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Radiant City

The cities will be part of the country; I shall live 30 miles from my office in
one direction, under a pine tree; my secretary will live 30 miles away from
it too, in the other direction, under another pine tree. We shall both have
our own car.
Weshalluseuptires,wearoutroadsurfacesandgears,andconsume
oilandgasoline. Allofwhichwillnecessitateagreatdealofworkenough
for all.
-- Le Corbusier, The Radiant City 1967

Akademgorodok, Novosibirsk - Russia

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 6.3 Akademgorodok aerial view

Citation: (DiMaio, 2000)

Area: 910 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 2800km

Population: 65,000

Date of origin: 1950s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 786m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 830m

143

Main Urban Connections

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144

Barbican Estate, London - UK

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 6.4 Courtyard block in Barbican

Citation: (Chant & Goodman, 1999)

Area: 22.8 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 4,000

Date of origin: 1969

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 218m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 175m

145

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

146

Blue Area, Islamabad - Pakistan

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 6.5 Islamabad streetscape

Citation: (Doxiadis, 1968)

Area: 5,610 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 530,000

Date of origin: 1958

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1659m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1860m

147

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

1000m

148

Brasilia, F.D. - Brasil

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 6.6. Brasilia aerial view

Citation: (Hall, 2002)

Area: 4,695 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 2,600,000

Date of origin: 1960

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1537m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 950m

149

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

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1000m

150

Cabrini Green, Chicago - USA

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 6.7 Cabrini Green housing scheme

Citation: (Miller, 2008)

Area: 66.8 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 968km

Population: 15,000

Date of origin: 1942 - 2008

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 431m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 400m

151

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

152

Chandigarh - India

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 6.8 Chandigarh personal image

Citation: (Evenson, 1966)

Area: 12,267 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 230km

Population: 900,000

Date of origin: 1953

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1065m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1270m

153

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

154

Co-op city, New York - USA

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 6.9 Co-op City streetscape

Citation: (Hall, 2002)

Area: 97.6 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 330km

Population: 55,000+

Date of origin: 1973

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 776m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 839m

155

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

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156

Cumbernauld - UK

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.0 Aerial view of Cumbernauld

Citation: (Merlin, 1969)

Area: 91.4 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 560km

Population: 49,664

Date of origin: 1956

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 799m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 500m

157

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

158

Drumul Taberei, Bucharest, Romania

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.1 Drumul Taberei aerial view

Citation: (Dimancescu, 2007)

Area: 466 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 63,000+

Date of origin: 1974

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 790m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 605m

159

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

160

La Grande Borne, Grigny - France

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.2 Le Grande Borne aerial view

Citation: (Chant & Goodman, 1999)

Area: 83.3 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 22km

Population: 26,790

Date of origin: 1980s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1320m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1350m

161

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

162

Le Mirail, Toulouse - France

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.3 Le Mirail aerial view

Citation: (Chant & Goodman, 1999)

Area: 239 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 580km

Population: 27,500

Date of origin: 1968

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 567m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 565m

163

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

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164

Marzahn, Berlin - Germany

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.4 Aerial view of Marzhan

Citation: (Appleyard, 1976)

Area: 595 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 102,309

Date of origin: 1977

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1064m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1125m

165

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

166

Milton Keynes - UK

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.5 Aerial view of Milton Keynes

Citation: (Kostof, 1991)

Area: 8,180 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 70km

Population: 195,687

Date of origin: 1967

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1074m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1030m

167

Main Urban Connections

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0m

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168

Pendrecht, Rotterdam - The Netherlands

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.6 Aerial of Pendrecht housing

Citation: (Mumford, E. 2000)

Area: 253 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 60km

Population: 12,400

Date of origin: 1953

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 784m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 820m

169

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

170

Pruitt-Igoe, St. Louis - USA

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.7 Aerial of Pruitt - Igoe

Citation: (Miller, 2008)

Area: 49.3 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1146km

Population: 2,740 units

Date of origin: 1954 - 1972

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 489m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 550m

171

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

172

Regent Park, Toronto - Canada

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.8 Regent Park aerial sketch

Citation: (Littlewood, 1967)

Area: 19 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 352km

Population: 10,385 units

Date of origin: 1940s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 383m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 360m

173

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

174

Roehampton, London - UK

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 7.9 Roehampton - 1953

Citation: (Chant & Goodman, 1999)

Area: 20.3 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 13,000

Date of origin: 1950s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 705m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1210m

175

Main Urban Connections

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20km

0m

500m

1000m

176

Stuyvesant Town, New York - USA

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 8.0 Aerial of Stuyvesant Town

Citation: (Hall, 2002)

Area: 41 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 330km

Population: 25,000

Date of origin: 1947

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 484m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 490m

177

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

178

The Grand Ensemble of Sarcelles, Paris - France

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 8.1 Sarcelles - 1978

Citation: (Chant & Goodman, 1999)

Area: 275 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 60,196

Date of origin: 1960s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 710m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 645m

179

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

180

Tsukuba Science City - Japan

Radiant City

Regional Plan

Figure 8.2 Aerial view of Tsukuba

Citation: (Burton, 2002)

Area: 448 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 50km

Population: 207,000

Date of origin: 1960s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 797m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 840m

181

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

182

New Urbanism
We stand for the restoration of existing urban centres and towns within
coherent metropolitan regions, the reconfiguration of sprawling suburbs
into communities of real neighbourhoods and diverse districts, the
conservation of natural environments, and the preservation of our built
legacy. We recognise that physical solutions by themselves will not
solve social and economic problems, but neither can economic vitality,
community stability, and environmental health be sustained without a
coherent and supportive physical framework.
Congress for New Urbanism Charter

-- Andres Duany, et al, Suburban Nation 2000

Brentwood - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 8.3 Brentwood neighbourhood

Citation: (Katz,1994)

Area: 3,286 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 3700km

Population: 4,200

Date of origin: 2005

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1130m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 815m

185

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

186

Celebration - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 8.4 Celebration aerial view

Citation: (Dunlop, 1998)

Area: 511 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1200km

Population: 11,860

Date of origin: 1990

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 414m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 430m

187

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

188

Communications Hill, Sacramento - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 8.5 Communications Hill masterplan

Citation: (Katz, 1994)

Area: 766 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 3800km

Population: 28,00 units

Date of origin: 2010

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 848m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 760m

189

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

190

Kentlands, Gathiersburg - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 8.6 Kentlands town centre

Citation: (Duany & Plater-Zyberk, 1992)

Area: 99.5 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 30km

Population: 2000 homes

Date of origin: 1990

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 739m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 665m

191

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

192

Laguna West, Sacramento - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 8.7. Laguna West residential street

Citation: (Katz, 1994)

Area: 726 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 3800km

Population: 8,414

Date of origin: 1991

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1280m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1090m

193

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

194

Orenco Station, Portland - United States

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 8.8 Orenco Station masterplan

Citation: (Hulme, 2005)

Area: 70 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 3700km

Population: >46,124

Date of origin: 1997

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 388m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 355m

195

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

196

Poundbury - UK

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 8.9 Poundbury aerial view

Citation: (Duany & Plater-Zyberk, 1992)

Area: 38 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 186km

Population: 6,000

Date of origin: 1993

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 634m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 820m

197

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

198

Rosemary Beach - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 9.0 Rosemary Beach masterplan

Citation: (Katz, 1994)

Area: 38.8 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1250km

Population: 500 homes

Date of origin: 1995

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1723m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1655m

199

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

200

Seaside - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 9.1 Seaside aerial view

Citation: (Duany & Plater-Zyberk, 1992)

Area: 26 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1250km

Population: 2,000

Date of origin: 1979

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1078m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1030m

201

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

202

Windsor, Vero Beach - USA

New Urbanism

Regional Plan

Figure 9.2 Windsor masterplan

Citation: (Duany & Plater-Zyberk, 1992)

Area: 175 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1286km

Population: 350 homes

Date of origin: 1989

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 519m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 405m

203

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

204

Informal Settlement
Dharavi, a Mumbai slum where 600,000 residents are crammed into 520
acres, contains the attributes for environmentally and socially sustainable
settlements for the worlds increasingly urban population, he said. The
districts use of local materials, its walkable neighbourhoods, and mix of
employment and housing add up to an underlying intuitive grammar of
designthatistotallyabsentfromthefacelessslabblocksthatarestillbeing
built around the world to warehousethe poor.
-- Prince Charles 2009

Badli, New Dehli - India

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 9.3 Typical Badli slum

Citation: (UN Habitat, 1982)

Area: 336 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 45,200

Date of origin: 1961

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 352m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 330m

207

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

208

Barrio La Union, Caracus - Venezuala

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 9.4 Aerial View of Barrio La Union

Citation: (Juppenlats, 1970)

Area: 468 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: Unknown

Date of origin: 1940s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 405m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 395m

209

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

210

Cemetery Squatters, Port au Prince - Haiti

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 9.5 Port au Prince slum

Citation: (Keerwin, 2010)

Area: 9.3 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 100,000

Date of origin: 1960

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 279m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 310m

211

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

212

Dharavi, Mumbai - India

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 9.6 Dharavi slum

Citation: (Neuwrith, 2005)

Area: 534.8 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1140km

Population: 1,000,000

Date of origin: 1930

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 308m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 290m

213

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

214

Hanna Nassif, Dar-es-Salaam - Tanzania

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 9.7 Hanna Nassif Slum

Citation: (Obudho & Mhlanga, 1988)

Area: 35.8 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 388km

Population: 23,000

Date of origin: 1960s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 298m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 300m

215

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

216

Karail, Dhaka - Bangladesh

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 9.8 Typical Karail Slum

Citation: (CUS, 2006)

Area: 22.8 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 120,000

Date of origin: 1980

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 291m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 270m

217

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

218

Khayelitsha, Cape town - South Africa

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 9.9 Streetscape of Khayelitsha slum

Citation: (MCAAfrica, 2006)

Area: 2,312 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1300km

Population: 406,779

Date of origin: 1957

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 1094m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 1060m

219

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

220

Kibera, Nairobi - Kenya

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.0 Kibera Slum

Citation: (Obudho & Mhlanga, 1988)

Area: 143 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 1,000,000

Date of origin: 1960

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 269m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 268m

221

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

222

Kranidi - Greece

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.1 Kranidi Settlement

Citation: (Doxiadis, 1968)

Area: 133 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 100km

Population: 10,000

Date of origin: 1970

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 269m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 268m

223

Main Urban Connections

0m

500m

1000m

224

Kricak, Yogyakarta - Indonesia

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.2 Aerial view of Kricak slum

Citation: (Duivesteijn & Van De Wal, 1994)

Area: 174 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 427km

Population: 300,000

Date of origin: 1950

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 410m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 318m

225

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

226

Lagos, Lagos Island - Nigeria

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.3 Lagos slums

Citation: (Obudho & Mhlanga, 1988)

Area: 409 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 530km

Population: 209,000

Date of origin: 1963

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 218m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 200m

227

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

228

Las Colinas, Bogota - Columbia

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.4 Las Colinas slum

Citation: (UN Habitat, 1982)

Area: 489 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 10,000

Date of origin: 1960

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 319m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 325m

229

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

230

Hill Squatters, Lima - Peru

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.5 Lima aerial view

Citation: (UN Habitat, 1982)

Area: 228.4 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: Unknown

Date of origin: 1960s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 419m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 370m

231

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

232

Mafalala, Maputo - Mozambique

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.6 Maputo slums

Citation: (Obudho, Mhlanga, 1988)

Area: 265 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 22,000

Date of origin: pre 1975

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 375m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 440m

233

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

234

Orangi Town, Karachi - Pakistan

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.7 Oranji Town aerial view

Citation: (UN Habitat, 1982)

Area: 197 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1140km

Population: 1,500,000

Date of origin: 1965

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 334m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 298m

235

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

236

Rocinha, Rio De Janeiro - Brazil

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.8 Rocinha aerial view

Citation: (Neuwirth, 2005)

Area: 141 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 930km

Population: 250,000

Date of origin: 1970s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 337m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 360m

237

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

238

Rusque, Dakar - Senegal

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 10.9 Rusque slum

Citation: (UN Habitat, 1982)

Area: 1,342 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 179,797

Date of origin: 1987

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 440m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 425m

239

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

240

Tondo, Manila - Phillipiens

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 11.0 Tondo slum

Citation: (UN Habitat, 1982)

Area: 689 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 630,000

Date of origin: 900

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 258m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 240m

241

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

242

Urban Village, Shenzhen - China

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Figure 11.1 Urban Village aerial view

Citation: (Kiu, 2009 & Liu, 2009)

Area: 237 h.a

Distance to Capital City: 1930km

Population: 70,000

Date of origin: 1980s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 205m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 180m

243

Main Urban Connections

10

20km

0m

500m

244

West Point, Monrovia - Liberia

Informal Settlement

Regional Plan

Main Urban Connections

Citation: (Obudho & Mhlanga, 1988)

Area: 891 h.a

Distance to Capital City: N/A

Population: 75,000

Date of origin: 1980s

Mean perimeter segment measurement: 310m

Median perimeter segment Measurement: 320m

245

10

20km

0m

500m

1000m

246

Comparative Scale Study:

247

Historic Cities:

248

Radiant City:

249

Garden Cities:

250

Informal Settlement:

251

New Urbanism:

252

Summary of results:
PTUD

NON PTUD
Historic Cities
0m

Historic Cities
0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

0m

0m

Chicago

0m

0m

Karlsruhe

0m

Caracus

0m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

East Kilbride

Celebration
1000m

1000m

0m

Brasilia

1000m

0m

Glenrothes
1000m

1000m

0m

1000m
1000m

Cumbernauld
1000m

1000m

Brentwood

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

1000m

Farsta

1000m

Barbican Estate

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

New Urbanism

1000m

Ciudad Guayana

0m

Karachi
1000m

1000m

0m

Boston

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Garden City

1000m

1000m

Grammichelle

0m

1000m

Akademgorodok

1000m

Calcutta
1000m

1000m

0m

1000m

Garden City

0m

Delhi

1000m

Bologna

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Radiant City

1000m

Freudenstadt

1000m

0m

0m
1000m

Bremen

1000m

Informal Settlement

1000m

1000m

Barcelona
0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

253

Informal Settlement

0m

Greenbelt

Communications Hill
254

Summary of results:
PTUD

NON PTUD
Historic Cities
0m

Historic Cities
0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

Paris

0m

0m

Khayelitsha

0m

0m

0m

Kranidi

0m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

Le Mirail

Laguna West
1000m

1000m

0m

Cumbernauld

1000m

0m

Greenhills
1000m

1000m

0m

1000m
1000m

Islamabad

1000m

1000m

Kentlands

1000m

Bronx Co-op City


1000m

1000m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

Greendale

1000m

0m

Karail
1000m

1000m

0m

Noto

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

New Urbanism

1000m

Drumul Taberei

1000m

Dar es Salaam

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Garden City

1000m

Cabrini Green

1000m

Palmanova

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Radiant City

1000m

Kibera

1000m

Neuf Brisach

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Radiant City

1000m

Dakar

1000m

0m

0m
1000m

Nuremberg

1000m

Informal Settlement

1000m

1000m

Lubeck
0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

255

Informal Settlement

0m

Hilversum

Poundbury
256

Summary of results:
PTUD

NON PTUD
Historic Cities
0m

Historic Cities
0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

Lima

0m

0m

0m

Rocinha

0m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

Radburn

Seaside
1000m

1000m

0m

Tsukuba

1000m

0m

Vallingby
1000m

1000m

0m

1000m
1000m

Lusaka
1000m

1000m

Rosemary Beach

1000m

Roehampton
1000m

1000m

0m

Vienna

0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

Riverside

1000m

Maputo
1000m

1000m

0m

Pompeii

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

0m

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

New Urbanism

1000m

Letchworth

1000m

Lagos

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Garden City

1000m

Regent Park

1000m

Verona

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Garden City

1000m

Manila

1000m

Piacenza

0m

1000m

0m

0m

1000m

Radiant City

1000m

Yogyakarta

1000m

0m

0m
1000m

Verdun

1000m

Informal Settlement

1000m

1000m

Pavia
0m

0m

1000m

1000m

0m

257

Informal Settlement

0m

Welwyn

Vero Beach
258

Conclusions:
I. Findings
Cities classied as Pre-professional Urban Design Theory, have primary ndings conrming the existence of the
400-meter scaled framework. Cities from antiquity through the industrial age can be seen, with little exception, to
exemplify the 400-meter rule. Cities dating from the majority of human history are classied into this sub category,
it was expected and has been shown that there is some of variation in the urban form of the case studies. The form
of individual sanctuary areas has a signicant variance over time and geography, yet as dened, the 400 meter rule
manifests itself as a range from 300 to 500 meters. Also present in later North American examples is the presence of
the Jeffersonian grid, which is larger than 400 meters in practice, but is often scaled down, or further bisected with
main streets in the industrial city case studies from North America. Further ndings are best represented as ndings
from a singular case study from each of the sub-categories in the Pre-Professional Theory era.
Ancient City, Lucca: pages 41 - 42
The case study area at Lucca is shown with a map of the ancient settlement overlaid with the citys existing form. The
urban framework of Lucca is remarkably unchanged in its history, making it the ideal case study for an ancient city.
The 400-meter scale is present with no sanctuary area perimeter segment being longer than 440 meters. The mean
for perimeter segments is 274 meters, well below a 400-meter scale.
Medieval City, Nuremburg: pages 55 - 56
The case study at Nuremburg has a much more varied form than the ancient city of Lucca. This is in part to its
development in the medieval era, and in part to its riverside location requiring the urban framework to adapt and
stretch to accommodate the river as is done with the a river crossing main road segment at 790 meters. This should
be considered a statistical outlier, and can likely be explained as two segments being broken by the river, a useful
transportation artery in medieval times. The average measurement taken from inside the walled portion of the medieval
city is 329 meters, conrming the presence of the 400-meter scale.
Renaissance City, Palmanova: pages 67 - 68
The city at Palmanova is largely identical to its renaissance origins. The case study exemplies the 400-meter rule
more clearly than any other settlement in this atlas. It is a small planned, walled city built in a radial pattern. The
distance from the city centre and plaza is 400 meters exactly. There are three sanctuary areas, arranged around the
piazza, with 400-meter main roads radiating from the centre to the edge of the city at the wall.
Baroque City, Noto Valley: pages 73 - 74
The Noto Valley case study is an example of the pure Baroque city, built after the Sicilian Earthquake. The 400meter scale is most evident by the three segments measured at 400 meters forming a repeating pattern in the city
centre. The average measurement of perimeter segments in the Noto Valley study area is 241 meters. Much smaller
than 400 meters; it is important to note a measurement greater than 400 meters only occurs twice, both the result of
topographical challenges in city design.

259

Industrial City, Barcelona: pages 77 - 78


The 400-meter scale is present in Barcelona, though larger than the Baroque example in Noto Valley. At Barcelona it is
possible to see the rm and explicit return to a gridded system of streets in Cerdas plan. When measured, the grid is
implemented on a 410x410 meter square sanctuary area. This grid is broken occasionally, by major public buildings,
topography, rail infrastructure, and diagonal roads, yet, the average segment is measured at 435 meters. The average
measurement, though still within the suggested range of conrmation for the 400 meter scale, would be even more
convincing if 3 outliers of 670 meters were disregarded.
The era of Professional Urban Design Theory ushers in the Garden City Movement and the Radiant City, and continues
today with New Urbanism. All of these in one way or another have attempted to design the city while simultaneously
driving social change for the better. They are committed to the designability of the neighbourhood unit and are basing
the scale of the city as designed on the perimeter of a neighbourhood unit. Analysing these as a framework shows
that the sanctuary area as dened by this research is overscaled and outgrown when compared to the historical
cities.
The Garden City, Letchworth: pages 119 - 120
The rst garden city realised, and one developed with the direct inuence of Ebenezer Howard, Letchworth is the
closest the Garden City ever came to realising its theoretical idealism. The urban framework of Letchworth is a
signicant growth from the industrial era. The town centre of Letchworth, a non-residential, single use commercial
and service part of the city has three segments that measure less than 300 meters. With the three segments included,
the average distance for a perimeter segment of a sanctuary area in Letchworth is still 551 meters. In addition there is
a signicant disparity between the smallest (230 meters) and largest (1500 meters) segments. The entire settlement
area of Letchworth divides into just 15 sanctuary areas, a fraction of a similarly sized city of the industrial era.
Radiant City, Chandigarh: pages 153 - 154
The city of Chandigarh is the most puritanical representation of Le Corbusiers ideals as it was designed and
implemented by the master himself. Chandigarh represents an explosion in urban scale, which has yet to be replicated,
a possible sign of its consequences. The city is laid out in a near perfect grid of superblocks, or sectors, as they are
known locally. The majority of the sectors are a 1350 x 850 meter rectangle. Each rectangle is a sanctuary area, and
neighbourhood unit as designed. The 3 sectors closest to the monumental government buildings are signicantly
smaller and have the only segments in the city shorter than 800 meters in length. Including these altered sectors the
average for the detail area (and the city as a whole) is a segment length of 921 meters.
New Urbanism, Seaside: 201 - 202
The town of Seaside, Florida in the United States is a hallmark of New Urbanism, award winning, under expansion,
and often seen as the seminal work of New Urbanism. Seaside has easily discernable neighbourhoods; unfortunately
these neighbourhoods are neither adjacent to one another, nor at the scale of the 400-meter framework. Seaside is a
small settlement, with just six sanctuary area perimeter segments to measure. The average of these segments it 1078
meters, which is beyond even the 800 meters suggested by the Congress for New Urbansim Charter.
260

Informal settlements represent a return (or at least a lack of departure from) the 400-meter scale. Informal settlements
emerge and grow as a response to other urban social problems. They often represent the only affordable housing
for their inhabitants. The framework that emerges grows and alters not only with the size and population of the
settlement, but also with the availability of land. The actual size, shape, and population of an informal settlement is
difcult to discern, all gures regarding informal settlements being instantly outdated as the settlement itself remains
in a state of ux. The geographical and cultural context of the settlements is of interest as they can affect the size
and condition of the settlement.
In one special case, that of Khayelitsha, South Africa, we have a documented formally planned, informal settlement.
This area developed out of the Apartheid system with the intention of the resettlement of the majority black population
into government planned townships. These townships were little more than formalised shantytowns with similar
conditions to those seen in other informal settlements analysed. The urban framework of this settlement is that of
an overgrown professionally planned scale. The formality of the settlement led to this overgrown scale, whereas the
emergent informal settlements studied clearly exhibit the 400-meter scales.
Informal Settlement, Rocinha: pages 237 - 238
The settlement at Rocinha is a very well documented Brazilian favela. The framework of the favela is highly irregular,
determined by the signicant grade of the hills upon which it is built. The nature and shape is that of an unplanned
shantytown, haphazard at best. The scale, however is that which has been consistent outside of the professional
theory world. The average perimeter segment measures at 337 meters. The highest and lowest segment only measure
580 to 110 meters. The emergent and unplanned nature of the slum has resulted in a highly irregular urban framework
that organically arrives at a similar scale as that of the majority of human history.
II. Implications
The ndings expose the natural emergence and evolution of an urban scale over the course of human history. This
scale is shown to exist everywhere professional theory is absent. Resulting is the permanent alteration of urban
scale, implemented when professional urban design theory emerged and became the dominant form of conventional
urbanism. The implications of this emergent and organic framework development are predominately exposed in the
permeability and exibility of the city. Historic urban frameworks have permeability for both automobiles (at lower
speeds) and pedestrians due to their condensed urban framework, the 400-meter framework.
A condensed framework adds not only permeability to the city, but exibility. It is assumed at this point, though further
research is needed, that permeability of the 400-meter city is the driving factor behind its increased exibility.

The exibility and permeability benets of the 400-meter framework are easily framed to support the argument of the
sustainable city. Many arguments, including those of new urbanism make the argument suggesting that higher density;
walkable, urban areas lead to a more sustainable human settlement and living pattern, than the automobile and land
dependant models from the radiant city and garden city movements. The dense, pleasant, walkable neighbourhoods
that foster a sustainable lifestyle already exist, as can be seen in the atlas, in cities conceived outside of professional
urban design theory.
Historic cities are shown in the atlas to be highly adaptable. Much of the ancient and medieval cities are obviously
not ancient, yet the framework of the cities remains largely unchanged from its conception. The adaptable nature of
a 400-meter framework supports not only the exible framework of a 400-meter city, but also furthers support for the
settlements sustainability. A settlement that existed for 100 years before the industrial revolution, and continues to
exist can be anecdotally referred to as a sustainable city.
The implications for the research of the 400-meter framework and the emergent neighbourhood model are less clear.
This research does not suppose to assume which of the urban frameworks is better, than any other. It does highlight
that the 400-meter framework is based in human history and has lasted for several thousand years, while others are
based in logic, occasionally being signicantly altered after 50 years. The value judgement of the framework cannot
yet be made.
Further understanding the urban framework, and its implications, requires additional analysis of both a quantitative
and qualitative nature. An understanding of the frameworks must not be based in logic and casual observation;
it must be rooted in substantial high quality research. This will include (but not limited to) trafc pattern studies,
economic value studies, income level studies, a socioeconomic portrait, land use analysis, and additional qualitative
analysis about the human perception of urban spaces both from the frame of reference of the denizen and the outsider.
The psychology of users and the sociology of different urban spaces must be compiled and compared to urban
frameworks. Additionally, further research should add additional quantication of the space in terms of population
and density studies. A comparison of land values tied to urban frameworks must be compiled to determine the
presence of a statistically signicant or causal relationship between land value and urban framework. Future research
must answer the human questions of these spaces.
It is only with the compilation of this additional research that the current atlas of urban framework will begin to
shoulder its full potential. This atlas is proof and documentation of the existence and subsequent alteration of urban
frameworks, however any value judgements must be reserved for further research into the nature and perception of
urban space.

The exibility of the 400 meter framework is demonstrated in the continual evolution of historic cities and the
continued use of historical and existing frameworks, whereas the evolution of modernist and post modernist urban
redevelopment often leads to a re-working or demolition of the framework of the area as is exemplied by the PruittIgoe and Cabrini Green situations.
261

262

III. Relevance
The relevance of the work complied in the atlas differs when considered for the elds of architecture and urban
design. The relevance for urban design is much more apparent on the surface. The work clearly exposes the major
change in urban form at the hands of the eld of professional urban design theory. This change is most illustrated
in the manner that urban designers (through the advancement and implementation of their theories) for better or for
worse have drastically and permanently altered the organic human scale of urban settlement.
This urban framework study shows the physical representation of the end of the historically prevalent emergent
neighbourhood development process. In cities developed and inuenced under a professional theory there is a
logical ordered urban framework and system of land use. These professionally planned cities remove the freedom
for altering urban form. The grand logical design is all encompassing and controlling, limiting the exibility and
adaptability of the area.
The rigid use of an oversized framework was shown to have developed out of the designable neighbourhood unit.
The neighbourhood unit is clearly visible in the framework of professional theory era cities and has been shown to
be a very limiting basis for the development of an urban framework. The over-scaled framework removes, or makes
more difcult, movement between two neighbourhood units. This attempt to control the users and citizens of the
urban area is an overreach for urban design and resulted in an urban form shown in every map in this atlas in the
Garden City, Radiant City, and New Urbanist chapters.

imagine the profound effect on building in a city of a 400 meter scale, and the benets and challenges this offers,
however this is not any different than designing new spaces for a historical city.
At a general level this work is a call for an evidence-based approach to the study and design of the built environment,
an attempt to expand the penetration of science into urban design and architecture, from setting up a hypothesis and
testing it critically in rigorous conditions, making it widely testable within the disciplinary eld. This research, even
in its present somewhat preliminary form, is such a test. It is about constructing tested empirical knowledge. The
relevance of that for architects refers to the need to bring the culture of architecture and urbanism out of the domain of
expression (the domain of visual arts), and closer to that of usefulness (the domain of practical arts and experimental
science). After many decades of fashionable and fascinating theories, theories are needed that work; this research is
an investigation of the eld of what has been working for centuries, which involves architecture as much as urbanism
in the formation of feasible answers to the questions posed by contemporary global urbanisation.
Also of relevance to architecture is nding a place to embrace urban design and the strengths it offers. The harshest
criticisms of new urbanism often come from the eld of architecture. Architects often respond negatively to form
based coding and any attempt on the part of urban designers to infringe on the creative freedom of an architect. The
emergent neighbourhood theory and the 400-meter framework could have major implications on this relationship.
Both the emergent neighbourhood model and the 400-meter scale dilute many of the draconian ideas of heavyhanded new urbanism, suggesting only that a framework for development be put in place and the neighbourhood be
allowed to emerge. Architects that are opposed to the over design of space as new urbanism can occasionally be
guilty of, will nd a more amenable design paradigm in this approach to urban design.

Showing the break of urban design with traditional urban scale, and all of the implications of this, highlights the
importance of urban design in placemaking. It also can be used to infer the type of places that are created by urban
designers when there is no consideration for anything other than an artfully conceived logical order. With further
research into the nature of 400 meter and non 400-meter scaled cities, an understanding could be developed regarding
the consequences of urban framework on the liveability of a city.
Also implied is the failure of the neighbourhood unit as a designable entity. The entire theory of the neighbourhood
unit as a geographic entity based on a radius of 400 meters (i.e. 800mts of diameter) is inherently unt to frame human
scaled urbanism as expressed in the history of cities. This theory has constituted the backbone of twentieth century
urban design as a discipline, and therefore has deeply informed all models produced by professional urban designers
in the last century. This means re-thinking the methodology of practicing city designers and working for an entirely
different technical and cultural foundation for the profession is necessary.
The relevance the 400-meter framework analysis to architecture as a profession is in the relationship of a citys urban
framework and its buildings, and in the relationship of architecture to urban design as a profession.
The architect can nd value in the ascertaining of the profound difference in form a city takes when its design is not
derived from the city and its people, rather imposed from a logic based theory. An architect can also begin to
263

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Table of illustrations:
Figure 1.0

Garden City Diagram - Ward, Stephen V. ed. 1992. The Garden City; Past Present and Future.
London. Chapman and Hall. Page 4.

Figure 1.1

Le Corbusiers 400m rule diagram - Corbusier, Le. 1964. The Radiant City. London. Faber and
Faber Limited. Page 56.

Figure 1.2

Figure 1.3

Figure 1.4

Figure 1.5

Figure 1.6

Figure 1.7

Figure 2.2

Map of Tripoli - 1978 - Tripoli__ http://mappery.com/Tripoli-City-Map. [04/09/2010].

Figure 2.3

Map of Verdun - 1624 - http://www.fortied-places.com/images/verdun_image3.jpg 1624. [04/09/2010].

Figure 2.4

Map of Vienna - 1858 - Branch, Melville C. 1978. An Atlas of Rare City Maps: Comparative Urban
Design, 1830-1842. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. Page 18.

Neighbourhood Unit diagrams - Farr, Douglas. 2008. Sustainable Urbanism; Urban Design with
Nature. Hoboken, NJ. Wiley. Page 125.

Figure 2.5

Schickhardts plan - Curl, James S. 1970. European Cities and Societies: A study of the inuence of
Political Climate on Town Design. London. Leonard Hill Books. Page 98.

Map of ancient Bologna - Cervent, Marta. 2004. Citta Romane di Fondazione. Lerma di
Bretschneider. Roma. Page 68.

Figure 2.6

General Plan of Neuf Brisach - Morris, A. E. J. 1972. History of Urban Form: Prehistory of the
Renaissance. London. George Godwin Ltd. Page 160.

Map of ancient Lucca - Cervent, Marta. 2004. Citta Romane di Fondazione. Lerma di Bretschneider.
Roma. Page 82.

Figure 2.7

Palmanova plan - 1593 - Morris, A. E. J. 1972. History of Urban Form: Prehistory of the
Renaissance. London. George Godwin Ltd. Page 117.

Map of ancient Pavia - Cervent, Marta. 2004. Citta Romane di Fondazione. Lerma di Bretschneider.
Roma. Page 110.

Figure 2.8

Grammichele aerial view - http://it.greenplanet.net/agroalimentare/17-altre-notizie/23996grammichele - dallagricoltura-verso-un-nuovo-capitolo-di-storia.html. [04/09/2010].

Map of ancient Piacenza - Cervent, Marta. 2004. Citta Romane di Fondazione. Lerma di
Bretschneider. Roma. Page 57.

Figure 2.9

Engraving of Karlshrue - 1740 - Whitehand, J.W.R. 1987. The Changing Face of Cities: A study of
Development Cycles and Urban Form. Oxford. Basil Blackwell Ltd. Page 28.

Map of Pompeii - Dutton, J.A. 2000. New American Urbanism: Re-forming the Suburban Metropolis.
Milan, Skira editor. Page 52.

Figure 3.0

Aerial view of Noto - http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/23071331. [04/09/2010].

Figure 1.8

Map of ancient Verona - Cervent, Marta. 2004. Citta Romane di Fondazione. Lerma di
Bretschneider. Roma. Page 39.

Figure 3.1

Aerial view of Ragusa - http://www.nozio.com/Europe/Italy/Sicily/Ragusa/destination_guides/Ragusa.


htm/. [04/09/2010].

Figure 1.9

Map of Bremen - 1600. http://www.google.co.uk/imgres?imgurl=http://img.search.com/thumb/c/c8/


Bremen_Braun-Hogenberg.jpg/180px-Bremen_Braun-Hogenberg.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.search.
com/reference/Bremen&usg=__g9YcSDRxSIokihwmVWgA-DoXotM=&h=135&w=180&sz=15&hl=en&s
tart=25&zoom=0&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=RSwsPKkYFFbVXM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=101&prev=/images%3Fq
%3D1600%2Bbremen%2Bmap%26start%3D20%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26rlz%3D1R2
SHCN_enGB369%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1. [04/09/2010].

Figure 3.2

Cerdas Barcelona plan - 1859 - Hall, T. 1997. Planning Europes Capital Cities: Aspects of
Nineteenth- Century Urban Development. London. E & FN Spon. Page 136.

Figure 3.3

Map of Boston - 1842 - Branch, Melville C. 1978. An Atlas of Rare City Maps: Comparative Urban
Design, 1830-1842. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. Page 24.

Figure 3.4

Map of Calcutta - 1842 - Branch, Melville C. 1978. An Atlas of Rare City Maps: Comparative Urban
Design, 1830-1842. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. Page 26.

Figure 3.5

Lincoln Park Chicago - Personal Collection.

Figure 3.6

Aerial view of Manchester - http://www.aerial-manchester.co.uk/. [04/09/2010].

Figure 2.0

Map of Lubeck - 1255 - Nicholas, D. 1997. The Later Medieval City:1300-1500. Essex. Addison
Wesley Longman Limited. Page 422.

Figure 2.1

Map showing late medieval wall - Nicholas, D. 1997. The Later Medieval City: 1300-1500. Essex.
Addison Wesley Longman Limited. Page 420.

273

274

Figure 3.7

Glasgows Merchant City - http://www.glasgowarchitecture.co.uk/tron_theatre.htm. [04/09/2010].

Figure 3.8

Map of Middlesborough 1850 - Chant. C, Goodman, D. Edited.1999. European Cities & Technology:
Industrial to Post-Industrial City. London. Routledge. Page 6.

Figure 3.9

Map of Milan - 1913 - http://www.mapcruzin.com/free-italy-maps.htm. [04/09/2010].

Figure 4.0

Haussman Plan - 1854 - Burnham, Daniel, H. and Bennett, Edward, H. 1908. Plan of Chicago.
Chicago. Commercial Club of Chicago. Page 22.

Figure 5.3

Map of Lusaka 1968 - Davies, Hywel D. 1969. Zambian Urban Studies; No. 2 The Myth of the Garden
City. Lusaka. University of Zambia. Page 4

Figure 5.4
-

Aerial view of Milton Keynes - Burton, Anthony. Hartley, Joyce. 2002. The New Towns Record: 1946
2002. CD ROM. IDOX Information service in association with Logical Innovations.

Figure 5.5

Map of Navi Mumbai - 1972 - http://www.boloji.com/architecture/00050.htm. [04/09/2010].

Figure 5.6

Map of Radburn - 1928 - http://www.radburn.org/geninfo/radburn-intro.html. [01/09/2010].

Figure 4.1

Plan of Philadelphia - Branch, Melville C. 1978. An Atlas of Rare City Maps: Comparative Urban
Design, 1830-1842. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. Page 109.

Figure 5.7

Map of Riverside - http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/11/11.001j/f01/lectureimages/8/image11.html.


[01/09/2010].

Figure 4.2

Plan of Stockholm - 1836 - Branch, Melville C. 1978. An Atlas of Rare City Maps: Comparative Urban
Design, 1830-1842. New York. Princeton Architectural Press. Page 92.

Figure 5.8

Map of Seishin - 1970s - Burton, Anthony. Hartley, Joyce. 2002. The New Towns Record: 1946 2002. CD ROM. IDOX Information service in association with Logical Innovations.

Figure 4.3

Aerial of Ciudad Guyana - http://www.bancaynegocios.com/noticia_det.asp?id=10761. [08/09/2010].

Figure 5.9

Aerial view of Tama - Burton, Anthony. Hartley, Joyce. 2002. The New Towns Record: 1946 - 2002
CD ROM. IDOX Information service in association with Logical Innovations.

Figure 4.4

Aerial of Cumbernauld - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/5579777. [04/09/2010].


Figure 6.0

Figure 4.5

Aerial view of East Kilbride - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/13552057. [18/08/2010].

Tapiola satelite town plan - Von Hertzen, Heikki, and Spreiregen, Paul D. 1971. Building a New
Town: Finlands New Garden City; Tapiola. Boston. MIT Press. Page 20.

Figure 4.6

Farsta satellite town - Von Hertzen, Heikki, and Spreiregen, Paul D. 1971. Building a New Town:
Finlands New Garden City; Tapiola. Boston. MIT Press. Page 21.

Figure 6.1

Aerial view of Vallingby - Von Hertzen, Heikki, and Spreiregen, Paul D. 1971. Building a New Town:
Finlands New Garden City; Tapiola. Boston. MIT Press. Page 21.

Figure 4.7.

Aerial of Glenrothes - http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/scotland/4386101/


Glenrothes-named-most-dismal-town-in-Scotland.html. [04/09/2010].

Figure 6.2

Aerial view of Welwyn - Burton, Anthony. Hartley, Joyce. 2002. The New Towns Record: 1946 2002 CD ROM. IDOX Information service in association with Logical Innovations.

Figure 4.8

Greenbelt Streetscape - http://www.city-data.com/piclesc/picc12432.php. [04/09/2010].

Figure 6.3

Figure 4.9

Greendale Streetscape - http://www.city-data.com/piclesc/picc12422.php. [04/09/2010].

Akademgorodok aerial view - http://www.soviethistory.org/index. php?page=subject&show =


images&SubjectID=1956akademgorodok&Year=1956&Theme=436974696573&navi=byTheme.
[01/09/2010].

Figure 5.0.

Greenhills streetscape - http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2009/02/09/us/07wpa.ms.html.


[04/09/2010].

Figure 6.4

Courtyard block in Barbican - Personal Collection.

Figure 6.5
Figure 5.1

Hilversum Streetscape - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/32929661. [04/09/2010].

Islamabad streetscape - http://www.infopakistan.pk/2009/08/picture-shot-from-blue-area-islamabad/.


[01/09/2010].

Figure 5.2

Aerial view of Letchworth - http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic-art/225784/5624/Aerial-viewof-Letchworth-Hertfordshire-the-rst-garden-city-in/. [04/09/2010].

Figure 6.6

Brasilia aerial view - http://brazilianstudies.wordpress.com/2010/04/15/brasilia-is-celebrating-its-50thanniversary/. [01/09/2010].

275

276

Figure 6.7

Cabrini Green housing scheme - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/5579777. [01/09/2010].

Figure 6.8

Chandigarh - personal image.

Figure 6.9

Co-op streetscape - http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/06/realestate/06live.html?_r=1. [01/09/2010].

Figure 7.0

Aerial view of Cumbernauld - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/5579777. [04/08/2010].

Figure 7.1

Drumul Taberei aerial view - http://www.vet-twinning.eu/index.php?option=com_content&view=article


&id=14&Itemid=23. [04/08/2010].

Figure 7.2

Le Grande Borne aerial view - Chant. C, Goodman, D. Edited.1999. European Cities & Technology:
Industrial to Post-Industrial City. London. Routledge. Page 215.

Figure 8.2

Aerial view of Tsukuba - http://www.mikekrautter.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/08/tama_shi_


tokyo.jpg. [06/09/2010].

Figure 8.3

Brentwood neighbourhood - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/21039931. [02/09/2010].

Figure 8.4

Celebration aerial view - http://www.puddleofred.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/celeb.jpg.


[02/09/2010].

Figure 8.5

Communications Hill masterplan - http://www.hmhca.com/projects/mixed-use.php. [02/09/2010].

Figure 8.6

Kentlands town centre - http://instructors.dwrl.utexas.edu/dean/node/94. [02/09/2010].

Figure 8.7.

Laguna West residential street - http://www.demographia.com/db-nu-calgw.htm. [02/09/2010].

Figure 8.8

Orenco Station masterplan - http://www.planetizen.com/node/92. [02/09/2010].

Figure 7.3

Le Mirail aerial view - http://www.ladepeche.fr/article/2008/12/10/505756-Le-reve-envole-du-Mirail.


html. [04/08/2010].

Figure 8.9

Poundbury aerial view - http://www.princes-foundation.org/index.php?id=176. [02/09/2010].

Figure 7.4

Aerial view of Marzhan - http://www.photographersdirect.com/buyers/stockphoto.


asp?imageid=1641598. [06/09/2010].

Figure 9.0

Rosemary Beach masterplan - http://www.dpz.com/project.aspx?type=8&Project_


Number=9705&Project_Name=Rosemary+Beach. [17/08/2010].

Figure 7.5
-

Aerial view of Milton Keynes - Burton, Anthony. Hartley, Joyce. 2002. The New Towns Record: 1946
2002 CD ROM. IDOX Information service in association with Logical Innovations.

Figure 9.1

Seaside aerial view - http://www.avoe.org/index_NEW_2.html. [17/08/2010].

Figure 7.6

Aerial of Pendrecht housing - http://www.gemeentearchief.rotterdam.nl/content/index. php?option


=com_content&task=view&id=440&Itemid=335. [06/09/2010].

Figure 9.2

Windsor masterplan - http://www.artsjournal.com/aestheticgrounds/2007/02/. [17/08/2010].

Figure 9.3
Figure 7.7

Aerial of Pruitt Igoe - http://affordablehousinginstitute.org/blogs/us/wp-content/uploads/


oobject_15_housing_projects_from_hell_pruitt_igoe_0905_small.jpg. [06/09/2010].

Typical Badli slum - http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jan/16/plastic-bags-india-delhi-ban.


[17/08/2010].

Figure 9.4
Figure 7.8

Regent Park aerial sketch - http://www.toronto.ca/culture/history/gallery/ch6/regent.htm. [06/09/2010].

Aerial View of Barrio La Union http://lawanddisorder.org/wp-content/uploads/BarrioVenezuela.jpg.


[02/09/2010].

Figure 7.9
to

Roehampton 1953 - Chant. C, Goodman, D. Edited.1999. European Cities & Technology: Industrial
Post-Industrial City. London. Routledge. Page 213.

Figure 9.5

Port au Prince slum - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/31174675. [02/09/2010].

Figure 9.6

Dharvai slum personal image.

Figure 8.0

Aerial of Stuyvesant Town - http://www.gsapp.org/Archive/HP/2005-2006/history/history_themes1.


html. [06/09/2010].

Figure 9.7

Hanna Nassif Slum - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/29936190. [02/09/2010].

Figure 9.8

Typical Karail Slum - http://humanitarian.worldconcern.org/2009/05/bangladesh-slum/. [02/09/2010].

Figure 8.1

277

Sarcelles 1978 - Chant. C, Goodman, D. Edited.1999. European Cities & Technology: Industrial to
Post-Industrial City. London. Routledge. Page 215.

278

Figure 9.9

Streetscape of Khayelitha slum - http://www.eveandersson.com/photo-display/large/south-africa/


cape-town-township-khayelitsha-30.html. [02/09/2010].

Figure 10.0

Kibera Slum - http://formaementis.wordpress.com/2009/09/17/kenya-begins-huge-kibera-clearance/.


[04/09/2010].

Figure 10.1

Kranidi Settlement - http://www.basimakopouloi.gr/ermionida.htm. [04/09/2010].

Figure 10.2

Aerial view of Kricak slum: http://bluegumpictures.com.au/collections/indonesia_java/indonesia_


java017.php. [04/09/2010].

Figure 10.3

Lagos slums - http://www.cbc.ca/sports/soccer/faworldcup/blog/2010/05/a-new-day-in-nigeria.html.


[04/09/2010].

Figure 10.4

Las Colinas slum - http://www.panoramio.com/photo/22508556. [04/09/2010].

Figure 10.5

Lima aerial view - http://www.urbana.org/gfx/trek2005/Bangkok/lima.jpg. [04/09/2010].

Figure 10.6

Maputo slums - http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/8363045.stm. [04/09/2010].

Figure 10.7

Oranji Town aerial view - http://www.memumbai.com/node/101. [06/09/2010].

Figure 10.8

Rocinha aerial view - http://www.ickr.com/photos/leszekwasilewski/3385948566/. [06/09/2010].

Figure 10.9

Rusque slum - http://crs-blog.org/oodwater-turns-dakar-slum-into-swamp/. [06/09/2010].

Figure 11.0

Tondo slum - http://www.arrakeen.ch/asia2004/369%20%20Tondo.JPG. [06/09/2010].

Figure 11.2

West Point aerial view - http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/lg/business/2009/11/091125_liberia_


picture_gallery.shtml. [06/09/2010].

279