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Graduate School of Business

Submitted to:
Miss. Sidra ul Hassan

Project Report
National Highway Authority

Submitted by:
• Kalsoom Katib
• Moazma Naseer
• Sadaf Ejaz

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Dedicated to

My Loving Parents & Siblings and

Affectionate Teachers

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Praise is due to Allah whose worth cannot be described by speakers, whose bounties
cannot be counted by calculators and whose claim (to obedience) cannot be satisfied by
those who attempt to do so, whom the height of intellectual courage cannot appreciate,
and the diving’s of understanding cannot reach; He for whose description no limit has
been laid down, no eulogy exists, no time is ordained and no duration is fixed. He
brought forth creation through His Omnipotence, dispersed winds through His
Compassion, and made firm the shaking earth with rocks.

In all humility, I bow before the Almighty for granting me the perseverance, fortitude and
wisdom to complete this assignment in a befitting manner.

Most deservedly, my gratitude is due toms. Sidra ul Hassan, for her

professional guidance, incisive comments and valuable support all along this
practical work. Her commitment to excellence, deep insight and unrelenting
encouragement enabled us to produce this document.

We are grateful to Mr. Shahbaz Hussain Assistant Director, (Personnel-I) of National

Highway Authority, Islamabad, for extending us a lot of help and support during the
course of this research work.

No thanks are enough to pay tribute to our parents who taught us the values of honesty,
dedication and hard work. Their unswerving support and motivation during the whole
tenure of our studies was a perpetual source of inspiration for us.

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01 Introduction to the Organization (NHA)……………………………….. 05
02 Overview of the Organization……………………………………………. 06
03 Organizational Structure………………………………………………… 07
04 Organizational 08
05 Organizational Culture………………………………………………….. 10
06 Job Description & Job Specification…………………………………… 17
07 Job Advertisement………………………………………………………… 18
08 Vacant Post……………………………………………………………….. 19
09 Job Description & Job Requirement…………………………………….. 19
10 Job Advertisement &Philosophy of Job 20
11 Cost Estimation…………………………………………………………… 23
12 Target Group……………………………………………………………… 24

Introduction to the organization

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National Highway Authority
Ministry of Communications
Government of Pakistan

NHA is custodian of the Highway assets of Pakistan’s road network. It is committed to

provide a safe, modern and efficient transportation system. As the cornerstone of
tomorrow’s Highway network, National Highways function as the backbone of
Pakistan’s transportation system, play an important role in the development of micro and
macro economy and also enhance the national integration by increasing the social and
economic dependence between the Provinces.

In 1978, Government of Pakistan (GOP) decided to federalize five important inter-

provincial roads named “National Highways" and created the National Highway Board
for monitoring the development and maintenance of these federalized roads by provincial
Highway Departments.

The National Highway Authority (NHA) was created, in 1991, through an Act of the
Parliament to repair and maintenance of National Highways and Strategic Roads. Total
length of the federalized roads under NHA now stands at 11485 Kms.

Overview of the organization

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Vision Statement
Unifying and mobilization the nation

“Friendly Highways”

Mission Statement
To secure delivery of efficient, reliable, safe and environment friendly
National Highway Network with the view to improve quality of life in Pakistan.

Major Activities
"Plan, Promote, Organize and Implement Programs for Construction, Development,
Operation, Repairs and Maintenance of National Highways/ Motorways and Strategic
Roads of Pakistan."

General Idea
Advise the Federal Government on matters relating to National Highways and Strategic
Roads. Frame a scheme or schemes for matters such as construction, expansion,
operation and development of National Highways and Strategic Roads.

Acquire any land in accordance with legal procedure and obtain and dispose of moveable
and immovable property of interests therein.

Organizational structure

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National Highway Council (NHC):
The basic function of the National Highway Council (NHC) is to lay down national
policies and guidelines to be followed by NHA in the performance of its functions. The
Council has the power to direct and regulate the affairs of NHA. The council having the
authority to approve five year plans and perspective plans, prepared by the board in
consultation with the planning & Development Division.

NHA Executive Board (NHB):

The general direction and administration of NHA and its affairs vest in the Executive
Board which may exercise all powers, perform all functions and do all acts and things
which may be exercised, performed or done by the Authority. To consider and approve
proposals, schemes and projects having value between Rs. 50 million to Rs. 100 million

NHA Head office:

NHA has its Head Office at Islamabad with the Chairman as its Chief Executive Officer.
In Head Office, there are eight Wings/Sections namely Planning Wing, Operation Wing,
Finance Wing, Administration Wing, Secretary Section, Public Relation Section, Internal
Audit Section and Vigilance Section. There are five Regional Offices in Karachi, Quetta,
Multan, Lahore and Peshawar. In Head Office each Wing has various sections which are
listed as under:-

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National Highway

Planning Wing Operation Wing Finance Wing

Member Member Member
(Planning) (Operations) (Finance)

General General
Manager Director
Manager Manager
(Operations) (Motorways)
(Planning) (Finance)

General General
Manager Manager (B&A) General
(Construction) Manager
General General
General Manager (MPO) Manager Secretary NHA
Manager (Internal Audit)
(Design) Director
Director Manager n)
(Legal) (LM&IS)
Director PR

Organization Structures of NHA

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Director General

Director Director Director

(Personnel) (Establishment) (MIS/Computers)

Deputy Deputy Deputy Deputy

Director Director Director Director
(Personnel) (Estab-I) (Estab-II) (MIS/Computer

Deputy Assistant
Assistant Assistant Director-
Director Director
Director (Store) I (MIS/Computers)
(Training) (Estab-I)
Assistant Director–II
Deputy Director (Estab-
Director II)


Hierarchy of NHA HR Department

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Instruments Used For Culture Analysis

For the cultural analysis we used Interview and Questionnaire techniques. We analyze
NHA culture with the help of these instruments, the reason of selecting those instruments
was that we wanted dept study of their culture and also wanted to know the employees
personal perception about the NHA culture. These instruments really help us in
understanding and in analyzing their culture.

We discussed in the interview analysis part that how this instrument help us to analyzing
their culture. We conducted interview and met with employees they gave us very positive
response without any biasness toward our questions.

Questionnaire which we used for our analysis have been used in research, reference of
questionnaire given below. We discussed results of every question and also give
interpretation of questions that what we analyze from them.
Interpretation and analysis of culture will be discus further in detail.


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Culture of NHA

Through the medium of questionnaires and interviews with the employees we found
valuable insights in the organizational culture of NHA.
Our broad areas in interview and questionnaire were:
Preference for culture:
Based on different parameters, the preferences of the employees for the particular type of
culture were assessed in order to determine the person culture fit.
Satisfaction level:
The effectiveness of an organization depends upon the level of satisfaction of its
employees. Thus questions to determine the satisfaction of their employees and
suggestions for improving the work environment formed any an important part of our
Other areas:
• Need denomination

• Motivation factor

• Influence of external factors on organizational behavior

• Employees perception about organization’s culture

The following pages contain the sample questionnaire and interviews that facilitated our
assessment for organizational culture of NHA.

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Questions and their Results

4). How do you perceive your current Organization’s culture?

1) A collective belief that in turn shape behavior
2) Based on a foundation of historical continuity.
3) Based in part on emotions which are particularly conspicuous when change is
4) Cultures are more probabilistic than deterministic.

Interpretation & conclusion:

By analyzing result we come to know that 60% employees of NHA perceive their
organization’s culture as a collective belief that in turn shapes behavior.20% of

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employees perceive the culture of the organization as more probabilistic than
There is a collective belief that in turns shape behavior. Every thing is governed and
prescribed by the management. It shows that culture is such that it makes the behavior of

5). in what kind of an Organizational culture you prefer to work?

1) The organization promotes from within and highly valued seniority.
2) There is stable environment in which employees can develop and exercise their
3) The skills of the employees are highly prized.
4) There exists an organizational culture commitment to decentralization.

Interpretation & conclusion:

An organization where skills of employees are highly prized is the culture, which is
preferred by 50% of employees. 40% employees preferred the organizational culture
with stable environment in which employees can develop and exercise their skills.
So we can say that employees of NHA want that kind of culture in which their skills
are highly prized and which supports them to develop and exercise their skills. So we

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can analyze through this analysis that their work is not recognized by organization
and employee think that there should be developmental activities in the organization
and it must be considered by NHA.

9). Overall, how satisfied are you with working for the company?
1) Very satisfied
2) Satisfied
3) Dissatisfied
4) Very dissatisfied

Interpretation & conclusion:

Most of the employees are very satisfied working with the organization. 60% of
employees are very satisfied and 40% of employees are satisfied working with
organization. While on the other side no employee feels dissatisfaction or very
dissatisfaction working with NHA.
This indicates that NHA offers a good & favorable culture and environment to its
employees to working as all employees are satisfied.

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10). The best part about working for the company is
1) The management upholds the values it propounds
2) All my needs are satisfied and take care of
3) The management entrusts me by giving me challenging jobs and there is openness
to suggestions from all.
4) All employees are treated equally and the management is fair.

Interpretation & conclusion:

The reaction to this question was mixed, 60% of employees selected best part of NHA is
the culture of NHA that all the employees are treated equally and the management is fair
while 30% employee selected that best part of organization is that they are entrusted by
the management and there is openness of suggestions for all. 10% employees are happy
with the organization because the management upholds the values they propound.
So we can interpret by the results that culture of NHA is dynamic. On the whole the
culture satisfies the diverse needs of all employees. So we can say that organizational
culture is consistent with its core value. There is no discrimination. Employees are
equally treated and management is fair.

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Interpretation and conclusion of other questions:
Majority of the employees of NHA, rank their growth need holding prime importance as
their existence needs are being met appropriately by the organization. The esteem and
social needs are almost equally important for them. So we can say that growth needs are
the needs and can be source for NHA to motivate the employees. High growth needs of
employees depicts that organizational culture is not synchronizing with employees’
development needs.
There is mix and match of all the factors influencing the behavior of an employee. The
main driving factors influencing work performance are recreational opportunities and the
influence of superiors over the subordinates.
The employees believe that consistent performance & challenging jobs can get them
sense of achievement and hence recognition and rewards. Thus it is performance that
matters and also the recognition of work by superiors, which drives them to perform
more consistently.
By the answers of employees it indicates that employees rarely engaged with any
recreational activities. Which shows organization is not fulfilling the social needs of
There is a lack of competition spirit among the employees. They strive to perform better
in order to meet the expectations of their superiors. The work environment is extremely

Interview Analysis

To assess the organizational culture in a broad way, we conducted an interview along

with the questionnaires to the employees of NHA.
By analyzing the interviews we concluded that organization is highly favorable for
hardworking employees and provide a secure environment to females as well as males,
eventually causing employee satisfaction.
Based on performance, a number of rewards are offered to employees. There is scope of
promotion even within two years, based in the performance of the last years.

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Punishments are seldom given and are restricted to only to nonperformers, particularly to
those employees who are not matching the expectations continuously. Such employees
are not punished but transferred to remote areas.

Culture of NHA
So we conclude that NHA’s organizational culture is good for them who work hard and
make their way in the era of competition. Employees are highly satisfied with the
organization culture and their norms and values matches to the organization culture.
Dynamic culture is prevailing in NHA. Organization is satisfying diverse needs of
employees. There is no discrimination, employees are equally treated and management is
just & fair. Growth and developmental needs are not highly focused by organization.
Recreational activity is also another aspect avoided by organization.
High performers are recognized by the organization by giving them rewards and
promotions. NHA provide a secure environment to females as well as males as well as
friendly and open environment at each level. Employee suggestions are well considered
in decision making.
There is some what flattery environment prevails in the organization. Employees are alter
their behavior and performance according to supervisor expectation and try to gain undue
favors by them. There is lack of competition spirit among the employees.

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Vacant Position

Deputy Director


Dy. Director (Computer/MIS)

• To Control the computer network of the authority

• To implement /propose latest computer technology within the authority
• To ensure that computer system in organization is being handled by qualified
persons properly.
• Computerization and programming of entire technical and non technical matters
of important nature.
• Purchasing and maintenance of software and hardware items.
• Supervise internal computer trainings
• Assist selection committees in recruitment of computer/IT personnel.

Job requirements/ person specification:

• MS -IT/Master in Computer Science /MIT/MSC. Computer Science/MS-Software

• Experience: 7-10 years in respective field.
• Developed and implemented Information Systems, strong in Database
management in PL/SQL Server, Oracle 9i etc
• age 28-35 years

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• Age relaxation can be given up to 05 years for armed forces retired personnel.

Job Advertisement

For the advertisement of job we create an ad, which is as per the requirements of job and
also create positive impact toward organization. We used MS PUBLISHER for our ad, to
make it more attractive.

Philosophy of Advertisement

Size of Page:
Size of our ad is 12 by 10, it's approximately half of A4 size, we choose this size because
we are giving ad only for one job. We will place our ad in the center of page because of
that this size is suitable. All requirements of job ad are cover in this size.

Font Size:
In ad we have used different size of font also use some bold and italic font, it's all
because of some reasons;
For the Organization name we use Word Art, it's because to make it more attractive and
different from other headings.
For the heading of job title and location we used Italic and bold font with the size of 28
and we also underline both headings of Job title and location, it's because we want to
Highlight the job title and location and want to display both heading different from others
and to get more attention toward vacant and place.
For the whole ad we use Times New Roman style of font and for other description we use
22 size of font.

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For other headings J.D, J.S and other information we used 22 font sizes and also
underline and bold these headings, because headings or main points should be different
from other font and it make things clear for applicant.

Font Colors:
In our ad we used different colors because we wanted to make our ad more attractive,
color scheme which we used in entire ad totally related to the organization's logo.
We used Green color for the organization's name, job title, location, job description and
for person specification, because Green color shows the peace and unity and it is also use
in the logo of NHA.
We used black color for other description it is because black color is professional color
and it looks very attractive.

Background Color:
For the background we used 2 colors light yellow and green, these both color are the
identity of NHA and use in the logo. By using these two colors our ad become more
creative and attract the viewers towards it. In the background we also place the Gov logo
to show that NHA is government's organization, people who don't know about that
Become aware with that when they will see Gov's logo in background.

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Cost Estimation

For the publishing of our advertisement we concerned with different news papers and did
cost estimation. We have to give advertisement for the high level job because of that we
choose English news paper which is more costly then Urdu news paper. We will place
our advertisement in English Sunday News paper; news papers which are more preferable
for our organization is Jang (English & Urdu), The News, Dawn.
Our advertisement will place in Sunday news paper only for one time because
government organization does not repeat and not give ads more then one time.
Size for our advertisement is (12*10) and we prefer color ad, we want to place our ad in
the ads sections in the center of page.
Cost is not problem in NHA because all expensive for advertisements paid by the

There are some costs of news papers for the placing of our advertisement.

[This is cost of half page size of A4 (12*10)]

DAWN 7 to 12 Thousand
NATION 7 to 10 Thousand
JANG 7 to 15 Thousand
NAW-E-WAQT 7 to 10 Thousand

For the government organization they give 30 to 40 percent discount.

If we will place ad in half page (12*10) size of A4 and give color ad cost which we have
to bear is not more then 3 to 4 thousand, price is less because organization get discount.

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It is not much cost because it will not only ad for single job it will also present
organization and create positive impact on people mind, more candidate will attract
toward organization and pool will be generated from which organization will select and
get best person.

Target Group

We have targeted only well educated group of people having experience in field of IT,
our target group not fresh graduates or fresh degree holders we target those people who
are already in practical field and qualified in IT related degrees. Our target group is those
who are expert in using information systems and can control all activities which come
under the IT.
Our targeted group is narrowly defined by including person specification in our ad which
tells that who is qualified and right person for job.

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