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Comparison of saturation

calculation using Archie versus

Simandoux and Indonesian
formulas with stress on parameter

Josipa Zrilic
Hotwell Handelsges.m.b.H
Oedenburger Strasse 6
7013 Klingenbach, AUSTRIA
Tel.: +43 (0) 2687 - 48058 | Fax: +43
(0) 2687 48059 |

Hotwell, Austria

best components | simple design | rigorous testing | no sacrifice to performance

Saturation - The relative amount of water, oil and
gas in the pores of a rock, usually as a percentage
of volume.
Reliable resistivity
Good porosity determination
Adequate formation factor and saturation exponents (a, m,
Volume of shale analysis
Corrections for conductive minerals if they are present.

Archie equation
a R
Sw m w

1/ n

Sw - Formation water saturation

Rw - Formation water resistivity (ohmm)
Rt - True formation resistivity (ohmm)
- Formation effective porosity (fraction)
a - Formation resistivity factor
m - cementation factor
n saturation exponent

-basic equation to calculate water saturation. It

can be used for all lithologies, but primary it is
made for clean porous rocks

Archie equation
n- defines density of the isosaturation grid


Shalines influence

Pickett cross-plot featuring selected example with correctly selected

interpretation parameters. In this example a=0.62, m=2.15, n=2 and

Cementation factor (m)

Cementation factor (m) influenced by the geometry of the

pore space
The best way to determination is Pickett cross-plot (deep
resistivity / porosity)
In oil wells usually 1.8 2.2 (1.3-3..)

Cementation factor (m)

Pickett cross-plot of selected example if we select wrong m of 1.5.

Formation water resistivity factor (a)

Pickett cross-plot of selected

example with wrongly selected a
value of 1

Pickett cross-plot of selected example with

wrongly selected a value of 1

fixture for the cross-plot

When establishing regresion
line trought 100% water
saturated zone, then this line
should cross 100% porosity line
at Rw value, if a=1.

Saturation exponent (n)

Defines density of the isosaturation lines

Empiricaly derived
Using electrical properties of the water/oil interface and
wettability of the matrix.
Can be established from the well logs or cores.
Usually taken as 2 (1.8-2.2).
Lower value of n leads to more optimistic lower water
saturation calculations.

Saturation exponent (n)

Pickett plot with different values for n 2.5 on the left picture, and 1 on the right.

Shaly zones calculations

Simandoux formula

a * Rw
4 * m
sh sh

2 * a * Rw * Rt Rsh Rsh

Vsh Volume of shale (fraction)

Rsh Resistivity of shale (ohmm)

Indonesian formula

Sw 1Vsh / 2 t
sh 0.5
(a * Rw) 0.5


Results Simandoux

In relatively clean zones

the calculation with each
formula is the same (Zone
In higher shally zones (B
and C) the Simandoux
formula calculation is more
optimistic (lower water
saturation calculation).
Selection of correct
parameters is crucial since
too low or extremely too
high correction may be
applied. This is clearly
visible at zones D and E.

Comparison of results using Simandoux

formula for water saturation calculation
1) RSh=70, 2)RSh=0.7, 3)RSh=1.7.

Results - Indonesian
Difference using Simandoux
or Indonesian formula is in
fact that Simandoux formula
does not take into account
parameter for n but instead it
supposes that n is 2, With
Indonesian formula n may be
changed and in this case the
results would be different.

Comparison of results using Indonesian

formula for water saturation calculation
1) RSh=70, 2)RSh=0.7, 3)RSh=1.7.

Comparison of results using Archie versus

Simandoux or Indonesian formula for water
saturation calculation

Shown calculations presented importance of selection correct formula
and correct parameters for certain formulas for correct reservoir
saturation calculations.
For clean formations Archie formula is sufficient for saturation
calculation. However parameters selected for calculation should be
It is important to use any laboratory core examination data available.
For the support and In absence of the same it is important to use
different cross-plotting techniques to in 100% water saturated zones to
calculate these parameters.
Using Pickett cross-plot almost all of these parameters may be
established with good precision.
In case of shaly sand sequences Archie formula is not any more
sufficient and we need to use one of the formulas involving volume and
resistivity of shale into calculation.

Between Simandoux and Indonesian formula taken into consideration in
this example, slight advantage would be on Indonesian formula since
saturation exponent (n) parameter may be changed. This may be very
important for certain formations.
It is important to note that volume of shale calculation is important in this
case because miscalculation of same would lead to miscalculation of
It is also very important to select good representation for resistivity of
shale parameter. Sometimes nearby shales are represent for shales in
sands and we can use this value for calculation. But sometimes we
need to use slightly different values.

Thank you