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Cahit Arf Matematical Days

First Day - Questions


April 17, 2002
Warning: You should explain all your answers.
There are 8 (eight) questions in total. Do not try to amass points by trying to do all of
them. It is often better to finish one question than to attack several of them with always partial
results.
The number of points allocated to each question should indicate more or less the difficulty
of the question.
Definitions that are needed:
A natural number is a number like 0, 1, 2, 3, 4.
An integer is a number like 4, 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3.
R denotes the set of real numbers.
A complex number is a number of the form a + ib where a and b are real numbers. Recall
that i2 = 1.
If a < b are real numbers, we define the intervals
(a, b) = {x R : a < x < b}
[a, b) = {x R : a x < b}
(a, b] = {x R : a < x b}
[a, b] = {x R : a x b}
(a, ) = {x R : a < x}.
A one-to-one function from a set X into a set Y is a function f : X Y such that for all x1,
x2 X, x1 = x2 whenever f(x1) = f(x2).
A function f from a set X into a set Y is called onto if for all y Y there is an x X, such
that f(x) = y.
A function from a set X into a set Y is called a bijection if it is both one-to-one and onto.
Problems
1. Using all the letters of the word ARF we can form six (meeningful or meeningless)
words:
AFR, ARF, FAR, FRA, RAF, RFA.
Using all the letters of the word YASA we can form twelve words:
AASY, AAYS, ASAY, ASYA, AYAS, AYSA,
SAAY, SAYA, SYAA, YAAS, YASA, YSAA
1a. How many words can you form using all the letters of the word GEN? (You do not
need to list them, or to find them one by one; we are just asking the number of such words). (1
pt.)
1b. How many words can you form using all the letters of the word CAHTARF? (You
have to use A twice. The same remark applies to the other questions as well.) (2 pt.)
1c. How many words can you form using all the letters of the word MATEMATK? (2
pts.)
1d. How many words can you form using all the letters of the word DERECE? (2 pts.)
1e. How many words can you form using all the letters of the word KBNK? (3 pts.)
2. Let a and b be the two solutions of 11x2 3x 5 = 0. Calculate
(1 + a + a2 + a3 + ...) (1 + b + b2 + b3 + ...)
(10 pts.)

3. What is the remainder of the division of 20022002 by 5, by 7 and by 19? (1, 2, 2 pts.)
4. Show that there can be at most one point with integer coefficients on a circle centered at
(3, 2). (10 pts.)
5a. Consider the isosceles triangle ABC where |AB| = |AC| = 10 and where the angle
ABC is 30o. Calculate the height h and the length of the base BC. (No explicit use of
trigonometry is allowed).
A
h
C

(5 pts.)
5b. Consider the following figure
A

where BCDE is a square, the triangles ABC and FCD are equal, the angles ABC and ACB
are 30o and |AF| = 2002. Calculate the area of the square BCDE. (10 pts.)
6a. Show that for all natural numbers n 0 and all real numbers x > 1, (1 + x)n 1 + nx.
(7 pts.)
6b. Without using limits, derivatives or any advanced concepts, show that
2 (1 + 1/n)n 3, for all natural numbers n > 0. (13 pts.)
7a. Show that the intervals (0, 1) and (2, 3) are in bijection. (1 pt.)
7b. Show that the intervals (0, 1) and (0, 2) are in bijection. (1 pt.)
7c. Show that the intervals (0, 1) and (2, 5) are in bijection. (1 pt.)
7d. Show that the sets (0,1) and (0,1) [2, 3) are in bijection. (1 pt.)
7e. Show that the sets (0, 1) and (0, 1) {2} (3, 4) are in bijection. (2 pts.)
7f. Show that the intervals (0, 1] and [0, 1) are in bijection. (1 pt.)
7g. Show that the intervals (0,1) and (1, ) are in bijection. (1 pt.)
7h. Show that the intervals (0, 1) and [0, 1) are in bijection. (Hint: 7e may inspire you). (7
pts.)
8. Consider the complex number z =

3 4i
. Show that zn 1 for any natural number n
5

1. (15 pts.)

Cahit Arf Matematical Days


First Day
April 17, 2002
Solution 1a. 5!
Solution 1b. 8!/2 = 20160
Solution 1c. 292! 2 = 45360
Solution 1d. 6!/3! = 120
Solution 1e. 5!9!2 = 1512
Solution 2. We first note that a + b = 3/11 and ab = 5/11.
2
3 229
The two solutions are 3 3 4 (5) 11 =
and one can check easily that

22

2 11

these solutions are in the interval (1, 1). Therefore the infinite sums 1 + a + a2 + a3 + ... and 1
+ b + b2 + b3 + ... are real numbers and they are equal to
Therefore,

1
1
and
respectively.
1 a
1 b

1
1
1
1
3
5 =
(1 + a + a + a + ...)(1 + b + b + b + ...) =
=
=
1

1 a 1 b 1 ( a b) ab
11 11
2

11/3.

Solution 3.
20022002 22002 41001 (1)1001 1 4 (mod 5).
20022002 (7 286)2002 0 (mod 7).
20022002 72002 73667 + 1 = (73)667 7 7 (mod 19) because 73 = 49 7 11 7 = 77 1
(mod 19).
Solution 4. Let C be a circle centered at (3, 2). Let (x, y) and (x1, y1) be two points with
integer coefficients on C. Considering their distance to the center, we get:
(x 3)2 + (y 2)2 = (x1 3)2 + (y1 2)2.
Computing and simplifying, we get
x2 23x + y2 22y = x12 23x1 + y12 22y1.
It follows that 23(x1 x) + 22(y1 y) is an integer. Squaring, we see that 86(x1 x)(y1 y)
is also an integer. Since 6 is not a rational number, it follows that either x1 = x or y1 = y.
Assume the first equality, for instance. Then 22(y1 y) is an integer, and so y1 = y because 2
is irrational. The case that y1 = y follows similarly.
A
h
C
3

Solution 5a. Reproduce the same triangle upside down:


A
O

h
C

D
Now it is clear that the triangle ABD is a triangle all of whose angles are 60 o. Thus ABD is an
equilateral triangle. Since each side must be 10, we must have h = 10/2. To compute the
base, we consider the right triangle AOB. By Pythagor, we must have |AB| 2 = |AO|2 + |OB|2.
Thus (10)2 = (10/2)2 + |OB|2 and so |OB| = 30/2. Thus |BC| = 30.
Solution 5b. It is easily seen that the triangle ACF is a right triangle (at C) and also an
isosceles triangle. Thus, by Pythagor, 2|AC|2 = |AC|2 + |CF|2 = |AF|2 = 2002. Thus |AC| =
1001. By an argument similar to the solution of the first part, |BC| = 3003. Thus the area of
the square is 3003.
Solution 6a. We proceed by induction on n.
For n = 0, this is clear. (Note that we need x 1 for this).
Assume the inequality holds for n. Then we have
(1 + x)n+1 = (1 + x)n(1 + x) (1 + nx)(1 + x) = 1 + (n + 1)x + nx2 1 + (n + 1)x.
(The second step is by the induction hypothesis and for this step we also need the fact that 1 +
x > 0, which we know it holds).

Solution 6b.

Replacing x by 1/n in the first part we get 2 (1 + 1/n)n for all natural numbers n > 0.
Now we show that (1 + 1/n)n 3, for all natural numbers n > 0.

n 1
i0 i ni

(1 + 1/n)n =

=1+ i 1
n

n(n 1)...(n i 1) 1
1 2 3 ... i
ni

1
1 2 3 ... i
1
n
1
1 1/ 2n
1+ i 1 i 1 =1+
1+
=3
1 1/ 2
2
1 1/ 2

1+ i 1
n

Solution 7a. The function f defined by f(x) = x + 2 is such a bijection.


Solution 7b. The function f defined by f(x) = 2x is such a bijection.
Solution 7c. The function f defined by f(x) = 3x + 2 is such a bijection.
Solution 7d. The function f defined by

2x if 0 x 1/ 2
f ( x)
2x 1 if 1/ 2 x 1

is such a bijection.
Solution 7e. The function f defined by

2 x if 0 x 1 / 2

f ( x ) 2 if x 1 / 2
2 x 2 if 1 / 2 x 1

is such a bijection.
Solution 7f. f(x) = x + 1 is such a bijection.
Solution 7g. f(x) = 1/x is such a bijection.
Solution 7h. Choose an infinite sequence a1 , a 2 , without repeating terms in (0,1)
n
), and put a 0 =0. Then there is a bijection between the sets { a n
n 1
:n0} and { a n :n0}, which takes a n to a n 1 . Then the function f:[0,1)(0,1) such that
f(x)=x for x{ a n :n0}, and f( a n )= a n 1 for all n 0, obviously is a bijection.

(for example, take a n

Solution 8. We will show that (3 + 4i)n 5n for any n > 0. For , complex numbers, let
us write if there are two integers a and b such that =5( a + bi).
Note that
(3 + 4i)2 = 7 + 24i = 10(1 + i) + (3 + 4i) 3 + 4i.

Thus (3 + 4i)n 3 + 4i for all n 1. On the other hand 5n 0 for all n 1. It follows that
(3 + 4i)n can not be equal to 5n for any n 1.