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Contents

SAP R/3.........................................................................................................................

1.1

TABLES.................................................................................................................

1.2

TRANSACTIONS..................................................................................................

1.2.1

Daily maintenance...........................................................................................

1.2.2

ABAP-related..................................................................................................

1.2.3

Backgroundjob-related....................................................................................

1.2.4

Generally useful...............................................................................................

1.2.5

Functional transactions....................................................................................

1.3

COMMANDS........................................................................................................

1.4

ABAP REPORTS...................................................................................................

1.5

PROFILEPARAMETERS......................................................................................

1.6

USERIDS...............................................................................................................

1.6.1

Userids on SAP R/3 level................................................................................

1.6.2

Userids on databaselevel..................................................................................

1.6.3

Userids on OS-level.........................................................................................

1.6.4

Userid for Supportpackages.............................................................................

1.6.5

Userid for STMS..............................................................................................

1.7
2

LOGFILES.............................................................................................................
Database........................................................................................................................

2.1
2.1.1

GENERAL DATABASEKNOWLEDGE..............................................................
Database-commands........................................................................................

2.1.1.1

SQL Select-statements..................................................................................

2.1.1.2

SQL Alter-statements...................................................................................

2.1.1.3

SQL Other statements...................................................................................

2.2

ORACLE................................................................................................................

2.2.1

important files..................................................................................................

2.2.2

OSlevel-commands..........................................................................................

2.2.3

Brbackup/brrestore..........................................................................................

2.3

MS SQL..................................................................................................................

2.3.1
2.4
3

Stored procedures............................................................................................
DB 2/400................................................................................................................

Operating system...........................................................................................................

3.1

GENERAL...........................................................................................................

3.1.1

ftp.....................................................................................................................

3.1.2

General commands..........................................................................................

3.2

UNIX......................................................................................................................

3.2.1

Simple commands............................................................................................

3.2.2

A little more complex commands....................................................................

3.3
4

NT.........................................................................................................................
General issues...............................................................................................................

4.1

SAP TOOLS.........................................................................................................

4.1.1

dbmon..............................................................................................................

4.1.2

gwmon.............................................................................................................

4.1.3

R3load..............................................................................................................

4.1.4

R3setup............................................................................................................

4.1.5

R3trans.............................................................................................................

4.1.6

sapdba, to be run as ora<SID>.........................................................................

4.1.7

saplicense, to be run from the ..\exe\run directory..........................................

4.1.8

saprouter..........................................................................................................

4.1.9

tp, to be run from the usr\sap\trans\bin............................................................

1 SAP R/3
This document is created to get a comprehensive list of all actions that I have taken
during the maintenance of the SAP. This to make sure that I forget as little as possible.
This document can be a good handle for basis consultants who are starting on the job.

1.1 Tables
DBSTATC
E070

status of statistics-information per SAP-table


Change-requests and their tasks and properties
Objects in change-requests
Necessary at sapscript-ABAPs
Materiallist
Supportpackages and their status, also see table TEPSIN

E071
KNA1
MARA
PAT01,
PAT03
TBATG

Holds runtime-transportinformation (dont know yet what it exactly


holds)
Batchjobinformation
Timezones.
Userdata

TBTCO
TTZZ
USR01
~ ...12

1.2 Transactions
Good advise: dont learn the transactioncodes by heart at first, but use the menu-paths.
This way you will sooner get an overview of the systems possibilities.

1.2.1

Daily maintenance

SM21
SM37
SM50/51
SM66
ST11
ST22

1.2.2

Systemlog
Check the batchjobs
Show all processes on one server / all servers
Show all active process on the system
Display developer-traces
ABAP-dumps

ABAP-related

SE11
SE16/SM30
SE37

ABAP dictionary
Data browser/Table editor (3.1xs SM31 is replaced by SM30)
Function builder

SE38
SE41
SE51

ABAP editor
Menu painter
Screen painter

1.2.3

Backgroundjob-related

RZ04
SM36
SM37
SM63
SM65

1.2.4

Operation modes
Create background job
Show background jobs
Operation mode calendar
Check backgroundjob-settings

Generally useful

AL11
DB02
PFCG
RZ10
SARA
SCC4
SE01
SE06 (4.x
up)
SE71
SM02
SMGW
SMLG
SMLT
SPAM
SPAU
SPDD
STFK

1.2.5

SAP directories
Database performance: Tables and Indexes
Profile generator
Profile maintenance
Archiving
Client change options
Transport organizer, use SE09 for ABAP-transports, SE10 for
customizing transports
System change options, see SCC4 for Client change options.
Maintain Layout-sets also known as sapscripts
System message
Gateway administration
Define logon-groups
Language administration
Support Package Manager
ABAP-dictionary assistant during supportpackage-import
Data-dictionary assistant during supportpackage-import
Search the customersystem that have an open connection to Walldorf

Functional transactions

MM01,2,3
PP01,2,3
VA01,2,3

Create, Modify, Display material data


Create, Modify, Display productionplant data
Create, Modify, Display sales order data

1.3 Commands
/$sync
/h
/n
/o

Synchronise the buffers. ABAPs on the application servers will be


refreshed, so possibly changed. Not recommended on
productionsystems in use.
Turning on the debugging mode
New command
New session

1.4 ABAP reports


RDDIMPDP
RDDNEWPP
RMMMPERI
RSCOLL00
RSDBTIME
RSEPSUPL
?RSSUPC??
RSPARAM
RSPO1041
RSTPTEST
RSUSRxxx
TOUCHALL

Jobtriggerer. Starts the released batchjobs and tp-commands.


To schedule RDDIMPDP, run this as DDIC in each targetclient
Periodclosing for MM. Gives problems regularly.
Collector for system- and databasedata. Usually runs every hour.
Check and repair inconsistencies in the clocks of a system
Upload the patches available in /eps/in
31x
Generates the profiles and activitygroups
Shows the parametersettings of a running SAP-instance
Delete old spoolrequests. This abap used to be RSPO0041 in older
releases
Tests the transporttool
User related reports (000 list active users, 002 userby comlex criteria,
etc)
Generate all ABAPs. Takes about 24 hours!

1.5 Profileparameters
rdisp/*
gui-parameters
rdisp/gui_max_wait maximum time of no response (in 3.x: rdisp/gui_auto_logout)

1.6 Userids
1.6.1

Userids on SAP R/3 level

SAP*
the OSS.

Sapsuperuser, has all authorizations. Its default password is available in

DDIC

Its default password is available in the OSS.

CPIC

eh

1.6.2

Userids on databaselevel

SAPR3

User that connect SAP R/3 to the Oracle (or SQL or ..) database

OPS$
Oracle-only. Used to change passwords of OS-level userids. see OSSnote 50088

1.6.3

Userids on OS-level

<SID>adm

os-administrator for unix-activities as creating logical volumes,


filegroups, smit, smitty, etc

ora<SID>

Oracle only: R/3-database administrator for SAPDBA-activities as


brarchive, sapdba-analyze, brrestore, etc.

SAPService<SID>

1.6.4

NT-only: OS-user used for running the service SAPOSCOL

Userid for applying Supportpackages

During applying supportpackages (aka. hotpackages) you need to be logged on to


client 000 with a userid other then SAP*, but with the same authorizations.

1.6.5

Userid for configuring and maintaining STMS

During changing the Transport Management System using STMS you need to be
logged on as TMSADM in client 000 on the transportdomaincontroller.

1.7 Logfiles
SAP logs almost any action and has a lot of trace-options. Here is a short listing for
them:

systemlog, viewed via transaction SM21, file stored in /work

developertraces, viewed via ST11 or SM50 and doubleclick the process (as of
4.x), stored in /work
dev_wX log for workproces number X
dev_ms log for workproces for the messageservice
dev_gw log for workproces for the gateway
dev_disp log for workproces for the dispatcher
dev_tp
log for workproces for the transports

startuplog, viewed via ST11

stderrx, viewed via ST11, 3 or 4 files, hold more errorstatements

trans.log, viewed via AL11, DIR_TRANS, transportlogfile

1.8 Traces
Tracefiles are very useful when analysing a problem.

ST05 (System, Utilities, Performance trace) allows you to set a trace per user,
transaction, program or process-id.

SM50. Here you see the processes. Per proces you can see its corresponding
tracefile via button Show file. The default trace-level is 1. You can change the
tracelevel via Process, Trace, Dispatcher, Change tracelevel (of all processes, not
per process).

2 Database

2.1 General databaseknowledge


Logging on to the database is done via:

Log on as ora<SID>

UNIX: svrmgrl (in Oracle 7.* this used to be sqlplus)

NT: sqldba72 (or svrmgr23, svrmgr30)

connect internal

2.1.1

Database-commands

2.1.1.1 SQL Select-statements


Select * from
dba_roles;
dba_tables
sys.dba_role_privs;

useful fields

what does it do?

where tablespace_name=
SYSTEM and
owner=SYS;
where grantee like
OPS$;

shows all systemtables

show the roles of the OPS$user, should be: CONNECT,


RESOURCE and SAPDBA.
v$backup
shows which files are in backup
mode
v$datafile;
to verify the correct execution
v$datafile
where status not in
should be empty if SAP is
('SYSTEM','ONLINE')
online
v$dba_rollback_segs
Data of all rollback segments
v$log;
shows all logfiles (4) and which
is active
v$logfile;
shows all physical logfiles
(mirrored, so: 8)
v$nls_parameters
where parameter =
returns the characterset with
'NLS_CHARACTERSET'; which the database is installed
v$recover_file;
should be empty if SAP is
online
v$rollname
Name and number of all
ONLINE rollback segments
v$rollstat
Number, status, optimal size,
diff. capacity sizes etc. of all
ONLINE rollback segments
The V$-files contain the dynamic performance tables which hold the runtime
information of R/3. To see all V$-files listed, go to ST04, detailed analysis, button
display V$ values.

2.1.1.2 SQL Alter-statements


alter database open;
?alter database rename file '<device>:\<old path>\<old filename>' to '<device>:\<new
path>\<new filename>';
alter system switch logfile; (4 times to perform four logswitches)
alter tablespace <tablespacename> end backup; the tablespace will end its status of
being backed up.

2.1.1.3 SQL Other statements


analyze table <tablename> validate structure cascade;
drop tablename from ??; deletes the table from the database.
exit;

logging out

grant user1 to user2; copies the rights of user1 to user2


saposcol v

show the version of saposcol

2.2 Oracle
2.2.1

important files

init<SID>.ora
init<SID>.sap
init<SID>.dba

2.2.2
exit

OSlevel-commands
logging out

lsnrctl start

start the oracle listener

lsnrctl status shows the status of the listener


tnsping <SID>tests the TNS-connection to the database
smit (or smitty)
volumes, drives etc.

characterbased menu for handling of filesystems, logical

2.2.3

Brbackup/brrestore

BRRESTORE m file01/dir01 .. filen/dirn restore the backup and places the files in the
given directories instead of the original directories

2.3 MS SQL
Logging on to the database is done via:

Log on as <SID>adm?

svrmgr30 or svrmgr (as of oracle 8.0)

connect internal

checkdb

2.3.1

to be added (or see microsoft/sql/ knowledgebase)

Services

SAP-Services that needs to be running on OS-level

SAP<SID>_<Instance-number>

SAPoscol

2.3.2

Stored procedures

sp_helpsort

show the SQL-servers sortorder and characterset (thus the


codepage)

2.4 DB 2/400
enddbmon

stop the databasecollector-program when it is running

3 Operating system
3.1 General
3.1.1
bin
get
ls l
put
pwd

ftp
set transferring files to binary (as opposed to ascii)
download a file (mget doe not work on SAPSERVx)
list directory, -l to show filedetails
upload a file (mput does not work on SAPSERVx)
show current path

3.1.2

General commands

startsap r3 <SID>
<profile>
stopsap <SID>
tp connect <SID>
r3trans d v
r3trans l filename

Start SAP from the commandprompt


Stop SAP from the commandprompt
Tests if you can connect to the database of the system (start in
usr/sap/trans)
Tests if you can connect to the database
Checks if the file is consistent and correct and can be
imported

3.2 UNIX
3.2.1

Simple commands

chgrp grp
filelist
chmod 777
filelist
chown user
filelist
cp file1 file2
cp /dev/null
file
errpt
ls ltr <dir>
more <dir>
mv file1 file2
ps ef
vi

3.2.2

Change the group that the file(s) belong to.


Change the rights of the file(s). 777: owner-world-user. 7: readwrite-delete (=111)
Change the owner of the file(s)
Copy file1 to file2
Clear all contents of file
Hardware error-report (IBM-unix)
Show filelist, parameters: l: show fileattributes , t: sort by time, r:
reverse sortorder
Move command
Show all running processes, -e, -f
The famous vi-editor

A little more complex commands

kill <PID>
kill 1 <PID>
kill 9 <PID>
kill USR2
<PID>
kill USR1
<PID>
lslv
lsvg
sappfpar check

Kill a process as if it is cancelled. Child processes are killed as


well.
Kill a process as if the user is logging out. Child processes are
killed as well.
Kill a process as brutal as possible. Child-processes are not
touched.
Increases TRACE by 1
Decreases TRACE by 1. When TRACE = 0 all open trace files are
closed and can be cleared using cp /dev/null filename.
Show the logical volumes
Show the volumegroups
Checks the profileparameter. Do they exist and do they have

pf=<profile>
set VAR VAL
printenv
ps ef |grep
xxx
ps u
<username>

correct values.
set environment variable VAR to value VAL
prints the environementvariables
Monitor processes with name containing xxx
Monitor processes run by user <username>

Crontab
To schedule tasks you have to edit file crontab. Every line starts with five numbers and
then a command. The numbers stand for minute, hour, day-of-month, month-of-year,
day of week (0 for sunday).
The easiest way to edit the crontab file with a text-editor.
Detailed UNIX-commandlist
To get detailed information about every UNIX-command available and lots of articles,
see site
AIX: www.rs6000.ibm.com/cgi-bin/ds_rslt

3.3 NT
at
hostname
ipconfig /all
ipcs m
ipcrm m
<process>
regedit /
regedt32
sapntchk
ntenv2reg
ntreg2env

Schedule anything.
Shows the hostname
Show all ip-addresses of the system
Show all IPC-processes
Kill ipc-process <process>
Edit the registry. (for instance HKLM, software, SAP)
Checks the system, its ip-adresses, running processes etc.
Copy the environmentsettings to the registry to secure them
Copy the registry to the environmentsettings

4 General issues
4.1 SAP Tools
4.1.1

dpmon

This tool allows you to check SAPs processes and to find out which one is killing the
performance. Especially useful when it is not possible anymore to log on to your
system.

(Oracle: use <SID>adm to start this tool)


dpmon

4.1.2

Start dpmon, type m for the menu

gwmon

This tool allows you to check if the gateway is running. It is an addition to transaction
SMGW.

4.1.3

R3load

R3load is used to:


-

import/export databases

4.1.4

R3setup

R3setup is used to:


-

install SAP-databases

import exported databases into existing databases

4.1.5

R3trans

R3trans is used to:


-

test databaseconnections

import the transports


r3trans d-v
r3trans l <filename>

4.1.6

Tests the connection to the database


Tests if the datafileis corrupt or not

sapdba, to be run as ora<SID>

Sapdba is run to collect the data for the optimizer. This is done in two steps: First
SAPDBA checkopt PSAP% checks which optimizerdata needs to be updated, then
SAPDBA analyze DBSTATCO gathers the data of the objects to be updated.
sapdba analyze DBSTATCO
sapdba check <parameters>
sapdba checkopt PSAP%
sapdba statistics

Gathers the optimizerdata that needs to be


updated
Checks the objects that you specify with its
parameters
Checks which optimizerdata needs to be updated
Does all of the above in one run. See note
184513

4.1.7

saplicense, to be run from the ..\exe\run directory

saplicense test
pf=../../profile/default.pfl
saplicense get
saplicense install
saplicense show

Tests if the license is still valid


Gets the customer key (aka hardwarekey) need
for the license
To install the licensekey received from SAP
Shows the current license

Request the license for the system by sending the fax included in the installation-kit to
SAP.

4.1.8

saprouter

saprouter r R <saprouterfile>
profile
Table saprouttab

4.1.9

Start the saprouter.


p * * *(Permit/Deny, From-ip, To-ip, Service)

tp, to be run from the usr\sap\trans\bin

As of version 4.0 there is no more need for us to go down to the os-level. Everything
can be done with transaction STMS. Nevertheless the tp-commands are still be useful
and needed in some cases (yet). for detailed information on tp-command, see OSS-note
309711.
tp connect <SID>
tp locksys <SID>
tp unlocksys <SID>

Tests the connection to <SID>


Lock the SAP-system for all users except SAP*
Unlock the SAP-system, giving access to all
users
tp showbuffer <SID>
Show the buffer
tp
addtobuffer Add the changerequest to the buffer. possible
<changerequest><SID>
par.: u1
tp
delfrombuffer Delete the changerequest from the buffer
<changerequest><SID>
tp
import
<changerequest> Importcommand, parameter u:
<SID> u.x
u1: Import regardless if it is already imported or
not
u2: Overwrite the originals.
u6: Overwrite objects in unconfirmed repairs.
u8: Overwrite objects in open repairs
The returncodes for tp import command:
4

Warning

Error.

12/14/16
152

Fatal error
Nothing done

>1000 Returncode with extra information, but only the last three digits are relevant
The file TP_<DOMAIN>.PFL (used to be TPPARAM) in this directory holds the tpparameter-settings
filesplit=yes|true|on Export will be split into files of size 2147483647 (2GB-1).
(default=no)
Useful for OSs that can not handle files larger then 2GB.