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HORIZONTAL PEELER CENTRIFUGE

The horizontal peeler centrifuge is one of the oldest type of peeler centrifuge designs. It was first manufactured in 1905 by Buffaud et Robatel whereas it was first used in synthetic ammonia production plants. Horizontal peeler is a batch type of centrifuge.

HORIZONTAL PEELER CENTRIFUGE The horizontal peeler centrifuge is one of the oldest type of peeler centrifuge

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of how a horizontal peeler centrifuge operates. Source: www.rousselet-robatel.com

Operating Principle

HORIZONTAL PEELER CENTRIFUGE The horizontal peeler centrifuge is one of the oldest type of peeler centrifuge

Figure 2. Parts of Horizontal Peeler Centrifuge Source: www.rousselet-robatel.com

The horizontal peeler operates with the following key stages:

  • a. Feeding. The slurry is introduced to the rotating basket having a filter cloth. The filter cloth captures the solids. Centrifugal force drives the liquid through the caked solids and the mother liquor is discharged through perforations in the basket circumference.

  • b. Washing. A wash liquid is introduced and is driven through the caked solids.

The

plug flow

action

of the wash liquid purifies the solids and removes

residual mother liquor.

  • c. Spinning. Residual

liquors

are

driven

from

the

caked

solids

and

are

discharged

through

the

basket perforations

to

achieve

maximum

cake

dryness.

  • d. Scraping. A scraper knife advances into the rotating basket to discharge the solids to downstream equipment.

  • e. Residual Heel Removal. After scraping, a 6-10 mm (1/4” – 3/8”) layer remains inside the rotating basket. With the scraper in an advanced position, high pressure nitrogen or air a backwash liquid used to dislodge this residual heel. This step can be performed after several centrifuge cycles, or after each cycle.

Advantages

The horizontal peeler centrifuge is known for its many advantages from its horizontal rotation arrangement of the main drum. By arranging the axis horizontally, advantages in washing capability, uniform solid size distribution for better solid output quality. The feeding action within centrifuge is effective over large inner surface of drum as the feeds are fed perpendicularly to gravity and centrifugal force spreads out the solids evenly. This type of centrifuge can be used for both thickening and dewatering.

Also the door of centrifuge system that can be fully opened which allows easy access to inside of rotating drum. This also means the operator can get access to internal components including filter cloth which required replacement.

And its high discharge speed reduces time taken to accelerate and braking for rotation for high capacity, so does power consumption, wear and tear. This short cycle time is particularly beneficial for short cycle, fast-filtering requirements for certain processes. This means horizontal peeler centrifuge provides higher centrifugal forces than vertical peeler, and increases performances and flexibility.

Due

to

continuous discharge of filtered liquid through perforated inner

surface of rotating basket, the pressure drop, main driving force of filtration is increased across the solid cake and filter medium, as a result, the filtration rate can be boosted.

Moreover, high rotational speed results high rotational force which allows lowering residual cake moisture effectively, so does the washing liquid and washing results. Because of effective washing, drying processes that yield high purity of output, it is widely used in ultra-clean material processes.

Disadvantages

Despite many advantages of the horizontal peeler centrifuge, there are many operational limitations associated with the characteristics of peeler centrifuge, which may need to be developed, and/or other competitive processes can replace for the peeler centrifuge with its limitations.

In

operation,

the

peeler

is

kept

away

from

the

innermost

surface

of

separation drum as sharp peeler may damage the surface of filter medium or damaged by abrasion, which may cost for replacement. This means the solid cake on wall cannot be completely removed by peelers as it is recommended to leave thin layer of solid cakes. Also despite of this layer of solid acting as sub filtration layer provides extra separation step, however this also could mean the filtration time may be lengthen as there is another layer for liquid has to pass.

Cost wise, the peeler centrifuge is not cost efficient compared to comparable size of vertical centrifuge due to high capital cost. In comparison over other competitive separation processes

Applications

Basically, peeler centrifuges are used to separate solids, usually fine particles from a suspension of liquid feed mixtures. This type of centrifuge is the widely used design in separation processes in:

Petrochemical Intermediates

Bleaching agents

 

Fertilizers

Surfactants

Chlorides

Pesticides

Sulfates

Pharmaceuticals

Calcium

Plastics

Aluminum fluoride

Food

(artificial

sweeteners,

Amino acids

caffeine, starches, etc.)

 

SIPHON PEELER CENTRIFUGE

Siphon peeler centrifuge was developed in the 1970s by Krauss-Maffei. Its structure is similar to the horizontal peeler centrifuge, except instead of having perforated drum walls, it has solid inner drum wall where the liquid filtered through the solid cake and filter medium will flow along the wall axially and through siphon pipe into separate chamber.

Operating Principle

 As in the perforated basket design, the liquid filters through the cake and filter media,
As in the perforated basket design, the liquid filters through the cake
and filter media, but instead of discharging through perforations in the basket
shell, the basket wall is solid and the liquid flows axially to the basket rear
and into a separate chamber. At this point, the filtrate is skimmed out with a
radially adjustable skimmer.
Figure 3. Parts of Siphon peeler centrifuge.
Source: Perry’s Handbook of Chemical Engineering
In perforated baskets, the driving force for filtration is approximately
the hydrostatic pressure established by the liquid column. The driving force
diminishes as the liquid column height decreases, often causing a wet layer
near the base of the cake due to capillary pressure balancing the centrifugal
pressure. In siphon baskets, in addition to the centrifugal pressure, by
skimming at a radius greater than the filter cloth, a rotational siphon is
established. Due to the gravitational field in which it is working, a height

difference ∆h of only 20 to 30 mm is sufficient to lower the pressure behind the cloth to the vapor pressure of the liquid. This additional vacuum remains in place until all the interstitial liquid is drawn through the cake, and will overcome the cake capillary pressure, thus preventing this wet layer. Once the supernatant and interstitial liquid drains from the cake, the siphon chamber behind the cloth drains and filtration characteristics are like those of a perforated basket.

difference ∆h of only 20 to 30 mm is sufficient to lower the pressure behind the

Figure 4. Schematic representation of (a) perforated peeler and (b) siphon peeler centrifuge

Source: Perry’s Handbook of Chemical Engineering

To reestablish the siphon for the next cycle, a priming step precedes feeding where the siphon skimmer is pivoted inward near the rim of the siphon chamber, and liquid is introduced into the siphon chamber that backflows up through the heel cake, displacing gas from the chamber. Feeding then begins with the heel submerged. After a time delay, the siphon swivels downward to the working position (δh of +20 to 30 mm) where it remains for the remainder of the cycle.

Advantage

Its design allows a higher pressure gradient which is the driving force for filtration, thus having a more efficient filtration.

Accuracy of control of the filtration rate.

Backwashing the residual heel between each cycle renews the heel to maintain good permeability. Heel life is often extended.

Separate discharge of filtrate from splash/overflow provides better product yield.

Deep siphon chambers with cake backwashing capability have been successfully utilized to completely submerge the cake and indefinitely increase wash contact time.

Disadvantages

Careful

peeler action control

to prevent possible filtration media

damage from abrasion. High capital costs.

Large space requirement due to horizontal arrangement.

Overpressure may occur in process housing.

More complex installation procedure.

Applications

Similar

to

horizontal

peeler

centrifuge.

herbicides and other fine chemicals.

Mainly

used

for

starch,