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Technical Standards and Operating

Requirements for Broadcast Stations


in The Philippines

E. B. Pioquinto

1. Medium Frequency Broadcast


Standards
Technical standards formulation
consideration:
The prevention of harmful signal interferences
The provision for better signal quality, so that the
listener may enjoy a clear and more realistic
sound reproduction
The proper utilization of the broadcast spectrum

E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Medium frequency broadcast station:
An AM broadcast station licensed for aural or
sound transmissions intended for direct reception
by the general public and operated on a channel
on the MF band

Medium frequency broadcast band:


The band of frequencies from 526.5KHz
1705KHz

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2. Definition of terms
Medium frequency broadcast channel:
The band of frequencies occupied by the carrier
and two sidebands of an AM broadcast signal with
the carrier frequency at the center. Channels shall
be designated by the assigned carrier frequencies
starting from 531KHz in increments of 9KHz

Carrier wave:
A sinusoidal voltage or current generated in a
transmitter and subsequently modulated by the
modulating wave
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2. Definition of terms
Carrier frequency:
The frequency of the carrier wave

Operating frequency:
The carrier frequency at any particular time

Authorized frequency:
The carrier frequency authorized by the authority

Hertz:
Unit of frequency, supplanting cycles per second
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2. Definition of terms
Percentage modulation (amplitude)

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2. Definition of terms
Maximum percentage of modulation:
Means the greatest percentage of modulation that
may be obtained by a transmitter w/o producing
in its output, harmonics of the modulating
frequency in excess of those permitted by these
regulations

High level modulation:


Modulation produce in the last radio stage of the
system
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Low level modulation:
Modulation produced in the earlier stage than the
final.

Operating power:
The transmitter output power

Maximum rated carrier power:


The maximum power at which the transmitter can
be operated satisfactorily and is determined by
the design of the transmitter.
E. B. Pioquinto

Ch.

Freq.

Ch.

freq.

Ch.

Freq.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

531
540
549
558
567
576
585
594
603
612
621
630
639
648
657
666
675
684
693
702
711
720
729
738
747

26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50

756
765
774
783
792
801
810
819
828
837
846
855
864
873
882
891
900
909
918
927
936
945
954
963
972

51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75

981
990
999
1008
1017
1026
1035
1044
1053
1062
1071
1080
1089
1098
1107
1116
1125
1134
1143
1152
1161
1170
1179
1188
1197

Ch.

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100
E. B. Pioquinto

Freq.

Ch.

Freq.

Ch.

Freq.

1206
1215
1224
1233
1242
1251
1260
1269
1278
1287
1296
1305
1314
1323
1332
1341
1350
1359
1368
1377
1386
1395
1404
1413
1422

101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125

1431
1440
1449
1458
1467
1476
1485
1494
1503
1512
1521
1530
1539
1548
1557
1566
1575
1584
1593
1602
1611
1620
1629
1638
1647

126
127
128
129
130
131

1656
1665
1674
1683
1692
1701

Table of Channels
for AM Broadcasting

2. Definition of terms
Authorized operating power:
The power authorized by the authority

Input power:
The product of voltage and current at the output
of the last radio stage measured w/o modulation

Antenna input power:


The product of the square of the antenna current
and the antenna resistance at the point where the
current is measured
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Antenna current:
RF current in the antenna without modulation

Antenna resistance:
Total resistance of the tx antenna system at the
operating frequency and at the point at which the
antenna current is measured

Modulator stage:
Last audio amplifier stage of the modulating wave
which modulates the RF stage
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Modulated stage:
It means the RF stage to which the modulator is
coupled and in which the carrier wave is
modulated in accordance with the system of
modulation and the characteristics of the
modulating wave

Daytime:
It refers to the time between 2200 UTC to 1000
UTC (6:00AM to 6:00PM)
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Night Time:
1000 UTC to 2200 UTC (6:00PM 6:00AM)

Experimental period:
12:00AM to 5:00AM. This period may be used for
experimental purposes, in testing and maintaining
apparatus by the licensee of any MF broadcast
station on its assigned frequency and authorized
power provided no interference is caused to other
stations.
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Field strength:
The rms value of the voltage stress produced in
space by the electric field or a radio wave, and is
expressed in volts per meter or in decibels (dB)
relative to it

Effective Field Intensity:


It is the rms value of the inverse distance field at
1.6km from the antenna in all directions in the
horizontal plane
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Primary service area:
This means to the area in which the groundwave
field of 1mv/m (60dBu) is not subject to
objectionable interference or objectionable fading

Secondary service area:


This means the area served by the skywave and
not subject to objectionable interference. The
signal is subject to intermittent variations in signal
intensity
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Intermittent service area:
It means the area receiving service from the
groundwave but beyond the primary service area
and subject to some interference and fading

Audio Frequency signal to interference ratio:


The ratio between the values of the voltage of the
wanted signal and the voltage of interference,
measured under specified conditions at AF output
of the receiver
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Audio frequency protection ratio:
It is the agreed minimum value of the audio
frequency signal to interference ratio considered
necessary to achieve a subjectively defined
reception quality.

RF wanted to interference signal ratio:


Ratio between the values of the RF voltage of the
wanted signal and the interfering signal measured
at the input of the receiver under specified
conditions.
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Radio frequency protection ratio:
It is the value of the RF wanted to interference
signal that enables under specified conditions, the
audio frequency protection ratio to be obtained at
the output of the receiver.

Attended transmitter:
It means a transmitter where a qualified
technician is in attendance during all periods of its
operation
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Carrier shift:
The variation of the main carrier amplitude
resulting from the process of amplitude
modulation

Total harmonic distortion:


The effective value of the harmonic voltages
present in the audio frequency output of the
equipment under test. It is the percentage of the
effective value fundamental and the harmonics
present at the output.
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Noise level:
It means the rms value of the voltage of spurious
origin in the audio frequency output of the
equipment under test.

Unweighted noise level:


Unweighted noise level in a specified band means
the noise level in that band measured by an
instrument, the frequency response of which is
uniform over that band.
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Gain of an AF amplifier:
It means the ratio, in dB, of the power delivered to
the load at a specific frequency to the power w/c
would be delivered to the same load if the amp
were replaced by an ideal transformer matching
the nominal load and source impedances.

Frequency response:
The variation over a specified audio frequency
range of the transmission efficiency of the
equipment under test.
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Spurious emission:
Emission on any frequency outside of the assigned
channel or frequencies and tolerances allowed by
these regulations. Emission due to
overmodulation is considered spurious.

Authority:
The National Telecommunications Commission

Licensee:
Holder of a license for broadcasting station issued
by the NTC
E. B. Pioquinto

2. Definition of terms
Qualified technician;
A person who is a holder of radio operators
license or its equivalent, as required by these
regulations, issued by the authority

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.1 General technical requirements
3.1.1 Adequacy of components
3.1.2 Compliance with electrical wiring rules
(Philippine Electronics Code and Philippine
Electrical Code)
3.1.3 Regulation of power supply
3.1.4 Protection
3.1.4.1 Protection of persons
3.1.4.2 Responsibility of Licensee
3.1.4.3 Protection of equipment
E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.1 Consideration of antenna system
Location of antenna site
Location in relation to population to be served and to other
communication installations and airports
Conductivity of the soil at and immediate adjacent to the site
Conductivity of the path between the site and the target

Masts or towers with heights above 150 feet from the


ground are normally required to put up standard
obstruction lighting and painting

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.1 Consideration of antenna system
Antenna design
Transmitting antenna system shall be vertically polarized
Single tower radiator may be employed to serve as a common
antenna for two or more stations
For directional antenna, it should be arranged to conform to a
design configuration that would emit the desired radiation
pattern
The antenna, antenna lead-in and counterpoise shall be
installed so as not to pose hazard.

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.1 Consideration of antenna system
Antenna design
The antenna radio frequency current meters shall be so
installed permanently so as to be easily and accurately read
safely by the operator
Antenna equipment and the base of antenna need not be
housed with screens or interlocks provided these are fenced
and locked that no unauthorized person can gain access.

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.2 Transmitting equipment
Location and layout
Adequate space shall be provided for the building to facilitate
access to all equipment for operation and maintenance
purposes.
Adequate ventilation and/or air-conditioning shall be provided
to ensure satisfactory working conditions for staff and
equipment
Adequate lighting shall be provided in all equipment rooms

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.2 Transmitting equipment
Design, construction and safety to life
Transmitter must be capable of delivering its rated power
Transmitter must be capable of delivering and maintaining its
rated power within the required limit of +10 percent (Power is
the square of the tx line current at the input of the antenna
matching network multiplied by the resistance at this same
point)
The transmitter must be capable of satisfactory operation at
the authorized operating power with modulation of at least
90%
E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.2 Transmitting equipment
Design, construction and safety to life
The transmitter must be capable of maintaining the operating
frequency within the limits of 10 Hz of the assigned
frequency.
The carrier shift (current) at any percentage of modulation
shall not exceed 5%
The carrier hum and extraneous noise over the frequency
band 30 Hz to 20 KHz is at least 45 dB below the level of
sinusoidal tone of 400 Hz producing 90% modulation

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.2 Transmitting equipment
Design, construction and safety to life
The total audio frequency distortion from microphones to
antenna output shall not exceed 5% harmonics when
modulated up to 84% and not over 7.5% when modulated
from 85 to 95%.
Transmitter must be equipped with indicating instruments to
continuously measure the DC plate current and voltage
The transmitter shall be equipped with an adequate control
system for the application and removal of power

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.2 Transmitting equipment
Design, construction and safety to life
The transmitter shall be operated, tuned and adjusted so that
emissions outside of the authorized channel do not cause
harmful interference to the reception of other stations
Bleeder resistors or such other automatic means shall be
installed across the condenser banks to remove any charge
which may remain after the high voltage ckt is opened.
Modulation monitor and frequency monitor shall be installed

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.3 Metering equipment
Linear metering instruments indicating the plate
current or plate voltage of the last radio stage metering
instruments indicating the antenna current shall meet
the ff. specifications

Length of scale shall not be less than 6cms.


Accuracy shall be at least 2 percent of the full reading
Maximum rating shall be such that it does not read off scale
Full scale reading shall not be greater than five times the
minimum normal indication.
E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.4 Monitoring equipment
Frequency monitor
Modulation monitor
In the event that modulation and frequency monitor becomes
defective, the station may be operated for a period not in
excess of 60 days provided that all entries shall be made on
the operations log and the Engineer in charge of the region be
informed immediately after the monitor is found defective
and after it has been repaired

E. B. Pioquinto

3. Technical Requirements
3.2 Detailed technical requirements
3.2.5 Studio, equipment and allied facilities
Alternate main transmitter
Regular and the operational main transmitter shall have the
same external effects and are co-located in a single place

Auxiliary transmitter
The auxiliary transmitter can be in the same location or
another place. Power shall not be less than 10% but never
greater than the authorized operating power

E. B. Pioquinto

4. Broadcast Auxiliary services


Categories
Studio-to-transmitter link (STL)
Remote pick-up broadcast station
Communications, coordination and control link

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4. Broadcast Auxiliary services


4.1 Frequency allocation for STL
Band A
Band B
Band C

300 315 MHz


734 752 MHz
942 952 MHz

The maximum power allowable for STL shall be 15 watts

E. B. Pioquinto

4. Broadcast Auxiliary services


4.2 Frequency allocation for Remote pick-up
station
Band A
Band B
Band C

315 325 MHz


450 451 MHz
455 456 MHz

The maximum power allowable for remote pick-up station shall be 35 watts

E. B. Pioquinto

4. Broadcast Auxiliary services


4.3 Frequency allocation for
Communications, Coordination and control
link
Band A
Band B
Band C

Band D

4 -12 MHz (non-exclusive)


25.67 26.1 MHz
162.235 162.615 MHz
166.250 MHz and 170.150 MHz
432.5 MHz, 433 MHz
437.5 438 MHz
E. B. Pioquinto

4. Broadcast Auxiliary services


Maximum power allowable for
Communications, Coordination and Control
link ;
Band A
Band B
Band C
Band D

100 watts
160 watts
160 watts
200 watts

E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.1 Hours of operation
5.1.1 Minimum operating schedule
Minimum operating schedule of 2/3 of the total hours
it is authorized to operate
If operation is impossible, station may cease operation
not exceeding 10 days.
If program falls under emergency category station is
allowed to operate beyond authorized schedule
For permanent discontinuance the authority shall be
informed 2 days prior to actual discontinuance
E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.2 Other operating practices
The percentage of modulation shall be maintained
as high as possible, consistent with good quality
transmission and in no case, more than 125
percent on positive peaks nor more than 100
percent on negative peaks of frequency
recurrence during any selection which is
transmitted at the highest level of the program
under consideration
E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.3 Posting of station and operator license
The station license and other instruments of
stations authorization shall be posted on
conspicuous place in such a manner that all terms
are visible
The original copy of the operators license shall be
posted at the place where he is on duty as an
operator

E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.4 Operator requirements
A licensed radio operator shall be in actual charge
of the transmitting apparatus and shall be on duty
either at the transmitter location or remote
control point.
A station shall employ at least one full time
licensed first class radio telephone operator
whose primary duty shall be to effect the proper
functioning of the transmitter.
E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.5 Station identification announcements
A licensee of a medium frequency broadcast
station shall make station identification
announcements (call letters, frequency and
location) at the beginning and ending of each time
of operation.

E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.6 Logs
In the program log
Time of ID announcement
An entry describing each broadcast (i.e. music, drama,
speech etc.)
An entry showing that each sponsored program has
been announced
The name of the network originating the program
The time the program begins and ends

E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.6 Logs
In the operating log (Transmitter log)
The time the station supplies power to the antenna and
the time it ends.
Entry of each interruption to the carrier wave, its cause
and duration.
Every 30 minute entry of operating constants (plate
current, plate voltage, antenna current)
Logs shall be maintained and signed by operator on duty.
Logs shall be kept for a period of 2 years.
E. B. Pioquinto

5. Operating Requirements
5.7 Remote control operation
Equipment at the operating and transmitting
positions shall be so installed and protected that it
is not accessible by unauthorized persons
Malfunctions resulting to improper control or
inaccurate readings shall be cause for immediate
cessation of operation

E. B. Pioquinto

6. Allocation Rules and Regulation


6.1 Maximum power allocation
Area
Maximum Power (KW)
Metro Manila
50KW
All other areas
10KW
Transmitters of existing Metro Manila stations may be located outside
Metro Manila provided that Metro Manila remains within the 80dBu
contour of the transmitter

E. B. Pioquinto

6. Allocation Rules and Regulation


6.1 Maximum power allocation
The station shall not operate more than 5% and
not lower than 10% of its authorized operating
power
Authority may grant permit to operate a noncommercial AM station exceeding the maximum
power allocations on a case to case basis

E. B. Pioquinto

6. Allocation Rules and Regulation


Radio frequency protection ratio
Minimum frequency separation is 36KHz
Number of AM station per broadcast entity is one
in each service area.
Frequency

RF Signal Ratio

RF Protection Ratio (dB)

Co-channel
(same frequency)

73 dBu is to 43 dBu
(4.47 mV/m)(141.25V/m)

30

1st Adjacency
(9-KHz away)

73 dBu is to 64 dBu
(4.47 mV/m)(1.6mV/m

2nd Adjacency
(18-KHz away)

73 dBu is to 97 dBu
(4.47 mV/m)(70.8mV/m

-24

E. B. Pioquinto

7. AM Stereophonic Standard
The AM stereophonic standard is C-QUAM AM
stereophonic system

E. B. Pioquinto

8. Public Information File


An updated Public information profile shall be
made available to the NTC inspector or to any
interested party. It contains:
Copy of station license
Mode of ownership including trade name as
registered in the DTI
List of changes in transmitting facilities (with
corresponding licenses and permits supporting
the changes)
E. B. Pioquinto

8. Public Information File


An updated Public information profile shall be
made available to the NTC inspector or to any
interested party. It contains:
Copies of the Program Standards, the Technical
Standards, NTC compilation of laws, regulations,
circulars and memoranda.
Evidence of membership in the KBP

E. B. Pioquinto

AM Antenna tower
In AM broadcasting, for vertically polarized
antenna, the tower itself is the antenna
The height of an AM is usually described in
terms of electrical degrees, or wavelengths,
rather than a physical height
AM broadcast towers will not have one
wavelength in height or 360 electrical degrees.
The ground wave signal will drop to zero for
one wavelength tower
E. B. Pioquinto

AM Antenna tower
A height of 190 degrees or .53 wavelength is
generally accepted as the maximum height for
an AM broadcast antenna
A 90-degree tower is a very common
broadband tower. A 90-degree tower at 540
kHz will be 138.89 meters

E. B. Pioquinto

AM Antenna tower
If another tower is placed in close proximity to
the first tower, the non-directional antenna
pattern will be changed
By varying the amount of power in each
tower, and phase relationships of the towers,
and the spacing between the towers in
electrical degrees, a directional antenna
pattern can be formed
E. B. Pioquinto