Sie sind auf Seite 1von 37

PD 1829 - PENALIZING OBSTRUCTION OF APPREHENSION AND PROSECUTION OF

CRIMINAL OFFENDERS

PUNISHABLE ACTS
Section 1. The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period, or a fine ranging from
1,000 to 6,000 pesos, or both, shall be imposed upon any person who knowingly or willfully
obstructs, impedes, frustrates or delays the apprehension of suspects and the investigation and
prosecution of criminal cases by committing any of the following acts:
(a) preventing witnesses from testifying in any criminal proceeding or from reporting the
commission of any offense or the identity of any offender/s by means of bribery,
misrepresentation, deceit, intimidation, force or threats;
(b) altering, destroying, suppressing or concealing any paper, record, document, or object, with
intent to impair its verity, authenticity, legibility, availability, or admissibility as evidence in any
investigation of or official proceedings in, criminal cases, or to be used in the investigation of, or
official proceedings in, criminal cases;
(c) harboring or concealing, or facilitating the escape of, any person he knows, or has reasonable
ground to believe or suspect, has committed any offense under existing penal laws in order to
prevent his arrest prosecution and conviction;
(d) publicly using a fictitious name for the purpose of concealing a crime, evading prosecution or
the execution of a judgment, or concealing his true name and other personal circumstances for
the same purpose or purposes;
(e) delaying the prosecution of criminal cases by obstructing the service of process or court
orders or disturbing proceedings in the fiscal's offices, in Tanodbayan, or in the courts;
(f) making, presenting or using any record, document, paper or object with knowledge of its
falsity and with intent to affect the course or outcome of the investigation of, or official
proceedings in, criminal cases;
(g) soliciting, accepting, or agreeing to accept any benefit in consideration of abstaining from,
discounting, or impeding the prosecution of a criminal offender;
(h) threatening directly or indirectly another with the infliction of any wrong upon his person,
honor or property or that of any immediate member or members of his family in order to prevent
such person from appearing in the investigation of, or official proceedings in, criminal cases, or
imposing a condition, whether lawful or unlawful, in order to prevent a person from appearing in
the investigation of or in official proceedings in, criminal cases;

(i) giving of false or fabricated information to mislead or prevent the law enforcement agencies
from apprehending the offender or from protecting the life or property of the victim; or
fabricating information from the data gathered in confidence by investigating authorities for
purposes of background information and not for publication and publishing or disseminating the
same to mislead the investigator or to the court.
Art. 20. Accessories who are exempt from criminal liability. The penalties prescribed for
accessories shall not be imposed upon those who are such with respect to their spouses,
ascendants, descendants, legitimate, natural, and adopted brothers and sisters, or relatives by
affinity within the same degrees, with the single exception of accessories falling within the
provisions of paragraph 1 of the next preceding article.

P.D. 1612 - ANTI-FENCING LAW OF 1979

Section 2. Definition of Terms. The following terms shall mean as follows:


(a) "Fencing" is the act of any person who, with intent to gain for himself or for another, shall
buy, receive, possess, keep, acquire, conceal, sell or dispose of, or shall buy and sell, or in any
other manner deal in any article, item, object or anything of value which he knows, or should be
known to him, to have been derived from the proceeds of the crime of robbery or theft.

(b) "Fence" includes any person, firm, association corporation or partnership or other
organization who/which commits the act of fencing.
Section 4. Liability of Officials of Juridical Persons. If the fence is a partnership, firm, corporation
or association, the president or the manager or any officer thereof who knows or should have
known the commission of the offense shall be liable.
Section 5. Presumption of Fencing. Mere possession of any good, article, item, object, or
anything of value which has been the subject of robbery or thievery shall be prima facie evidence
of fencing.
Art. 308. Who are liable for theft. Theft is committed by any person who, with intent to gain
but without violence against or intimidation of persons nor force upon things, shall take personal
property of another without the latter's consent.

Theft is likewise committed by:


1. Any person who, having found lost property, shall fail to deliver the same to the local
authorities or to its owner;
2. Any person who, after having maliciously damaged the property of another, shall remove or
make use of the fruits or object of the damage caused by him; and

3. Any person who shall enter an inclosed estate or a field where trespass is forbidden or which
belongs to another and without the consent of its owner, shall hunt or fish upon the same or shall
gather cereals, or other forest or farm products.
Section 13. Accessory to access device fraud. Any person who, with intent to gain for
himself or for another, buy, receives, possesses, keeps, acquires, conceals, sells, or disposes of,
shall buy and sell, or in any manner deal in any article, item, object or anything of value which he
knows or should be known to him, to have been acquired through the use of counterfeit access
device or an unauthorized access device or an access device known to him to have been
fraudulently applied for, shall be considered as an accessory to an access device fraud and shall
be punished with one-half (1/2) of the fine and imprisonment provided for the applicable
consummated offenses listed in Section 9 of this Act. Said person shall be prosecuted under this
Act or under the Anti-Fencing Law of 1979 (Presidential Decree No. 1612) whichever imposes the
longer prison term as penalty for the consummated offense).
R.A. 6235 - AN ACT PROHIBITING CERTAIN ACTS INIMICAL TO CIVIL AVIATION, AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSES.

Section 1. It shall be unlawful for any person to compel a change in the course or destination of
an aircraft of Philippine registry, or to seize or usurp the control thereof, while it is in flight. An
aircraft is in flight from the moment all its external doors are closed following embarkation until
any of such doors is opened for disembarkation.
It shall likewise be unlawful for any person to compel an aircraft of foreign registry to land in
Philippine territory or to seize or usurp the control thereof while it is within the said territory.
Section 2. Any person violating any provision of the foregoing section shall be punished by an
imprisonment of not less than twelve years but not more than twenty years, or by a fine of not
less than twenty thousand pesos but not more than forty thousand pesos.
The penalty of imprisonment of fifteen years to death, or a fine of not less than twenty-five
thousand pesos but not more than fifty thousand pesos shall be imposed upon any person
committing such violation under any of the following circumstances:
1. Whenever he has fired upon the pilot, member of the crew or passenger of the aircraft;
2. Whenever he has exploded or attempted to explode any bomb or explosive to destroy the
aircraft; or
3. Whenever the crime is accompanied by murder, homicide, serious physical injuries or rape.
Section 3. It shall be unlawful for any person, natural or juridical, to ship, load or carry in any
passenger aircraft operating as a public utility within the Philippines, and explosive, flammable,
corrosive or poisonous substance or material.
Section 4. The shipping, loading or carrying of any substance or material mentioned in the
preceding section in any cargo aircraft operating as a public utility within the Philippines shall be
in accordance with regulations issued by the Civil Aeronautics Administration.

Section 5. As used in this Act


(1) "Explosive" shall mean any substance, either solid or liquid, mixture or single compound,
which by chemical reaction liberates heat and gas at high speed and causes tremendous
pressure resulting in explosion. The term shall include but not limited to dynamites, firecrackers,
blasting caps, black powders, bursters, percussions, cartridges and other explosive materials,
except bullets for firearm.
(2) "Flammable" is any substance or material that is highly combustible and self-igniting by
chemical reaction and shall include but not limited to acrolein, allene, aluminum dyethyl
monochloride, and other aluminum compounds, ammonium chlorate and other ammonium
mixtures and other similar substances or materials.
(3) "Corrosive" is any substance or material, either liquid, solid or gaseous, which through
chemical reaction wears away, impairs or consumes any object. It shall include but not limited to
alkaline battery fluid packed with empty storage battery, allyl chloroformate, allytrichlorosilane,
ammonium dinitro-orthocresolate and other similar materials and substances.
(4) "Poisonous" is any substance or materials, except medicinal drug, either liquid, solid or
gaseous, which through chemical reactions kills, injuries or impairs a living organism or person,
and shall include but not limited to allyl isothiocyanate, ammunition (chemical, non-explosive but
containing Class A, B or poison), aniline oil, arsine, bromobenzyle cyanide, bromoacetone and
other similar substances or materials.
P.D. 532 - ANTI-PIRACY AND ANTI-HIGHWAY ROBBERY LAW OF 1974

Section 2. Definition of Terms. The following terms shall mean and be understood, as follows:
a. Philippine Waters. It shall refer to all bodies of water, such as but not limited to, seas, gulfs,
bays around, between and connecting each of the Islands of the Philippine Archipelago,
irrespective of its depth, breadth, length or dimension, and all other waters belonging to the
Philippines by historic or legal title, including territorial sea, the sea-bed, the insular shelves, and
other submarine areas over which the Philippines has sovereignty or jurisdiction.
b. Vessel. Any vessel or watercraft used for transport of passengers and cargo from one place to
another through Philippine Waters. It shall include all kinds and types of vessels or boats used in
fishing.
c. Philippine Highway. It shall refer to any road, street, passage, highway and bridges or other
parts thereof, or railway or railroad within the Philippines used by persons, or vehicles, or
locomotives or trains for the movement or circulation of persons or transportation of goods,
articles, or property or both.
d. Piracy. Any attack upon or seizure of any vessel, or the taking away of the whole or part
thereof or its cargo, equipment, or the personal belongings of its complement or passengers,
irrespective of the value thereof, by means of violence against or intimidation of persons or force
upon things, committed by any person, including a passenger or member of the complement of

said vessel, in Philippine waters, shall be considered as piracy. The offenders shall be considered
as pirates and punished as hereinafter provided.
e. Highway Robbery/Brigandage. The seizure of any person for ransom, extortion or other
unlawful purposes, or the taking away of the property of another by means of violence against or
intimidation of person or force upon things of other unlawful means, committed by any person on
any Philippine Highway.
Section 3. Penalties. Any person who commits piracy or highway robbery/brigandage as herein
defined, shall, upon conviction by competents court be punished by:
a. Piracy. The penalty of reclusion temporal in its medium and maximum periods shall be
imposed. If physical injuries or other crimes are committed as a result or on the occasion
thereof, the penalty of reclusion perpetua shall be imposed. If rape, murder or homicide is
committed as a result or on the occasion of piracy, or when the offenders abandoned the
victims without means of saving themselves, or when the seizure is accomplished by firing
upon or boarding a vessel, the mandatory penalty of death shall be imposed.
b. Highway Robbery/Brigandage. The penalty of reclusion temporal in its minimum period
shall be imposed. If physical injuries or other crimes are committed during or on the
occasion of the commission of robbery or brigandage, the penalty of reclusion temporal in
its medium and maximum periods shall be imposed. If kidnapping for ransom or extortion,
or murder or homicide, or rape is committed as a result or on the occasion thereof, the
penalty of death shall be imposed.
Section 4. Aiding pirates or highway robbers/brigands or abetting piracy or highway
robbery/brigandage. Any person who knowingly and in any manner aids or protects pirates or
highway robbers/brigands, such as giving them information about the movement of police or
other peace officers of the government, or acquires or receives property taken by such pirates or
brigands or in any manner derives any benefit therefrom; or any person who directly or indirectly
abets the commission of piracy or highway robbery or brigandage, shall be considered as an
accomplice of the principal offenders and be punished in accordance with the Rules prescribed
by the Revised Penal Code.
It shall be presumed that any person who does any of the acts provided in this Section has
performed knowingly, unless the contrary is proven.

Art. 122. Piracy in general and mutiny on the high seas. The penalty of reclusion temporal
shall be inflicted upon any person who, on the high seas, shall attack or seize a vessel or, not
being a member of its complement nor a passenger, shall seize the whole or part of the cargo of
said vessel, its equipment, or personal belongings of its complement or passengers.
The same penalty shall be inflicted in case of mutiny on the high seas.

Art. 123. Qualified piracy. The penalty of reclusion temporal to death shall be imposed upon
those who commit any of the crimes referred to in the preceding article, under any of the
following circumstances:
1. Whenever they have seized a vessel by boarding or firing upon the same;
2. Whenever the pirates have abandoned their victims without means of saving themselves; or
3. Whenever the crime is accompanied by murder, homicide, physical injuries or rape.
Art. 306. Who are brigands; Penalty. When more than three armed persons form a band
of robbers for the purpose of committing robbery in the highway, or kidnapping persons for the
purpose of extortion or to obtain ransom or for any other purpose to be attained by means of
force and violence, they shall be deemed highway robbers or brigands.
Persons found guilty of this offense shall be punished by prision mayor in its medium period to
reclusion temporal in its minimum period if the act or acts committed by them are not
punishable by higher penalties, in which case, they shall suffer such high penalties.
If any of the arms carried by any of said persons be an unlicensed firearms, it shall be presumed
that said persons are highway robbers or brigands, and in case of convictions the penalty shall
be imposed in the maximum period.
Art. 307. Aiding and abetting a band of brigands. Any person knowingly and in any
manner aiding, abetting or protecting a band of brigands as described in the next preceding
article, or giving them information of the movements of the police or other peace officers of the
Government (or of the forces of the United States Army), when the latter are acting in aid of the
Government, or acquiring or receiving the property taken by such brigands shall be punished by
prision correccional in its medium period to prision mayor in its minimum period.
It shall be presumed that the person performing any of the acts provided in this article has
performed them knowingly, unless the contrary is proven.
P.D. 1613 - AMENDING THE LAW ON ARSON

Section 1. Arson. Any person who burns or sets fire to the property of another shall be punished
by Prision Mayor.
The same penalty shall be imposed when a person sets fire to his own property under
circumstances which expose to danger the life or property of another.
Section 2. Destructive Arson. The penalty of Reclusion Temporal in its maximum period to
Reclusion Perpetua shall be imposed if the property burned is any of the following:
1. Any ammunition factory and other establishment where explosives, inflammable or
combustible materials are stored.

2. Any archive, museum, whether public or private, or any edifice devoted to culture, education
or social services.
3. Any church or place of worship or other building where people usually assemble.
4. Any train, airplane or any aircraft, vessel or watercraft, or conveyance for transportation of
persons or property
4. Any building where evidence is kept for use in any legislative, judicial, administrative or other
official proceedings.
5. Any hospital, hotel, dormitory, lodging house, housing tenement, shopping center, public or
private market, theater or movie house or any similar place or building.
6. Any building, whether used as a dwelling or not, situated in a populated or congested area.
Section 3. Other Cases of Arson. The penalty of Reclusion Temporal to Reclusion Perpetua shall
be imposed if the property burned is any of the following:
1. Any building used as offices of the government or any of its agencies;
2. Any inhabited house or dwelling;
3. Any industrial establishment, shipyard, oil well or mine shaft, platform or tunnel;
4. Any plantation, farm, pastureland, growing crop, grain field, orchard, bamboo grove or forest;
4. Any rice mill, sugar mill, cane mill or mill central; and
5. Any railway or bus station, airport, wharf or warehouse.
Section 4. Special Aggravating Circumstances in Arson. The penalty in any case of arson shall
be imposed in its maximum period;
1. If committed with intent to gain;
2. If committed for the benefit of another;
3. If the offender is motivated by spite or hatred towards the owner or occupant of the property
burned;
4. If committed by a syndicate.
The offense is committed by a syndicate if its is planned or carried out by a group of three (3) or
more persons.
Section 5. Where Death Results from Arson. If by reason of or on the occasion of the arson
death results, the penalty of Reclusion Perpetua to death shall be imposed.

Section 6. Prima Facie evidence of Arson. Any of the following circumstances shall constitute
prima facie evidence of arson:
1. If the fire started simultaneously in more than one part of the building or establishment.
2. If substantial amount of flammable substances or materials are stored within the building note
necessary in the business of the offender nor for household us.
3. If gasoline, kerosene, petroleum or other flammable or combustible substances or materials
soaked therewith or containers thereof, or any mechanical, electrical, chemical, or electronic
contrivance designed to start a fire, or ashes or traces of any of the foregoing are found in the
ruins or premises of the burned building or property.
4. If the building or property is insured for substantially more than its actual value at the time of
the issuance of the policy.
4. If during the lifetime of the corresponding fire insurance policy more than two fires have
occurred in the same or other premises owned or under the control of the offender and/or
insured.
5. If shortly before the fire, a substantial portion of the effects insured and stored in a building or
property had been withdrawn from the premises except in the ordinary course of business.
6. If a demand for money or other valuable consideration was made before the fire in exchange
for the desistance of the offender or for the safety of the person or property of the victim.

Art. 320. Destructive arson. The penalty of reclusion temporal in its maximum period to
reclusion perpetua shall be imposed upon any person who shall burn:
1. Any arsenal, shipyard, storehouse or military powder or fireworks factory, ordinance,
storehouse, archives or general museum of the Government.
2. Any passenger train or motor vehicle in motion or vessel out of port.
3. In an inhabited place, any storehouse or factory of inflammable or explosive materials.
Art. 326-B. Prima facie evidence of arson. Any of the following circumstances shall
constitute prima facie evidence of arson:
1. If after the fire, are found materials or substances soaked in gasoline, kerosene, petroleum, or
other inflammables, or any mechanical, electrical chemical or traces or any of the foregoing.
2. That substantial amount of inflammable substance or materials were stored within the
building not necessary in the course of the defendant's business; and

3. That the fire started simultaneously in more than one part of the building or locale under
circumstances that cannot normally be due to accidental or unintentional causes: Provided,
however, That at least one of the following is present in any of the three above-mentioned
circumstances:

(a) That the total insurance carried on the building and/or goods is more than 80 per cent of the
value of such building and/or goods at the time of the fire;
(b) That the defendant after the fire has presented a fraudulent claim for loss.
The penalty of prision correccional shall be imposed on one who plants the articles abovementioned, in order to secure a conviction, or as a means of extortion or coercion. (As amended
by R.A. 5467, approved May 12, 1969).
R.A. 9262 - AN ACT DEFINING VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND THEIR CHILDREN, PROVIDING FOR
PROTECTIVE MEASURES FOR VICTIMS, PRESCRIBING PENALTIES THEREFORE, AND FOR OTHER
PURPOSES

SECTION 3. Definition of Terms.- As used in this Act,


(a) "Violence against women and their children" refers to any act or a series of acts committed
by any person against a woman who is his wife, former wife, or against a woman with whom the
person has or had a sexual or dating relationship, or with whom he has a common child, or
against her child whether legitimate or illegitimate, within or without the family abode, which
result in or is likely to result in physical, sexual, psychological harm or suffering, or economic
abuse including threats of such acts, battery, assault, coercion, harassment or arbitrary
deprivation of liberty. It includes, but is not limited to, the following acts:
A. "Physical Violence" refers to acts that include bodily or physical harm;
B. "Sexual violence" refers to an act which is sexual in nature, committed against a woman or
her child. It includes, but is not limited to:
a) rape, sexual harassment, acts of lasciviousness, treating a woman or her child as a sex object,
making demeaning and sexually suggestive remarks, physically attacking the sexual parts of the
victim's body, forcing her/him to watch obscene publications and indecent shows or forcing the
woman or her child to do indecent acts and/or make films thereof, forcing the wife and
mistress/lover to live in the conjugal home or sleep together in the same room with the abuser;
b) acts causing or attempting to cause the victim to engage in any sexual activity by force,
threat of force, physical or other harm or threat of physical or other harm or coercion;
c) Prostituting the woman or child.
C. "Psychological violence" refers to acts or omissions causing or likely to cause mental or
emotional suffering of the victim such as but not limited to intimidation, harassment, stalking,
damage to property, public ridicule or humiliation, repeated verbal abuse and mental infidelity. It

includes causing or allowing the victim to witness the physical, sexual or psychological abuse of
a member of the family to which the victim belongs, or to witness pornography in any form or to
witness abusive injury to pets or to unlawful or unwanted deprivation of the right to custody
and/or visitation of common children.
D. "Economic abuse" refers to acts that make or attempt to make a woman financially dependent
which includes, but is not limited to the following:
1. withdrawal of financial support or preventing the victim from engaging in any legitimate
profession, occupation, business or activity, except in cases wherein the other spouse/partner
objects on valid, serious and moral grounds as defined in Article 73 of the Family Code;
2. deprivation or threat of deprivation of financial resources and the right to the use and
enjoyment of the conjugal, community or property owned in common;
3. destroying household property;
4. controlling the victims' own money or properties or solely controlling the conjugal money or
properties.
(b) "Battery" refers to an act of inflicting physical harm upon the woman or her child resulting to
the physical and psychological or emotional distress.
(c) "Battered Woman Syndrome" refers to a scientifically defined pattern of psychological and
behavioral symptoms found in women living in battering relationships as a result of cumulative
abuse.
(d) "Stalking" refers to an intentional act committed by a person who, knowingly and without
lawful justification follows the woman or her child or places the woman or her child under
surveillance directly or indirectly or a combination thereof.
(e) "Dating relationship" refers to a situation wherein the parties live as husband and wife
without the benefit of marriage or are romantically involved over time and on a continuing basis
during the course of the relationship. A casual acquaintance or ordinary socialization between
two individuals in a business or social context is not a dating relationship.
(f) "Sexual relations" refers to a single sexual act which may or may not result in the bearing of a
common child.
(g) "Safe place or shelter" refers to any home or institution maintained or managed by the
Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) or by any other agency or voluntary
organization accredited by the DSWD for the purposes of this Act or any other suitable place the
resident of which is willing temporarily to receive the victim.
(h) "Children" refers to those below eighteen (18) years of age or older but are incapable of
taking care of themselves as defined under Republic Act No. 7610. As used in this Act, it includes
the biological children of the victim and other children under her care.

SECTION 5. Acts of Violence Against Women and Their Children.- The crime of violence against
women and their children is committed through any of the following acts:
(a) Causing physical harm to the woman or her child;
(b) Threatening to cause the woman or her child physical harm;
(c) Attempting to cause the woman or her child physical harm;
(d) Placing the woman or her child in fear of imminent physical harm;
(e) Attempting to compel or compelling the woman or her child to engage in conduct which the
woman or her child has the right to desist from or desist from conduct which the woman or her
child has the right to engage in, or attempting to restrict or restricting the woman's or her child's
freedom of movement or conduct by force or threat of force, physical or other harm or threat of
physical or other harm, or intimidation directed against the woman or child. This shall include,
but not limited to, the following acts committed with the purpose or effect of controlling or
restricting the woman's or her child's movement or conduct:
(1) Threatening to deprive or actually depriving the woman or her child of custody to her/his
family;
(2) Depriving or threatening to deprive the woman or her children of financial support legally due
her or her family, or deliberately providing the woman's children insufficient financial support;
(3) Depriving or threatening to deprive the woman or her child of a legal right;
(4) Preventing the woman in engaging in any legitimate profession, occupation, business or
activity or controlling the victim's own mon4ey or properties, or solely controlling the conjugal or
common money, or properties;
(f) Inflicting or threatening to inflict physical harm on oneself for the purpose of controlling her
actions or decisions;
(g) Causing or attempting to cause the woman or her child to engage in any sexual activity which
does not constitute rape, by force or threat of force, physical harm, or through intimidation
directed against the woman or her child or her/his immediate family;
(h) Engaging in purposeful, knowing, or reckless conduct, personally or through another, that
alarms or causes substantial emotional or psychological distress to the woman or her child. This
shall include, but not be limited to, the following acts:
(1) Stalking or following the woman or her child in public or private places;
(2) Peering in the window or lingering outside the residence of the woman or her child;
(3) Entering or remaining in the dwelling or on the property of the woman or her child against
her/his will;

(4) Destroying the property and personal belongings or inflicting harm to animals or pets of the
woman or her child; and
(5) Engaging in any form of harassment or violence;
(i) Causing mental or emotional anguish, public ridicule or humiliation to the woman or her child,
including, but not limited to, repeated verbal and emotional abuse, and denial of financial
support or custody of minor children of access to the woman's child/children.
R.A. 9775 - AN ACT DEFINING THE CRIME OF CHILD PORNOGRAPHY, PRESCRIBING PENALTIES
THEREFOR AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

Section 3. Definition of Terms. (a) "Child" refers to a person below eighteen (18) years of age or over, but is unable to fully take
care of himself/herself from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation or discrimination because of a
physical or mental disability or condition.
For the purpose of this Act, a child shall also refer to:
(1) a person regardless of age who is presented, depicted or portrayed as a child as defined
herein; and
(2) computer-generated, digitally or manually crafted images or graphics of a person who is
represented or who is made to appear to be a child as defined herein.
(b) "Child pornography" refers to any representation, whether visual, audio, or written
combination thereof, by electronic, mechanical, digital, optical, magnetic or any other means, of
child engaged or involved in real or simulated explicit sexual activities.
(c) "Explicit Sexual Activity" includes actual or simulated (1) As to form:
(i) sexual intercourse or lascivious act including, but not limited to, contact involving genital to
genital, oral to genital, anal to genital, or oral to anal, whether between persons of the same or
opposite sex;
(2) bestiality;
(3) masturbation;
(4) sadistic or masochistic abuse;
(5) lascivious exhibition of the genitals, buttocks, breasts, pubic area and/or anus; or
(6) use of any object or instrument for lascivious acts

(d) "Internet address" refers to a website, bulletin board service, internet chat room or news
group, or any other internet or shared network protocol address.
(e) "Internet cafe or kiosk" refers to an establishment that offers or proposes to offer services to
the public for the use of its computer/s or computer system for the purpose of accessing the
internet, computer games or related services.
(f) "Internet content host" refers to a person who hosts or who proposes to host internet content
in the Philippines.
(g) "Internet service provider (ISP)" refers to a person or entity that supplies or proposes to
supply, an internet carriage service to the public.
(h) "Grooming" refers to the act of preparing a child or someone who the offender believes to be
a child for sexual activity or sexual relationship by communicating any form of child pornography.
It includes online enticement or enticement through any other means.
(i) "Luring" refers to the act of communicating, by means of a computer system, with a child or
someone who the offender believes to be a child for the purpose of facilitating the commission of
sexual activity or production of any form of child pornography.(2) Bestiality;
(j) "Pandering" refers to the act of offering, advertising, promoting, representing or distributing
through any means any material or purported material that is intended to cause another to
believe that the material or purported material contains any form of child pornography,
regardless of the actual content of the material or purported material.
(k) "Person" refers to any natural or juridical entity.
Section 4. Unlawful or Prohibited Acts. - It shall be unlawful for any person:
(a) To hire, employ, use, persuade, induce or coerce a child to perform in the creation or
production of any form of child pornography;
(b) To produce, direct, manufacture or create any form of child pornography;
(c) To publish offer, transmit, sell, distribute, broadcast, advertise, promote, export or import any
form of child pornography;
(d) To possess any form of child pornography with the intent to sell, distribute, publish, or
broadcast: Provided. That possession of three (3) or more articles of child pornography of the
same form shall be prima facie evidence of the intent to sell, distribute, publish or broadcast;
(e) To knowingly, willfully and intentionally provide a venue for the commission of prohibited acts
as, but not limited to, dens, private rooms, cubicles, cinemas, houses or in establishments
purporting to be a legitimate business;
(f) For film distributors, theaters and telecommunication companies, by themselves or in
cooperation with other entities, to distribute any form of child pornography;

(g) For a parent, legal guardian or person having custody or control of a child to knowingly permit
the child to engage, participate or assist in any form of child pornography;
(h) To engage in the luring or grooming of a child;
(i) To engage in pandering of any form of child pornography;
(j) To willfully access any form of child pornography;
(k) To conspire to commit any of the prohibited acts stated in this section. Conspiracy to commit
any form of child pornography shall be committed when two (2) or more persons come to an
agreement concerning the commission of any of the said prohibited acts and decide to commit it;
and
(l) To possess any form of child pornography.
Section 5. Syndicated Child Pornography - The crime of child pornography is deemed committed
by a syndicate if carried out by a group of three (3) or more persons conspiring or confederating
with one another and shall be punished under Section 15(a) of this Act.
RA 10175 - Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012
SEC. 4. Cybercrime Offenses. The following acts constitute the offense of cybercrime
punishable under this Act:
(c) Content-related Offenses:
(1) Cybersex. The willful engagement, maintenance, control, or operation, directly or
indirectly, of any lascivious exhibition of sexual organs or sexual activity, with the aid of a
computer system, for favor or consideration.
(2) Child Pornography. The unlawful or prohibited acts defined and punishable by Republic Act
No. 9775 or the Anti-Child Pornography Act of 2009, committed through a computer system:
Provided, That the penalty to be imposed shall be (1) one degree higher than that provided for in
Republic Act No. 9775.

R.A. 7610 - SPECIAL PROTECTION OF CHILDREN AGAINST ABUSE, EXPLOITATION AND DISCRIMINATION
ACT.
Section 3. Definition of Terms.

(a) "Children" refers to person below eighteen (18) years of age or those over but are unable to
fully take care of themselves or protect themselves from abuse, neglect, cruelty, exploitation or
discrimination because of a physical or mental disability or condition;

(b) "Child abuse" refers to the maltreatment, whether habitual or not, of the child which includes
any of the following:
(1) Psychological and physical abuse, neglect, cruelty, sexual abuse and emotional
maltreatment;
(2) Any act by deeds or words which debases, degrades or demeans the intrinsic worth and
dignity of a child as a human being;
(3) Unreasonable deprivation of his basic needs for survival, such as food and shelter; or
(4) Failure to immediately give medical treatment to an injured child resulting in serious
impairment of his growth and development or in his permanent incapacity or death.
(c) "Circumstances which gravely threaten or endanger the survival and normal development of
children" include, but are not limited to, the following;
(1) Being in a community where there is armed conflict or being affected by armed conflictrelated activities;
(2) Working under conditions hazardous to life, safety and normal which unduly interfere with
their normal development;
(3) Living in or fending for themselves in the streets of urban or rural areas without the care of
parents or a guardian or basic services needed for a good quality of life;
(4) Being a member of a indigenous cultural community and/or living under conditions of
extreme poverty or in an area which is underdeveloped and/or lacks or has inadequate access to
basic services needed for a good quality of life;
(5) Being a victim of a man-made or natural disaster or calamity; or
(6) Circumstances analogous to those abovestated which endanger the life, safety or normal
development of children.
(d) "Comprehensive program against child abuse, exploitation and discrimination" refers to the
coordinated program of services and facilities to protected children against:
(1) Child Prostitution and other sexual abuse;
(2) Child trafficking;
(3) Obscene publications and indecent shows;
(4) Other acts of abuses; and
(5) Circumstances which threaten or endanger the survival and normal development of children.

ARTICLE II
Program on Child Abuse, Exploitation and Discrimination
Section 4. Formulation of the Program. There shall be a comprehensive program to be
formulated, by the Department of Justice and the Department of Social Welfare and Development
in coordination with other government agencies and private sector concerned, within one (1)
year from the effectivity of this Act, to protect children against child prostitution and other sexual
abuse; child trafficking, obscene publications and indecent shows; other acts of abuse; and
circumstances which endanger child survival and normal development.
ARTICLE III
Child Prostitution and Other Sexual Abuse
Section 5. Child Prostitution and Other Sexual Abuse. Children, whether male or female,
who for money, profit, or any other consideration or due to the coercion or influence of any adult,
syndicate or group, indulge in sexual intercourse or lascivious conduct, are deemed to be
children exploited in prostitution and other sexual abuse.
The penalty of reclusion temporal in its medium period to reclusion perpetua shall be imposed
upon the following:
(a) Those who engage in or promote, facilitate or induce child prostitution which include, but are
not limited to, the following:
(1) Acting as a procurer of a child prostitute;
(2) Inducing a person to be a client of a child prostitute by means of written or oral
advertisements or other similar means;
(3) Taking advantage of influence or relationship to procure a child as prostitute;
(4) Threatening or using violence towards a child to engage him as a prostitute; or
(5) Giving monetary consideration goods or other pecuniary benefit to a child with intent to
engage such child in prostitution.
(b) Those who commit the act of sexual intercourse of lascivious conduct with a child exploited in
prostitution or subject to other sexual abuse; Provided, That when the victims is under twelve
(12) years of age, the perpetrators shall be prosecuted under Article 335, paragraph 3, for rape
and Article 336 of Act No. 3815, as amended, the Revised Penal Code, for rape or lascivious
conduct, as the case may be: Provided, That the penalty for lascivious conduct when the victim is
under twelve (12) years of age shall be reclusion temporal in its medium period; and
(c) Those who derive profit or advantage therefrom, whether as manager or owner of the
establishment where the prostitution takes place, or of the sauna, disco, bar, resort, place of
entertainment or establishment serving as a cover or which engages in prostitution in addition to
the activity for which the license has been issued to said establishment.

Section 6. Attempt To Commit Child Prostitution. There is an attempt to commit child


prostitution under Section 5, paragraph (a) hereof when any person who, not being a relative of a
child, is found alone with the said child inside the room or cubicle of a house, an inn, hotel,
motel, pension house, apartelle or other similar establishments, vessel, vehicle or any other
hidden or secluded area under circumstances which would lead a reasonable person to believe
that the child is about to be exploited in prostitution and other sexual abuse.
There is also an attempt to commit child prostitution, under paragraph (b) of Section 5 hereof
when any person is receiving services from a child in a sauna parlor or bath, massage clinic,
health club and other similar establishments. A penalty lower by two (2) degrees than that
prescribed for the consummated felony under Section 5 hereof shall be imposed upon the
principals of the attempt to commit the crime of child prostitution under this Act, or, in the
proper case, under the Revised Penal Code.
ARTICLE IV
Child Trafficking
Section 7. Child Trafficking. Any person who shall engage in trading and dealing with
children including, but not limited to, the act of buying and selling of a child for money, or for any
other consideration, or barter, shall suffer the penalty of reclusion temporal to reclusion
perpetua. The penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period when the victim is under twelve
(12) years of age.
Section 8. Attempt to Commit Child Trafficking. There is an attempt to commit child
trafficking under Section 7 of this Act:1awphi1@alf
(a) When a child travels alone to a foreign country without valid reason therefor and without
clearance issued by the Department of Social Welfare and Development or written permit or
justification from the child's parents or legal guardian;
(c) When a person, agency, establishment or child-caring institution recruits women or couples to
bear children for the purpose of child trafficking; or
(d) When a doctor, hospital or clinic official or employee, nurse, midwife, local civil registrar or
any other person simulates birth for the purpose of child trafficking; or
(e) When a person engages in the act of finding children among low-income families, hospitals,
clinics, nurseries, day-care centers, or other child-during institutions who can be offered for the
purpose of child trafficking.
A penalty lower two (2) degrees than that prescribed for the consummated felony under Section
7 hereof shall be imposed upon the principals of the attempt to commit child trafficking under
this Act.
ARTICLE V
Obscene Publications and Indecent Shows

Section 9. Obscene Publications and Indecent Shows. Any person who shall hire, employ,
use, persuade, induce or coerce a child to perform in obscene exhibitions and indecent shows,
whether live or in video, or model in obscene publications or pornographic materials or to sell or
distribute the said materials shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its medium period.
If the child used as a performer, subject or seller/distributor is below twelve (12) years of age,
the penalty shall be imposed in its maximum period.
Any ascendant, guardian, or person entrusted in any capacity with the care of a child who shall
cause and/or allow such child to be employed or to participate in an obscene play, scene, act,
movie or show or in any other acts covered by this section shall suffer the penalty of prision
mayor in its medium period.
ARTICLE VI
Other Acts of Abuse
Section 10. Other Acts of Neglect, Abuse, Cruelty or Exploitation and Other Conditions
Prejudicial to the Child's Development.
(a) Any person who shall commit any other acts of child abuse, cruelty or exploitation or to be
responsible for other conditions prejudicial to the child's development including those covered by
Article 59 of Presidential Decree No. 603, as amended, but not covered by the Revised Penal
Code, as amended, shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period.
(b) Any person who shall keep or have in his company a minor, twelve (12) years or under or who
in ten (10) years or more his junior in any public or private place, hotel, motel, beer joint,
discotheque, cabaret, pension house, sauna or massage parlor, beach and/or other tourist resort
or similar places shall suffer the penalty of prision mayor in its maximum period and a fine of not
less than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000): Provided, That this provision shall not apply to any
person who is related within the fourth degree of consanguinity or affinity or any bond
recognized by law, local custom and tradition or acts in the performance of a social, moral or
legal duty.
(c) Any person who shall induce, deliver or offer a minor to any one prohibited by this Act to keep
or have in his company a minor as provided in the preceding paragraph shall suffer the penalty
of prision mayor in its medium period and a fine of not less than Forty thousand pesos (P40,000);
Provided, however, That should the perpetrator be an ascendant, stepparent or guardian of the
minor, the penalty to be imposed shall be prision mayor in its maximum period, a fine of not less
than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000), and the loss of parental authority over the minor.
(d) Any person, owner, manager or one entrusted with the operation of any public or private
place of accommodation, whether for occupancy, food, drink or otherwise, including residential
places, who allows any person to take along with him to such place or places any minor herein
described shall be imposed a penalty of prision mayor in its medium period and a fine of not less
than Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000), and the loss of the license to operate such a place or
establishment.

(e) Any person who shall use, coerce, force or intimidate a street child or any other child to;
(1) Beg or use begging as a means of living;
(2) Act as conduit or middlemen in drug trafficking or pushing; or
(3) Conduct any illegal activities, shall suffer the penalty of prision correccional in its medium
period to reclusion perpetua.
For purposes of this Act, the penalty for the commission of acts punishable under Articles 248,
249, 262, paragraph 2, and 263, paragraph 1 of Act No. 3815, as amended, the Revised Penal
Code, for the crimes of murder, homicide, other intentional mutilation, and serious physical
injuries, respectively, shall be reclusion perpetua when the victim is under twelve (12) years of
age. The penalty for the commission of acts punishable under Article 337, 339, 340 and 341 of
Act No. 3815, as amended, the Revised Penal Code, for the crimes of qualified seduction, acts of
lasciviousness with the consent of the offended party, corruption of minors, and white slave
trade, respectively, shall be one (1) degree higher than that imposed by law when the victim is
under twelve (12) years age.
The victim of the acts committed under this section shall be entrusted to the care of the
Department of Social Welfare and Development.
R.A. 9208 ANTI TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS ACT OF 2003

Section 4. Acts of Trafficking in Persons. - It shall be unlawful for any person,


natural or juridical, to commit any of the following acts:
(a) To recruit, transport, transfer; harbor, provide, or receive a person by any means,
including those done under the pretext of domestic or overseas employment or
training or apprenticeship, for the purpose of prostitution, pornography, sexual
exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
(b) To introduce or match for money, profit, or material, economic or other
consideration, any person or, as provided for under Republic Act No. 6955, any Filipino
woman to a foreign national, for marriage for the purpose of acquiring, buying,
offering, selling or trading him/her to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual
exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
(c) To offer or contract marriage, real or simulated, for the purpose of acquiring,
buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage in prostitution, pornography, sexual
exploitation, forced labor or slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
(d) To undertake or organize tours and travel plans consisting of tourism packages or
activities for the purpose of utilizing and offering persons for prostitution, pornography
or sexual exploitation;
(e) To maintain or hire a person to engage in prostitution or pornography;
(f) To adopt or facilitate the adoption of persons for the purpose of prostitution,

pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt


bondage;
(g) To recruit, hire, adopt, transport or abduct a person, by means of threat or use of
force, fraud, deceit, violence, coercion, or intimidation for the purpose of removal or
sale of organs of said person; and
(h) To recruit, transport or adopt a child to engage in armed activities in the Philippines
or abroad.
Section 5. Acts that Promote Trafficking in Persons. - The following acts which
promote or facilitate trafficking in persons, shall be unlawful:
(a) To knowingly lease or sublease, use or allow to be used any house, building or
establishment for the purpose of promoting trafficking in persons;
(b) To produce, print and issue or distribute unissued, tampered or fake counseling
certificates, registration stickers and certificates of any government agency which
issues these certificates and stickers as proof of compliance with government
regulatory and pre-departure requirements for the purpose of promoting trafficking in
persons;
(c) To advertise, publish, print, broadcast or distribute, or cause the advertisement,
publication, printing, broadcasting or distribution by any means, including the use of
information technology and the internet, of any brochure, flyer, or any propaganda
material that promotes trafficking in persons;
(d) To assist in the conduct of misrepresentation or fraud for purposes of facilitating the
acquisition of clearances and necessary exit documents from government agencies
that are mandated to provide pre-departure registration and services for departing
persons for the purpose of promoting trafficking in persons;
(e) To facilitate, assist or help in the exit and entry of persons from/to the country at
international and local airports, territorial boundaries and seaports who are in
possession of unissued, tampered or fraudulent travel documents for the purpose of
promoting trafficking in persons;
(f) To confiscate, conceal, or destroy the passport, travel documents, or personal
documents or belongings of trafficked persons in furtherance of trafficking or to
prevent them from leaving the country or seeking redress from the government or
appropriate agencies; and
(g) To knowingly benefit from, financial or otherwise, or make use of, the labor or
services of a person held to a condition of involuntary servitude, forced labor, or
slavery.
Section 6. Qualified Trafficking in Persons. - The following are considered as
qualified trafficking:
(a) When the trafficked person is a child;

(b) When the adoption is effected through Republic Act No. 8043, otherwise known as
the "Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995" and said adoption is for the purpose of
prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary
servitude or debt bondage;
(c) When the crime is committed by a syndicate, or in large scale. Trafficking is deemed
committed by a syndicate if carried out by a group of three (3) or more persons
conspiring or confederating with one another. It is deemed committed in large scale if
committed against three (3) or more persons, individually or as a group;
(d) When the offender is an ascendant, parent, sibling, guardian or a person who
exercises authority over the trafficked person or when the offense is committed by a
public officer or employee;
(e) When the trafficked person is recruited to engage in prostitution with any member
of the military or law enforcement agencies;
(f) When the offender is a member of the military or law enforcement agencies; and
(g) When by reason or on occasion of the act of trafficking in persons, the offended
party dies, becomes insane, suffers mutilation or is afflicted with Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

AS AMENDED BY RA 10364

Section 4. Section 4 of Republic Act No. 9208 is hereby amended to read as follows:
"SEC. 4. Acts of Trafficking in Persons. It shall be unlawful for any person, natural
or juridical, to commit any of the following acts:
"(a) To recruit, obtain, hire, provide, offer, transport, transfer, maintain,
harbor, or receive a person by any means, including those done under the
pretext of domestic or overseas employment or training or apprenticeship, for
the purpose of prostitution, pornography, or sexual exploitation;
"(b) To introduce or match for money, profit, or material, economic or other
consideration, any person or, as provided for under Republic Act No. 6955,
any Filipino woman to a foreign national, for marriage for the purpose of
acquiring, buying, offering, selling or trading him/her to engage in
prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery,
involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
"(c) To offer or contract marriage, real or simulated, for the purpose of
acquiring, buying, offering, selling, or trading them to engage in prostitution,
pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor or slavery, involuntary
servitude or debt bondage;
"(d) To undertake or organize tours and travel plans consisting of tourism
packages or activities for the purpose of utilizing and offering persons for
prostitution, pornography or sexual exploitation;

"(e) To maintain or hire a person to engage in prostitution or pornography;


"(f) To adopt persons by any form of consideration for exploitative purposes
or to facilitate the same for purposes of prostitution, pornography, sexual
exploitation, forced labor, slavery, involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
"(g) To adopt or facilitate the adoption of persons for the purpose of
prostitution, pornography, sexual exploitation, forced labor, slavery,
involuntary servitude or debt bondage;
"(h) To recruit, hire, adopt, transport, transfer, obtain, harbor, maintain,
provide, offer, receive or abduct a person, by means of threat or use of force,
fraud, deceit, violence, coercion, or intimidation for the purpose of removal or
sale of organs of said person;
"(i) To recruit, transport, obtain, transfer, harbor, maintain, offer, hire,
provide, receive or adopt a child to engage in armed activities in the
Philippines or abroad;
"(j) To recruit, transport, transfer, harbor, obtain, maintain, offer, hire, provide
or receive a person by means defined in Section 3 of this Act for purposes of
forced labor, slavery, debt bondage and involuntary servitude, including a
scheme, plan, or pattern intended to cause the person either:
"(1) To believe that if the person did not perform such labor or services,
he or she or another person would suffer serious harm or physical
restraint; or
"(2) To abuse or threaten the use of law or the legal processes; and
"(k) To recruit, transport, harbor, obtain, transfer, maintain, hire, offer,
provide, adopt or receive a child for purposes of exploitation or trading them,
including but not limited to, the act of baring and/or selling a child for any
consideration or for barter for purposes of exploitation. Trafficking for
purposes of exploitation of children shall include:
"(1) All forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, involuntary
servitude, debt bondage and forced labor, including recruitment of
children for use in armed conflict;
"(2) The use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution, for the
production of pornography, or for pornographic performances;
"(3) The use, procuring or offering of a child for the production and
trafficking of drugs; and
"(4) The use, procuring or offering of a child for illegal activities or work
which, by its nature or the circumstances in which it is carried out, is
likely to harm their health, safety or morals; and
"(l) To organize or direct other persons to commit the offenses defined as acts of
trafficking under this Act."

Section 5. A new Section 4-A is hereby inserted in Republic Act No. 9208, to read as follows:
"SEC. 4-A. Attempted Trafficking in Persons. Where there are acts to initiate the
commission of a trafficking offense but the offender failed to or did not execute all
the elements of the crime, by accident or by reason of some cause other than
voluntary desistance, such overt acts shall be deemed as an attempt to commit an
act of trafficking in persons. As such, an attempt to commit any of the offenses
enumerated in Section 4 of this Act shall constitute attempted trafficking in persons.
"In cases where the victim is a child, any of the following acts shall also be deemed
as attempted trafficking in persons:
"(a) Facilitating the travel of a child who travels alone to a foreign country or
territory without valid reason therefor and without the required clearance or
permit from the Department of Social Welfare and Development, or a written
permit or justification from the childs parent or legal guardian;
"(b) Executing, for a consideration, an affidavit of consent or a written
consent for adoption;
"(c) Recruiting a woman to bear a child for the purpose of selling the child;
"(d) Simulating a birth for the purpose of selling the child; and
"(e) Soliciting a child and acquiring the custody thereof through any means
from among hospitals, clinics, nurseries, daycare centers, refugee or
evacuation centers, and low-income families, for the purpose of selling the
child."
Section 6. A new Section 4-B is hereby inserted in Republic Act No. 9208, to read as follows:
"SEC. 4-B. Accomplice Liability. Whoever knowingly aids, abets, cooperates in the
execution of the offense by previous or simultaneous acts defined in this Act shall
be punished in accordance with the provisions of Section 10(c) of this Act."
Section 7. A new Section 4-C is hereby inserted in Republic Act No. 9208, to read as follows:
"SEC. 4-C. Accessories. Whoever has the knowledge of the commission of the
crime, and without having participated therein, either as principal or as
accomplices, take part in its commission in any of the following manners:
"(a) By profiting themselves or assisting the offender to profit by the effects
of the crime;
"(b) By concealing or destroying the body of the crime or effects or
instruments thereof, in order to prevent its discovery;
"(c) By harboring, concealing or assisting in the escape of the principal of the
crime, provided the accessory acts with abuse of his or her public functions or
is known to be habitually guilty of some other crime.

"Acts defined in this provision shall be punished in accordance with the provision of
Section 10(d) as stated thereto."
Section 8. Section 5 of Republic Act No. 9208 is hereby amended to read as follows:
"SEC. 5. Acts that Promote Trafficking in Persons. The following acts which
promote or facilitate trafficking in persons, shall be unlawful:
"(a) xxx
"(b) To produce, print and issue or distribute unissued, tampered or fake
counseling certificates, registration stickers, overseas employment
certificates or other certificates of any government agency which issues
these certificates, decals and such other markers as proof of compliance with
government regulatory and pre-departure requirements for the purpose of
promoting trafficking in persons;
"(c) xxx
"(d) xxx
"(e) xxx
"(f) xxx
"(g) xxx
"(h) To tamper with, destroy, or cause the destruction of evidence, or to
influence or attempt to influence witnesses, in an investigation or prosecution
of a case under this Act;
"(i) To destroy, conceal, remove, confiscate or possess, or attempt to destroy,
conceal, remove, confiscate or possess, any actual or purported passport or
other travel, immigration or working permit or document, or any other actual
or purported government identification, of any person in order to prevent or
restrict, or attempt to prevent or restrict, without lawful authority, the
persons liberty to move or travel in order to maintain the labor or services of
that person; or
"(j) To utilize his or her office to impede the investigation, prosecution or
execution of lawful orders in a case under this Act."
Section 9. Section 6 of Republic Act No. 9208 is hereby amended to read as follows:
"SEC. 6. Qualified Trafficking in Persons. Violations of Section 4 of this Act shall be
considered as qualified trafficking:
"x x x
"(d) When the offender is a spouse, an ascendant, parent, sibling, guardian or a
person who exercises authority over the trafficked person or when the offense is
committed by a public officer or employee;

"x x x
"(f) When the offender is a member of the military or law enforcement agencies;
"(g) When by reason or on occasion of the act of trafficking in persons, the offended
party dies, becomes insane, suffers mutilation or is afflicted with Human
Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS);
"(h) When the offender commits one or more violations of Section 4 over a period of
sixty (60) or more days, whether those days are continuous or not; and
"(i) When the offender directs or through another manages the trafficking victim in
carrying out the exploitative purpose of trafficking."

R.A. 9995 - ANTI-PHOTO AND VIDEO VOYEURISM ACT OF 2009

Section 3. Definition of Terms. - For purposes of this Act, the term:


(a) "Broadcast" means to make public, by any means, a visual image with the intent that it
be viewed by a person or persons.
(b) "Capture" with respect to an image, means to videotape, photograph, film, record by
any means, or broadcast.
(c) "Female breast" means any portion of the female breast.
(d) "Photo or video voyeurism" means the act of taking photo or video coverage of a
person or group of persons performing sexual act or any similar activity or of capturing an
image of the private area of a person or persons without the latter's consent, under
circumstances in which such person/s has/have a reasonable expectation of privacy, or the
act of selling, copying, reproducing, broadcasting, sharing, showing or exhibiting the photo
or video coverage or recordings of such sexual act or similar activity through VCD/DVD,
internet, cellular phones and similar means or device without the written consent of the
person/s involved, notwithstanding that consent to record or take photo or video coverage
of same was given by such person's.
(e) "Private area of a person" means the naked or undergarment clad genitals, public area,
buttocks or female breast of an individual.
(f) "Under circumstances in which a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy"
means believe that he/she could disrobe in privacy, without being concerned that an
image or a private area of the person was being captured; or circumstances in which a

reasonable person would believe that a private area of the person would not be visible to
the public, regardless of whether that person is in a public or private place.
Section 4. Prohibited Acts. - It is hereby prohibited and declared unlawful for any person:
(a) To take photo or video coverage of a person or group of persons performing sexual act
or any similar activity or to capture an image of the private area of a person/s such as the
naked or undergarment clad genitals, public area, buttocks or female breast without the
consent of the person/s involved and under circumstances in which the person/s has/have
a reasonable expectation of privacy;
(b) To copy or reproduce, or to cause to be copied or reproduced, such photo or video or
recording of sexual act or any similar activity with or without consideration;
(c) To sell or distribute, or cause to be sold or distributed, such photo or video or recording
of sexual act, whether it be the original copy or reproduction thereof; or
(d) To publish or broadcast, or cause to be published or broadcast, whether in print or
broadcast media, or show or exhibit the photo or video coverage or recordings of such
sexual act or any similar activity through VCD/DVD, internet, cellular phones and other
similar means or device.
The prohibition under paragraphs (b), (c) and (d) shall apply notwithstanding that consent to
record or take photo or video coverage of the same was given by such person/s. Any person who
violates this provision shall be liable for photo Definition of terms
Section 3. Definitions. As used in this Act, the following terms shall mean:
(a) Administer. Any act of introducing any dangerous drug into the body of any person, with or
without his/her knowledge, by injection, inhalation, ingestion or other means, or of committing
any act of indispensable assistance to a person in administering a dangerous drug to
himself/herself unless administered by a duly licensed practitioner for purposes of medication.
(b) Board. - Refers to the Dangerous Drugs Board under Section 77, Article IX of this Act.
(c) Centers. - Any of the treatment and rehabilitation centers for drug dependents referred to in
Section 34, Article VIII of this Act.
(d) Chemical Diversion. The sale, distribution, supply or transport of legitimately imported, intransit, manufactured or procured controlled precursors and essential chemicals, in diluted,
mixtures or in concentrated form, to any person or entity engaged in the manufacture of any
dangerous drug, and shall include packaging, repackaging, labeling, relabeling or concealment of
such transaction through fraud, destruction of documents, fraudulent use of permits,
misdeclaration, use of front companies or mail fraud.
(e) Clandestine Laboratory. Any facility used for the illegal manufacture of any dangerous drug
and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.

(f) Confirmatory Test. An analytical test using a device, tool or equipment with a different
chemical or physical principle that is more specific which will validate and confirm the result of
the screening test.
(g) Controlled Delivery. The investigative technique of allowing an unlawful or suspect
consignment of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical,
equipment or paraphernalia, or property believed to be derived directly or indirectly from any
offense, to pass into, through or out of the country under the supervision of an authorized officer,
with a view to gathering evidence to identify any person involved in any dangerous drugs related
offense, or to facilitate prosecution of that offense.
(h) Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals. Include those listed in Tables I and II of the
1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances as
enumerated in the attached annex, which is an integral part of this Act.
(i) Cultivate or Culture. Any act of knowingly planting, growing, raising, or permitting the
planting, growing or raising of any plant which is the source of a dangerous drug.
(j) Dangerous Drugs. Include those listed in the Schedules annexed to the 1961 Single
Convention on Narcotic Drugs, as amended by the 1972 Protocol, and in the Schedules annexed
to the 1971 Single Convention on Psychotropic Substances as enumerated in the attached annex
which is an integral part of this Act.
(k) Deliver. Any act of knowingly passing a dangerous drug to another, personally or otherwise,
and by any means, with or without consideration.
(l) Den, Dive or Resort. A place where any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and
essential chemical is administered, delivered, stored for illegal purposes, distributed, sold or used
in any form.
(m) Dispense. Any act of giving away, selling or distributing medicine or any dangerous drug
with or without the use of prescription.
(n) Drug Dependence. As based on the World Health Organization definition, it is a cluster of
physiological, behavioral and cognitive phenomena of variable intensity, in which the use of
psychoactive drug takes on a high priority thereby involving, among others, a strong desire or a
sense of compulsion to take the substance and the difficulties in controlling substance-taking
behavior in terms of its onset, termination, or levels of use.
(o) Drug Syndicate. Any organized group of two (2) or more persons forming or joining together
with the intention of committing any offense prescribed under this Act.
(p) Employee of Den, Dive or Resort. The caretaker, helper, watchman, lookout, and other
persons working in the den, dive or resort, employed by the maintainer, owner and/or operator
where any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical is administered,
delivered, distributed, sold or used, with or without compensation, in connection with the
operation thereof.

(q) Financier. Any person who pays for, raises or supplies money for, or underwrites any of the
illegal activities prescribed under this Act.
(r) Illegal Trafficking. The illegal cultivation, culture, delivery, administration, dispensation,
manufacture, sale, trading, transportation, distribution, importation, exportation and possession
of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical.
(s) Instrument. Any thing that is used in or intended to be used in any manner in the
commission of illegal drug trafficking or related offenses.
(t) Laboratory Equipment. The paraphernalia, apparatus, materials or appliances when used,
intended for use or designed for use in the manufacture of any dangerous drug and/or controlled
precursor and essential chemical, such as reaction vessel, preparative/purifying equipment,
fermentors, separatory funnel, flask, heating mantle, gas generator, or their substitute.
(u) Manufacture. The production, preparation, compounding or processing of any dangerous
drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical, either directly or indirectly or by
extraction from substances of natural origin, or independently by means of chemical synthesis or
by a combination of extraction and chemical synthesis, and shall include any packaging or
repackaging of such substances, design or configuration of its form, or labeling or relabeling of
its container; except that such terms do not include the preparation, compounding, packaging or
labeling of a drug or other substances by a duly authorized practitioner as an incident to his/her
administration or dispensation of such drug or substance in the course of his/her professional
practice including research, teaching and chemical analysis of dangerous drugs or such
substances that are not intended for sale or for any other purpose.
(v) Cannabis or commonly known as "Marijuana" or "Indian Hemp" or by its any other name.
Embraces every kind, class, genus, or specie of the plant Cannabis sativa L. including, but not
limited to, Cannabis americana,hashish, bhang, guaza, churrus and ganjab, and embraces every
kind, class and character of marijuana, whether dried or fresh and flowering, flowering or fruiting
tops, or any part or portion of the plant and seeds thereof, and all its geographic varieties,
whether as a reefer, resin, extract, tincture or in any form whatsoever.
(w) Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or commonly known as "Ecstasy", or by its any
other name. Refers to the drug having such chemical composition, including any of its isomers
or derivatives in any form.
(x) Methamphetamine Hydrochloride or commonly known as "Shabu", "Ice", "Meth", or by its any
other name. Refers to the drug having such chemical composition, including any of its isomers
or derivatives in any form.
(y) Opium. Refers to the coagulated juice of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) and
embraces every kind, class and character of opium, whether crude or prepared; the ashes or
refuse of the same; narcotic preparations thereof or therefrom; morphine or any alkaloid of
opium; preparations in which opium, morphine or any alkaloid of opium enters as an ingredient;
opium poppy; opium poppy straw; and leaves or wrappings of opium leaves, whether prepared
for use or not.

(z) Opium Poppy. Refers to any part of the plant of the species Papaver somniferum L., Papaver
setigerum DC, Papaver orientale, Papaver bracteatum and Papaver rhoeas, which includes the
seeds, straws, branches, leaves or any part thereof, or substances derived therefrom, even for
floral, decorative and culinary purposes.
(aa) PDEA. Refers to the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency under Section 82, Article IX of this
Act.
(bb) Person. Any entity, natural or juridical, including among others, a corporation, partnership,
trust or estate, joint stock company, association, syndicate, joint venture or other unincorporated
organization or group capable of acquiring rights or entering into obligations.
(cc) Planting of Evidence. The willful act by any person of maliciously and surreptitiously
inserting, placing, adding or attaching directly or indirectly, through any overt or covert act,
whatever quantity of any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical in
the person, house, effects or in the immediate vicinity of an innocent individual for the purpose
of implicating, incriminating or imputing the commission of any violation of this Act.
(dd) Practitioner. Any person who is a licensed physician, dentist, chemist, medical
technologist, nurse, midwife, veterinarian or pharmacist in the Philippines.
(ee) Protector/Coddler. Any person who knowingly and willfully consents to the unlawful acts
provided for in this Act and uses his/her influence, power or position in shielding, harboring,
screening or facilitating the escape of any person he/she knows, or has reasonable grounds to
believe on or suspects, has violated the provisions of this Act in order to prevent the arrest,
prosecution and conviction of the violator.
(ff) Pusher. Any person who sells, trades, administers, dispenses, delivers or gives away to
another, on any terms whatsoever, or distributes, dispatches in transit or transports dangerous
drugs or who acts as a broker in any of such transactions, in violation of this Act.
(gg) School. Any educational institution, private or public, undertaking educational operation
for pupils/students pursuing certain studies at defined levels, receiving instructions from
teachers, usually located in a building or a group of buildings in a particular physical or cyber
site.
(hh) Screening Test. A rapid test performed to establish potential/presumptive positive result.
(ii) Sell. Any act of giving away any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential
chemical whether for money or any other consideration.
(jj) Trading. Transactions involving the illegal trafficking of dangerous drugs and/or controlled
precursors and essential chemicals using electronic devices such as, but not limited to, text
messages, email, mobile or landlines, two-way radios, internet, instant messengers and chat
rooms or acting as a broker in any of such transactions whether for money or any other
consideration in violation of this Act.

(kk) Use. Any act of injecting, intravenously or intramuscularly, of consuming, either by


chewing, smoking, sniffing, eating, swallowing, drinking or otherwise introducing into the
physiological system of the body, and of the dangerous drugs.
Unlawful Acts and Penalties
Section 4. Importation of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential
Chemicals.- .The penalty of life imprisonment to death and a ranging from Five hundred thousand
pesos (P500,000.00) to Ten million pesos (P10,000,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person,
who, unless authorized by law, shall import or bring into the Philippines any dangerous drug,
regardless of the quantity and purity involved, including any and all species of opium poppy or
any part thereof or substances derived therefrom even for floral, decorative and culinary
purposes.
The penalty of imprisonment ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20)
years and a fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred
thousand pesos (P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by law,
shall import any controlled precursor and essential chemical.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed upon any person, who,
unless authorized under this Act, shall import or bring into the Philippines any dangerous drug
and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical through the use of a diplomatic passport,
diplomatic facilities or any other means involving his/her official status intended to facilitate the
unlawful entry of the same. In addition, the diplomatic passport shall be confiscated and
canceled.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed upon any person, who
organizes, manages or acts as a "financier" of any of the illegal activities prescribed in this
Section.
The penalty of twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years of imprisonment and a fine
ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who acts as a "protector/coddler" of any
violator of the provisions under this Section.
Section 5. Sale, Trading, Administration, Dispensation, Delivery, Distribution and Transportation
of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals. - The penalty of life
imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) to
Ten million pesos (P10,000,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by
law, shall sell, trade, administer, dispense, deliver, give away to another, distribute dispatch in
transit or transport any dangerous drug, including any and all species of opium poppy regardless
of the quantity and purity involved, or shall act as a broker in any of such transactions.
The penalty of imprisonment ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20)
years and a fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred
thousand pesos (P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by law,
shall sell, trade, administer, dispense, deliver, give away to another, distribute, dispatch in

transit or transport any controlled precursor and essential chemical, or shall act as a broker in
such transactions.
If the sale, trading, administration, dispensation, delivery, distribution or transportation of any
dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical transpires within one hundred
(100) meters from the school, the maximum penalty shall be imposed in every case.
For drug pushers who use minors or mentally incapacitated individuals as runners, couriers and
messengers, or in any other capacity directly connected to the dangerous drugs and/or
controlled precursors and essential chemical trade, the maximum penalty shall be imposed in
every case.
If the victim of the offense is a minor or a mentally incapacitated individual, or should a
dangerous drug and/or a controlled precursor and essential chemical involved in any offense
herein provided be the proximate cause of death of a victim thereof, the maximum penalty
provided for under this Section shall be imposed.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed upon any person who
organizes, manages or acts as a "financier" of any of the illegal activities prescribed in this
Section.
The penalty of twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years of imprisonment and a fine
ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who acts as a "protector/coddler" of any
violator of the provisions under this Section.
Section 6. Maintenance of a Den, Dive or Resort. - The penalty of life imprisonment to death
and a fine ranging from Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) to Ten million pesos
(P10,000,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person or group of persons who shall maintain a
den, dive or resort where any dangerous drug is used or sold in any form.
The penalty of imprisonment ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20)
years and a fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred
thousand pesos (P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person or group of persons who shall
maintain a den, dive, or resort where any controlled precursor and essential chemical is used or
sold in any form.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed in every case where any
dangerous drug is administered, delivered or sold to a minor who is allowed to use the same in
such a place.
Should any dangerous drug be the proximate cause of the death of a person using the same in
such den, dive or resort, the penalty of death and a fine ranging from One million
(P1,000,000.00) to Fifteen million pesos (P500,000.00) shall be imposed on the maintainer,
owner and/or operator.

If such den, dive or resort is owned by a third person, the same shall be confiscated and
escheated in favor of the government: Provided, That the criminal complaint shall specifically
allege that such place is intentionally used in the furtherance of the crime: Provided, further,
That the prosecution shall prove such intent on the part of the owner to use the property for such
purpose: Provided, finally, That the owner shall be included as an accused in the criminal
complaint.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed upon any person who
organizes, manages or acts as a "financier" of any of the illegal activities prescribed in this
Section.
The penalty twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years of imprisonment and a fine
ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who acts as a "protector/coddler" of any
violator of the provisions under this Section.
Section 7. Employees and Visitors of a Den, Dive or Resort. - The penalty of imprisonment
ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years and a fine ranging from One
hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) shall be
imposed upon:
(a) Any employee of a den, dive or resort, who is aware of the nature of the place as such;
and
(b) Any person who, not being included in the provisions of the next preceding, paragraph,
is aware of the nature of the place as such and shall knowingly visit the same
Section 8. Manufacture of Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential
Chemicals. - The penalty of life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging Five hundred thousand
pesos (P500,000.00) to Ten million pesos (P10,000,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person,
who, unless authorized by law, shall engage in the manufacture of any dangerous drug.
The penalty of imprisonment ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20)
years and a fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred
thousand pesos (P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by law,
shall manufacture any controlled precursor and essential chemical.
The presence of any controlled precursor and essential chemical or laboratory equipment in the
clandestine laboratory is a prima facie proof of manufacture of any dangerous drug. It shall be
considered an aggravating circumstance if the clandestine laboratory is undertaken or
established under the following circumstances:
(a) Any phase of the manufacturing process was conducted in the presence or with the
help of minor/s:
(b) Any phase or manufacturing process was established or undertaken within one
hundred (100) meters of a residential, business, church or school premises;

(c) Any clandestine laboratory was secured or protected with booby traps;
(d) Any clandestine laboratory was concealed with legitimate business operations; or
(e) Any employment of a practitioner, chemical engineer, public official or foreigner.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed upon any person, who
organizes, manages or acts as a "financier" of any of the illegal activities prescribed in this
Section.
The penalty of twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years of imprisonment and a fine
ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who acts as a "protector/coddler" of any
violator of the provisions under this Section.
Section 9. Illegal Chemical Diversion of Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals. - The
penalty of imprisonment ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years
and a fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand
pesos (P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by law, shall
illegally divert any controlled precursor and essential chemical.
Section 10. Manufacture or Delivery of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus, and Other
Paraphernalia for Dangerous Drugs and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals. - The
penalty of imprisonment ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years
and a fine ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand
pesos (P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person who shall deliver, possess with intent to
deliver, or manufacture with intent to deliver equipment, instrument, apparatus and other
paraphernalia for dangerous drugs, knowing, or under circumstances where one reasonably
should know, that it will be used to plant, propagate, cultivate, grow, harvest, manufacture,
compound, convert, produce, process, prepare, test, analyze, pack, repack, store, contain or
conceal any dangerous drug and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical in violation of
this Act.
The penalty of imprisonment ranging from six (6) months and one (1) day to four (4) years and a
fine ranging from Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) to Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) shall be
imposed if it will be used to inject, ingest, inhale or otherwise introduce into the human body a
dangerous drug in violation of this Act.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed upon any person, who
uses a minor or a mentally incapacitated individual to deliver such equipment, instrument,
apparatus and other paraphernalia for dangerous drugs.
Section 11. Possession of Dangerous Drugs. - The penalty of life imprisonment to death and a
fine ranging from Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) to Ten million pesos
(P10,000,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by law, shall
possess any dangerous drug in the following quantities, regardless of the degree of purity
thereof:

(1) 10 grams or more of opium;


(2) 10 grams or more of morphine;
(3) 10 grams or more of heroin;
(4) 10 grams or more of cocaine or cocaine hydrochloride;
(5) 50 grams or more of methamphetamine hydrochloride or "shabu";
(6) 10 grams or more of marijuana resin or marijuana resin oil;
(7) 500 grams or more of marijuana; and
(8) 10 grams or more of other dangerous drugs such as, but not limited to,
methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDA) or "ecstasy", paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA),
trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA), lysergic acid diethylamine (LSD), gamma
hydroxyamphetamine (GHB), and those similarly designed or newly introduced drugs and
their derivatives, without having any therapeutic value or if the quantity possessed is far
beyond therapeutic requirements, as determined and promulgated by the Board in
accordance to Section 93, Article XI of this Act.
Otherwise, if the quantity involved is less than the foregoing quantities, the penalties shall be
graduated as follows:
(1) Life imprisonment and a fine ranging from Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00)
to Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00), if the quantity of methamphetamine
hydrochloride or "shabu" is ten (10) grams or more but less than fifty (50) grams;
(2) Imprisonment of twenty (20) years and one (1) day to life imprisonment and a fine
ranging from Four hundred thousand pesos (P400,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00), if the quantities of dangerous drugs are five (5) grams or more but less
than ten (10) grams of opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine or cocaine hydrochloride,
marijuana resin or marijuana resin oil, methamphetamine hydrochloride or "shabu", or
other dangerous drugs such as, but not limited to, MDMA or "ecstasy", PMA, TMA, LSD,
GHB, and those similarly designed or newly introduced drugs and their derivatives, without
having any therapeutic value or if the quantity possessed is far beyond therapeutic
requirements; or three hundred (300) grams or more but less than five (hundred) 500)
grams of marijuana; and
(3) Imprisonment of twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years and a fine
ranging from Three hundred thousand pesos (P300,000.00) to Four hundred thousand
pesos (P400,000.00), if the quantities of dangerous drugs are less than five (5) grams of
opium, morphine, heroin, cocaine or cocaine hydrochloride, marijuana resin or marijuana
resin oil, methamphetamine hydrochloride or "shabu", or other dangerous drugs such as,
but not limited to, MDMA or "ecstasy", PMA, TMA, LSD, GHB, and those similarly designed
or newly introduced drugs and their derivatives, without having any therapeutic value or if

the quantity possessed is far beyond therapeutic requirements; or less than three hundred
(300) grams of marijuana.
Section 12. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for
Dangerous Drugs. -The penalty of imprisonment ranging from six (6) months and one (1) day to
four (4) years and a fine ranging from Ten thousand pesos (P10,000.00) to Fifty thousand pesos
(P50,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by law, shall possess or
have under his/her control any equipment, instrument, apparatus and other paraphernalia fit or
intended for smoking, consuming, administering, injecting, ingesting, or introducing any
dangerous drug into the body: Provided, That in the case of medical practitioners and various
professionals who are required to carry such equipment, instrument, apparatus and other
paraphernalia in the practice of their profession, the Board shall prescribe the necessary
implementing guidelines thereof.
The possession of such equipment, instrument, apparatus and other paraphernalia fit or intended
for any of the purposes enumerated in the preceding paragraph shall be prima facie evidence
that the possessor has smoked, consumed, administered to himself/herself, injected, ingested or
used a dangerous drug and shall be presumed to have violated Section 15 of this Act.
Section 13. Possession of Dangerous Drugs During Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings. Any
person found possessing any dangerous drug during a party, or at a social gathering or meeting,
or in the proximate company of at least two (2) persons, shall suffer the maximum penalties
provided for in Section 11 of this Act, regardless of the quantity and purity of such dangerous
drugs.
Section 14. Possession of Equipment, Instrument, Apparatus and Other Paraphernalia for
Dangerous Drugs During Parties, Social Gatherings or Meetings. - The maximum penalty
provided for in Section 12 of this Act shall be imposed upon any person, who shall possess or
have under his/her control any equipment, instrument, apparatus and other paraphernalia fit or
intended for smoking, consuming, administering, injecting, ingesting, or introducing any
dangerous drug into the body, during parties, social gatherings or meetings, or in the proximate
company of at least two (2) persons.
Section 15. Use of Dangerous Drugs. A person apprehended or arrested, who is found to be
positive for use of any dangerous drug, after a confirmatory test, shall be imposed a penalty of a
minimum of six (6) months rehabilitation in a government center for the first offense, subject to
the provisions of Article VIII of this Act. If apprehended using any dangerous drug for the second
time, he/she shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment ranging from six (6) years and one (1) day
to twelve (12) years and a fine ranging from Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) to Two hundred
thousand pesos (P200,000.00): Provided, That this Section shall not be applicable where the
person tested is also found to have in his/her possession such quantity of any dangerous drug
provided for under Section 11 of this Act, in which case the provisions stated therein shall apply.
Section 16. Cultivation or Culture of Plants Classified as Dangerous Drugs or are Sources
Thereof. - The penalty of life imprisonment to death and a fine ranging from Five hundred
thousand pesos (P500,000.00) to Ten million pesos (P10,000,000.00) shall be imposed upon any
person, who shall plant, cultivate or culture marijuana, opium poppy or any other plant

regardless of quantity, which is or may hereafter be classified as a dangerous drug or as a source


from which any dangerous drug may be manufactured or derived: Provided, That in the case of
medical laboratories and medical research centers which cultivate or culture marijuana, opium
poppy and other plants, or materials of such dangerous drugs for medical experiments and
research purposes, or for the creation of new types of medicine, the Board shall prescribe the
necessary implementing guidelines for the proper cultivation, culture, handling, experimentation
and disposal of such plants and materials.
The land or portions thereof and/or greenhouses on which any of said plants is cultivated or
cultured shall be confiscated and escheated in favor of the State, unless the owner thereof can
prove lack of knowledge of such cultivation or culture despite the exercise of due diligence on
his/her part. If the land involved is part of the public domain, the maximum penalty provided for
under this Section shall be imposed upon the offender.
The maximum penalty provided for under this Section shall be imposed upon any person, who
organizes, manages or acts as a "financier" of any of the illegal activities prescribed in this
Section.
The penalty of twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years of imprisonment and a fine
ranging from One hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos
(P500,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who acts as a "protector/coddler" of any
violator of the provisions under this Section.
Section 17. Maintenance and Keeping of Original Records of Transactions on Dangerous Drugs
and/or Controlled Precursors and Essential Chemicals. - The penalty of imprisonment ranging
from one (1) year and one (1) day to six (6) years and a fine ranging from Ten thousand pesos
(P10,000.00) to Fifty thousand pesos (P50,000.00) shall be imposed upon any practitioner,
manufacturer, wholesaler, importer, distributor, dealer or retailer who violates or fails to comply
with the maintenance and keeping of the original records of transactions on any dangerous drug
and/or controlled precursor and essential chemical in accordance with Section 40 of this Act.
An additional penalty shall be imposed through the revocation of the license to practice his/her
profession, in case of a practitioner, or of the business, in case of a manufacturer, seller,
importer, distributor, dealer or retailer.
Section 18. Unnecessary Prescription of Dangerous Drugs. The penalty of imprisonment
ranging from twelve (12) years and one (1) day to twenty (20) years and a fine ranging from One
hundred thousand pesos (P100,000.00) to Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) and the
additional penalty of the revocation of his/her license to practice shall be imposed upon the
practitioner, who shall prescribe any dangerous drug to any person whose physical or
physiological condition does not require the use or in the dosage prescribed therein, as
determined by the Board in consultation with recognized competent experts who are authorized
representatives of professional organizations of practitioners, particularly those who are involved
in the care of persons with severe pain.
Section 19. Unlawful Prescription of Dangerous Drugs. The penalty of life imprisonment to
death and a fine ranging from Five hundred thousand pesos (P500,000.00) to Ten million pesos

(P10,000,000.00) shall be imposed upon any person, who, unless authorized by law, shall make
or issue a prescription or any other writing purporting to be a prescription for any dangerous
drug.