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1.

2 Electrical Installation
Prepared by :
Herda Balqis Binti Ismail
Faculty of Civil Engineering
UiTM Cawangan Johor Kampus Pasir Gudang

This topic address CO 1- PO 1 &CO2-PO3 :

CO2: Identify, formulate and


solve problems regards to the
basic concepts, operation and
safety of mechanical, electrical
and utilities
PO3: Ability to identify,
formulate and solve
engineering problems using
thinking skills and
engineering reasoning.

CO1: Apply knowledge and


evaluate the problems that
can be solved using basic
concepts, principles, operation
and safety of mechanical,
electrical & utilities

PO1: Ability to acquire and


apply basic knowledge of
science, mathematics and
engineering.

1.2.3
IEE Regulation
Function of protection devices:
Main Switch,
ELCB,
MCCB,
Fuse,
Earthing,
Lightning Arrestor

At the end of this topic, student should be


able to:
a.
b.
c.

Explain and illustrate the distribution of single phase


supply including the junction box, cut out fuse and
neutral link and kWh meter
Discuss the function of the main component in the
distribution board.
Analyze the importance of safety devices in an electrical
wiring

JUNCTION BOX
to do connection between
cable of power supply to the
building

CUT OUT FUSE

To protect excessive
current and limiting power
load
Single phase

NEUTRAL LINK

A device to complete the


flow of electricity back to
the power source

Three phase

KILOWATT HOUR METER

To measure the amount of


power that a consumer
used hourly

DOMESTIC WIRING SYSTEM

A board which contains


main switch, earth
leakage circuit breaker
& several miniature
circuit breakers.
It is the place where
electrical connections
are taken for the
distribution of electrical
circuits.

To isolate/ switch off ( cut-off ) power


supply & protection of consumer from
excess current manually for maintenance
purposes.
Two types : for industrial / workshop (
3-) & house (1-)
Before any electrical inspection or work
is carried out - such as checking and
replacing a blown fuse - it is vital that
the main switch is turned off.
It is located in the fuse box or the
consumer unit/distribution box (DB). A
problem with older-style systems, which
have wall mounted re-wireable fuses
with unscrewable safety covers, which it
is possible to get at a fuse without
actually switching off the supply.
The design of modern consumer units,
the fuse covers can only be removed
once the mains power has been turned
off.

An automatically operated device use to


detect leaking currents from an installation
and will disconnect the supply when voltage
or current with respect to earth, reaches a
predetermined limit.
is used for the protection against electrical
leakage in the circuit of 50Hz or 60Hz, rated
voltage single-phase 240V, 3-phase 415V,
rated current up to 60A
When somebody gets an electric shock or the
residual current of the circuit exceeds the
fixed value, the ELCB can cut off the power
within the time of 0.1s automatically
protecting the personal safety and preventing
the equipment from the fault resulted from
the residual current.
With this function, the ELCB can protect the
circuit against overload and short circuit.
There are four types of ELCB
Current Operated
Heat Operated
Magneto Hydraulic
Electronic

A for 1-, B for 3-

An automatically operated
electrical switch to cut off
electrical current to protect a
circuit ( cables and conductors)
from overloaded or short circuit.
When a faulty condition occurs,
the MCCB protects against
currents shock caused by
excessive touch voltage due to an
insulation failure
The MCB can either be thermal
overloaded or magnetic short
circuit tripping device.
Maintenance work also can be
carried with maximum safety.

1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

They have factory set


operating characteristics
Tripping characteristic are
therefore circuit
protection is set by the
installer
The circuit rating is
provided with description
A faulty circuit may be
easily and quickly identify
and restored
The supply may be safely
restored by an unskilled
operator

1.

2.

They are expensive


They contain mechanical
moving parts and
therefore required regular
testing to ensure
satisfactory operation
under faulty condition

To cut out current circuit


due to excess current flow
by using conductor( fusible
material ) melting at certain
temperature.
For domestic supply, certain
locations are placed fuses
for extra safety.
Three types :
rewirable fuse
cartridge fuse
high capacity fuses.

REWIREABLE FUSE

It is usually located in DFB.


If the wire is broken, the
socket is taken out and the
wire is replaced by a new
wire.
The socket is then insert
back and then will be able
to function again

Rewirable Fuse

CARTRIDGE FUSE

This type is usually located in


plug-top.
The whole cartridge is
replaceable.
Advantage: durable compared
to rewire able fuse and it is
cheap
The fuse rating that available in
the market are 0.15A,
0.25A,0.5A, 0.5A, 0.75A, 1A to
100A

CARTRIDGE
FUSE :
ADVANTAGES
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

They have no mechanical


moving parts
They declared rating is
accurate
The element does not
weaken with age
They have small physical
size
They are easy to replace

CARTRIDGE
FUSE :
DISADVANTAGES
1.

2.

3.

They are more


expensive to replace
than fuse element
which be rewired
They can be
accidently be
replaced with and
incorrect cartridge
It is not possible to
see if the fuse
element is broken

HIGH CAPACITY FUSE

Usually used in substation


to protect the main
distribution supply.
It is very expensive and
bulky.
The ratings of these fuses
are from 15A and above.

The objective of grounding is to connect all


metalwork (other than that which carries current)
and wiring system to the earth.
Considering the fact the earth to have zero
potential (v=0), the earth circuit provide a return
path for earth fault currents when user employ
neutral conductor which is connected to earth
electrode.
Thus, this will lower the risk to get shocked, the
supply system require a safety earthing facility

http://www.mikeholt.com/htmlnews/grounding/figure3.gif

A high voltage electrical


discharge between two
charged rain clouds or
between a cloud and the earth
caused by the build up of
electrical charges.
Air in the path of lightning
ionizes
(becomes conducting) &
expands. The sudden
expansion of air causes
thunder.
Lightning produce currents of
20,000A and temperature of
30,000 C

Devices that protect a tall


building or structure at high
places from lightning strike
by providing an easier path
for current to flow to earth ,
than through the building.

Lightning Arrestors
consists of a thick copper
strip, a huge metal plate
buried in the damp earth.

If direct lightning strike, the


current flows through the
conductors & melting or even
vaporize the metal. Therefore
the building is safe.

A thick copper strip of


low resistance connected
to the ground below

a)
b)

Brush Type
Rod Type

Brush Type

Copper plate
Copper
conductor/rod
buried into damp
earth

Rod Type

http://www.elliottelectric.com/References/Residential_Lightning_Protection.aspx

A good connection
burying a large metal
plate deem in the
damp earth

Herda Balqis Ismail _UiTMPG

Lightning Protection Key:


1. Minimum of two ground rods (electrodes)
at least 10 feet deep.
2. Down conductors.
3. Connect gutters or other grounded metals
as required.
4. Air terminals (lightning rods) located
within two feet of outside corners of
chimney.
5. Antenna must connected to roof conductor.
6. Air terminals (lightning rods) spaced 20 feet
apart along the ridges and within two feet
of ridge ends.
7. Dormers protected.
8. Roof projections such as weather vanes or
satellite dishes should be connected to
lightning protection system.
9. Surge protection devices installed at main
electrical panel or meter.
10.Surge protection devices installed at
electronics in house.

Known stormy area


where possibility of
lightning strikes is
frequent

At hilly or high area (E.g.


Telecommunication
Tower)

Structure that are


more than 53m high
(pylon)

Structure and its contents are sensitive or


highly prices. (e.g. fuel tanks or electronic
factories)

OTHERS LOCATION

http://www.railway-technology.com/contractor_images/erico/4_RailwayGrounding.jpg

OTHERS LOCATION

http://aisyahjb.blogspot.com/2010_05_01_archive.html
http://kontraktorelektrik.blogspot.com/2008_06_01_archive.
html
http://dryrotdoctor.com/Gallery.html
http://www.tutorvista.com/content/science/scienceii/magnetic-effects-electric-current/electric-fuse.php
http://www.argushi.com/inspection-points.htm