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De La Salle University Dasmarias

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURE AND TECHNOLOGY


ARCHITECTURE DEPARTMENT

Research Paper
Submitted by:
Reyes, Ranelie Judith H.
ARC43

Submitted to:
Arch. Scissel S. Naing
Subject Instructor

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December 19, 2015


SY 2015-2016

Table of Contents

Content
Space Frame

Page
.

Steel Construction .

References .

List of Figures

Figure No.

Title

Page

Space Frame

Modular System

Nodular System

Steel bars

I-Beam .

Z-Shape .

HSS Steel Shape.

Angle Bar

2
3
2
4
4

6
8

6
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9
10

Structural Tee .

Steel Plate

7
.

SPACE FRAME
A space frame is usually an open three-dimensional framework of struts and
braces that defines a structure and distributes its weight evenly in all of its
directions. It also refers to a spatial structure whose members are connected rigidly
to each other so that they transfer moment and shear in addition to axial forces. In
comparison, space trusses are pin-jointed and as a result, their members are in
tension or compression and do not transfer moment or shear.

Figure 1. Space Frame


Source: www.google.com
Space frames design method is typically designed using a rigidity matrix. The
special characteristic of the stiffness matrix in an architectural space frame is the
independence of the angular factors. If the joints are sufficiently rigid, the angular

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deflections can be neglected. They are either constructed from prefabricated


modular units - modular system or individual members assembled together using
different types of connectors or nodes - nodular system.
Modular systems are generally made of prefabricated units (modules) consisting
of bars welded together in a shop and connected to each other on site. The modular
systems are generally more cost-effective if the spatial structure is made of the
same size modules. These systems have small module size of about 6 feet and are
used for structures with relatively small spans.

Figure 2. Modular System


Source: www.google.com
Nodular or Piece-Small Systems consists of mostly circular or square hollow
tubes are used as the main structural members. However, in some cases channels
were also used. Spherical, cylindrical and folded plate shape components have also
been used as connectors (or nodes). The members are secured to their connectors
by bolting or interlocking into pre-drilled holes or slots. Systems using spherical
nodes are the most common and aesthetically pleasing, which are also called Ball
Joint Systems. The nodes can be solid or hollow. The solid spheres are generally
drilled with threaded holes at specific angles for connecting members. The
attachment surfaces are also machined for better bearing.

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Figure 3. Nodular System


Source: www.google.com
Some examples of Space Frame Systems:
System Space Frame
The most versatile and attractive forged steel ball and tube
system available.

Easiest ball and tube system to assemble.

Virtually unlimited span capability.

Flexibility of form through freedom of angle.

Pyramid Sphere Space Frame


Traditional ball and tube appearance without the cost. Your space
frame system of choice for beauty and economy.

Variable module designs.

Top junction plate for economical design.

Long span capability.

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Direct decking or cladding attachment.

Bottom junction ball design for aesthetic integrity.

Hemispherical Node
Most economical space frame system. Fits most geometric
designs.

Easiest, most economical system to assemble.

Variable module sizes.

Ideal solutions for medium spans.

Forged steel node-the most compact, high quality


connector.

Axent Space Frame non-structural system

Attractive and cost efficient addition to any display or


exhibit.

Practical assembly with the aid of a hand wrench only.

Consists of pre-cut and in-stock material ready to ship.

STEEL CONSTRUCTION
Steel is a strong and hard metal which is made of iron and carbon. It is
widely used in construction and other applications because of their high tensile
strengths and low costs. Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within iron act as
hardening agents that prevent the movement of dislocations that otherwise occur in
the crystal lattices of iron atoms.

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Figure 4. Steel bars


Source: www.google.com
Structural Steel - is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a
specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and
mechanical properties. Structural steel shape, size, composition, strength, storage,
etc., is regulated in most industrialized countries. Structural steel members, such as
I-beams, have high second moments of area, which allow them to be very stiff in
respect to their cross-sectional area.

Advantages of steel:

Strength, resistance
Design flexibility, adaptability
Durability, recyclability, sustainability
Lower construction cost, speed
Reduced long-term maintenance
Light material
Good indoor air quality

Steel construction advantage productivity:


Being totally reusable, steel is the ultimate environmentally friendly product.
Steel structures today will certainly almost be reused in the buildings in the
future.

Disadvantage of steel:
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They lose strength at high temperatures, and are susceptible to fire.


They are prone to corrosion in humid or marine environments.

Steel construction is most often used in:


High rise buildings because of its strength, low weight, and speed of
construction
Industrial buildings because of its ability to create large span spaces at low
cost
Warehouse buildings for the same reason
Residential buildings in a technique called light gauge steel construction
Temporary Structures as these are quick to set up and remove

Common Structural Steel shapes:

Figure 5. I-Beam
Source: www.google.com

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Figure 6. Z-Shape
Source: www.google.com

Figure 7. HSS (hollow structural section) Steel Shape


Source: www.google.com

Figure 8. Angle bar


Source: www.google.com

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Figure 9. Structural Tee


Source: www.google.com

Figure 10. Steel Plate


Source: www.google.com

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References:
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/space%20frame
http://www.setareh.arch.vt.edu/safas/009_introduction_02_sf.html
http://www.deltastructures.com/?space_frames=systems
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steel
http://www.slideshare.net/SteelBusinessBriefing/steel-construction
http://www.understandconstruction.com/steel-frame-structures.html

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