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What is Right of Way (ROW)?

The portion of highway in which no construction work excluding the road work is allowed..

A right-of-way is a right to make a way over a piece of land, usually to and from another piece of land.
A right of way is a type of easement granted or reserved over the land for transportation purposes, this
can be for a highway, public footpath, rail transport, canal, as well as electrical transmission lines, oil
and gas pipelines.
A right-of-way is reserved for the purposes of maintenance or expansion of existing services with the
right-of-way.
1. It is helpful for the future planning of the road.
2. It is used for the plantation of trees.
3.

Utility lines such as telephone lines, optical fibers and other services are to be provided in the
right of way.

Trench excavation
A trench is a type of excavation or depression in the ground that is generally deeper than
it is wide and narrow compared to its length. And for piping we required as per piping
diameter.

Backfilling of pipe:
Soil or other material used to replace previously excavated material, as around a newly constructed or
placed Pipe etc

Civil Foundation
Types of Foundation
1. Shallows Foundations
2. Deep Foundations
1- Shallows Foundations: Shallow foundations are those founded near to the finished ground surface;
generally where the founding depth (Df) is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m. These are

not strict rules, but merely guidelines: basically, if surface loading or other surface conditions will affect
the bearing capacity of a foundation it is shallow.
Shallow Foundation types:
I.
II.

Pad or column footings ( Isolated or Combined )


Cantilever or strap footings

III.

Continuous footings

IV.

Wall Footings

2.Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for their base
bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions, this is usually at depths >3 m below finished
ground level. Deep foundations can be used to transfer the loading to a deeper, more competent strata at
depth if unsuitable soils are present near the surface.

Barrow Pit:
Borrow pit, also known as a sand box, is an area where material (usually soil, gravel or sand) has been
dug for use at another location. Borrow pits can be found close to many major construction projects. For
example, soil might be excavated to fill an embankment for a highway, clay might be excavated for use
in brick-making, gravel to be used for making concrete, etc.

Precast concrete
Precast concrete is a construction product produced by casting concrete in a reusable mold or "form"
which is then cured in a controlled environment, transported to the construction site and lifted into place.

Thrust block (anchor block)


A massive block of concrete built to withstand a thrust or pull. A mass of concrete or similar material
appropriately placed around a pipe to prevent movement when the pipe is carrying water. Usually placed
at bends and valve structures.

Rebar Bending
Bar bending is the manufacture and bending of the steel reinforcing bars and beams, also known as rebar, used
as reinforcement in concrete construction. Bar bending has a variety of different scientific measurements
associated with it, often referred to as the bar bending schedule. This gives the manufacturers the proper bends
and tensile strengths of the steel required to make certain shapes or other concrete constructions that are
required.

During Rebar Cutting,

Safety equipment. Gloves, eye protection, sturdy boots


Mild steel cutting saw. Hacksaw, sawzall, chop saw
1/2 inch (number 4) rebar
A long pipe with a diameter large enough to fit the rebar inside it