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Jibachha's

Handbook of Animal
Husbandry
Dr. Jibachha Sah

B.V.Sc & A.H., M.V.Sc (T.U.)


Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India
Director

Jibachha Veterinary Hospital Research & Training Center (P.) Ltd.


Bharatpur-5, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal

Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah

B.V.Sc & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc (Medicine, AFU)


Research Co-ordinator

Jibachha Veterinary Hospital Research & Training Center (P.) Ltd.


Bharatpur-5, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal

Jibachha Publishing
Bharatpur-5, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal
Copyright material
Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

i i

Preface
Jibachha's

Handbook of Animal Husbandry


Edited by: Dr. Jibachha Sah and Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
Copyright @ 29 September 2016, Jibachha Publishing
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval
system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Published by Jibachha's Publishing
Bharatpur-5, Lankupul, Narayangarh, Chitwan, Nepal.
E-mail: Jibachha@yahoo.com, vhrtc@yahoo.com

ISBN:

Animal Husbandry plays a major role in providing employment especially self-employment


with high participation of women in Nepal. Livestock products also play a main role in
export earnings. This sector provides full time occupation in some cases at the location
itself with better utilization of human resources. It provides balanced nutrition in the form
of milk, egg and meat besides farm power.
In Nepal, various veterinary institutions spread over the country provide veterinary health
services and play a major role in increasing the production potentialities of the livestock
and poultry. There is an increase in cross bred population and decrease of unproductive
animals with the implementation of cross breeding programs.
This concise handbook attempts to provide 23 chapters; basic information on animal
husbandry, zoological classification, anatomy and physiology, nutrition, genetics, breeding,
care and management, forage and fodder production, cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, horse,
poultry, rabbit, fish, dog, cat, dairying production and project plans.
This handbook has been compiled from the standard text book, journals and various
resources, authors do not claim all the originality of text in the book. In this book
compilation is based on syllabus of veterinary technical school and competitive exams.
So this book will be very useful for institutional students, teachers, extension workers,
veterinary undergraduate students and also for researchers.
This is our 40th book on veterinary and animal husbandry; more than 31 books are in
Nepali language. Amongst these best seller approaches more than 30,000 copies.

Price: Rs. 3,750/- (S.C.) | 85 $ (S.C.)



Rs. 4,750/- (H.C.) | 100 $ (H.C.)

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Copyright material
ii ii

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

We would like to acknowledge Professor Dr. Shyam K. Sah (AFU, Rampur), Professor Dr.
Jagat Lal Yadav (AFU, Rampur) and Professor Ramashish Sah (AFU, Rampur) for their
contribution in their respective major subjects Animal reproduction, Animal nutrition and
LPM respectively.
The authors feel the responsibility of presenting the pioneer handbook dealing with
livestock husbandry and trusts that error, omissions and criticism will be called to his
attention in order that later edition may be improved. Of course a multitude of issues are
not covered in the book and we welcome your input regarding topics for future tips.
Dr. Prabhakar Kumar Shah
B.V.Sc & A.H. (P.U.), M.V.Sc (Medicine, AFU)
Research Co-ordinator
29 September, 2016

Dr. Jibachha Sah


B.V.Sc & A.H., M.V.Sc (T.U.)
Laboratory Training, NDDB, Gujarat, India
Director

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

iii iii

Table of Contents

Abbreviations
ABD
:
ADB
:
AFU
:
APP
:
CBS
:
CPRs
:
DDC
:
DFTQC :
DLS
:
FAO
:
GDP
:
HACCP :
IFAD
:
INGO :
LMP
:
MAF
:
MoAD :
MoF
:
NARC :
NCBD :
NDDB :
NGO
:
NLBC :
OECD :
OIE
:

UNCED :
WTO
:

iv iv

Animal Breeding Division


Asian Development Bank
Agriculture and Forestry University
Agriculture Perspective Plan
Central Bureau of Statistics
Common Property Resources
Dairy Development Corporation
Department of Food Technology and Quality Control
Department of Livestock Services
Food and Agriculture Organization
Gross Domestic Product
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points
International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Non-governmental Organization
Land Management Plan
Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry
Ministry of Agriculture Development
Ministry of Finance
Nepal Agricultural Research Council
National Cooperative Development Board
National Dairy Development Board
Non-governmental organization
National Livestock Breeding Center
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
Office International des Epizooties
(World Organization for Animal Health)
United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
World Trade Organization

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Preface

iii

Abbreviations

iv

SECTION 1

1-134

Animal husbandry
1.1

History and introduction of animal husbandry

1.2

Importance of animal husbandry in Nepal

1.2.1

Role and specialization of working animal

1.3

Livestock population and production in Nepal (2009-2013/14)

1.4

Organizational structure of livestock service in Nepal

1.5

Scope of livestock production in Nepal

1.6

Role of livestock in Nepalese economy

1.7

The different native livestock breeds in Nepal

10

1.7.1

Characteristics of indigenous cattle breed

10

1.7.2

Characteristics of indigenous buffalo breed

11

1.8

Historical background of livestock development in Nepal

11

1.9

Constraints to livestock production in various-ecological zones in


Nepal

12

1.10

Major critical areas to improve production rate of livestock

13

1.11

Economic value of livestock farming

13

1.12

Livestock herding system in Nepal

15

1.12.1

Transhumant system

15

1.12.2

Sedentary system

15

1.12.3

Stall-fed system

16

1.13

Types of grazing system of livestock in Nepal

17

1.14

Constraints for livestock improvement

19

1.15

Strategies for livestock improvement

20

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

v v

1.16

Livestock feeding system in Nepal

20

1.16.1

Limitation associated with feeds and feeding

22

1.16.1

Constraints in animal production

22

1.35

Livestock population distribution and its role in Nepalese farming


system

60

1.36

Role of mixed crop-livestock farming systems for soil fertility in


Nepal

62

1.37

Strategies for sustainable management of livestock in mixed-crop


livestock farming systems

64

1.17

Economics of feeding dairy cow

22

1.18

Utilization of waste in animal feeding

24

1.18.1

Fruit waste as livestock feed

24

1.38

History of dairy development and dairy related institution in Nepal

66

1.18.2

Vegetable wastes as livestock feed

26

Dairy Development Policy (DDP) in Nepal

68

Impact of climate change in dairy cattle

1.39

28

1.40

Role of livestock as a tool for poverty reduction in Nepal

70

1.19.1

29

History of rangeland development in Nepal

71

Factor affecting health of animals

1.41

31

1.42

Rangeland and their types

72

1.20.1

Sign of good health in animal

31

1.43

Livestock marketing in the context of W.T.O. in Nepal

73

1.20.2

Sign of illness in animal

33

1.44

Trend of livestock development over the last decade in Nepal

75

1.19
1.20

Steps to counteract heat stress

1.21

Bio-diversity conservation in Nepal

34

Importance of integrated crop-livestock farming system in Nepal

Livestock service related act/rules in Nepal

79

1.22

1.45

36

1.46

80

1.22.1

Advantages of integrated farming

37

Constraints and opportunity for commercialization of goat and


buffalo meat sector in Nepal

1.22.2

Constraint of integrated farming

37

1.47

Policy and strategy on farm Animal Genetic Resource (AnGR) in


Nepal

83

1.48

Major constraint in rangeland conservation in Nepal

85

1.49

Indigenous grass species in Himalaya grassland of Nepal

86

1.50

Difference between Rangeland and Pastureland

87

1.51

Credit and insurance policy in livestock development in Nepal

88

1.51.1

90

1.23

Constraints of livestock technology adoption in the farmer's field

38

1.24

Major challenges in livestock research and development in Nepal

39

1.25

National and social implications of draught animal farming and


crop production in Nepal

40

1.26

Advantages of local cattle over crossbreeds or exotic cattle in


mountain farming systems

42

1.27

National Livestock policy in Nepal

42

1.28

Organic livestock farming opportunity and constraint in Nepal

45

1.29

Functions of national veterinary services in Nepal

48

1.30

Rangeland policy in Nepal

49

1.31

Factors influencing livestock productivity

50

1.32

Relation of livestock with agriculture, forestry and environment

53

1.33

Animal welfare and its implication in livestock industry in Nepal

55

1.34

Opportunities and constraints of increasing milk production and


productivity in Nepal

58

vi vi

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Constraint in livestock insurance policy implementation


in Nepal

1.52

Regulatory mechanism for quality improvement of the livestock


industry in Nepal

92

1.53

Economic value chain of goat meat production in Nepal

94

1.54

Scope of biogas in livestock farming

96

1.55

National priorities based on AnGR among animal species, breeds


in Nepal

98

1.56

Renewable energy and its application in the livestock industry of


Nepal

99

1.57

Pastoral practices in transition: Animal husbandry in high


mountain region in Nepal

100

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

viiiiv

1.58

Pastoral development and management in the himalayas region in


Nepal

104

1.58.1

Forage development through integrated management


planning

104

1.59

The roles of the public and private sectors in livestock services


delivery in Nepal

105

1.60

Livestock extension system in Nepal, their strength and weakness

108

1.61

Animal well-being and stress management

110

1.61.1

Importance of shade in stress management

112

1.61.2

Environmental parameters and their effects on immune


function

113

1.62

Rule, regulation and standard to establish feed industry in Nepal

115

1.63

Feed standard guide

116

1.64

Problems associated with buffalo farming in Nepal

117

1.65

Gender needs, roles, analysis, gender sensitive planning, gender


mainstreaming in livestock development

118

Outcomes, outputs and programs of Agriculture Development


Strategy (ADS) in Nepal

120

1.66.1

122

1.66

Indicator of ADS impact and livestock & fisheries program

1.67

Outline of the World Trade Organization (WTOs), Sanitary and


Phytosanitory (SPS) measures

122

1.68

Technical Barrier to Trade (TBT), Trade related aspects of


Intellectual Property Rights (IPRs) agreement

125

1.69

Introduction to OIE, its objectives, function, structure, standard


setting procedures and different standards as set in Terrestrial
Animal health code and Aquatic animal health code

126

1.70

Advantages of livestock models in translational medicine over


rodent models

128

1.71

Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management


in intensive livestock systems

129

1.72

Project design for the control of an infectious disease of farm


livestock

130

1.73

Breeding plan for goat increasing meat production

132

1.74

Critically assess of and suggest on the efficacy of "Pocket Package


Program" in the context of development of "Goat Resource
Center" in Nepal

133

viiiviii

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Section 2

Taxonomy of farm animals

135-146

2.1

Definition of Taxonomy

135

2.2

Zoological classification of farm animal

136

2.3

2.2.1

Characteristic of Bos indicus cattle

139

2.2.2

Difference between Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle

140

Definition of domestication

141

2.3.1

141

Characteristics of domestic animals

2.4

Difference between ruminant and non-ruminant

142

2.5

Indigenous and exotic livestock genotypes based on climatic


region in Nepal

143

2.6

Glossary of farm animal terms

145

Section 3

Anatomy and physiology of farm animals

147-258

3.1

Anatomical position for animals

148

3.2

Skeleton system

150

3.2.1

Articular system

152

3.2.2

Classification of bones

153

3.2.3

Bone types

157

3.2.4

Physiology of bone formation

157

3.2.5

Calcium homeostasis

159

3.2.6

Chemical composition of bones

161

3.2.7

Functions of bones

161

3.2.8

Bone marking

162

3.2.9

Difference between compact and cancellous bones

163

3.2.10

Dentition

164

3.3

Muscular system

165

3.3.1

Muscle and their main function

168

3.3.2

Sliding filament theory of contraction of skeletal muscles

169

3.3.3

Rigor mortis and muscle fatigue

171

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

ix xi

3.4

3.5
3.6
3.7

3.8

3.9

x x

3.3.4

Body cavities

171

3.9.6

Reflex

225

3.3.5

Body fluids

172

3.9.7

Cerebrospinal fluid

226

3.3.6

Diffusion and osmosis

172

3.3.7

Membranes and their types

3.3.8

Tissue, its kinds and basic histological structure

Circulatory system

227

173

3.10.1

Foetal circulation

228

174

3.10.2

Animal blood

229

Digestive system

180

3.10.2.1

231

3.4.1

Digestive system of ruminant

180

Normal complete blood count values for cattle, sheep


and goats

3.4.2

Digestive system of nonruminant

184

3.10.3

Avian blood

232

3.4.3

Introduction to peritoneum

190

3.10.4

Common sites for blood collection

233

3.4.4

Role of enzymes and hormones in digestive systems

191

3.10.5

Blood circulation (Pulmonary circulation and Systemic


circulation)

233

3.10.6

Blood coagulation

234

3.10.7

Blood pressure and pulse

235

3.10.8

Blood supply to the heart and conduction system

237

3.10.9

Blood vessels

238

3.10.10

Erythrocytes: formation, maturation and fate (Life span of


RBC)

239

Respiratory system

192

3.5.1

194

Avian respiration

Urinary system

195

3.6.1

198

Dietary electrolyte balance in cattle (DEB)

3.10

Reproductive system

199

3.7.1

Male reproductive organs and their function

199

3.7.2

Structure and function of the female reproductive system

202

3.10.11

Synthesis of hemoglobin

242

3.7.3

Structure and function of the bovine placenta

208

3.10.12

Immunity and defense mechanisms

242

3.7.4

Mammary gland

209

3.10.13

Leucocytes: formation, their classification, and role of


leucocytes in immunity

244

3.10.14

Thrombocytes: formation and fate

246

Endocrine system

214

3.8.1

Glands

215

3.8.2

Hormones

216

3.8.3

Endocrine glands of the body, hormones and their


physiological functions

218

Nervous system

220

3.9.1

Structure of Neuron

220

3.9.2

Functions of the nervous system

221

3.9.3

Central nervous system

3.9.4
3.9.5

3.11
3.12

248

3.11.1

249

Structure and functions of lymph nodes

Integumentary system

251

3.12.1

252

Skin and its appendages: structure and functions;


temperature regulation in animals and birds

Sensory system

254

221

3.13.1

Physiology of hearing and balance

255

Cranial nerves

223

3.13.2

Physiology of smell and taste

256

Physiology of nerve impulse (action potential)

224

3.13.3

Physiology of sight

258

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

3.13

Lymphatic system

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xi ix

Section 4

Animal genetics
4.1

4.2

4.3

259-306

4.12.1

Typical lethal factor associated condition in cattle

285

4.13

Sex chromosome

285

Cell structure

259

4.14

Heterozygous and homozygous

286

4.1.1

Animal cell

259

4.15

Difference between species and breed

286

4.1.2

Plant cell

263

4.16

Implantation

286

4.1.3

Difference between animal cell and plant cell

263

4.17

Multiple alleles

286

Cell division

264

4.18

Linkage and crossing over

287

4.2.1

Mitosis

264

4.19

Sex determination system

287

4.2.2

Meiosis

266

4.20

Structural chromosomal aberrations

289

4.2.3

Difference between mitosis and meiosis

269

4.21

Difference between qualitative and quantitative inheritance

291

4.2.4

Difference between cell and tissue

270

4.22

Sex influenced and sex limited characters

292

270

4.23

Hardy-Weinberg law

292

272

4.24

Gene interaction, epistasis and multiple alleles

293

Mutation
4.3.1

General characters of mutation

4.4

Traits

273

4.25

Cytoplasmic inheritance

293

4.5

Genetic variability and its causes

273

4.26

293

4.5.1

Causes of genetic variability

273

Definition of Chromosomal: deletion, duplication, inversion and


translocation

4.5.2

Factors that decrease genetic variability

274

4.27

Chromosomal inversion and translocation

293

4.5.3

Genetic response and factors affecting genetic response

275

4.28

Difference between a mutation and a mutagen

294

4.5.4

Different types of genetic evaluation

275

4.29

Genetic environment interactions and genetic environment


correlations

294

4.30

Difference between mutagenic and teratogenic substance

296

4.31

Definition of monohybrid, dihybrid and polyhybrid

296

4.32

Factors affecting genetic change

297

4.33

Difference between dominant and recessive genes

297

4.34

Genetic aspects of reproduction traits

298

4.35

Undesirable recessive traits in dairy cattle

298

4.36

Description of Mendel's hybridization experiments-monohybrid


and dihybrid crosses

299

4.6

Phenotype

277

4.7

Phenotypic variation

278

4.8

Genotype

279

4.8.1

Difference between genotype and phenotype

279

4.9

Gene

279

4.10

Heredity

280

4.10.1

4.11

4.12
xiixii

Types of heredity

281

Mendelian law

281

4.11.1

Law of Segregation (the "First Law")

282

4.37

Genetic recombination and segregation

302

4.11.2

Law of Independent Assortment (the "Second Law")

283

4.38

Total performance index (TPI)

302

4.11.3

Law of Dominance (the "Third Law")

284

4.39

Jersey performance index (JPI)

303

284

4.40

Difference between a gene, an allele and a chromosome

303

Lethal factor
Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xiiiiiix

4.41

Comparison between an allele and a gene

304

5.3.3

Variability of the trait

325

4.42

Difference between allele and locus

304

5.3.4

Correlated traits

325

4.43

Difference between additive and non-additive genetic patterns

304

5.3.5

Adaptation traits

326

4.44

Difference between genetic value and breeding value

304

5.4

Factors affecting breeding efficiency

326

4.45

Why do forensic labs analyze non-coding DNA and not genes?

305

5.5

Breeding system

327

4.46

Why do DNA fingerprints analyze non-coding DNA and not


genes?

305

5.5.1

Inbreeding

327

4.47

Glossary of genetic terms

305

5.5.2

Outcrossing

327

5.5.3

Crossbreeding systems

328

5.5.4

Terminal crossing

329

307-376

5.5.5

Rotational crossing

329

Animal breeding policy in Nepal

5.5.6

Roto-terminal crossing

329

307

5.5.7

Grading up

329

5.1.1

Breeding policy: 2055, For cattle and buffalo

309

5.5.8

Linebreeding

330

5.1.2

Implementation constraint of animal breeding in Nepal

310

5.5.9

Hybrid vigor

330

5.1.3

Traits of economic importance of cattle in Nepal

311

5.5.10

Cloning

330

5.1.4

Economic traits of buffalo in Nepal

313

5.5.11

Formation of a gene pool

331

Section 5

Animal breeding
5.1

5.2

5.3

xivxiv

Selection methods

314

5.2.1

Performance testing

314

5.2.2

Pedigree selection

315

5.2.3

Progeny testing

315

5.2.3.1

Precaution needed for effective progeny testing program

316

5.8

Principles of mating systems

334

5.2.4

Show ring selection

316

5.9

Definition, scope and importance of biotechnology

335

5.2.5

Tandem selection

317

5.9.1

337

5.2.6

Different steps of a selection programme

318

5.2.7

Selection, selection response, selection limit, selection


differential

318

5.2.8

Methods and basis of selection

319

5.12

5.2.9

Factors influencing the effects of selection

321

5.13

5.2.10

Gene action, additive and nonadditive

322

5.6
5.7

5.10
5.11

Choosing traits for selection

322

5.14

5.3.1

Selection goals

323

5.15

5.3.2

Heritability

323

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Heritability

331

5.6.1

332

Concept of repeatability

Constraint of animal genetics conservation in Nepal

332

5.7.1

333

Method of genetic resource conservation in animal

Application of biotechnology tools in animal


improvement

In vitro fertilization, cloning and genetic marker technology


Reproduction parameters in dairy cattle
Hormone and heat synchronization using hormone
Endangered livestock of Nepal, long-term plan for their
conservation
Principle of animal breeding
Measure of breeding efficiency

341

5.15.1

349

Factor affecting breeding efficiency

342
342
344
346
348

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xvvx

5.15.2

Captive breeding, their purpose, importance and risk

350

Section 6

377-400

5.16

Heritability and repeatability estimates for reproductive trait in cow

351

5.17

Breeding values, measure of genetic and phenotypic relationships

Breed of cattle & buffalo

353

6.1

Nepalese indigenous cattle breeds

377

5.18

Calculating estimated breeding value

353

6.2

Yak & Chauri

381

5.19

Conservation (ex-situ / in-situ) and management of genetic


resources in Nepal

355

6.3

Indian milk cattle breed

383

5.20

Selection of elite bull through breeding plan

358

6.3.1

Milch breeds/Milk breeds

383

5.21

Open nucleus breeding scheme

359

6.3.2

Dual purpose breeds

385

5.22

Estimation of breeding values of dairy cow

360

6.3.3

Draught breeds

389

5.23

Animal behaviour and its importance

361

5.24

Variation and causes of variation, important of heredity and


environment

363

5.25

Animal breeding, importance and its scope in livestock


improvement

364

5.25.1

Objective of animal breeding

365

Animal reproduction

5.25.2

Selection of breeding male for natural service

365

7.1

Different types of reproductive hormones and their functions

401

5.25.3

Management of bull

367

7.2

The Estrous cycle

409

7.3

Heat detection

410

7.3.1

411

5.26

Model for upgrading of local cattle by use of frozen semen and a


nucleus breed unit

368

5.27

Advantages of using artificial insemination (AI) in livestock


breeding program

368

5.28

Genetic parameters for the selection of poultry maintained for


different purposes

369

5.29

Breeding plan for avoiding inbreeding in sheep/goat

5.30

Exotic dairy breeds

391

6.5

Nepalese indigenous buffaloes breeds

395

6.6

Indian buffalo breeds

397

Section 7

401-480

Estrous synchronization

7.4

The role of the male in reproduction

412

7.5

Sign of heat

413

7.6

Heat detection efficiency equations

417

369

7.6.1

Percentage of possible heats detected

417

Breeding plan for genetic improvement of sheep/goat

370

7.6.2

Percentage of breedable heats detected

417

5.30.1

Individual flocks

370

7.7

Heat detection index

418

5.30.2

Group flocks

371

7.8

Ovulation

419

5.30.2.1

Selection in group breeding schemes

371

5.31

Breeding management of sheep and goat

372

5.32

Relative significance to a selection program of sex limited, sex


influenced and sex linked traits

373

5.33

Breeding management of pig

5.34

Terminology used in breeding program

xvixvi

6.4

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

7.8.1

7.10

Ovulation period

Puberty

419
420

7.10.1

Puberty in the female

421

7.10.2

Puberty in the male

422

374

7.10.3

Age of Puberty

422

375

7.10.4

Factors affecting the attainment of puberty

422

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xvii
iivx

7.11

Spermatogenesis

424

7.22.1

Artificial vagina (AV) method

456

7.11.1

Difference between Spermatogenesis and Spermiogenesis

424

7.22.2

Electro-ejaculation

459

7.11.2

Morphology of spermatozoa

425

7.22.3

Semen evaluation method

460

7.11.3

Semen abnormality related terms

426

7.22.3.1

Determining sperm numbers with a hemocytometer

462

7.11.4

Average semen volume in different animals

427

7.23

Factor affecting libido and semen quality in breeding bull

463

7.12

Gametogenesis

427

7.24

Factor affecting survival of spermatozoa

466

7.13

Fertilization

427

7.25

Factor affecting fertility during artificial insemination in cow

467

7.14

Gestation period

430

7.26

Embryo transfer (ET)

469

7.14.1

432

7.27

Factor affecting repeat breeding in cattle and their remedial


measure

470

7.28

Anoestrus in cattle, cause and remedial measure

472

7.29

Cystic ovarian disease (COD) in cattle

476

7.30

Glossary of reproductive terms

479

7.15

7.16

Abnormality during the pregnancy and prenatal period

Pregnancy diagnosis

436

7.15.1

Method of pregnancy diagnosis

436

7.15.2

Steps of rectal palpation in cattle

437

7.15.3

Modern technique for pregnancy diagnosis

440

Parturition

440

7.16.1

Stages of parturition

441

7.16.2

Role of hormone in parturition

443

7.16.3

Twinning

446

Section 8

481-610

Animal nutrition
8.1

Composition and classification of feedstuff

481

7.19

Retained placenta

446

8.1.1

Carbohydrate

481

7.20

Postpartum recovery

447

8.1.1.1

Carbohydrates classification

482

7.21

Artificial insemination

449

8.1.1.2

Properties of carbohydrates

483

7.21.1

Advantage and disadvantage of AI

449

8.1.1.3

Structure of carbohydrates

484

7.21.2

Artificial equipments

450

8.1.1.4

Functions of carbohydrates

485

7.21.3

Artificial insemination technique

451

8.1.1.5

Types of carbohydrates

485

7.21.3.1

Thawing of semen

451

8.1.2

Proteins

487

7.21.3.2

Loading the Al gun

451

8.1.2.1

Characteristics of proteins

488

7.21.3.3

Inseminating the cow

452

8.1.2.2

Properties of proteins

488

7.21.3.4

Artificial Insemination timing in cattle

454

8.1.2.3

Protein classification

489

7.21.3.5

Cow artificial insemination record

455

8.1.2.4

Structure of proteins

491

7.21.3.6

Advantage of AI over natural breeding

455

8.1.2.5

Function of proteins

493

7.21.3.7

Conception rate

455

8.1.2.6

Types of proteins

493

456

8.1.3

Amino acid

494

7.22
xviii
xviii

Semen collection
Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xixxix

8.2

xxxx

8.1.3.1

General properties of amino acids

494

8.2.10

Difference between concentrate and roughages

542

8.1.3.2

Functions ofamino acids

495

8.2.11

Difference between concentrate & non-roughage

542

8.1.3.3

Classification of amino acids

496

8.2.12

Energy rich feed ingredients

543

8.1.3.4

Structure of amino acid

496

8.2.13

Protein rich feed ingredients

543

8.1.4

Lipids

501

8.2.14

Difference between essential and non essential nutrients

544

8.1.4.1

Characteristics of lipids

501

8.2.15

545

8.1.4.2

Types of lipids

502

Feed additive and group of feed additive used in animal


feed

8.1.4.3

Structure of lipids

504

8.2.16

546

8.1.4.4

Function of lipids

504

Difference between feed supplement and feed


additives

8.1.5

Minerals

506

8.2.17

Feed additives and their benefit

546

8.1.5.1

Classification of minerals

506

8.2.18

Protein sources in cattle feeding

547

8.1.5.2

General function

506

8.2.19

Energy source in cattle feeding

548

8.1.5.3

Macroelements

507

8.2.20

Ration formulation for a cow weighing 450 kg and


producing 20 kg/day of milk (4% butter fat)

548

8.1.5.4

Microelements

510

8.2.21

Usage molasses for livestock

550

8.1.6

Vitamins

515

8.1.6.1

Water-soluble vitamins

8.1.6.2

Fat-soluble vitamins

Classification of nutrients

552

516

8.3.1

Water

552

527

8.3.2

Carbohydrates (CHO)

554

Formulation of ration

533

8.3.3

Fats

555

8.2.1

Types of ration

533

8.3.4

Proteins

556

8.2.2

Feeding standards

534

8.3.5

Minerals

557

8.2.3

Desirable characteristics of a good ration

535

8.3.6

Vitamins

560

8.2.4

Thumb rules of feeding cattle, buffaloes, sheep and goat

536

8.2.5

Principles of ration formulation for different classes of


animals

537

8.2.6

Method of ration formulation

537

8.2.6.1

Pearson square method

537

8.2.6.2

Trial and error method

538

8.2.6.3

Linear programming (LP) method

539

8.2.7

Formulation of milk replacer and calf starter

539

8.2.8

Classification of concentrate

541

8.2.9

Classification of roughage

541

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

8.3

8.4

8.5

Enzyme

562

8.4.1

Characteristics of enzymes

562

8.4.2

Classification of enzyme

563

8.4.3

Structure of enzymes

564

8.4.4

Function of enzymes

564

Feed analysis

566

8.5.1

Proximate analysis

566

8.5.2

Crude protein determination in feed and forages

567

8.5.2.1

Macro-Kjeldahl method

567

8.5.3

Detergent fiber analysis

570

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxiixx

8.6

8.7

8.5.4

Measuring the dry matter content of forages

571

8.21

Difference between true protein and urea

608

8.5.4.1

Hand squeeze method

571

8.22

608

8.5.4.2

Microwave method

572

Definition of TDN (Total digestive nutrition) system and their


advantage and disadvantage

8.5.5

Determine yield of forages

573

8.23

608

8.5.6

Classification of feed

575

Partitioning and repartitioning agents and their uses in animal


feeding

8.24

Compare and contrast the three types of nitrogenous waste

609

8.25

Rumen degradable, undegradable and metabolizable protein

610

8.26

Role of enzyme in poultry diets

610

Energy

577

8.6.1

Basic units of energy

577

8.6.2

Measures of energy and energy utilization

578

Use of urea (NPN) in ruminant feed

580

8.7.1

Factors affecting the use of NPN sources as ruminant feed

580

8.7.2

Use of NPN and bypass protein in ruminant diets

581

8.7.3

Constraints to application of the bypass protein


technology

581

8.7.4

Methods to improve the nutritive value of rice straw

8.7.5

Section 9

Dairy farm management


9.1

611-712

Housing system management of cattle and buffalo

611

9.1.1

Selection of site for farm building

611

582

9.1.2

Factors to be considered while designing a livestock farm

612

Method of urea treatment

584

9.1.3

613

8.7.6

Practical guidelines for use of rice straw as ruminant feed

584

Designing the animal building for production and


product control

8.7.7

NPN compound and mechanism of NPN utilization in


ruminant

585

9.1.4

Housing system

614

9.1.5

Dairy cow building

615

8.8

Feed source available for livestock in Nepal

586

9.1.5.1

Milking barn or parlour

618

8.9

Feeding balance concentrate mixure for cattle

587

9.1.5.2

Floor space requirements

618

8.10

Factor affecting digestibility intake

588

9.1.5.3

Feeding and watering space requirements

618

8.11

Anti-nutritional factor in feedstuff

589

9.1.5.4

Dimensions of feed manger

619

8.12

Digestion in nonruminant

592

9.1.6

Cleaning and sanitation of dairy farm

619

8.13

Digestions in ruminant

596

8.14

Total mixed ration (TMR)


8.14.1

Guidelines for nutrient concentrations in TMRs

9.2

Calf pen house for young stock

621

602

9.2.1

Feeding

623

603

9.2.2

Feeding dairy cattle and buffalo

623

9.2.3

Daily nutrient requirements for maintenance, pregnancy


and lactation for cattle and buffalo

624

9.2.4

Nutrient requirements of pre-ruminant cattle and buffalo


calves

625

8.15

UMB (Urea molasses block) preparation

605

8.16

Difference between starch equivalence and net energy

606

8.17

Difference between digestible energy and metabolizable energy

607

8.18

Difference between fecal energy and energy partitioning

607

8.19

Difference between anabolism and catabolism

9.2.5

Daily nutrient requirement for growing dairy animals

626

607

8.20

Difference between calorie and heat increment

9.2.6

Feeding dairy calves

629

607

xxii
xxii

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxiii
iiixx

Restraint of farm animals

669

630

9.16.1

Rope squeeze

671

Feeding schedule (g) for calves up to three months of age

632

9.16.2

Burley method

672

9.2.6.4

Example of the growth production ration for a 200 kg


animal

634

9.2.6.5

Feeding dry calf starters and roughages

634

9.2.6.6

Ration schedule for dairy animals from three months to


maturity

634

9.2.7

Calves deworming and vaccination program

636

9.2.6.1

Feeding dairy calves from birth to three months

629

9.2.6.2

Feeding dairy calves from three months to maturity

9.2.6.3

9.3

Feeding dairy cows

637

9.4

Feeding dry cows

639

9.5

Feeding for reproduction

639

9.6

Care and management of pregnant animals

640

9.6.1

640

Steaming up

9.7

Care and management of cow after parturition

641

9.8

Care and management of lactating animals

643

9.9

Care and management of work bullocks

644

9.10

Care and management of breeding bull

645

9.11

Care and management of calf

646

9.11.1

Colostrum feeding

648

9.11.2

Creep feeding

650

9.11.3

Milk replacer

650

9.11.4

Weaning of calf

651

9.11.5

Calf health

651

9.12

Care and management of heifer

652

9.13

Feeding systems of dairy cattle

654

9.14

Cattle age determination

657

9.14.1

Teeth method

657

9.14.2

Horn method

663

9.14.3

Tail brush method

663

9.15

xxiv
xxiv

Farm animal identification

663

9.15.1

668

Advantage of identification

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

9.16

9.17

9.18

Castrations

675

9.17.1

Banding method

675

9.17.2

Burdizzo method

677

9.17.3

Surgical castration

679

BCS (Body condition score)

681

9.18.1

System of body condition scoring in dairy cattle

681

9.18.2

Economic characters in dairy cattle

683

9.19

Basic farm recording system

684

9.20

Vaccination schedule

687

9.21

Dehorning/disbudding

688

9.21.1

Electric or butane hot dehorning

688

9.21.2

Chemical method

689

9.22

Drenching

690

9.23

Ringing

691

9.24

Animal behavior

692

9.24.1

Feeding behavior

693

9.24.2

Breeding behavior

693

9.24.3

Behaviour during sick

694

9.24.4

Excite by seeing strangers

694

9.24.5

Abnormal behaviours

694

9.24.6

Maternal-offspring behaviour

694

9.24.7

Resting behaviour

695

9.25

Common vices of dairy animals

695

9.26

Hoof trimming

700

9.27

Culling of Animals

704

9.28

Milking method

705

9.29

Farm waste by-product management

708

9.30

Poultry waste management

710

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxvvxx

Section 10

Forage and fodder


10.1

713-806

10.12

743

10.12.1

745

Silvipasture

Conservation of fodder/forage

745

713

10.13.1

Hay

746

Fodder

714

10.13.2

Silage

747

10.1.3

Difference between fodder and forage crop

715

10.14

Plant poisoning in pasture and their management

753

10.1.4

Salient features of forage crops

715

10.15

Strategies for pasture/rangeland improvement in Nepal

755

10.1.5

Limitations/constraints of forage crops production

716

10.15.1

Type of rangelands according to the ecological belt in Nepal

756

10.1.6

Important characteristics of good forage crop

716

10.15.2

Constraint (Problems) in improvement

756

10.1.7

Important characteristics of good fodder crop

716

10.15.3

Importance of rangelands/grassland

758

Classification of grass

713

10.1.1

Forage

10.1.2

10.13

Agroforestry and silvipasture system and its importance in Nepal

10.2

Classification of forage crops

717

10.16

Factors affecting the nutritive value of range forage

759

10.3

Importance and scope of fodder production in Nepal

719

10.17

Factors affecting forage intake by range ruminants

762

10.4

Constraints/limitation of fodder production

720

10.18

Definition of annual and perennial forage

763

10.5

Imortance of fibre for rumen health

721

10.19

Difference between legumes and grasses

764

10.6

Factor affecting the chemical composition of fodder/forages

722

10.20

Difference between annuals, biennial and perennial grass

764

10.7

Classification of feedstuff

724

10.21

Common annual legumes and their cultivation

765

10.7.1

725

10.21.1

Berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum)

765

Feed resources in Nepal

10.8

Types of forage

726

10.21.2

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

766

10.9

Role of NGO's, INGOs and NARC in the pasture/range


development in Nepal

727

10.21.3

Lucerne (Medicago sativa)

766

10.10

Major limitations and constraints in forage seed production in


Nepal

10.21.4

Stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis)

767

729

10.21.5

Soybean (Glycine max)

767

10.11

Fodder tree

730

10.21.6

Bean (Lablab purpureus)

768

10.11.1

Types of fodder

730

10.21.7

Vetch (Vicia sativa)

769

10.11.2

Fodder trees and their lopping cycle in Nepal

731

10.21.8

Kudzu (Pueraria lobata)

770

10.11.3

Estimated foliage production of fodder trees

733

10.21.9

Centro (Centrosema pubescens)

771

10.11.4

Nutritive value of some species of fodder tree leaves from


the mid-hills of Nepal

735

10.11.5

Recommended grass/legumes for the hills

10.11.6

xxvi
xxvi

10.22

Common annual cereal fodder and their cultivation

772

10.22.1

Oat (Avena sativa)

772

737

10.22.2

Sorgum (Sorghum bicolor)

773

Importance of fodder tree species in Nepal

738

10.22.3

Maize (Zea mays)

773

10.11.7

Indigenous fodder tree species

738

10.22.4

Teosinte (Mexican teosinte)

774

10.11.8

Exotic fodder tree species

740

10.22.5

Bajra (Pennisetum glaucum)

774

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxvii
iivxx

10.22.6

10.23

Deenanath (Pennisetum pedicellatum)

Common annual cereal grass and their cultivation

775

10.44

Major pet forage species for intensive use in Nepal

804

776

10.45

Glossary related to forage and fodder

805

10.23.1

Napier (Pennisetum purpureum)

776

10.23.2

Guinea grass (Panicum maximum)

776

10.23.3

Para grass(Brachiaria mutica)

777

Goat

10.23.4

Blue buffelgrass

778

11.1

Taxonomy

807

10.23.5

Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana)

778

11.2

Economic importance of goat farming in Nepal

807

10.23.6

Blue panic (Panicum antidotale)

779

11.2.1

Scope of goat farming

808

10.23.7

Molasses (Melinis minutiflora)

779

11.2.2

Constraint of goat farming

810

10.23.8

Paspalum (Paspalum dilatatum)

780

11.2.3

Reasons for preference of goat over sheep or large


ruminants in Nepal

810

Section 11

807-866

10.24

Cultivation of fodder crops on marginal lands and terrace risers

781

10.25

Role of community forest in livestock development

782

11.2.4

Points to be considered during goat farm construction

810

10.26

Factor affecting natural grassland productivity in Nepal

783

11.2.5

Advantages of goat farming/utility of goats

811

10.27

Method of pasture and range development

784

11.2.6

Twelve steps for starting goat farming

812

10.28

Government policy and program for pasture development in Nepal

785

11.2.7

Difference between sheep and goat

813

10.29

Scope of forage and pasture seed production in Nepal

787

10.30

Managing the terai grassland in Nepal

10.31

Indigenous goat breeds of Nepal

813

789

11.3.1

Growth characteristics of indigenous goat breeds

817

Principle of grass seed production

790

11.3.2

Reproductive parameters of indigenous goat breeds

817

10.32

Tree for fodder and fuel in Nepal

791

10.33

Problem affecting pasture and rangeland management in


Himalayan region of Nepal

793

10.34

Khoriya (Shifting) cultivation and their useful in livestock farming


system in Nepal

794

10.35

Nursery management of fodder tree species

795

10.36

Quality management of seed and methods of estimation

797

10.37

Definition of stratification, inoculation and scarification of seed

799

10.38

Method of seed inoculation

799

10.39

Propagation of fodder trees and its importance

801

10.40

Importance of fodder trees and shrubs for livestock and farmers

802

10.41

Estimation of crop carrying capacity

802

10.42

Differences between manure and fertilizers

803

10.43

Differences between mixed cropping and intercropping

804

xxviii Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry


xxviii

11.3

11.4

Exotic goat breed

818

11.5

Goat management

824

11.5.1

Managing a pregnant doe

824

11.5.2

Housing management

824

11.5.3

Grazing system

827

11.5.4

Feeding management

829

11.5.5

Creep ration

832

11.5.6

Flushing ration

832

11.6

Identification of goat

833

11.7

Castration

836

11.7.1

Surgical method

836

11.7.2

Burdizzo (Emasculatome) method

836

11.7.3

Elastrator method

837

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxix
xixx

11.8

Dipping

838

12.3.1

Advantage of sheep farming

870

11.9

Vaccination

840

12.3.2

Constraint of sheep farming in Nepal

871

11.10

Breeding

840

12.4

Indigenous sheep breeds of Nepal

871

843

12.5

Exotic sheep breed

875

11.10.1

Breeding method

11.11

Artificial insemination in goat

847

12.6

Feeds

878

11.12

Effect of photoperiod controlling reproductive seasonality in sheep


and goats

853

12.7

Factors affecting wool quality and quantity

884

11.13

Deworming

854

12.8

Physical and chemical properties of wool

885

11.14

Goat marketing channel in different ecozone of Nepal

855

12.9

Difference between fur, wool and hair

886

11.15

Internal parasites of goat & sheep

856

12.10

Daily water requirements

887

11.16

External parasites of goat & sheep

857

12.11

Shearing

887

11.16.1

Ticks

857

12.12

Effect of external parasites on sheep

892

11.16.2

Lice

858

11.16.3

Sheep ked (ticks)

859

11.16.4

Mange/Mites

859

11.16.5

Fleas

860

11.17

Benefits of goat milk over cow milk

861

11.18

Method of body condition scoring of sheep and goats

862

11.18.1

Lumbar region

862

11.18.2

Rib cage

862

11.18.3

Sternum

862

11.19

Good characteristics of disinfectants/antiseptic

865

11.20

Sheep/Goat manure management

866

11.21

Biosecurity measure in sheep/goat farm

866

Section 12

867-892

Sheep
12.1

Taxonomy
12.1.1

867
Anatomy of sheep

868

12.2

History of sheep farming in Nepal

869

12.3

Importance of sheep farming in Nepal

870

xxxxxx

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

Section 13

893-918

Horse
13.1

Taxonomy

893

13.2

Horse breed

893

13.2.1

895

Some popular breeds of horses

13.3

Identification of horse

895

13.4

Horse marking

896

13.5

Restraint of horse

897

13.5.1

898

Physical restraint

13.6

Dentition

900

13.7

Weight measurement

900

13.8

Importance of horse

901

13.9

Categories of horse breed

902

13.10

Management of pregnant mares and foals

903

13.11

Breeding season of horses, estrus cycle in mares and breeding time

905

13.12

Feeding horses

907

13.13

Standards for the housing and care of horses

911

13.14

Method of selection of horse

913

13.15

Use of horse/mule in Nepal

914

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxxi
ixxx

13.16

Difference between horse and mule

915

14.11.5

ISI specifications in diet for chicken

958

13.17

Selection criteria of horse and mules

915

14.11.6

Practical levels of nutrients in the diet of chicken

959

13.18

Advantages of spaying and castrating horses

916

14.11.7

Practical levels of amino acids in the diet of chicken

960

13.19

Lameness in horse and their types

916

14.11.8

Mineral sources and their mineral contents

961

13.20

Glossary of horse related terms

918

14.11.9

Maximum level of inclusion of feed ingredients in


poultry diets

962

Section 14

919-992

Poultry
14.1

Introduction and anatomy

919

14.2

Taxonomy

920

14.3

Importance of poultry and poultry products

920

14.4

Scope of poultry production in Nepal

922

14.5

Constraint in poultry production in Nepal

923

14.6

Importance of chicken meat

923

14.7

External and internal body parts of a chicken

925

14.7.1

Parts of digestive system of a chicken

925

14.7.2

Reproductive organ of chicken

927

14.7.3

Formation of egg shell

928

14.8

Indigenous poultry breeds of Nepal

929

14.9

Exotic poultry breed class

930

14.9.1

American class

930

14.9.2

Asiatic class

933

14.9.3

English class

935

14.9.4

Mediterranean class

939

14.10
14.11

xxxii
xxxii

System of poultry rearing

940

14.10.1

945

Construction of chicken house

Feeding

946

14.11.1

Vitamins and trace minerals

946

14.11.2

Broiler feed

947

14.11.3

Layers feed

947

14.11.4

Feed composition

950

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

14.12

Watering
14.12.1

964
Drinking-water quality

965

14.13

Hatchery management

966

14.14

Sex identification of chicks

968

14.15

Chicks management

969

14.15.1

971

14.16

Brooding temperature

Layers management

972

14.16.1

Selection of good layers

972

14.16.2

Egg shell deformities

974

14.16.3

Egg shell structure

975

14.17

Moulting

976

14.18

Artificial Insemination (AI) in bird

980

14.18.1

Semen collection

981

14.18.2

Technique of AI in bird

982

14.19

Effects of photoperiod on poultry performance and immune


system

982

14.20

Poultry farm management

983

14.21

Disease control

984

14.21.1

Biosecurity and eradication

984

14.21.2

Internal parasites

986

14.21.3

External parasites

987

14.22

Vaccination schedule

988

14.22.1

Vaccine handling and storage

988

14.22.2

Vaccination procedure guide

989

14.23

Major poultry diseases symptoms, transmission and treatment

990

14.24

Poultry related glossary of term

992

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry xxxiii


iiixxx

Section 15

993-1040

Pig

Identification of oestrus

1026

15.16.2

Timing of AI & method

1027

Pig management

1028

994

15.17.1

Pig castration

1028

Economic importance of pig

995

15.17.2

Pig identification

1029

15.4

Constraints in piggery development in Nepal

996

15.17.2.1 Tagging

1029

15.5

Starting pig farming in Nepal

997

15.17.2.2 Notching

1030

15.6

Indigenous pig breeds of Nepal

999

15.17.2.3 Tattooing

1034

15.7

Exotic pig breed

1004

15.17.2.4 Recording

1036

15.8

Comparison between native and exotic breed of pig

1007

Health management

1037

15.8.1

1007

15.18.1

Vaccination

1037

15.18.2

Deworming

1037

15.1

Taxonomy

993

15.2

Advantage of pig farming

15.3

Production performance of indigenous and commercial


pig breeds

15.9

Pig rearing system in Nepal

1007

15.10

Site selection for pig housing

1009

15.11

Pig housing

1010

15.12

Feeding

1013

15.12.1

Feed and water requirement for pigs

1013

15.12.2

Diets for sow gestation and lactation

1014

15.12.3

Dietary nutrient requirements of growing pigs allowed ad


lib feed (90% dry matter)

1015

15.12.4

Formulation of swine feed rations using the Pearson


square method

1017

15.13

Factors influencing nutrient requirements in pigs

1018

15.14

Breeding

1020

15.15

Selection of gilt

1021

15.15.1

Criteria for herd replacement

1021

15.15.2

Breeding gilt

1022

15.15.3

Swine gestation table (115 Days), if bred Jan 1April 30

1022

15.15.4

Swine gestation table (115 Days), if bred May 1August 31

1023

15.15.5

Swine gestation table (115 Days), if bred September 1


December 31

1024

15.16

Artificial insemination

xxxiv Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry


xxxiv

1026

15.17

15.16.1

15.18

15.19

Marketing channel of live pig and pork meat in Nepal

1039

15.20

Pig farming terminology

1039

Section 16

1041-1062

Rabbit
16.1

Introduction

1041

16.2

Taxonomy

1041

16.3

Body part of rabbit

1042

16.4

Scope for rabbit farming and it's national importance

1043

16.5

The advantages of rabbit farming

1044

16.6

Limitation of rabbit farming

1044

16.7

Major breed of rabbit

1045

16.8

Sexing of rabbit

1046

16.9

Handling and restraint of rabbits

1047

16.10

Housing

1048

16.11

Feeding

1049

16.12

Breeding

1050

16.13

Behavior

1050

16.14

Estrus cycle and breeding time

1051

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

xxxv
vxxx

16.15

Economic importance of rabbit production

1053

17.13

Characteristics of brood fish

1077

16.16

Major diseases of rabbits, their prevention and treatment

1054

17.14

Differentiation of male and female brood fish

1077

16.16.1

Snuffles

1054

17.15

Difference between monoculture and polyculture fish farming

1078

16.16.2

Overgrown teeth

1055

17.16

Calculating fertilization rate, hatching rate and fry survival rate

1078

16.16.3

Hairballs (Trichobezoars)

1055

17.17

Importance of water quality in fish culture

1079

16.16.4

Uterine tumours

1056

17.18

Types of net used in aquaculture

1080

16.16.5

Myxomatosis

1056

17.19

Improved fodder grass used in grass carp

1081

16.16.6

Calicivirus

1056

17.20

Hormones used in brood fish

1081

16.16.7

Coccidiosis

1057

17.21

Liming fish pond

1081

16.16.8

Ear mites

1057

17.22

Harvesting methods of fish from pond

1082

16.17

Slaughtering and skinning techniques of rabbits

1058

17.23

Gillnet

1084

16.18

Techniques of preparing rabbit houses (hutch)

1060

17.24

Integrated fish culture

1084

16.19

Techniques of preparing rabbit feed

1061

17.25

Effect of pH and temperature on pond water

1085

16.20

Glossary of rabbit

1061

17.26

Diseases of fish

1086

17.26.1

Common parasitic diseases

1086

17.26.1.1 Protistan parasites of fishes

1086

17.26.1.2 Common metazoan parasites of fishes

1087

Section 17

1063-1094

Fisheries
17.1

Taxonomy

1063

17.26.2

Common fungal diseases

1090

17.2

Differentiation between fish culture and aquaculture

1063

17.26.3

Common bacterial diseases

1091

17.3

History of fish farming in Nepal

1064

17.27

Fodder grasses used for fish in Nepal

1092

17.4

Scope of fish culture in Nepal

1064

17.28

Methods of dead fish's preservation

1092

17.5

Economic importance of fish

1064

17.29

Importance of artificial breeding (AI) in aquaculture

1093

17.6

Fish farming system in Nepal

1065

17.30

Glossary of fish term

1094

17.7

Anatomy of fish and their function

1066

17.8

Select site for fish farming

1067

17.9

Types of fish pond

1069

17.10

Types of water quality in fish pond

1070

17.11

Different types of fresh water fishes

17.12

Section 18

1095-1152

Dairy production
Milk production in Nepal

1095

1070

18.1.1

Scope of milk production in Nepal

1096

Common fish species found in Nepal

1072

18.1.2

Constraint in milk production in Nepal

1096

17.12.1

Indigenous fish

1072

18.1.3

Exotic species

1074

Strategic measures to reduce dependence on imported


milk in Nepal

1097

17.12.2

xxxvi Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry


xxxvi

18.1

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry xxxvii


iivxxx

18.2
18.3

Clean milk production

1101

18.2.1

1102

Milk
18.3.1

18.4

Steps in clean milk production

1103
The composition of milk

1103

Dairy products preparation

1104

18.4.1

Butter

1104

18.4.2

Dahi (Curd)

1108

18.4.3

Cheese

1109

18.4.4

Ice cream

1111

18.4.5

Khoa

1113

18.4.6

Paneer

1114

18.4.7

Kulfi

1116

18.5

Nepalese standardization of milk

1117

18.6

Factors affecting the milk composition and its quality

1119

18.7

Theory of milk secretion

1120

18.8

Method of pasteurization

1120

18.9

Milk processing

18.10

18.14.4

Determination of S.N.F. (Solid Not Fat) and total solids of


milk

1141

18.15

Bacterial test in milk

1143

18.16

Commonly used dairy sanitizers in dairy plant

1144

18.17

Use of detergents and sanitizers in dairy industry

1145

18.18

Procedure for cleaning and sanitizing of dairy utensils

1147

18.19

Difference between true protein and crude protein

1148

18.20

Milk marketing definitions

1148

18.21

Adulteration test in milk

1149

18.22

Milk borne disease

1150

Section 19

1153-1166

Dog & Cat


19.1

Introduction

1153

19.2

Dog and Cat breed

1153

19.3

Dog and cat breeding

1155

1121

19.3.1

Estrus cycle and mating in dogs

1155

Physicochemical properties of milk

1122

19.3.2

Estrus cycle and mating in cats

1156

18.11

Flavours and off flavours of milk

1123

19.3.3

Care of pregnant bitches and queens

1157

18.12

Sanitization of dairy plant utensils and equipments

1127

19.3.4

Care of puppies and kittens

1158

18.13

Pasteurization and homogenization of milk, packing and


distribution of milk

1129

Testing of milk quality


18.14.1

18.14

19.4

Vaccination of dog & cat

1159

19.5

Schedule of routine deworming : canines

1162

1131

19.6

Clinical information on dogs

1164

Platform tests

1132

19.7

Practical tips for feeding

1164

18.14.1.1 Organoleptic evaluation

1132

19.8

Age comparision of dog with human

1165

18.14.1.2 Clot on boiling test (COB)

1133

19.9

Age comparision of cat with human

1166

18.14.1.3 Milk Testing - Alcohol Test

1134

18.14.1.4 Sediment test

1134

18.14.1.5 Minutes Resazurin Test

1137

18.14.2

Determination of activity (titrable acidity) of milk

1138

18.14.3

Determination of fat in milking

1139

xxxviii Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry


xxxviii

Section 20

1167-1174

Miscellaneous
20.1

Longevity of various animals

1167

20.2

Terms by species or taxon

1168

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry xxxix


xixxx

20.3

Suggested space and housing guidelines for fully mature farm


animals

1170

20.4

Urine volume and specific gravity

1171

20.5

Typical composition of buffalo milk and cow milk

1172

20.6

Weights and measures equivalents and conversions

1172

20.7

Percentage, ppm, and ppb Conversions

1173

20.8

Temperature equivalents and conversions

1173

20.9

Average number of sperm per ejaculate

1174

20.10

Time between coitus and arrival of sperm in the fallopian tube

1174

20.11

Fertile life of sperm

1174

Section 21

Animal Husbandry Model Question Answer


Section 22

Project Proposal on Dairy Farm


Alphabetical index
References

xl xl

Jibachhas Handbook of Animal Husbandry

1175-1200

1201-1215