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Dry Gas Seals Theory, Basic Design and

Applications
-Emery Johnson
John Crane

John Crane

Who is John Crane

John Crane

Smiths Group plc John Crane Profile

For over 80 years John Crane has had a passion for innovation
We are the acknowledged world leader and the largest developer,
manufacturer and provider of:

Engineered mechanical seals


Dry Running Gas Seals
Sealing support systems
Power transmission couplings
Bearing lubrication systems
John Crane

The World Leader for Mechanical Seals

John Crane

Global Training Centers

John Crane

Type 28 Dry Gas Seals

John Crane

Technology
T83
Tertiary Sealing

EXP

XP

Pressure x Dia.

AT

1980
John Crane

1990

2000

2010

Technology
T82 / T83
Tertiary Sealing
Reinjection

EXP

XP

Pressure x Dia.

LNG

AT

1980

John Crane

1990

2000

2010

Technology
T82 / T83
Tertiary Sealing
Reinjection

EXP

XP

Pressure x Dia.

LNG

AT

1980

John Crane

1990

2000

2010

Next generation products

Pressure x Dia.

800 bar
Reinjection

Reinjection

1980

EXP

XP

LNG

AT

John Crane

1990

2000

500 mm
LNG/GTL

2010

Compressor
shaft
sealing

John Crane

Compressor shaft sealing


To isolate bearing cavity from the process cavity:
to prevent process gas from entering the
atmosphere
to prevent bearing oil contamination of the process

John Crane

Gas seal history


1968First patent
1975First field applications
1981First beam type compressor
1985First steam turbine
1985First Mag brg / Dry seal
1991Bi-directional seal
1992XP seal - 123 to 200 bar
1994Type 82 barrier seal introduced
1997Worlds Largest 330mm Gas Seal
1997Cranite 2000
1997500 bar test rig
1998100,000,000 operating hours exceeded
2000First 5000 psig balance piston seal

John Crane

Features
and
operation

John Crane

Dry gas seal features

Extremely low process gas leakage


Withstands rapid speed and pressure changes
Theoretically, due to the non-contacting design
feature, seal life can be considered unlimited

John Crane

Type 28 Operating Limits


Seal Lift off Pressure
@0 RPM, approximately 100 PSIG
Seal Lift Off Speed
At 0 pressure differential, lift off is approximately 2 Ft./Sec.,
calculated from the shaft size.
Seal Axial Shifts
+/- 0.125
Seal Radial Shifts
+/- 0.025
Capable of Handling Start- Stops at Full Pressure
John Crane

Dry gas seal materials

Mating Ring
Tungsten/Silicon Carbide/Silicon Nitride
Primary Ring
Carbon/Silicon Carbide
Hardware
410SS/316SS/Hastelloy/other
Springs
Hastelloy C

John Crane

Operating
principals

John Crane

Operating principals

Spiral Groove Comparison

BIDIRECTIONAL
SPIRAL GROOVE

UNIDIRECTIONAL
SPIRAL GROOVE
John Crane

Operating principals

Direction of Rotation

Sealing Dam

Gas is Compressed &


Pressure increases to
set Gap.
John Crane

Gas is induced
towards the
center.

Operating principals

Direction of Rotation

Sealing Dam

Gas is Compressed &


Pressure increases to
set Gap.
John Crane

Gas is induced
towards the
center.

Operating principals

Normal Gap
FC = FO
FC

FO

CLOSING
FORCE
S
P

OPENING
FORCE

Compression

Expansion

Gas Film
Pressure
Distribution

Spring Load
+ Hydrostatic

John Crane

Seal Face Operating Gap

Human Hair

Running
Gap

John Crane

Seal
Arrangements

John Crane

DGS arrangements Basics


Compressor
Housing

Atmosphere

Stationary
Face

Housing

Product

Springs

Retainer
Thrust Ring

Rotating Mating
Ring
Shaft

Sleeve

John Crane

Dynamic
Sealing Element

DGS arrangements Single Seal


SEALING
GAS

PROCESS CAVITY

PRIMARY
LEAKAGE

BEARING CAVITY

BARRIER
GAS

Pressure: Up
To 6500 PSIG
Temperature:
-100SERVICE
to +600 F
SERVICE:
PLANT AIR
AND NITROGEN
Speed:
Up To 660 Ft/Sec.
Gases:
Air or N2

John Crane

DGS arrangements Tandem w / Int Laby


SEPARATION
GAS (N2)

BARRIER
GAS (N2)

SEALING
GAS

PRIMARY
LEAKAGE

PROCESS CAVITY

BEARING CAVITY

SECONDARY
LEAKAGE (N2)

Pressure: Up To 6500 PSIG


Speed: Up To 660 Ft/Sec.

Temperature:
Gases:

John Crane

-100 to +600 F
All

Type 28AT seal design features


Compliant stationary face
design providing
maximum flexibility

Shrouded as Standard

Patented
optimised spiral
or bi-directional
groove design

Standard offering
Tungsten Carbide
Silicon Carbide

O-rings

Tolerance
Strip
John Crane

Point Solutions
Ductile
Silicon Nitride

Type 28XP seal


Introduced in 1992
Polymer seals
Eliminates explosive
decompression
The Industry standard for
high pressure
applications
Experience up to 425 bar

John Crane

O-Ring explosive decompression

Natural voids
in O-ring

High pressure gas


John Crane

Dry Gas Seal Arrangements

Pressure:
AT:
XP:
EXP:
Temperature:
AT:
XP, EXP:
Speed:
Up to 650 Ft./Sec.

Up to 1800 PSIG
Up to 2900 PSIG
Up to 8000 PSIG
-4 to +400 F
-100 to +600 F

John Crane

Successful Operational Experience


Sealing Supercritical CO2

Jason Marquardt
Gas Seal Engineering
John Crane Inc.

John Crane

Sealing Supercritical CO2

Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)


CO2 Sequestration
CO2 Recovery (Power Plant Exhaust)

John Crane

Sealing Supercritical CO2


What Weve Done:
High Pressure Reinjection (Wells)
Pressure: 215 barg (3118 psig)
Supercritical CO2 Qualification Testing June 2009
CO2 Transportation (Pipeline Applications)
Extensive Field Application Experience
Pressures: 1000 2500 psig
Temperatures: -16 F 220 F
Speeds: 1785 3600 rpm (Pumps)

John Crane

Sealing Supercritical CO2

John Crane

Sealing Supercritical CO2


Future Expectations/Current Discussions:
High Pressure Reinjection
Pressures: to 480 barg (6960 psig)
Temperatures: 67 C (153 F)
Speeds: 3600 rpm (Pumps)

Turbo Expanders
Pressures: to 3000 psig
Temperatures: 390 F
Speeds: 40,000 rpm

John Crane

Sealing Supercritical CO2


Preparing For The Future
Determine future customer application requirements.

Are current modeling tools adequate to predict seal behavior at


future pressures, speeds, temperatures?
Evaluate what test rig modifications required to validate
theoretical results.

John Crane

Sealing Supercritical CO2


Conclusion
Typical Supercritical CO2 EOR (pipeline) applications have been successfully sealed with dry gas seals for
decades.
Recent increased carbon sequestration interest indicates many new seal opportunities within our current
experience list.
Many turbo expander inquiries received presenting new challenges with respect to pressures and speeds well
outside the current known comfort zone.

John Crane