Sie sind auf Seite 1von 7

PHYSICS DATA

SI Base Units
Kilogram
Metre
Second

mass kept at Sevres outside Paris


distance travelled by electromagnetic radiation in free space in 1/299 792 458 s
9 192 631 770 cycles of a transition in caesium 137

Fundamental constants
932 MeV or 1.661x10-27 kg
6.02x1023 mol-1
1.38x10-23 JK-1
1.602x10-19 C
9.11x10-31 kg or 0.000549 u
1 u = 1.660566x10-27 kg = 1.492x10-10 J
= 931.5 MeV
4.001506 u
4.002603 u
1.007276 u
1.008665 u
1.007825 u
9.81 ms-2
8.31 mol-1 K-1
4x10-7 Hm-1
8.85x10-12 Fm-1
6.63x10-34 Js
1.673x10-27 kg or 1.0073 u
1.76x1011 Ckg-1
2.997925x108 ms-1
5.7x10-8 Wm-2K-4
6.67x10-11 Nm2kg-2

Atomic mass unit


Avogadro's number
Boltzmann's constant
Electron charge
Electron mass
Energy conversions:
Mass of alpha particle
Mass of helium atom
Mass of proton
Mass of neutron
Mass of hydrogen atom
Mean value of go for the Earth
Molar gas constant (R)
Permeability of free space (o)
Permittivity of free space (o)
Planck's constant (h)
Proton mass
Specific charge of electron (e/m)
Speed of light in free space
Stefan's constant ()
Universal constant of gravitation (G)

Density
Air
Concrete
Copper
Gold
Helium
Hydrogen
Ice
Iron
Lead
Mercury
Platinum
Sea Water

Steel
Water
Wood

kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
kgm-3
7860 kgm-3
1000 kgm-3
600
kgm-3
1.293
2040
8930
19300
0.179
0.090
920
7870
11340
13600
21450
1030

Coefficient of friction:
Aluminium on steel
Brass on steel
Cars tyres on asphalt
Car tyres on ice
Car tyres on cement
Car tyres on wet asphalt
Car tyres on grass
Copper on steel
Copper on glass
Copper on cast iron
Glass on glass
Lubricated bone joint
Rubber on concrete
Steel on air
Steel on ice
Steel on steel
Teflon on Teflon
Teflon on steel
0.04
Tendon and sheath
Wood on wood
Waxed wood on dry snow
Zinc on cast iron

Static
0.61
0.51

Kinetic
0.47
0.44
0.72
0.15
0.9
0.45-0.70
0.35
0.36
0.53
0.29
0.4
0.003
0.8
0.001

0.53
0.68
1.05
0.94
0.001
1.0
0.001
0.03
0.74
0.04

0.57
0.04
0.04

0.013
0.3
0.04
0.21

0.85

Viscosity (20 oC)


Air
Blood
Castor oil
Glycerol
Golden syrup
Mercury

1.8 x 10-5 Pas


3 - 4x10-3 Pas
2.42 Pas
8.3 x 10-1 Pas
100 Pas
1.5 x10-3 Pas

Pitch

5 x 1010 Pas
1

Water

1 x 10
Pas
1.0 x10-3 Pas

Half lives
Caesium 137

28 years

Carbon 14

5570 years

Cobalt 60
Plutonium

5.28 years
24000 years

Polonium 210
Radium 226

138 days
1620 years

Uranium 235

7.1x108 years

at

273 K

at

373 K

Wavelengths
Sodium D lines

Solar constant

590 nm and 589.6 nm


1400 Wm-2

Absolute Refractive indices (mean)


Diamond
Glass
Glycerol
Paraffin
Perspex
Turpentine
Water

2.42
1.5
1.46
1.43
1.49
1.48
1.33

Albedo of various surfaces


Average for the Earth
Jupiter
Mars
Moon
Mercury
Fresh clean snow
Venus

0.4
0.70
0.17
0.073
0.07
0.8-0.9
0.72

Speed of sound in various materials (ms-1)


Air (273 K)
330
Air (293 K)
343
Aluminium
5100
Carbon dioxide (293 K)
259
Copper
3650
Elm
4108
Glass
4000 - 5500
Glycerol
1900
Granite (293 K)
6000
Helium (273 K)
972
Hydrogen (273 K)
1286
Iron
5130
Lead
1230
Neoprene
1600
Oak
3837
Pine
3313
Steel
5060
Sea water
1531
Diamond
12000
Vulcanised rubber
54
Water (298 K)
1430
Water vapour
494
Some of these values vary widely depending on the sources. For example the data given for aluminium
varies from 5100 ms-1 [the theoretical value ((E/))] to 6240 ms-1 in another practical based source.

Young modulus
Steel
Copper
Wood (mean)
Rubber

210x109 Pa
120x109 Pa
12x109 Pa
0.02x109 Pa

General Thermal data


Absolute zero
Triple point of water
Deep space temperature

-273.16 oC
273.15 K
3K

Critical temperature of air


Helium point
Boiling point of sulphur
Standard atmosphere

183 K
2.186 K
444.6 oC
1.013x105 Pa

Thermal conductivity
Air at STP
Aluminium
Asphalt
Brass
Breeze block
Brick
Cardboard
Chlorine
Concrete
Cork
Corrugated cardboard
Copper
Felt (roofing)
Glass
Iron
Methylated spirits
Polystyrene (expanded)
Silver
Snow (freshly fallen)
Thatch
Water
Wood
Zinc

0.024 Wm-1K-1
201 Wm-1K-1
1.2 Wm-1K-1
110 Wm-1K-1
0.16 to 0.8 Wm-1K-1 depending on density
0.48 to 0.7 Wm-1K-1 depending on density
0.22 Wm-1K-1
0.007 Wm-1K-1
1.83 Wm-1K-1 (density 2400 kgm-3)
0.05 Wm-1K-1
0.047 Wm-1K-1
385 Wm-1K-1
0.19 Wm-1K-1
0.8 -1.0 Wm-1K-1
80 Wm-1K-1
0.20 Wm-1K-1
0.034 Wm-1K-1
419 Wm-1K-1
0.17 Wm-1K-1
0.08 Wm-1K-1
0.59 Wm-1K-1
0.15 Wm-1K-1
385 Wm-1K-1

Thermal expansion (linear)


Iron
Copper

1.2x10-5 oC-1
1.7x10-5 oC-1

Specific heat capacities


Aluminium
Concrete
Copper
Glass
Ice
Rock (marble)
Rubber
Water

800 Jkg-1K-1
3350 Jkg-1K-1
385 Jkg-1K-1
600 Jkg-1K-1
2100 Jkg-1K-1
880 Jkg-1K-1
1600 Jkg-1K-1
4200 Jkg-1K-1

Specific latent heats


Water (vaporisation)
2.26x106 Jkg-1
Methyl alcohol (vaporisation)
1.12x106 Jkg-1
Water (fusion)
3.34x105 Jkg-1
r.m.s speeds of molecules at STP
Air
Bromine
Carbon dioxide

485 ms-1
206 ms-1
392 ms-1

1303 ms-1
1838 ms-1
461 ms-1

Helium
Hydrogen
Oxygen

Electrical data free electrons


Free electrons in copper
8.5x1028 m-3
Lithium
4.7x1028 m-3
Sodium
2.7x1028 m-3
Silver
5.9x1028 m-3
Resistivity
47x10-8 m
1.69x10-8 m
0.65 m
130x10-8 m
1.6x10-8 m
2.3x103 m

Constantan
Copper
Germanium
Nichrome
Silver
Silicon

Temperature coefficient of resistance of copper 43x10-4 K-1

Astronomical data
Astronomical unit
Light year
Parsec (pc)
Megaparsec (Mpc)
Hubble constant

(AU)

1.496x1011 m
9.461x1015 m = 63240 AU
3.261 light years
3.261 x 106 light years
72 kms-1Mpc-1

Sun
mass
mean radius
surface temperature
core temperature
surface gravity

1.99x1030 kg
6.96x108 m
6000 K
15x106 oC
274 ms-2

Mercury
mean radius
mass
distance from Sun
day length
year length

2.44x106 m
3.58x1023 kg
5.79x1010 m = 3.2 light mins = 0.39 AU
58.7 days
87.9 days

Venus
mean radius
mass
distance from Sun
surface gravity
day length
year length

6.052x106 m
4.90x1024 kg
1.08x1011 m = 6 light mins = 0.72 AU
8.84 ms-2
243 days (R)
225 days

Earth
mean radius
mass
distance from Sun
surface gravity
day length
year length

6.38x106 m
5.98x1024 kg
1.496x1011 m = 8.3 light mins =1AU
9.81ms-2
23.9 hours
365.26 days

Moon
radius
mass
distance from Earth
surface gravity

1.74x106 m
7.35x1022 kg
3.8x108 m
1.62 ms-2

Mars
day length
distance from Sun
mass
mean radius
surface gravity
year length

24.6 hours
2.3x1011 m = 12 light mins = 1.52 AU
6.4x1023 kg
3.39x106 m
3.80 ms-2
687 days

Jupiter
day length
distance from Sun
mass
mean radius
surface gravity
year length

9.84 hours
7.8x1011 m = 43 light mins = 5.2 AU
1.9x1027 kg
71.4x106 m
24.9 ms-2
11.9 years

Saturn
mean radius (planet)
mass
distance from Sun
surface gravity
day length
year length

60.4x106 m
5.7x1026 kg
1.43x1012 m = 79 light mins = 9.5 AU
10.4 ms-2
10.23 hours
29.5 years

Uranus
mean radius
mass
distance from Sun
surface gravity
day length
year length

25.4x106 m
8.67x1025 kg
2.87x1012 m = 2.7 light hrs = 19.2 AU
10.4 ms-2
17.24 hours (R)
84.0 years

Neptune
mean radius
mass
distance from Sun
surface gravity
day length
year length

24.3x106 m
1.0x1026 kg
4.5x1012 m = 4.2 light hrs = 30.0 AU
13.8 ms-2
18.4 hours
164.8 years

Pluto
mean radius
mass
distance from Sun
surface gravity
day length
year length

1.13x106 m
1.2x1022 kg
5.9x1012 m = 5.46 light hrs = 39 AU
0.29 ms-2
6.39 days (R)
248.5 years