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PEMILIHAN MATERIAL DAN

DESAIN TEBAL PIPA


KL4220 PIPA BAWAH LAUT

PROF. Ir. Ricky Lukman Tawekal, MSE, PhD


Eko Charnius Ilman, ST, MT

topics
WALL THICKNESS STUDY &
MATERIAL GRADE SELECTION

Material selection
Corrosion Protection System
Hydraulic & Flow Assurance
Introduction to Stress & Strain on Pipeline
Wall thickness Determination
Buckling [Local & General]

Material selection

Material selection
A. Material & Grade Selection
Generally, pipe material is based on the following criteria:
1.Operating

& design condition


2.Type of pipe content
3.Installation method,
4.Material availability
5.Codes requirement
6.Weight requirement
7.Economics, cost
8.Resistance to corrosion effects
9.Weldability
The type of material grade of pipeline can be selected based on
API 5L, DnV OS-F101 (2000)

Material selection
B. Pipeline Material Component Selection
Standard fittings:
Flanges
Valves
Bends
Tees
Bolts&Nuts
Tie-In
Reducer

Valves

Gate valve

Ball Valve

Globe Valve

Tie in

Flange

Swivel Flange
Missalignment
Missalignment flange flange

Smart Flange

Pipeline Components
Flanges:
Subsea use high integrity ring type joints (RTJ)
Pipelines usually use standard ASME/ANSI B16.5 or API
For subsea use swivel ring and possibly misalignment flanges
Tees:
Standard Tee
Inspection pigging of run only possible if branch size is less than 60% of run (No Inspection
pigging from branch)
Barred Tee
Inspection pigging of run possible for all branch sizes (No Inspection pigging from branch)

Normal flow

Normal flow

Normal flow

Normal flow

Normal flow

Material grade selection


As API 5-L:
The grades covered by this spec are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.

Grades A25
A
B
X42
X46
X52
X56
X60
X65
X70
X80

STEEL MATERIAL
Baja untuk struktur dengan tempa panas dapat diklasifikasikan sebagai:
Baja karbon (carbon steel),
Baja paduan rendah berkekuatan tinggi (high strength low alloy steel), dan
Baja paduan (alloy steel).
Persyaratan umum untuk jenis-jenis baja sedemikian ini tercakup dalam spesifikasi ANSI / ASTM A6.

STEEL MATERIAL
Baja karbon (carbon steel),
Baja karbon struktural termasuk. dalam kategori karbon lunak. Suatu baja, misalnya A36, memiliki
karbon maksimum antara 0.25- sampai 0.29% tergantung dari ketebalannya. Peningkatan
persentase karbon akan meningkatkan kekerasannya namun akan mengurangi kekenyalannya,
hingga lebih sulit dilas.
Baja karbon dibagi menjadi empat kategori berdasarkan presentase karbonnya:
Karbon rendah (kurang dari 0.15%);
Karbon lunak (0.15-0.29%);
Karbon sedang (0.30-0.59%); dan
Karbon tinggi (0.60-1.70%).

Baja paduan rendah berkekuatan tinggi (high strength low alloy steel),
Kategori ini meliputi baja-baja yang memiliki tegangan leleh dari 40 sampai dengan 70 ksi (275
sampai dengan 480 MPa). Penambahan sejumlah elemen paduan terhadap baja karbon seperti
krom, kolumbium, tembaga, mangan, molibden, nikel, fosfor, vanadium, atau zirkonim, akan
memperbaiki sifat-sifat mekanisnya. Bila baja karbon mendapatkan kekuatan dengan penambahan
kandungan karbonnya, elemenelemen paduan menciptakan tambahan kekuatan lebih dengan
mikrostruktur yang halus ketimbang mikrostruktur yang kasar yang diperoleh selama proses
pendinginan baja. Baja paduan rendah berkekuatan tinggi digunakan dalam kondisi seperti
tempaan atau kondisi normal; yakni kondisi di mana tidak digunakan perlakuan panas.

STEEL MATERIAL

Baja paduan (alloy steel).


Baja paduan rendah dapat didinginkan dan disepuh supaya dapat mencapai kekuatan
leleh sebesar 80 sampai dengan 110 ksi (550 sampai dengan 760 MPa). Kekuatan leleh biasanya
didefinisikan sebagai tegangan pada regangan offset 0.2%, karena baja ini tidak menunjukkan titik
leleh yang jelas. Baja paduan rendah ini pada umumnya memiliki kandungan karbon sekitar 0.20%
supaya dapat membatasi kekerasan mikrostruktur butilan kasar (martensit) yang mungkin
terbentuk selama perlakuan panas atau pengelasan, sehingga dapat mengurangi bahaya retakan.

Material grade selection

Material grade selection

Material grade selection

Material grade selection

Pengenalan Penentuan
Diameter Pipa

Pipe Sizing

Penentuan diameter pipa biasanya dilakukan oleh tim proses, dengan simulasi.
Biasanya dengan software pipesim, olga, hysis.
Banyak pertimbangannya, salah satunya flow assurance
Flow assurance is required to determine the optimum flowline pipe size based on
reservoir well fluid test results for the required flowrate and pressure. As the pipe size
increases, the arrival pressure and temperature decrease. Then, the fluid may not
reach the destination and hydrate, wax, and asphaltene may be formed in the
flowline. If the pipe size is too small, the arrival pressure and temperature may be
too high and resultantly a thick wall pipe may be required and a large thermal
expansion is expected.
It is important to determine the optimum pipe size to avoid erosional velocity and
hydrate/ wax/asphaltene deposition. Based on the hydrate/wax/asphaltene
appearance temperature, the required OHTC is determined to choose a desired
insulation system (type, material, and thickness.) If the flowline is to transport a sour
fluid containing H2S, CO2, etc., the line should be chemically treated or a special
corrosion resistant alloy (CRA) pipe material should be used.

Pipe Sizing

The blue solid line represents inlet pressure at wellhead and the red dotted line
represents outlet fluid temperature. The 8 ID pipe may require a heavy (thick) wall
and the 12 ID pipe may require a thick insulation coating depending on hydrate
(wax or asphaltene) formation temperature.

Desain tebal Pipa

Pertanyaan..

Mengapa perlu mendesain tebal pipa?

Topics for Wall Thickness Study

Introduction
Design Codes & Standard
Mechanical Perspective
Internal Pressure Containment
External Pressure Collapse
Local Buckling
Buckle Propagation

Material &
grade select.
Wall
thickness
study

CODES & STANDARD TO BE USED


The following codes & standard will be used:
1.
API 5L, Specification for Line Pipe, 2000
2.
API RP 1111, Design, Construction, Operation and Maintenance of
Offshore Hydrocarbons Pipelines. (LRFD)
3.
ASME B.31-4, Liquid Transportation System for Hydrocarbon, Liquid
Petroleum Gas, Anhydrous Ammonia and Alcohol. (ASD)
4.
ASME B.31-8, Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems.
(ASD)
5.
BS8010, Codes of Practices for Pipeline, 1993 (ASD)
6.
DnV 1981, Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems, 1981 (ASD)
7.
DnV 2000 (OS F-101), Rules for Submarine Pipeline Systems,
October 2007 (LRFD)
8.
ASTM (American Society for Testing & Materials)
Referances:
1.
A.H. Mouselli, Introduction to Submarine Pipeline Design Installation,
and Construction, 1976
2.
Andrew Palmer, Roger A King, Subsea Pipeline Engineering, Penwell
2004
3.
Yong Bai, Pipeline and Riser, 2000

Mechanical design
Subsea Pipeline:

Design for code compliance


Design to resist internal pressure (pressure containment hoop
stress)
Design for other stresses (longitudinal, bending & combined)
Design to resist external pressure (collapse)
Pipeline components (fittings, flanges, tees etc)

Sebelum masuk ke pembahasan mengenai desain


tebal pipa,
Dalam slide berikut ini akan dikenalkan mengenai
- Konsep Tegangan dan regangan pada pipa
- Coating pada pipa

Stress strain analysis


Concept of Stress & Strain
Stress
Strain

: Stress of a material is the internal resistance per unit area to the deformation caused by applied load
: Strain is unit deformation under applied load.

Normal Stress

y : tekanan tangensial (hoop stress)

Pi

Pe

=
=
=
=

P/A
/L
/Youngs modulus-modulus elastisitas)
P.L/A.E

Pe
L

y
R

Pi

Stress strain analysis

Hoop stress around circumference, y , (i.e pressure containment)


Longitudinal stress, L ,along pipe axis

y : tekanan tangensial (hoop stress)


y

Pi

Pe

L
Pe
L

y
R

Pi

HOOP STRESS

Perhatikan silinder bebas dengan jari-jari a ,


ketebalan dinding t , dan panjang L

HOOP STRESS

Perhatikan silinder bebas dengan jari-jari a ,


ketebalan dinding t , dan panjang L
Struktur silinder tersebut dikenai beban
tekanan P, P = Po Pi
Po, tekanan luar; Pi, tekanan dalam
Dari free-body pada gambar tersebut,
keseimbangan gaya dalam arah vertikal
adalah:

Tekanan tangensial (hoop stress)

HOOP STRESS

LONGITUDINAL/AXIAL STRESS

Silinder juga mengalami tegangan aksial


yang disebabkan oleh beban tekanan pada
kedua ujungnya dimana gaya aksial yang
terjadi adalah:

Luas penampang melintang silinder adalah


2at . Maka, tegangan aksial yang terjadi
adalah:

Longitudinal Stress

Longitudinal Stress:
Pressure (two effects dependent on
pipeline restraint)
- Fully restrained pipeline gives
Poissons Effect
- Unrestrained pipeline gives End
Cap Effect
Temperature/Thermal Stress
Bending Stress (Span, lay radius
curvature, residual lay tension)

Longitudinal Stress due to Pressure

Poissons Effect:
Hoop stress creates circumferential (lateral) strain
Poissons ratio = lateral strain/longitudinal strain = 0.3 for steel
Fully restrained pipeline cannot move - tensile stress developed
Longitudinal stress (due to Poissons effect) = 0.3 x Hoop Stress
End Cap Effect:
pressure differential acting over internal CSA pipe end (hence End Cap)
unrestrained pipeline at ends (near expansion spool) force (due to End Cap)
= 4. (Di2.Pi-Do2.Po)
Longl Stress (end-cap)

= 4. (Di2.Pi-Do2.Po) / CSA
= 0.5 h (for thin walled pipe)

Longitudinal Stress due to Temperature

Stress dependent upon axial pipeline restraint


stress developed when expansion or contraction (i.e. strain) is prevented
3 cases: unrestrained, partially restrained, fully restrained
unrestrained - no stress due to temperature
partially restrained - equilibrium between expansion and friction restraint (section of
pipe which expands)
fully restrained when friction resistance = fully restrained force i.e. no movement

Temperature stress is as follows : L = - E (T2 - T1)

e.g. 6-inch x 14.3mm wt 60 degrees above ambient results in a stress of 145 MPa
full restraint force = 1017 kN or 100 tonnes
to prevent expansion this restraining force would be required
always avoid restraining pipe if possible
typical anchor length = 1 to 5 km and expansion 0.5 to 1.5m

Longitudinal Stress due to Bending

Spanning (resting on an irregular seabed)


Lay radius curvature
Bending within elastic range, formulae as follows :
M==E
I
y
R
Bending is both tensile and compressive about neutral axis - important to remember
when calculating combined stress. i.e. 2 possible values of longitudinal stress

Combined Stress

Von Mises (maximum distortion energy theory)


Allowable design factor for combined equivalent pipeline stress is high, can be
0.96
Von Mises equivalent Stress, e , is given by:

Von Mises Failure Envelope

Stress strain analysis


Concept of Stress & Strain

Shear Stress

= P/A
= tan = /L
= /

xy

Stress strain analysis


Stress Strain Curve

Stress strain analysis


Stress Strain Curve

Stress strain analysis


SMYS = Specified Minimum Yield Strength/Stress
SMTS = Specified Minimum Tensile Strength

Above SMYS value there is a plastic region


SMTS itu tegangan pada saat material mulai mengalami pengecilan luas penampang
necking pada saat ditarik (titik M)
Antara SMYS dan SMTS material tidak mengalami pengecilan luas penampang
Akan terjadi necking sebelum material putus
Setelah SMTS material mulai mengecil luas penampangnya, tegangan masih tetap
diberikan namun menurun dari SMTS lalu akhirnya putus (titik F)
Failure point (F)
Perbandingan antara SMTS/SMYS disebut strength ratio (Y/T) nah sebenernya material
yang paling ideal untuk struktur dan komponen permesinan adalah yang strength
rationya paling besar.
The parameters, which are used to describe the stress-strain curve of a metal, are the
tensile strength, yield strength or yield point, percent elongation, and
reduction of area. The first two are strength parameters; the last two indicate
ductility.

Stress strain analysis


Untuk material yg sangat getas/rapuh (brittle) misal keramik...yg mungkin tdk mengalami
necking sama sekali... SMTS sama dengan tegangan pd saat putus...
Untuk steel, pada umumnya merupakan material yg tangguh/dapat dibentuk (ductile)... akan
terjadi necking sebelum material putus...dimana .titik tertinggi stress terjadi sesaat sebelum
necking....itulah SMTS nya

Berikut ini merupakan paparan mengenai


Coating pada pipa

Cross section of pipe

Line pipe
Corrosion coating
FBE
Adhesive
Polypropelene

Concrete coating

Anti corrosion coating type


capability

fabrication
Blast Cleaned Pipe (3LPE)

Internal Coating

3LPE Inspection

Pipe Storage

Pipe properties

Coating Cutback

Field joint coating section, Anti


corrosion coating layer (HSS) & Infill
(PUF)

Bahasan Selanjutnya..

Desain Tebal Pipa

PIPELINE PROPERTIES (sample)


No.
1

3.

Data

Nilai

Pipe Properties
Outside Diameter

81.28

cm

Wall Thickness

1.59

cm

Yield Stress

483

Mpa

Average Joint Length

12.19

Steel Weight Density

78500

N/m^3

Poisson's Ratio

0.3

Pipe Coating Properties


Corrosion Coating Thickness

0.25

cm

Corrosion Coating Density

12800

N/m^3

Concrete Coating Thickness

10

cm

Concrete Coating Density

30340

N/m^3

Concrete Coating Cutback

35

cm

Field Joint Filler Density

18853

N/m^3

Water Depth

Var

Field Joint Properties

WALL THICKNESS

The required wall


thickness is determined in
order to satisfied pressure
containment as well as
local and global buckling
criteria.

Pipeline Section

Allowable
Stress

Zone 1
(Pipeline)

0.72

Zone 2
(Riser & Tie-in Spool)

0.5

Note :
Zone 2, is the region within 500m from
either platform or facility.
Zone 1, otherwise

The required wall thickness is


determined in order to satisfied pressure
containment as well as local and global
buckling criteria.

ZONE

Zone 1
500m

Zone 2
500m

Pipeline Section
Zone 1 (Pipeline)
Zone 2 (Riser & Tie-in Spool)

Remarks

Allowable Stress

>500m

0.72

the region within 500m from


either platform or facility

0.5

Allowable Stress Criteria

A: Weight; B: Pressure; C: Temperature; D: Environment; E: Hoop Stress; F: Von Mises Equivalent Stress;
Note 1- Allowable stresses are : 0.72 at Sagbend and 0.96 at Stinger Overbend

Mechanical design
Additional Considerations

Negative mill tolerance (API 5L or DnV OSF 101)


Corrosion allowance (CA)
Temperature de-rating factors

generally applicable to higher temperatures than encountered in


subsea pipelines
Weld joint factors for relatively high cyclic loading i.e. for fatigue
implications

Langkah desain tebal pipa


Input
Calc 1
Calc 2
Calc 3
Calc 4
Pilih

Data Pipa, Properti material, data operasi dan lingkungan pipa.


Internal Pressure Containment
Collapse due to External Pressure
Propagation Buckling
Local Buckling
Tebal Pipa sesuai API 5L

Perhitungan 1
Internal Pressure Containment

1. Internal Pressure Containment

Hoop Stress:
Pipeline is design to be strong enough to withstand the maximum
tangential (hoop) stress due to internal pressure. This stress cannot
exceed the allowable stress. The hoop stress due to internal pressure
is given by (barlow formulae):

y
Pi
Pe
Do
t

=
=
=
=
=

hoop stress (tensile)


internal pressure
external pressure
outside diameter
nominal pipe wall thickness

1. Internal Pressure Containment

ASME B31.8

Where,
D = Outside Diameter of Pipe
E = Longitudinal Joint Factor
F = Design Factor
P = Design Pressure (Pi), Pe = Ext Pressure
S = Specified Min. Yield Strength (SMYS)
T = Temperature Derating Factor
t = Nominal Wall Thickness
CR = Corrosion Rate (mmpy)
DL = Design Life (20-25years)
MT = Mill Tolerances (12.5%)
t selected > t req (Lihat Tabel Standard Pipa)

ASME B31.4

1. Internal Pressure Containment

API RP 1111

The following equations must be


satisfied:

The specified minimum burst pressure (Pb) is determined by one of


the following formulae:

(1)

a)

(2)

b)

c)

Where
D
Di
S
t
U

=
=
=
=
=

outside diameter of pipe


D 2t = inside diameter of pipe
Specified minimum yield strength of pipe
Nominal wall thickness of pipe
Specified ultimate tensile strength of pipe

For low D/t pipe (D/t < 15), formula (2) is recommended

Where,

fd = Internal Pressure Design Factor


fe = Weld Joint Factor Factor
ft = Internal Pressure Design Factor
Pa = Incidental Overpressure
Pb = Specified Minimum Burst Pressure
Pd = Pipeline Design Pressure
Pt = Hydrostatic Test Pressure

1. Internal Pressure Containment

DNV 1981

1. Internal Pressure Containment

DnV OS-F101
The pressure containment shall fulfill the
following criteria:

Where

Where,

pb,s(t)
pb,u(t)
pli
SC
m

=
=
=
=
=

Yielding Limit State


Bursting Limit Limit State
Local Incidental Pressure
Safety Class Resistance Factor
Material Resistance Factor

Perhitungan 2
External Pressure Collapse

2. External Pressure Collapse

API RP 1111
The following criteria must be satisfied:
Where,

Where
fo = Collapse Factor
Pc = Collapse Pressure of Pipe
Pe = Elastic Collapse Pressure of Pipe
P0 = External Hydrostatic Pressure

Py = Yield Pressure at Collapse


v = Poissons Ratio (0.3 for steel)

2. External Pressure Collapse

DnV OS-F101

This image cannot currently be display ed.

The following criteria must be met:

Where

2. External Pressure Collapse

DnV OS-F101

Where,

pc = Characteristic Collapse Pressure


pe1 = Elastic Collapse Pressure
pp = Plastic Collapse Pressure
fo = Ovality
fab = Fabrication Factor

LOCAL BUCKLING

Buckling and Collapse


Pipeline buckling and collapse may occur from :
Hydrostatic (external) pressure
Axial compression
Applied bending
Combination of all of the above
More likely during installation :
External pressure - no internal pressure
High bending stress in sag bend (near seafloor)
High bending stress in over bend region
Dynamic considerations, complex behaviour prediction

Installation Analysis

As Input to
Buckle Analysis

Layability

The allowable stress for pipeline subjected to both functional and environmental loads during
installation, in accordance with DNV 1981, is 96%. However, for a conservative design margin,
the following stress criteria are adopted in line with standard industry practice:

Allowable Overbend Stress:

85% of SMYS

Allowable Sagbend Stress :

72% of SMYS

Buckling and Collapse


Three buckling scenarios to consider :
collapse - water depth where collapse can occur with negligible longitudinal stress
initiation - water depth where a buckle may be initiated due to a combination of
effects
propagation - water depth where a previously initiated buckle would propagate to.
Always size wall for collapse, initiation checked during lay analysis
Propagation can be limited by use of buckle arrestors (thicker section of pipe), see
A.H. Mouselli Book
DnV OS-F101, 2007:
Collapse Pressure - the pressure required to buckle a pipeline.
Initiation pressure - the pressure required to start a propagating buckle from a given
buckle. This pressure will depend on the size of the initial buckle
Propagating pressure - the pressure required to continue a propagating buckle. A
propagating buckle will stop when the pressure is less than the propagating pressure.
The relationship between the different pressures are:
Pc>Pinit>Ppr

Buckling and Collapse

Buckle during laying

Collapse pipe

Buckle during laying

Propagating Buckling

3. Local Buckling

BUCKLING CHECK
Local Buckling :
Based on DnV 1981

Dimana :
= Longitudinal Stress (MPa)
= Hoop Stress (MPa)

xcr = Critical Longitudinal Stress (MPa)


ycr = Critical Hoop Stress (MPa)
nxp = Permissible Usage Factor for Longitudinal Stress
nyp = Permissible Usage Factor for Hoop Stress

DnV1981(combinationbetweeninternalpressureandlongitudinalpressure)

3. Local Buckling

DNV 1981

a)

b)

c)

The following criteria must be satisfied:

3. Local Buckling

DNV 1981

d)

e)

f)

3. Local Buckling

DNV 1981

g)

h)

i)

j)

3. Local Buckling

DNV 1981

Where,
x = Longitudinal Stress
xN = Longitudinal Stress (Axial)
xM = Longitudinal Stress (Bending)
xcr = Critical Longitudinal Stress
xcrN = Critical Longitudinal Stress (Axial)
xcrM = Critical Longitudinal Stress (Bending)
ycr = Critical Hoop Stress (Pressure)

BUCKLE PROPAGATION

Propagation Buckling
PropagatingpressurebasedonDnV1981

Ppr > Pe ----- it is OK

INITIATION & PROPAGATION BUCKLING


Initiation&PropagationBucklebasedonAPIRP1111
Buckle cannot be initiated or
propagated within a portion of
pipe where the maximum external
overpressure is less than the
propagation of the pipe:
Initiation buckling (Battele formula):

Propagation buckling:
Pp = Buckle Propagation Pressure
fp = Propagating Buckle Design Factor
Po = External Hydrostatic Pressure

DnV OS F101

The following equations have to be


satisfied:
a)

b)

Comparison Table
OD = 914.4 mm; P = 15 MPa; WD = 50 100m;
Content density = 200 kg/m3 ; Wave Ht = 3.8 m
ASME B31.8

API RP 1111

DNV 1981

DNV OS-F101

Internal Pressure
Containment

20.6 mm

20.46 mm

21.93 mm

19.90 mm

External Pressure
Collapse

13.80 mm

13.61 mm

14.25 mm

22.0 mm

21.68 mm

21.35 mm

23.42 mm

21.15 mm

Local Buckling
Buckle Propagation

Conservative one is DnV 81 & Least conservative is DnV OS-F101

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


1.

Material Selection is based on the following:

2.

Operating and design condition


Type of content
Installation method
Material availability
Weight requirement
Codes requirement
Economics, cost
Resistance to corrosion effects
Weldability

Things that have to be check in Wall Thickness Design:

Hoop stress criteria


Local Buckling check
Propagation Check

SEKIAN..

TERIMA KASIH