature gauges,
bucholze relays. Pressure relief
devices. Bushings, bushing CTs,
fan motors and any other device
installed on the test object.
Name plate, all labels, wiring
ferrules, terminal blocks, paints,
wheels, and control panel shall
be as per sec approved and
prequalified materials.

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 9 of 21

132KV XLPE POWER CABLES

3.0
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3

3.2

ROUTINE TESTS
Partial discharge test 1.5uo with
prestress voltage 1.75uo-10sec
Power frequency voltage test at
tests voltage 2.5uo-30 mints
25 kv dc withstand test on sheath
insulation

SAMPLE TESTS

3.2.5

Measurement of electrical
resistance of conductor.
Measurement of thickness of
insulation and non-metallic
sheath
Measurement of thickness of
metallic sheath
Measurement of diameters for all
metallic parts.
Hot set test xlpe insulation

3.2.6

Measurement of capacitance.

3.2.7

Void contaminant determination


and screen protrusion test
Cable core eccentricity checks

3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4

3.2.8

3.2.9

3.2.10

Swellable tape tests as


a. Tensile strength
b. Swelling height
c. Swelling speed
d. Volume resistivity
e. Thickness measurements
Aluminum foil test
a. Thickness measurement
b. Tensile strength and
elongation
c. PE peeling strength
Overlap peeling strength.

Pd less than 10 pc
Test level = 190kv ac
No break down

IEC-60840
1999

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 10 of 21
3.3

TYPE TESTS

3.3.1

Bending test followed by pd test

3.3.2

Tan and Measurement

3.3.3

3.3.5

Heating cycle voltage test


followed by pd test
Impulse withstand test followed
by pd test.
Bending test followed by pd test

3.3.6

Tan and Measurement

3.3.4

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 11 of 21

4.0

4.1

4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4

4.2

132KV / 380KV OIL FILLED & PAPER INSULATED CABLES AND


ACCESSORIES

TYPE TESTS ON CABLES


Dielectric loss
angle/temperature test
(Clause 17 IEC 141-1).
Dielectric security test (clause
18 IEC 141-1).
Lightening impulse voltage test
(clause 19 IEC 141-1)
Ac voltage test after impulse
test.

ROUTINE TEST ON CABLES

4.2.1

Conductor resistance test.

4.2.2

Capacitance test.

4.2.3

Dielectric loss angle test.

4.2.4

Ac high voltage test


1.67uo+10kv 15 minutes.
Sheath 25kv dc 1 minute hv
test (IEC 229)

4.2.5

4.3

SPECIAL TEST ON CABLES

4.3.1

Measurement of insulation
thickness.
Measurement of metal sheath
thickness.
Measurement of thickness of
sheath covering.
Bending test.

4.3.2
4.3.3
4.3.4

IEC 60141-1

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FACTORY TESTS
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4.4

4.4.1

4.4.2

4.4.3

ROUTINE TEST ON
ACCESSORIES
For joint and sealing ends
Each joint and sealing end
assembly shall be tested
hydraulically at ambient
temperature for 15 minutes at
twice the maximum design
pressure and no leakage shall
occur.
Pressure tank hydraulic test
Times the max design pressure
applied for 8 hours and no
leakage shall occur
Pressure gauges
Test certificate required from
manufacturer

4.4.4

Alarm pressure gauges


Test certificate required from
manufacturer

4.4.5

Special test on accessories


Pressure tank -pressure/volume
test as per clause 25 of IEC
141-1.

4.5

TYPE TEST ON ACCESSORIES

4.5.1

Dielectric security test (clause


29 IEC 141

4.5.2

Lightening impulse test (clause


28 IEC 141

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 13 of 21

5.0

132KV & 380KV GAS INSULATED SWITCHGEARS (GIS)

5.1

ROUTINE TESTS

5.1.1

Visual and constructional checks.

5.1.2

5.1.5

Resistance measurement on main


circuit.
Power-frequency voltage tests on
main circuit.
Dielectric tests on auxiliary and
control circuits.
Partial discharge measurements

5.1.6

Pressure test on enclosures.

5.1.7

Gas tightness tests.

5.1.8

Mechanical operation tests.

5.1.9

Circuit breaker open / close timing


tests.
Interlock tests

5.1.3
5.1.4

5.1.10

5.1.12

Tests of auxiliary electrical,


pneumatic and hydraulic devices
Verification of correct wiring

5.1.13

Current transformers tests

5.1.14

GIS VT tests.

5.1.11

5.2

Type tests
As per clause 6.1 to 6.109 of
IEC 517.

5.2.1

Switching impulse tests for


380kv GIS

5.2.2

Lightening impulse tests

5.2.3

5.2.4

5.2.5

5.2.6

Power frequency high voltage


test with pd measurements.
Short circuit making and
breaking tests for circuit
breakers.
Three phase peak and short
time withstand current tests
of main circuit and Earthing
circuits.
Three phase temperature rise
test at rated normal current at
55 deg- c for all main circuit.

SI 1050kv for 380kv


Li for 380 kv = 1425kv
Li for 132kv = 650 kv
Power frequency withstand test for
380 kv = 550kv ac ad for 132kv =
275kvac one minute.

IEC 51-2
IEC 517
IEC 694

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FACTORY TESTS
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5.2.7
AC POWER FREQUENCY VOLTAGE WITHSTAND LEVELS

System Rated Voltage


U (KV)

Highest System
Voltage
Um (KV)

One Minute Rated


Power Freq
Withstand Test
Levels
(KV)

380

420

550

230

245

460

132

145

275

115

123

230

110

123

230

ASSESSMENT OF THE TESTS


1. The switchgear shall be considered to have passed the test, if each section has
withstood the specified test voltage test voltage mentioned above in table-above without
any disruptive discharge.
2. In the case of flashover, the test can be repeated to find the discharge location.
3. If the flashover occurs during the test period and voltage still holds, then test should be
completed by keeping the test voltage fully one minute after flash over in self-restoring
insulation as gas.

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 15 of 21
5.2.8
BASIC IMPULSE LEVELS (BIL)

System
Rated
Voltage
U (KV)

Highest
System
Voltage
Um (KV)

380
230
132
115
110
69
34.5
33
8.8
11

420
245
145
123
123
72.5
36
36
17.5
14.5

Basic impulse levels (BIL)


Lightening Impulse
1.2/50 sec
Withstand
Level Peak (KV)
1425
1050
650
550
550
325
170
170
95
75

Switching Impulse
250/2500 sec
Withstand Level Peak
(KV)
1050
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA
NA

TEST CRITERIA FOR VARIOUS EQUIPMENTS INCLUDING GIS & SWITCHGEARS

Test object

No of impulses to be
applied
For
For
Um < 300kv
Um
300kv

Current and
Voltage
Transformers

Fifteen each
Positive and
Negative
Polarities

Bushings

Five each
Positive &
Negative
Polarities

Medium and
High Voltage
Switchgears
Air and
Gas
Insulated
Power
Transformers
& Reactors

Fifteen each
Pos & Neg
Polarities
Three full
wave, each
of Pos and
Negative
Polarities
after gradual

Test criteria
For
>= Um < 300kv

Three each
Positive and
Negative
Polarities

NA

Three each
Pos & Neg
Polarities

As per
Clause
14 IEC 76-3

No disruptive
discharge in the
solid insulation.
No more than
two Flashovers,
in gas insulation

For
Um >= 300kv

IEC
Ref.

No disruptive
discharge.

IEC-185
and 186

NA

IEC-137

No disruptive
discharge In the
solid insulation.
No more than
two Flashovers
in gas Insulation

No disruptive
Discharge.

IEC - 694

No disruptive
discharge

No disruptive
discharge

No disruptive
discharge

IEC 76-3
& 722

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 16 of 21
increase by
50% and
75%, till
100%
Chopped
wave as per
clause
8.3 IEC 76-3

5.2.9
REQUIREMENTS OF NEW SF6 GAS
SF6 which is delivered in cylinders in liquid phase, contains impurities with in the limits imposed by IEC
376 as under.
IMPURITIES

MAX LIMIT

Carbon Tetra fluoride (Cf4)

0.03%

Oxygen + Nitrogen (Air)

0.03%

Water

15ppmM

Carbon dioxide (Co2)

TRACES

HF

0.3ppmM
SF6 should be 99.9% pure

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 17 of 21

6.0
6.1

132KV & 380KV ELECTROMAGNETIC VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS


FOR GAS INSULATED SWITCHDEAR.
ROUTINE TESTS

6.1.2

Verification of terminals
markings
Power frequency tests

6.1.3

Partial discharge test

6.1.4

Tests for accuracy

6.1.1

6.2

TYPE TESTS

6.2.1

Temperature rise test

6.2.2

Ferro-resonance tests

6.2.3

Transient response test

6.2.4

Tests for accuracy

6.3

SPECIAL TESTS
SEC-SPECIAL
REQUIREMENTS

6.3.1

Windings resistance

6.3.2

Megger test

6.3.3

Vt primary isolation
device operational tests

6.3.4

Verification of primary
isolation gap to withstand
rated power frequency high
voltage withstands tests.

IEC-186
IEC 44-4

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 18 of 21

7.0

7.1

132KV & 380KV CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS

ROUTINE TESTS

7.1.1

Verification of terminals markings

7.1.2

Power frequency tests

7.1.3

Partial discharge test

7.1.4

Tests for accuracy

7.2
7.2.1

TYPE TESTS
Temperature rise test

7.2.2

Ferro-resonance tests

7.2.3

Transient response test

7.2.4

Tests for accuracy

7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2

SPECIAL TESTS SEC-SPECIAL


REQUIREMENTS
Dissipation factor and capacitance
measurement tests
4kv insulation test on hv neutral
terminal with ground.

IEC-186
IEC 44-4

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 19 of 21

8.0

8.1
8.1.1

8.1.2

8.1.3

8.1.4
8.1.5
8.1.6
8.1.7
8.1.8
8.1.9
8.1.10

8.2
8.2.1

CURRENT TRANSFORMERS

ROUTINE TESTS
Determination of error according to
the requirement of the appropriate
accuracy class.
High voltage power frequency dry
withstand test between primary
winding and secondary winding at
3kv 1 minutes (sec winding
grounded).
High voltage power frequency dry
withstand test between secondary
winding and earth at 3kv 1 minutes.
All other windings grounded.
High voltage power frequency dry
withstand test between primary
winding and earth at 3kv 1 minutes
(all other windings grounded).
Inter turn insulation test
Verification of terminal marking and
polarity test.
Composite error test
Magnetizing characteristic curve test
to know knee point voltage
Primary/secondary winding
resistance test
High voltage test with pd
measurements as per IEC 44.4

TYPE TESTS
Temperature rise test in case
primary conductor is part of ct

IEC-185
IEC-44.4

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Section B - Page 20 of 21

9.0
9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5

9.6

9.7

9.8

OIL/SF6 TRANSFORMER AND OIL IMPREGNATED PAPER HIGH


VOLTAGE BUSHINGS
TIGHTNESS TEST
Measurement of dielectric dissipation
Df < 0.4%
factor and capacitance
Power frequency voltage withstand
Pd< 5pc
test with partial discharge
measurements
Repeat dielectric dissipation factor
Df < 0.4%
and capacitance measurement test.
Lightening impulse voltage withstand 5 full wave negative polarity
test 1.2/50s
impulses to be applied with no
flashover.
Repeat power frequency voltage
Pd< 5pc
withstand test with partial discharge
measurements
Repeat again dielectric dissipation
Df < 0.4%
factor & capacitance measurement
test
Measuring tap test by 3kv ac one
No short circuit
minute along with capacitance meant
by tan delta set

IEC 137

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FACTORY TESTS
Section B - Page 21 of 21

10.0

OUTDOOR SURGE ARRESTERS

10.1

Tightness test on each individual unit

10.2

Residual voltage measurement test at current impulse of 10KA


(8/20s) on each individual unit and for complete arrester.
Reference voltage measurement test at a resistive current of 5 mill
amperes on each individual unit and for complete arrester.
Partial discharge measurement test on each individual unit and for
complete arrester.
Power losses and grading current test at cove on each individual unit
and for complete arrester.

10.3
10.4
10.5

11.0

OUTDOOR INSULATORS

11.1

VISUAL EXAMINATION

11.1.1

Verification of dimensions with tolerance

11.1.2

Porosity test

11.1.3

Temperature cycle test

11.1.4

Ultrasonic test

11.1.5

Galvanizing test

11.1.6
11.1.7

Mechanical tests
Tensile test.
Bending test
Torsion test
Internal pressure test

11.1.8

Electrical tests
Puncture test
Voltage withstand test with partial discharge measurents.
Impulse tests

11.1.9

Tests for crack indication of ground end surface

IEC 99-4

Pd < 5pc

IEC 233

TRANSMISSION
ENGINEERING & PROJECT

COMMISSIONING SERVICES DEPARTAMENT

Electrical System
Commissioning
Manual
SECTION - C
DRAWINGS

INDEX
Paragraph

page

INTRODUCTION

1-1

1 - 10

PURPOSE

2-1

1 - 10

1 - 10

3-1

1 - 10

3 - 10

Single Line Diagram

4-1

3 - 10

Logic Diagram

4-2

3 - 10

Schematic Diagrams

4-3

3 - 10

Alarms

4-4

4 - 10

C.T. Shorting and Isolating Arrangement

4-5

4 - 10

V.T. Circuit

4-6

5 - 10

Internal Wiring and Cable Connections

4-7

5 - 10

Equipment Labeling

4-8

6 - 10

General Points

4-9

6 - 10

9 - 10

Power Transformers

5-1

9 - 10

Metal Clade Switchgears and GIS

5-2

9 - 10

Test Adapters

5-3

10 - 10

Measurands

5-4

10 - 10

General Requirements

5-5

10 - 10

SECTION C

DRAWINGS

PROTECTION SECTION RELATED POINTS


Drawings Quality
SEQUENCE OF DRAWINGS SUBMISSION

TESTING SECTION RELATED POINTS

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
DRAWINGS
Section C - Page 1 of 10

INTRODUCTION:

Drawings are very important and play vital role in activities of commissioning and other related
S.E.C. Departments. So it is equally important to have correct drawings covering all aspects of
Scheme and details of connections.

PURPOSE

Objective of this section of the manual is to have Guidelines on major points of checking
drawings at each stage of commissioning activities i.e. For approval, Approval after
implementing various comments, As Built during commissioning and Final As Built after
incorporating all corrections etc. to represent truly all correct drawings.

PROTECTION SECTION RELATED POINTS:

3.1 DRAWINGS QUALITY:


3.1.1

Each sheet of the drawing to be marked as FOR APPROVAL, APPROVED,


AS-BUILT and FINAL AS-BUILT, as the case may be.

3.1.2

The drawing to be submitted in A3 size in a proper binder. The folding of any drawing
sheet would not be acceptable. The contents detail to be available outside the binder.

3.1.3

The Feeder/Bay name/number to be available on each sheet. The separators to be


provided to enable an easy access to each bay drawing from the index sheet.

3.1.4

Each sheet to contain the number of the following sheet invariably if numbers are not
symmetrical otherwise the sheet # oblique total # of sheets must appear on each sheet.

3.1.5

Each drawing sheet to be divided in columns and rows. The columns to be assigned by
numbers viz. 1, 2, 3 and the rows to be assigned letters viz. A, B, C etc.

3.1.6

Proper inter-references to be added for each primary and secondary equipment and
these inter-references should include the column and row reference of the location e.g.
2E, 5D and 4C etc. For reference, the same method should be used throughout the
drawing. More than one method for the purpose is not acceptable.

3.1.7

The date of issue of the drawing to be available on each sheet. In case of modification,
the modifications detail with date also to be added. Additionally, the name and signature
of the engineer responsible for checking and approving the drawing should be available.

3.1.8

The drawing index to be available at the beginning of each set of drawings describing the
subject of each sheet or a group of sheets and its status as 1st issue, 2nd issue and 3rd
issue etc.

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DRAWINGS
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3.1.9

Each sheet to be titled as per the functions contained in that sheet e.g. main protection
C.T. circuit, Tripping relay-1, trip circuit for trip coil # 2, DC distribution, A.C. distribution,
local alarms and SCADA alarms, etc.

3.1.10

Each set of drawings to be assigned one and only one number. Two drawing
numbers (one from the main Contractor and one from the Sub-contractor) would not be
used in any case.

3.1.11

In case of main/auxiliary relays, the detail of contacts (NO and NC) with proper
reference to the relevant drawing sheets to be available. The contacts which are not
used, to be marked as spares. Additionally, the reverse references on the relevant
drawing sheets should also be available. Indicating the relay coil and its contacts detail
with reference at the end of the drawing only would not be accepted in any case. Each
reference to include some identification mark having close resemblance with its function.

3.1.12

In case of involvement of the equipment from more than one manufacturer, the interreferences are normally missed. This situation is not acceptable at all.

3.1.13

The exact relay model # to be indicated on the drawing.

3.1.14

The protection IN/OUT relay must be indicated in the Out Position with a note to this
effect at the bottom of the sheet.

3.1.15

The C.T., V.T. ratio and the other relevant details must appear on each drawing
sheet wherever the same are indicated.

3.1.16

All the drawing relating to a particular bay viz. GIS, LCC, Control Panel, Relay
Panel, Schematic, internal connection diagram and cable connection Schedule etc. must
be contained in one binder.

3.1.17

The drawing set for each bay must be independent. Typical drawing for any
device/bay whatsoever type it may be would never be accepted.

3.1.18

At the beginning of each set of drawings, an equipment list to be added and this
should furnish full information about each device in respect of type, rating make, the
number of NO and NC contacts, the sheet #, location on the sheet containing that
device and ordering information etc.

3.1.19

The inter-reference would follow the contacts location and not the coil location.

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DRAWINGS
Section C - Page 3 of 10

SEQUENCE OF DRAWINGS SUBMISSION:

4.1 Single Line Diagram:


st

The single line diagram for the Substation to be the 1 submission and it should indicate the
positioning of each CT, VT and all devices viz. C.Bs., disconnectors, earth switches,
transformers, O.H.L. feeder, U.G. cable feeder and spare/future feeders etc. The bays to be
indicated as per physical positions. Future bays would be indicated with dotted lines.
4.1.1

The VT to be indicated clearly in respect of its being single phase or three phases. In case
of single phase, the VT phases also to be correctly indicated.

4.1.2

The designation of CT and VT if any, must be added. The ratio and other particulars of
each CT & VT core will be added.

4.1.3

SEC-CRB Standard Numbers to be added for each device, as per relevant Specifications.
Circuit label should include SEC (CRB) Bay no. also.

4.1.4

The rating of each equipment BB, CB disconnect and Earth Switch etc. to be indicated.

4.2 LOGIC DIAGRAM:


The logic diagram to follow the single line diagram. For each bay/feeder a functional logic
diagrams to be furnished. This logic diagram is to indicate the CT/VT ratio, rating, class, and
connections to the protective devices and the measuring instruments. Further, it should indicate
the IN/OUT relay, if any, trip relay and all the output functions of the trip relay viz. Trip CB #
trip coil # initiate CBF protection, initiate AR, block AR, alarm, auto reset circuit and inter-trip
send etc. Respective Channel no. to be indicated for Protection Signaling Equipment. Output to
local ann. Alarms & to ECC to be indicated.

4.3 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAMS:


4.3.1

All the various drawings relating to a bay viz. Schematic, GIS, LCC, relay panel, control
panel, AC distribution, D.C. distribution and SCADA interface panel, etc. along with the
single line diagram and the logic diagram (already approved under ( 1 & 2) above to be
submitted for each bay at the same time.

4.3.2

In case of various devices viz. CB, isolator, Earth switch and relay etc., the internal detail
of AC/DC circuits to be indicated. All the contacts to be indicated properly. The black box
used for representing any device is not acceptable. In case it is not possible to indicate
such details, the internal detail to be indicated up to the possible extent and a separate
drawing with complete internal detail to be attached with.

4.3.3

The typical drawing for any device whatsoever may be would not be submitted.

4.3.4

The contact # and terminal # would be available in the drawing.

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DRAWINGS
Section C - Page 4 of 10
4.4 ALARMS:
4.4.1

Each alarm relating to the GIS would be available in the LCC panel. In case the alarm is
related to each phase, then independent alarm would be provided for each phase. SF6

Stage-I
and Stage- II alarms would also be provided.
4.4.2

The alarms and their litra to be strictly as per SEC-CRB Specifications 15-0-10. Latest
revision.

4.4.3

Each individual alarm would be available in the FMK interface panel.

4.4.4

The alarm terminals to provide the facility for the alarm isolation without the use of screw
driver by a hand operated knife switch isolating type terminal with test sockets on both
sides.

4.4.5

The detail of all the alarm terminals would be available in the panel on a metallic sheet
fixed in the panel.

4.4.6

The availability of the necessary spare alarm windows fully equipped would be checked.

4.4.7

The plug in relay/connections would not be allowed in any alarm circuit.

4.4.8

In addition to DC supply, AC supply with AC/DC converter would also be used for the
alarms and it would work as backup in case of failure of DC alarm supply.

4.4.9

In case of AC or DC supply fail alarm, a little bit delay would be introduced in order to cope
with transient jerks.

4.4.10 Each supply MCB would be equipped with an alarm contact which would alarm when the
MCB gets switched off automatically on fault or is switched off manually and such an alarm
contact would be connected to the annunciator System.

4.5 C.T. SHORTING AND ISOLATING ARRANGEMENT:


4.5.1

An 11/14 terminals arrangement would be provided in LCC Panel for C.T. shorting and
isolation. This arrangement should allow the isolation of neutral and earth connection. The
relay and Control Panels to be equipped with 8 terminals arrangement for such functions.
The arrangement should allow the insertion of 4 mm size banana plug on each side of the
terminal to measure the in service current. This arrangement should allow the shorting and
isolation of each phase individually 3-phase simultaneous shorting would, in no case, be
used. This facility would also be extended to auxiliary C.T. and those installed in LV, AC.
Panels. If the same C.T. is feeding more than one equipment e.g. a relay and fault recorder
then a series type shorting and isolating arrangement shall be used.

4.5.2

The C.T. star point would never be made directly on the C.T. secondary terminals. It should
be made on terminal block.

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DRAWINGS
Section C - Page 5 of 10
4.5.3

The C.T. terminals would always be covered with a Caution label as Caution C.T. Circuit
short before isolating. The label should describe the shorting and isolation process briefly.
The shorting and isolating terminals would be lapelled for their functions. It is worth
mentioning that in no case, MCB would be used for such functions.

4.5.4

For the C.T. connections, a cable having colored cores with Red, Yellow, Blue and Black
colors for Red Phase, Yellow Phase, Blue Phase and Neutral respectively would invariably
be used.

4.5.5

In case of unit protections like BBP, REF etc., the C.T. neutral in no case would be
connected to earth at more than one point.

4.5.6

The plug in type connections would never be accepted in any C.T. circuitry.

4.6 V.T. CIRCUIT:


4.6.1

Each V.T. circuit would be equipped with isolating links just before feeding any device. A
plastic cover and a label to this effect would be provided.

4.6.2

Each V.T. circuit would be properly monitored with the MCB of proper rating.

4.6.3

The V.T. secondary circuit would always be protected from the V.T. to its M.K. with proper
protection and this protection would be properly graded with the other branch protections.
Each V.T. circuit would be independently protected with MCB having alarm contact.

4.6.4

A cable containing colored cores would be used for V.T. circuit.

4.6.5

In case of open delta connection for DEF relay, the delta connection would be made in the
relay panel to allow directional on load test of DEF relay with V.T. circuit manipulation
before the delta circuit.

4.6.6

For V.T. MCB associated with Synchro check & closing Scheme, additional aux. contacts
shall be provided for the required interlocking scheme.

4.7 INTERNAL WIRING AND CABLE CONNECTIONS:


4.7.1

The Terminal Board layout drawings should indicate the external cables terminated on one
side and the internal connections made on other side of a terminal block.
A separate sheet titled ferruling methods and materials to be included. Each internal wire
and the cable termination would be ferruled as per IEC standard IEC-391 (Fig. 14d).
Moreover, the ferruling system all over the substation will be kept uniform.

4.7.2

Each of terminal block would be designated properly and this designation would be
according to the function and as simple as possible so as to facilitate the ferruling. No

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COMMISSIONING MANUAL
DRAWINGS
Section C - Page 6 of 10
terminal number should have more than 2 digits. The terminals to be grouped according to
their functions and labeled accordingly.
4.7.3

Each wire would be terminated by using an appropriate insulated lug.


The minimum size of the internal wires for C.T. and Control circuit should never be less
2

than
4.7.4

2.5 mm and 1.5 mm respectively in any case.

The plug in type connections would not be used, in any circuit but alternately, the screwed
connections would only be used.

4.8 EQUIPMENT LABELLING:


4.8.1

Each equipment would be labeled properly and a schedule of labels would be submitted
and got approved by the Contractor from SEC. The label would include the equipment
designation and function.

4.8.2

In case of duplex type protection and control panels, the bay/feeder name/number would
be labeled outside and as well as inside the panel. The same principle would be applied to
the relays and measuring instruments. If panel has been given any designation, the same
would also be available inside and as well as outside the panel, as per schematic diagram.

4.8.3

Each piece of equipment inside a panel would be properly labeled and the detail with the
function would be available inside the panel on a metallic sheet.

4.8.4

Each trip isolation link would be properly labeled with red sleeve.

4.8.5

The paper labels would not be used in any case.

4.9 GENERAL POINTS:


4.9.1

The trip circuit supervision scheme would be provided for each C.B. irrespective of its
voltage level and this scheme should ensure continuous supervision of the C.B. trip circuit
(not only trip coil) whether the C.B. is ON or OFF and whether the trip signal is present or
not. A supervised trip isolation link would be provided in each trip circuit for each
Protection. One common trip isolation link for all the Protections is not acceptable.

4.9.2

The gas monitoring system would be arranged in a fail safe manner. Similarly, the C.B.
operating medium viz. air pressure or oil pressure etc. also to be monitored in a fail safe
manner.

4.9.3

The independent SF6 monitoring gauge contact to be available for trip circuit-1, trip circuit2 and closing circuit etc. of the C.B.

4.9.4

The measuring transducers for SCADA purposes would be located in the SCADA panels.

4.9.5

The C.T. shorting and C.T./V.T. isolation facilities would also be provided in the SCADA
panels.

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4.9.6

If SEC-CRB organization of alarms allows for grouping of some alarm, each individual
alarm must be flagged to enable to know the exact initiator.

4.9.7

The C.T. and V.T. cables should be segregated core-wise. More than one core in one
cable is not acceptable in any case, whether these cables are between the equipment and
its M.K. or between two equipment. This shall be reflected in respective cable tables.

4.9.8

The direct auxiliary contacts of the various devices to be used in the interlock circuit rather
than the contacts of the interface auxiliary relays.

4.9.9

All the abnormalities must be alarmed. No abnormality should be such which does not
show its appearance. Moreover, the alarm to ECC must follow the initiating contact i.e. on
resetting the alarm initiating contact the alarm to ECC must get reset.

4.9.10 Consistency would be maintained throughout the S/S in various respects viz. equipment
number, equipment designation, wiring, cabling, ferruling, labeling, the arrangement of the
terminal blocks and their designation, termination standard and method even if the different
equipment have been supplied by different suppliers.
4.9.11 The SEC specifications would be strictly followed in all respects. In case of doubt about
any point, the Contractor must get it clarified from SEC and SEC decision would be
considered final in such cases. The benefit of the doubt would be SEC privilege.
4.9.12 The relays would be selected from the SEC approved list of relays. If the Contractor is
interest to introduce a relay which is not covered by the SEC approved list of relays, the
Contractor must get it Pre-qualified through the formal Pre-qualification procedure.

4.9.13 The Acknowledgement, Reset and test facility for each Panel to be independent for the
Annunciator System.
4.9.14 Each relay and instrument to be equipped with an independent test block. It equally applies
to synchro-check relay, synchronizer and auto reclose relay etc. A common test block for
more than one relay is not acceptable. In case a scheme uses more than one relay, each
relay to have its independent test block. Each terminal of the test block to be marked with
its function viz. +, - trip, close, Alarm R, Y, B, N etc. Each relay out put e.g. alarm, close
and trip etc. to pass through the test block.
4.9.15 The terminals to be used for C.T., V.T., control, trip and alarm circuit etc. would be subject
to SEC approval for their type and materials.
4.9.16 In case lamps are used in LCC to indicate the status of various devices viz. C.B. isolator
and Earth Switch etc. this should be done with one lamp only. Two lamps for one function
would not be accepted.
4.9.17 The plug in type auxiliary relays would not be used in any circuit unless their locking
arrangement is provided.
4.9.18 The auxiliary relays would be of high quality/standard. The industrial type auxiliary relays
would not be used in any case.

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4.9.20 The drawing should never be approved with comments. But rather, the approval should be
accorded only and only after the comments are incorporated in the drawing.
4.9.21 Each modification done in the drawing during Pre-commissioning stage must be reflected on
the drawing in colored ink.
4.9.22 One copy of the temporary as built drawing, test results and all the catalogues to be
provided at the Substation in a pad lockable cupboard and another copy to be provided to
P&T Office. The same would be replaced with final as built drawing at a later stage.
4.9.23 For the tripping function, a proper trip relay would invariably be used. The use of auxiliary
relays for such functions is totally prohibited.
4.9.24 The protection equipment existing at the remote end of each circuit would be upgraded by
the Contractor to bring it in line with the one being used at the local end so as to meet SEC
latest Specifications or vice versa.
4.9.25 The remote/local switch and inter-locking over-ride switch etc. should be pad lockable and to
be reflected in the drawings.
4.9.26 Every relay to be equipped with a flag which should drop with the issue of trip signal from the
relay.
4.9.27 For Busbar Protection scheme, the closing of line earth in any feeder, should initiate
automatic shorting and isolation of the BBP C.T. for that feeder in order to avoid malfunctioning of the BBP. If the BBP c.t. get included in the fdr. Earthling's circuit.
4.9.28 he inter-trip wires (receive + send) from pilot box up to the relay terminals should be of 15
KV insulation.
4.9.30 In case two unit type Protections (Main-1 & Main-2) are connected to the same set of C.T.
bus wires, a provision should be made to isolate each one of them in respect of C.T., trip
and alarm circuit leaving the other in service.
4.9.31 The Panel to Panel wires must be protected with PVC or rubber grummets and to be
reflected in Panel View drawings.
4.9.32 During open/close operation, of any isolator, if A.C. supply is interrupted, the operation
should not be completed automatically in case of restoration of supply for the A.C. operated
drives.
4.9.33 In case of involvement of a new Contractor in any Project a little bit more time should be
spent for the drawings review due to possibility of non compliance with SEC Specifications
as a result of his being unfamiliar with SEC System.

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TESTING SECTION RELATED POINTS:


5.1 POWER TRANSFORMERS:
5.1.1

Check following points in the nameplate diagram.

5.1.1.a Confirm the transformer HV side R, Y, B phases are connected to GIS in the
same correct phase sequence.
5.1.1.b Serial no same as on body engraved.
5.1.1.c Tap positions increase say 1 to 21 or 8L, 7L,,,,,,,,,2L, 1L, N, 1R, 2R,,,,,,,,12R
shall corresponds to decrease in the voltage ratio.
5.1.1.d Vector group shown graphically and symbolically both.

5.1.2

Following points in the marshalling kiosks of power and cooling circuits


diagram to be considered as.

5.1.2.a Check for each of Fan motor protection MCBS shall have 30% extra overload
setting range available to avoid unnecessary tripping in hot season when the
MCBS are de-rated due to high temperature in the cabinets.
5.1.2.b Check for each of the fan group shall have its own main MCCB. All the fan
groups shall not be controlled by only one MCCB.

5.1.2.c Check the Cooler Control Cubicles are supplied with suitable wiring size to carry
the fan motor current without overheating.
5.1.2.d Check auxiliary transformers installed over the main transformers shall have
primary fuses installed. Direct connection from main transformer to auxiliary
transformer is not acceptable.

5.2

METAL CLADE SWITCHGEARS AND GIS


Check following points in the MV and HV switch-gear layout diagrams.
5.2.1

13.8kv and 33kv VTs shall have primary fuses installed in a separate compartment.
VTs directly installed without primary fuses are not acceptable.

5.2.2

G.I.S. VTs shall have primary isolating device manually operated externally with on
off indication on the mimic diagram.

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5.3 TEST ADAPTERS:


5.3.1

Check drawings for suitable three phase test adapter + bushing for performing
and Cable AC HV tests.

5.3.2

The test adapter shall be suitable to select any phase and earth the other two at
same time.

5.3.3

One side of the test adapter to be fitted on GIS but other side should have gas to
air bushing to connect wire in air to apply ac high voltage from any test set.

5.4 MEASURANDS:
Following points shall be considered while checking drawing containing measurands.
5.4.1

Check all the Transducers shall be installed in SCADA Panels. Only meter driving
transducers should be installed in Control Cubicles.

5.4.2

Confirm all feeders shall have zero centered MW, Mvar indicating meters with clearly
written import and export on dials.

5.4.3

MMLG or RMLG type test terminal block shall be available for meter calibration
purpose.

5.4.4

Confirm all the indicating meters shall have long scale readings. Short scale meters
should not be acceptable.

5.5 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS:


5.5.1

Check in the auxiliary supply drawings that a separate earth terminal and a supply
point (220v-200amp-60hz) has been provided in all Switchgear and GIS halls near the
main doors for future testing purpose.

5.5.2

Check in the S/S layout drawings that access to a big van shall be available on
metalloid ground on big door side of every Switchgear Rooms for Testing and Fault
location purpose.