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Fabrication and Installation of Piping

ES-14-602-01

This is a Controlled Document that complies with CSBP Limited formatting and Quality
Control guidelines. Please check that this is the latest available version before use.
Title:

FABRICATION AND INSTALLATION OF PIPING

Number:

ES-14-602-01

Owner:

David Zacher

Authoriser:

David Zacher

Version Details:

Owner/Authoriser changed - was Phil Talbot.


No change to document content.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.

GENERAL ................................................................................................................................. 3
1.1
1.2

2.

SCOPE................................................................................................................................... 3
DEFINITION OF TERMS .................................................................................................... 3
STANDARDS ............................................................................................................................ 4

2.1
2.2
2.3
3.

REQUIREMENTS ................................................................................................................ 4
STANDARDS ....................................................................................................................... 4
DEVIATIONS....................................................................................................................... 4
DESCRIPTION ......................................................................................................................... 5

3.1
3.2
3.3
4.

MATERIALS ........................................................................................................................ 5
DRAWINGS ......................................................................................................................... 5
ACCURACY......................................................................................................................... 5
FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS....................................................................................... 7

4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15

MARKING AND IDENTIFICATION.................................................................................. 7


TRACEABILITY OBJECTIVES.......................................................................................... 7
TRACEABILITY REQUIREMENTS .................................................................................. 7
STORAGE............................................................................................................................. 7
CUTTING AND BEVELLING............................................................................................. 7
END PREPARATION .......................................................................................................... 8
WELDING PROCEDURES, SPECIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURE QUALIFICATIONS
THREADING...................................................................................................................... 17
FLANGING......................................................................................................................... 17
FIT-UP................................................................................................................................. 17
BRANCH CONNECTIONS ............................................................................................... 18
PIPE BENDING.................................................................................................................. 18
STEAM TRACED PIPING................................................................................................. 18
STEAM JACKETED PIPING............................................................................................. 18
ELECTRICAL TRACING .................................................................................................. 18

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5.

PROTECTION........................................................................................................................ 18
5.1

6.

PIPE SPOOLS ..................................................................................................................... 18


ERECTION ............................................................................................................................. 19

6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9
6.10
6.11
6.12
7.

PIPE SUPPORTS.................................................................................................................... 23
7.1
7.2

8.

IDENTIFICATION ............................................................................................................. 19
STORAGE AND HANDLING ........................................................................................... 19
ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION.......................................................................................... 20
FLANGED CONNECTIONS ............................................................................................. 20
BOLTING ........................................................................................................................... 21
CONNECTION TO EQUIPMENT..................................................................................... 22
THREADED JOINTS ......................................................................................................... 22
TEMPORARY STRAINERS.............................................................................................. 22
VALVE INSTALLATION.................................................................................................. 22
UNDERGROUND PIPING ................................................................................................ 23
INSTALLATION OF EXPANSION JOINTS .................................................................... 23
TESTING OF PIPEWORK ................................................................................................. 23

STANDARD PIPE SUPPORTS ......................................................................................... 23


SPRING HANGERS ........................................................................................................... 24
AS-BUILT DATA AND RECORDS...................................................................................... 24

APPENDIX 1 - TYPICAL PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD (PQR) ....................... 25


APPENDIX 2 - TYPICAL WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION (WPS)...................... 26

FIGURE
Figure 1

Piping Fabrication Tolerances...................................................................................... 6

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1.

GENERAL

1.1

SCOPE

This Standard covers the minimum requirements and acceptance criteria for:
a.

Fabrication of piping (both in situ and/or at Workshops as assemblies/sub assemblies).

b.

Installation.

c.

Certification and records keeping.

It is to be used together with ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping Code,
all Government Statutory requirements and referenced standards.
Should there be conflict between the Works, this Standard, Local Codes, Statutory Requirements or
the latest issue of the Code and other referenced standards, the Contractor shall notify the
Superintendent in writing for resolution. In general the most stringent requirement will prevail.

1.2

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Contractor/Vendor
The Company, which provides the equipment and services, needed.
Sub-Contractor
A third party to be employed by the Contractor/Vendor who has been approved by the
Superintendent in writing.
Superintendent
CSBP Limited or authorised representative. For internal works, the Superintendent shall be the
Responsible Officer.
CSBP
CSBP Limited.
Works
The scope of work that a Contractor is or may be required to execute under an agreement including
variations and remedial work.
Code
Throughout this standard, the words The Code shall mean ASME B31.3 Chemical Plant and
Petroleum Refinery Piping.

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2.

STANDARDS

2.1

REQUIREMENTS

The Contractor shall perform the Works in accordance with the requirements of:
a.
b.
c.

The Statutory Authorities.


The Code and other referenced standards.
This Standard

2.2

STANDARDS

Standards Association of Australia


AS1210
AS2022
AS2205
AS4041

SAA Unfired Pressure Vessel Code including Supplement 1


SAA Anhydrous Ammonia Code
Methods of Destructive Testing of Welds in Metal
Pressure Piping

American National Standards Institute (ANSI)


American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
ANSI/ASME B16.11
ANSI/ASME B16.20
ANSI/ASME B16.21
ANSI/ASME B16.25
ASME

ASME B31.3

Forged Fittings, Socket-Welding and Threaded


Metallic Gaskets for Pipe Flanges - Ring joint, Spiral Wounds and
Jacketed
Non-metallic Flat Gaskets for Pipe Flanges
Buttwelding Ends
Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code
Section V
Non-destructive Examination
Section VIII Boiler and Pressure Vessels - Divisions 1 & 2
Section IX
Welding and Brazing Qualifications
Chemical Plant and Petroleum Refinery Piping

American Petroleum Institute


API 601

Metallic Gaskets for Refinery Piping (Double Jacketed Corrugated and


Spiral Wound)

CSBP Engineering Standards


ES-14-102-12
ES-14-102-14
ES-14-601-01
ES-14-602-02
ES-14-602-05
ES-14-603-01
ES-14-603-02
ES-14-603-14
EP-08-030-37

2.3

Protective Coatings
Insulation of Piping and Equipment
Basis of Design - Piping
Inspection and Testing of Piping Systems
Underground Piping
Piping Material Specifications
Valve Specifications for Process Isolation
Steam Tracing
Manufacturers Data Report (MDR) Plant Projects

DEVIATIONS

There shall be no deviation from the requirements of this Standard unless previous written approval
has been obtained from the Superintendent.

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3.

DESCRIPTION

3.1

MATERIALS

The piping materials covered in this Engineering Standard are Carbon Steel, Low Alloy Steel and
Stainless Steel. These are identified in the CSBP Engineering Standard Piping Material
Specifications (ES-14-603-01).
This Engineering Standard shall be used whenever it is relevant to do so for non-metallic pipework
including PVC, HDPE, ABS, Polypropylene and FRP. All such pipework shall be installed,
inspected and tested strictly in accordance with the manufacturers instructions and the relevant
Australian Standard.

3.2

DRAWINGS

Piping General Arrangement drawings will be provided showing equipment location and piping
configuration. These drawings shall be adhered to for the erection and installation of pipe spools.
Fabrication of pipe spools shall be in accordance with the Piping Isometric drawings which will be
provided for all lines size DN 50 and above.
Small bore piping DN 40 and below shall be field run in accordance with the General Arrangement
drawings.
Pipe support location plans may be provided for complex piping systems but generally pipe
supports will be located on General Arrangement drawings and Isometric drawings. The pipe
supports shown will be a minimum requirement. Additional supports may be required to comply
with standards and codes.
Where pipe supports need to be manufactured detail drawings will be provided.
Fabrication of pipe spools and supports shall only commence after issue of Approved for
Construction (AFC) drawings. Subsequent revisions of AFC drawings will supersede all previous
drawings and the Contractors procedures shall ensure all fabrication is carried out in accordance
with latest revision of each drawing.

3.3

ACCURACY

The Contractor shall verify drawing information and confirm all dimensions before commencing
fabrication.
Dimensional tolerances for completed fabricated piping shall conform to the requirements listed on
Figure 1.

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+ 3mm MAX FROM INDICATED DIMENSIONS


FOR FACE TO FACE, CENTRE TO FACE,
LOCATION OF ATTACHMENTS, ETC

10% MAX (FOR INTERNAL PRESSURE)


3% MAX (FOR EXTERNAL PRESSURE)
FLATTENING MEASURED AS DIFFERENCE
BETWEEN THE MAXIMUM & MINIMUM O.D.
AT ANY CROSS SECTION.

Figure 1

+ 2mm MAX LATERAL TRANSLATION OF


BRANCHES OR CONNECTIONS

+ 1mm MAX ROTATION OF FLANGES FROM THE


INDICATED POSITION, MEASURED AS SHOWN.

1mm MAX OUT OF ALIGNMENT OF FLANGES


FROM THE INDICATED POSITION MEASURED
ACROSS ANY DIAMETER.

Piping Fabrication Tolerances

The Contractor shall ensure the piping meets final assembly requirements as specified on the piping
layout drawings.
Dimensions to tie-in points shall have tolerances in accordance with the following:
1.5mm

a.

Linear dimensions

b.

Nozzles orientation and rotation 030


(Flange bolt holes shall be aligned within 3mm maximum offset)

c.

Angular alignment of flange and branch welding ends 3mm per 1000mm

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4.

FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS

4.1

MARKING AND IDENTIFICATION

Items shall be marked for identification and traceability in accordance with Section 4.3. Items
marked for identification shall maintain the marking through all manufacturing stages including
final assembly.

4.2

TRACEABILITY OBJECTIVES

Items and documents shall be marked to ensure means of:


a.

Locating the item (traceability record).

b.

Locating the quality records generated from purchasing, inspection and testing of the item.

Note:

4.3

As a minimum the Contractors system shall enable traceability between the items and
quality records.

TRACEABILITY REQUIREMENTS

The Contractors fabrication procedures shall ensure that correct materials are used during
fabrication and these shall be submitted to the Superintendent for approval.
Note:

4.4

Periodic audits may be carried out by the Superintendent to ensure compliance.

STORAGE

The Contractor shall be responsible for material and equipment received from the Superintendent
or warehouse stocks until the same is installed. Where Superintendent supplied materials are
delivered to the Contractor with documentation such as mill certificates, these shall be incorporated
into the Contractors quality records.
Materials received from the warehouse or Superintendent, are to be stored off the ground on
temporary racks or docks to prevent any deterioration until fabricated.
Pipes, fittings, valves and speciality items shall be suitably blanked to protect the ends from
damage and to prevent entry of foreign material. Flanged openings shall be protected as detailed in
Section 5.1.2.
Stainless steel material shall be kept separate from carbon steel during storage and transport.

4.5

CUTTING AND BEVELLING

Pipe shall be cut accurately to the measurements on the drawings or field fit conditions and shall be
worked into place without springing or forcing.

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Stainless steel material shall be segregated from other piping materials during all stages of
machining and fabrication to prevent surface contamination with carbon steel leading to localised
corrosion.
Cutting of pipes shall preferably be done by mechanical means. Flame cutting is acceptable within
the limits as listed below:
a.

For carbon steel, flame (or arc) cutting and bevelling is acceptable only if the cut is
reasonably smooth and true and all oxides are removed from the flame-cut surface by
grinding.

b.

For alloy steel, flame-cut bevels are acceptable only where machine cutting is not feasible.
After flame cutting approximately 2mm of material must be removed from the surface of
the bevel by grinding.

c.

Bevelling by mechanical means (ie. shearing) requires work hardened areas to be removed
as in b. above.

d.

Stainless steel and non-ferrous metals shall be prepared by machining, grinding or plasma
arc cutting and grinding.

Grinding of stainless steel and non-ferrous metals shall be done with a non-carbonaceous, iron free
non sulphur bonded grinding wheel. Chipping, filing, cutting with hacksaws or wire brushing
using carbon steel brushes is not permitted on stainless steel.
Burrs and other objectionable defects shall be removed by reaming, machining or grinding.
All cuts shall be made at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the pipe. All pipe ends shall be
remade to the full bore of the pipe.
All cuts shall be carefully bevelled and accurately matched to form a suitable groove for welding
and to permit complete penetration of the welds at all points. Reference is to be made to the
relevant section of the Code.
Defective or damaged weld ends shall be examined in order to determine the nature and extent of
damage. Any bevelled edge of pipe that has been damaged shall be machined to minimum
tolerances. All bevels shall be cleaned to bright metal finish.
Repairs shall not be made on weld preparation of pipes or fittings without written permission from
the Superintendent.
Repairs to weld preparations shall only be carried out using repair procedures which have been
reviewed and approved by the Superintendent. Repair procedures must be submitted in writing for
the Superintendents review and approval.

4.6

END PREPARATION

4.6.1

General

Surfaces to be welded shall be ground free of rust. Grinding is to extend 10mm past the toe of the
weld preparation and is to be done immediately prior to welding.

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4.6.2

Butt Welding

End preparation for butt-welding shall be in accordance with ANSI/ASME B16.25.


Cleaning and end preparation shall be in accordance with the Code and in accordance with this
Standard. Stainless steel materials shall be cleaned using degreasing compounds free of chlorides
and sulphur for a distance of 75mm from the prepared edge of inside and outside surfaces.
Stainless steel wire brushes shall not be used for carbon steels.
4.6.3

Fillet Welds

Pipes for insertion in slip-on flanges and for socket-weld joints shall be cut square, to within the
tolerances specified in ANSI/ASME B16.11.
Prior to welding of socket connections, the pipe shall be backed off 1.5mm from the seat of the
socket.
Socket welds and the external welds of field welded slip-on-flanges shall always be carried out
using a minimum of two passes with staggered stops and starts. Shop welded slip on flanges may
require two passes on the external weld, depending on the welding process, to ensure good root
fusion.

4.7

WELDING PROCEDURES, SPECIFICATIONS AND PROCEDURE


QUALIFICATIONS

4.7.1

General

Welding Procedure Specifications (WPS), Procedure Qualification Records (PQR) and the
Welding Procedure Register (WPR) shall be submitted to the Superintendent and approval obtained
before any welding is begun.
The WPR shall identify all WPS necessary for the intended scope of work.
Refer to Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 for sample formats of WPS and PQR forms.
4.7.2

Welding Procedure Specification

Each WPS shall exhibit the name of the originating Contractor and shall be uniquely identified.
The WPS revision number and data shall be included. The technical requirements of this Standard
shall be adhered to in preparing WPS.
Manual, semi-automatic, or automatic electric arc welding processes shall be used on all piping.
The preparation and procedure for welding shall conform to the requirements of the Code.
Welding of carbon steel pipe shall be performed by either: Submerged Arc (SAW), Manual Metal
Arc (MMAW), Gas Tungsten Arc (GTAW), or a combination of these processes. Flux Cored Arc
(FCAW) maybe used for workshop welding only.
Welding processes other than these are prohibited.
Semi automatic and fully automatic welds shall be made with a multi pass technique.

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Weld passes thicker than 10mm are prohibited.


Welding of stainless steel or alloy shall be performed by either Gas Tungsten Arc, or Manual Metal
Arc Welding, or a combination of these processes. Root pass must be made using Gas Tungsten
Arc process with inert gas purge on inside of pipe. Flux Cored (FCAW) and GTAW wire (brand
name TGX) may be used at the discretion of the Superintendent.
Procedure for welding dissimilar metals (e.g. carbon steel to stainless steel 304L or 316L, etc) shall
be submitted to the Superintendent and approval obtained prior to any welding.
Welders qualified, as per Section 4.7.7 of this Standard shall perform all welding.
4.7.3

Qualification of Welding Procedure

All WPS shall be qualified in accordance with the Code and ASME Section IX and this Standard.
Previously qualified WPS may be submitted for the Superintendents approval. Qualification shall
be performed on pipe, not plate.
If a weld procedure includes PWHT, the weld procedure qualification tests shall include a hardness
survey. Acceptance criteria shall be the same as described in Section 4.7.13. The hardness survey
shall be performed using a 5-kg Vickers tester in accordance with AS2005.
4.7.4

Welding Procedure Essential Variables

In addition to the essential and supplementary essential variables listed in ASME Section IX
articles 2 and 4, the following shall be deemed essential variables:
a.

For welding procedures qualified for low temperature carbon steel (impact tested carbon
steels) and low temperature low alloy steels (also impact tested) and any change in welding
consumable brand name, manufacturer, classification or country/region for base metals.

b.

Any change in wire flux combination for SAW. Any decrease in preheat for material
thicknesses greater than 6mm.

c.

Any change in current clarity or type (AC or DC).

d.

The omission of back gouging or back grooving.

e.

Variables during welding must remain same as used during procedure qualification (ie.
parameters I, V (speed) and U shall remain constant).

f.

For P3 and P4 materials, hardness test on site shall be in accordance with those values
obtained or recorded during procedure qualification.

4.7.5

Impact Test Requirements

Welding procedures for all P1 Group 1 and Group 2 steels developed for use in low temperature
service (less than 0C design minimum temperature as specified by the applicable piping class)
shall include qualification by impact test. Impact test specimens shall be tested at a calculated
temperature, using an assumed design temperature of minus (-) 46C, whilst all other test
requirements shall be in accordance with the Code. Three specimens shall be tested from each

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sample area and the average energy value obtained from them shall be at least equivalent of 20
joules obtained from full size specimens. One specimen may show a lower equivalent value, but
this shall not be lower than 16 joules.
Impact tests for welding procedures for other materials, the assumed minimum design temperature
used for determining the impact test temperature shall be (-) 46C or the piping minimum design
temperatures which ever is lower. Weld metal specimens shall be located as near as possible to the
pipe surface. Two specimens shall be located near the surface containing the last pass of the weld,
and one specimen near the opposite surface. The specimen location shall be identified in the
report.
Specimen sides, which are perpendicular to the base of the notch, shall be 10mm. Depth of side
containing the base of the notch shall be the greatest possible of 10mm, 7.5mm, 5mm and 2.5mm
depending on the pipe wall thickness. Test temperature of sub-size specimen shall comply with the
Code.
The notch shall be contained in the weld metal at approximately the centreline of the weld and the
base of the notch shall be perpendicular to the surface of the plate. Before machining the notch, the
specimen shall be etched to distinguish the weld metal from the parent metal and to ensure that the
notch is correctly located. Machining of the bottom of the notch shall be done with care.
The Superintendent shall witness impact testing of welding procedure qualification specimens.
4.7.6

Weld Maps

Weld maps shall be prepared for each assembly/sub-assembly fabricated identifying the welder,
date welded, nature and extent of NDE performed, defects/re-welds, re-examination, if any, results
of NDE for each weld of the assembly/sub-assembly.
Weld maps shall also contain information on hydrostatic testing viz. test pressure, medium, date
and duration of testing and the results.
All the above information shall be properly documented and up-to-date records maintained by the
Contractor. Final copies of all the above referenced documents shall be issued to the
Superintendent within seven (7) days of completion of fabrication.
4.7.7

Qualification of Welders and Operators

All welders and welding operators shall be qualified in accordance with the requirements of ASME
Section IX and this Standard prior to commencing any work including tack welds or temporary
attachments. The performance test must include 6G position. Welder qualification certificates
including evidence of re-qualification and revalidation shall be maintained for the Superintendents
approval and inspection.
All welder qualification tests must be carried out to an approved welding procedure specification
(WPS).
Previous qualifications may be submitted for approval provided that the holder(s) of the
qualification(s) have carried out similar work within the last six months.

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Each welder shall be assigned a unique symbol which will identify, on a weld map, all welds
performed by that welder.
4.7.8

Welding Types

All welds shall be full penetration welds except:


a.

reinforcing pad, peripheral fillet welds,

b.

structural attachment fillet welds and

c.

socket welds, which shall be welded to the Code.

All butt welds DN 50 and below shall be made with the Gas Tungsten Arc process.
4.7.9

Welding Proximity and Location

The number of welds in the fabricated spools shall be kept to a minimum by using the longest
practical pipe lengths. The minimum distance between girth welds, shall be six times the pipe wall
thickness or 100mm, whichever is lesser.
Seam orientation of welded straight pipe to pipe and pipe to fittings shall be such that at
circumferential welds, the longitudinal welds shall be staggered, by 30 degrees left and right of the
centre line. As a minimum the circumferential distance between the staggered joints shall be
50mm or 6 times the pipe wall thickness, whichever is lesser.
Attachment welds, should be separated from pressure welds by a distance not less than 50mm,
weld toe to toe.
Welds for non-pressure attachments should not cross- existing main pressure welds. Where this is
unavoidable, the main pressure weld shall be ground back flush with the parent pipe and the area
examined for defects, using MPI/DPI inspection procedures. Subject to satisfactory acceptance of
the inspection, fabrication of the attachment weld shall be carried out in accordance with welding
procedures as approved for the main pressure weld.
Attachment welds shall not penetrate through the pressure pipe.
4.7.10 Preparation for Welding and Alignment
Earth connections shall be located as close as possible to the joint to be welded. G type welding
clamps shall be used for connecting pipe to earth.
The ends of pipe and fittings shall be accurately aligned and properly spaced as indicated in the
appropriate welding procedure. A pipe clamp or other device shall be used as required to obtain
accurate alignment and spacing.
The bore alignment for the butt joints shall be in accordance with the Code except that the
maximum internal trimming shall be 1:4.
Preference shall be given to the use of line-up clamps or bridge pieces for assembling components
to be welded.

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In addition to the requirements of the Code, all pipe joint preparations and welds shall be subject to
the following:
a.

Backing rings are not permitted.

b.

Back welds shall be examined visually for defects and, if found to be defective, shall be
removed.

Branch connection joints shall be prepared so as to permit full penetration welds of a quality
comparable to the circumferential welds in the same piping system.
When thermal cutting is performed to prepare edges, to remove attachments or defective material,
or for any other purpose, the material shall be reheated using the preheat schedules established in
the qualified welding procedures.
Welding shall not be carried out when the surfaces to be welded are wet from any cause.
Galvanised flanges, supports, clips and the like shall not be welded to or come into direct contact
with stainless steel.
All valves, piping speciality items, equipment and instruments which may be damaged by the heat
of welding shall be protected by dismantling and be re-assembled upon completion of welding and
heat treatment.
All sections of tacked or welded pipe shall be sealed prior to installation to prevent foreign matter
from entering such sections.
A qualified welder using the qualified welding procedure, which will be utilised for full welding of
the joint, shall make tack welds. Temporary tack welds shall not touch the root gap or root face and
shall not be part of a final joint weld up. Line-up clamps shall not be removed until the root pass
has been completed.
There shall be no field-welded attachments to stainless steel or alloy piping or to any vessels
without Superintendents approval and an approved welding procedure as described.
c.

Cold spring is permitted only if it is shown on piping isometrics. If shown on piping


isometrics, this operation shall be withheld until the entire line between anchors has been
connected together in all directions up to the last closing length of pipe at the anchor and all
guides and supports are in place. The cold spring shall be pulled at one anchor with the pipe
firmly secured at the anchor on the opposite side of the section to the cold spring. Cold
springing is not permitted at rotating equipment nozzles.

d.

Anchors/welded attachments on pipes shall be in accordance with Standard Pipe Support


Details and the respective piping isometrics.

Each welding bead shall be thoroughly cleaned of all scale and slag by chipping and/or grinding
and wire brushing immediately after completion of the weld and prior to the application of
succeeding beads. The width of the completed weld shall extend a minimum of 3mm greater than
the width of the original groove. For reinforcement, the bead shall extend not less than 1.5mm and
not more than 3mm above the surface of the pipe. Penetration of depth of fusion shall extend the
full depth of the pipe wall, including both the bevelled and straight portions. The bead shall be

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smooth in appearance and contain no valleys, indentations or undercut on the crest or at the edge.
The completed weld and adjacent pipe shall be cleaned of all oxide, slag and spatter to allow proper
application of protective coating.
The entire root bead shall be made with the pipe in a stationary position. Movement of the pipe
during manual welding of the root beads shall be kept to an absolute minimum.
Welding shall be a continuous operation. Welding should not be discontinued before the root run
and the next two successive passes are complete.
If welding has to be interrupted the welds area shall be covered to permit slow cooling. Before
resumption of welding on a weld cooled to ambient temperature the area shall be inspected visually
for the presence of cracks. The welds shall be subjected to magnetic particle or dye penetrant
examination to determine acceptability. Cracks shall be completely removed prior to any further
welding.
All welding necessary for in-place assembly and erection shall be in accordance with applicable
paragraphs of this Standard.
The areas from which temporary attachments have been removed shall be dressed smooth.
Stray arc strikes are forbidden.
4.7.11 Welding Consumable Control and Handling
The Contractor shall establish and implement procedures for receiving, storing, conditioning and
issuing consumables.
4.7.11.1

Receipt Storage and Identifications

All consumables shall be received and clearly identified in sealed containers.


The consumables shall be stored in sealed, moisture proof containers at a protected convenient dry
location at a temperature of not less than 20C.
Consumables shall be identified at all times during storage, conditioning, distribution and at weld
stations. Identification shall include manufacturer, grade and batch number.
4.7.11.2

Drying of Electrodes

Prior to use, MMAW electrodes shall be dried in accordance with the manufacturers
recommendations.
After drying, the electrodes shall be transferred to heat storage cabinets maintained at 120C
minimum for later use.
No electrodes shall be redried more than twice.

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4.7.12 Protection of the Welding Environment


The welding area shall be protected at all times against adverse environment conditions, water
spray, mist, drips or wind exceeding 8kph. Welding shall not proceed when the work is exposed to
such conditions.
Prefabrication areas for carbon and stainless steel shall be physically separated to prevent
contamination of stainless steels. When grinding or welding carbon steel pipe and supports
protection of any adjacent stainless steel shall be provided.
4.7.13 Heat Treatment of Welds
Heat treatment procedures, pre-heat and post-heat shall comply with the Code requirements. In the
case of Ammonia Liquid, Chlorine-Dry Liquid, Chlorine-Dry Gas, and Synthesis Gas services, heat
treatment procedures shall comply with AS4041 or the Code, whichever is more stringent. Details
shall be included in the Weld Procedures.
All welds on carbon steel and low alloy steel piping for the following services shall be heat-treated
after welding.

Note:

Ammonia Liquid at any temperature.


Chlorine-Dry Liquid at any temperature.
Chlorine-Dry Gas at any temperature.
Synthesis Gas services at any temperature.
Ammonia Gas services where there is a possibility condensate will form under normal
operating conditions.
Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) of 30% to 50% strength at any temperature.
Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda) less than 30% strength if the normal operating
temperature is greater than 60C.
30% Sodium Cyanide Solution if the normal operating temperature is greater than 60C.
Where heat treatment is recommended for a particular service and material combinations
covered by NACE or other anti-corrosion standards, heat treatment shall be performed in
accordance with the standard.

Heat treatment shall be in accordance with the requirements of the Code clause 331.1.7 and the
following:
a.

All hardness tests on stress relieved welds shall be carried out using a standard Equip tester.
A qualified metallurgist or an experienced tester approved by the Superintendent shall
perform the tests.

b.

The criteria for hardness tests on local and shop stress relieved welds shall be as per the
Code plus the following:
(i)

P1 materials shall not exceed 225 Brinell for ammonia and chlorine
service and 248 Brinell for other services.

(ii)

For P4, P5 and P6 alloy steels, where the wall thickness is less than that
for which a maximum hardness is specified, the maximum hardness shall
be specified as for the material with the thicker walls.

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Note:

(iii)

For service and material combinations covered by NACE or other anticorrosion standards and not covered by (i) and (ii) above, the hardness
limits in these standards shall apply.

(iv)

For other materials and services not covered by (i) to (iii) above, the
maximum hardness shall not exceed 248 Brinell.

For b. (iii) the hardness limit may also apply to piping and welds which are not heat
treated.

c.

If heat treated in a furnace, all piping shall be properly supported in the furnace during heat
treatment to eliminate warpage and other distortion.

d.

The cooling rate from the stress relieving temperature shall be in accordance with the
requirement of ASME Section VIII.

e.

All machined surfaces shall be protected by a suitable paint or compound or by any other
method (eg. gasket and a counter flange for flanged surface) to prevent damage from
scaling.

f.

Unless otherwise approved in writing by Superintendent, no welding, hammering or cold


forming is permitted following heat treatment.

g.

All valves, piping specialties, equipment and instruments, which may be damaged by the
heat from heat treatment, shall be protected by dismantling and be re-assembled upon
completion of heat treatment.
Valve bodies (2 or 3 piece ball valves) or bonnets to be removed shall be match-marked
prior to disassembly to ensure that they are reassembled back into the same location and
orientation. Seats shall be gently lapped where necessary to remove any scale and new
bonnet/body gaskets fitted when reassembling the valves.

All welds or attachments required including pipe supports or reinforcing plates, etc, shall be made
before heat treatment. No welding is permitted after heat treatment.
4.7.14 Filler Materials
All filler materials shall deposit an alloy whose chemical, physical and corrosion resistance
properties correspond to the base material and shall satisfy requirements of the Code Standards.
Consumables for use on carbon steel lines for sodium cyanide solution shall have low sulfur
content.
4.7.15 Weld Repairs
No repair shall be undertaken without first notifying the Superintendent of the requirement to
repair, and seeking his approval of the proposed repair procedure.
Repair of welds shall be done in such a manner as not gouge, groove, or otherwise reduce the
adjacent base metal thickness.

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Repairs or replacement welds shall be performed in accordance with the original welding
procedure, including pre-heat and post weld heat treatment if originally required.
Inspection and NDT of repairs shall be as originally required for the initial welds.
A weld defect that has to be repaired shall be removed to sound metal. Repair welds shall be made
by qualified welders Welding procedures used shall be in accordance with the Code and ASME
Section IX.
4.7.16 Inspection and Testing/Welds
Non-destructive examination of welds shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements
detailed in CSBP Engineering Standard Inspection and Testing of Piping Systems (ES-14-602-02).

4.8

THREADING

The minimum pipe schedule for threading pipe shall be Sch 80. For carbon steel and low alloy steel
threaded nipples the pipe schedule shall be Sch 160 minimum. Stainless steel threaded nipples
shall be Sch 80 minimum.
Threading of steel pipe shall preferably be done after bending, forging, heat treating or welding
operations. Where post-fabrication threading is very difficult and threads are cut first, they shall be
fully protected during such operations. Threads shall be concentric with the outside pipe and shall
conform to ANSI B1.20.1 (NPT).
Screwed pipe shall be reamed after cutting and threading. The threads shall be full cut and after a
tight connection is made, no more than three threads shall remain exposed. All cutting oil and
metal chips shall be cleared off the pipe prior to assembly.
Screwed pipe joints shall be made up using a suitable tape, which has been approved in writing by
the Superintendent.
Screwed connections shall not be back welded unless specified on designs drawings, or approved
by the Superintendent. It is recommended that back welded threaded connections be replaced with
socket weld connections if possible.

4.9

FLANGING

Flange bolt holes shall straddle the principal centre lines, unless other orientation is shown on the
design drawings.

4.10

FIT-UP

Misalignment or poor fit-up in excess of the values specified in Section 3.3 is not acceptable.
For compression-type fittings, use proper tools and torques as specified by the manufacturer to
ensure a leak-tight joint. To avoid damage or distortion of the fitting, do not over-torque the fitting
nut.

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4.11

BRANCH CONNECTIONS

Lines that connect to the main line or header, including instrument connections, vents and drains
are considered branch lines. All branch connections shall be made in accordance with the
respective Piping Material Specification. All stub-ins shall meet the requirements of the Code.

4.12

PIPE BENDING

Piping shall be bent only at locations shown on isometric drawings. In all other cases welding
elbows shall be used. If the pipe to be bent contains a longitudinal weld, this weld shall be located
in the neutral zone (pipe central axis).
Pipe bending shall be in accordance with Code requirements. A minimum bend radius of five (5)
diameters shall be used. Wall thickness of completed bends shall not be less than that required for
the pressure and temperature plus any corrosion allowance. Bends are permitted provided tensile
and impact properties are not impaired by the bending operation. Butt weld joints shall not be
located in the curved section of bent pipe. Weld repair of cracks in pipe bends will not be
accepted. Cold bending of pipe DN 40 and smaller is permitted. Induction bends for larger pipes
may only be used with the approval of the Superintendent.

4.13

STEAM TRACED PIPING

Steam traced piping shall be fabricated and installed in accordance with CSBP Engineering
Standard Steam Tracing (ES-14-603-14).

4.14

STEAM JACKETED PIPING

Steam jacketed piping shall be fabricated and installed in accordance with the design drawings.

4.15

ELECTRICAL TRACING

Electrical tracing and its associated electrical supply and control shall be installed in accordance
with the design drawings and manufacturers instructions.

5.

PROTECTION

In general, all pipes, fittings, valves, instruments and all other equipment including all accessories,
issued to the Contractor for erection shall be protected from normal weather conditions, corrosion
or damage, prior to mechanical completion

5.1

PIPE SPOOLS

.After fabrication and inspection, all pipe spools shall be protected in the following manner:
5.1.1

Pipework Painting

On completion of fabrication and workshop examination and inspection and before erection all
pipework shall be surface prepared and prime painted in accordance with the specified Painting
System. General conditions for painting and cleaning shall be as per Specification.

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Patch priming of field welds and any abraded or damaged portions shall be carried out on
completion of erection, pressure testing and any other examinations and inspections, which may be
required prior to finish coating.
Pipelines and valves shall be finish coated in accordance with the specified Painting System and
colour specific in CSBP Engineering Standard Protective Coatings (ES-14-102-12).
Cold insulated services piping shall be primed in accordance with the painting Specification.
5.1.2

Flanges

Flange faces shall be protected by coating with a removable rust preventative and blanked with
6mm thick exterior quality plywood covers, or proprietary plastic flange guard covers no smaller
than the flange OD. The flange cover shall be retained by a minimum of four bolts or by
polyethylene lock plugs.
5.1.3

Connections

Threaded connections shall be fitted with line specification steel pipe plugs or treated protectors.
Socket weld connections shall be fitted with taped polyethylene caps or plugs.
All end connections, including branch openings shall be protected with a plastic sheet, wired or
taped securely to the spool to prevent entry or dirt or moisture into the spool.
5.1.4

Stainless Steel Components

In order to minimise the possibility of stress cracking, all stainless steel valves, spools, pipe and
connections shall be stored out of contact with the ground and properly sheltered from rain.
Closures should be examined to ensure moisture cannot enter this material.
All austenitic stainless steel subject to welding or mechanical abrasion shall be passivated to
reinstate the protective oxide layer.
Stainless steel piping subject to annealing or heat treatment shall be pickled in an acid/water
solution comprising nitric and hydrofluoric acid to remove oxide scale.

6.

ERECTION

6.1

IDENTIFICATION

All materials issued by Principal or supplied by the Contractor shall be identified in accordance
with the respective piping class/piping material specification, and shall be stored and handled in
such a manner as to assure proper identification.

6.2

STORAGE AND HANDLING

All fabricated pipe and equipment shall be stored off the ground until finally installed.

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Care shall be exercised, in the storage and handling of all piping materials and pre-fabricated
assemblies, so that contamination by grease, moisture or other foreign matter does not occur. End
seals of pipe, flange covers, valve covers, and similar protections shall not be removed until
necessary for fabrication or erection. The Contractor shall ensure that all piping is protected, as per
Section 4.4 at all times.
All care shall be taken when pipe sections are moved from one place to another to avoid bending or
over-straining.

6.3

ASSEMBLY/INSTALLATION

All piping shall be installed in accordance with the latest revision of the Piping drawings as per
Section 3.2.
All assembled piping shall be installed without springing or forcing. Cutting or other weakening of
structural members to facilitate piping installation shall not be permitted.
All piping shall be installed to permit free expansion and contraction without damage to joints or
supports.
A visual inspection of all pipe and pipe spools shall be made to ensure they are free of all internal
loose rust, scale, soil and debris before assembly.
A straight run of pipe shall contain the minimum number of welds. The use of off-cuts in straight
piping runs shall be avoided wherever possible.
Special precautions shall be taken during carbon steel piping erection in close vicinity of stainless
steel piping as direct contact between carbon steel and stainless steel is not permitted. Carbon steel
slings, etc, shall not be used during fabrication and installation of stainless steels. Stainless steel
piping shall be covered up with tarpaulins or similar where carbon steel piping is being erected or
worked on such that, stainless steel cannot come in contact with carbon steel. Neither shall
stainless steel or non-ferrous materials be contaminated with grinding or welding particles. Tools
shall be identified for stainless steel work only. All stainless steel piping and fittings shall be stored
away from areas where carbon steel is being worked on.
All materials used for assembly and erection must conform to the appropriate Piping Class
Specification in CSBP Engineering Standard Piping Material Specifications (ES-14-603-01).
Hydrotest vents and drains shall be installed in accordance with the Piping GAs and Isometrics.
The Contractor shall install any additional vents and drains required for testing purposes.

6.4

FLANGED CONNECTIONS

Precautions shall be taken throughout fabrication and erection to protect the gasket face of flanges.
Flanges repaired by grinding will be rejected.
Flanged connections shall be assembled with new gaskets and stud bolts as specified in the CSBP
Engineering Standard Piping Material Specifications (ES-14-603-01). Bolts shall show at least
one, but no more than three threads beyond the nuts after assembly.

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Gaskets shall be centred on the flange faces and shall not project into the bore. Gaskets with correct
inside diameter shall be used on slip on flanges.
The clearance between flange faces shall permit the connection to be gasketed and bolted without
imposing undue strain on the piping system.
Flanged piping connections to vessels or equipment shall be correctly aligned before bolting up.
6.4.1

Protection from Leaking Flanges

In the event of a flange leak, to prevent personnel being sprayed from substances that are hazardous
because of their chemical and or physical properties, flange protection shall be provided at
locations where:
there is a high level of Operator interface,
flanges are adjacent to walkways or designated accessways,
directed by the Superintendent or the applicable business unit Process/Maintenance Manager.
Hazardous substances requiring flange protection are:

All acids
Sodium Hydroxide (Caustic Soda)
Ammonium Nitrate
Sodium Cyanide Solution, and
Other fluids, as specified by the Superintendent or the applicable business unit Process or
Maintenance Manager.

The type of flange protection to be used shall be specified by the Superintendent or the applicable
business unit Process/Maintenance Manager. Typically this will be in the form of either:
a.

A ring of stainless steel cladding that is securely held in place with stainless steel banding
straps. A drainage/vent hole shall be provided in the underside of the flange guard.

or
b.

Wrapping of the flange joint with Herculite. The material is to overlap itself and extend
over the pipe with sufficient material so that is can be securely held in place with 3mm
Terylene rope or another Superintendent approved method.

6.5

BOLTING

Prior to installation, all bolting shall be lubricated with an approved anti-seize compound.
Protective grease shall be removed from flange gasket faces prior to bolt-up. Flange faces shall be
parallel and aligned in horizontal and vertical planes. Non-uniform bolt loading will be rejected.
Dirt at the mating surfaces shall be removed and scratched surfaces shall be repaired.
Flange stud bolts shall be tightened evenly and sequentially to impose equal pressure on gaskets to
avoid distortion or over stressing. Hydraulically operated tensioning equipment shall be used on
stud bolts 1 diameter (M33) or over. These stud bolts shall be supplied one diameter overlength
to allow for bolt tensioning equipment.

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Insulating flange kits shall be installed between mating carbon steel and stainless steel piping.
Gasket compound shall not be used.

6.6

CONNECTION TO EQUIPMENT

Piping connections to equipment shall be installed such that no stresses shall be transferred from
the piping system to the equipment at the time of installation.

6.7

THREADED JOINTS

Back welding of threaded joints is not permitted unless specified on design drawings or approved
by the Superintendent. It is recommended that back welded threaded connections be replaced with
socket weld connections if possible.
Backing off of made-up threaded joints to facilitate fit-up or alignment is not permitted.
Joints shall be made using approved sealing tape and care taken to avoid over tightening.

6.8

TEMPORARY STRAINERS

Temporary strainers must be installed in the suction piping to all pumps, compressors and other
places as indicated on drawings. Break-out spools shall be installed as required for easy removal of
strainers.

6.9

VALVE INSTALLATION

Valves shall be installed as indicated on the GAs and Isometrics and in accordance with CSBP
Engineering Standard Basis for Design - Piping (ES-14-601-01). Should valve orientation not be
detailed the following guidelines should be used:
a.

Valves shall be installed so that their handwheels or handles are accessible and can be
operated between full open and full closed positions without obstructions.

b.

Valve location and orientation shall be such that a person can operate the valve handwheel
or handle from a safe position and in a comfortable posture. Extensions or chain wheels
shall be provided if required.

c.

Valves in horizontal lines, with the exception of block valves at pressure relief valves, shall
be installed with valve stems oriented as follows, in order of preference:

d.

1.

Vertically upwards

2.

Horizontally

3.

Upwards at 45

Gate valves installed upstream and or downstream of pressure relief valves shall be
installed with the valve spindle oriented horizontally or downwards, to prevent blockage of
the line by a disconnected gate in the valve.

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6.10

UNDERGROUND PIPING

Fabrication, laying, corrosion protection, inspection and testing of underground piping shall be in
accordance with the CSBP Engineering Standard Underground Piping (ES-14-602-05).

6.11

INSTALLATION OF EXPANSION JOINTS

Specific instructions for installing expansion joints shall be included in the Project documentation,
however the following general guidance apply:
a.

Expansion joints shall be the final unit(s) installed in any piping systems.

b.

Before installation of any expansion joint, all piping shall be accurately aligned without
restraints and properly anchored.

c.

The space allowed in the piping for insertion of an expansion joint shall be equal to the
insertion dimension specified on drawings (plus or minus 1.5mm), including cold
springing, if specified.

d.

Spacer bars supplied by the manufacturer for shipping purposes shall not be adjusted or
removed from expansion joints until after joints are in place.

e.

Shipping spacer bars must be removed before testing.

f.

No adjustment shall be made to tie rods provided by the manufacturer to control alignment
and end thrust; these tie rods shall remain part of the unit.

g.

No attempt shall be made to correct misalignment of piping, caused by incorrect installation


of the piping or its associated equipment, by modification to any device provided to control
expansion, or the method in which that device is designed to be installed. Such
misalignment must be corrected by other means which will in no way affect the workability
of the expansion device.

6.12

TESTING OF PIPEWORK
Pressure testing of pipework shall be carried out in accordance with CSBP Engineering
Standard Inspection and Testing of Piping Systems (ES-14-602-02).

7.

PIPE SUPPORTS

7.1

STANDARD PIPE SUPPORTS

All pipework shall be supported in accordance with the Code.


Support locations, type and serial number will be shown on the piping drawings. Refer to Section
3.2.
Unless otherwise indicated on piping drawings, no pipe shall be supported from another pipe.

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7.2

SPRING HANGERS

7.2.1

General

Spring hangers, as required, shall be supplied by the Contractor and shall be installed as indicated
on piping drawings.
7.2.2

Constant Support Hangers

Installation instructions are as follows:


a.

Securely attach the hanger to the structure at a point where the load coupling is directly
over the desired point of attachment.

b.

Make certain that the moving parts of the hanger will be unobstructed.

c.

Make certain that the rod has enough thread engagement before taking up the load.

d.

Turn the load coupling until the travel stop is free.

e.

Prior to the final start-up/commissioning, the travel stops shall be removed

f.

After the line is in operation, check the hanger for indicated hot position. If necessary,
make the adjustment by turning the load coupling to bring the indicator to the required
position. No other adjustment is normally required, since the load as calibrated at the
factory is equal to the load that has to be supported.

7.2.3

Variable Support Hangers

The installation instructions shall be as follows:


Securely attach the hanger to the structure. Turn the turnbuckle until the Variable Spring Hanger
or load column of the spring support respectively reaches the desire cold load marking. No other
adjustment is necessary. The travel stops shall be removed before the piping is put into operation

8.

AS-BUILT DATA AND RECORDS

On completion of the work, the Contractor shall supply to the Superintendent, as a properly
indexed and compiled package, full details of the Welder Qualified records, fabrication records and
as-built data. This package shall be compiled in accordance with CSBP Engineering Standard
Inspection and Testing of Piping Systems (ES-14-602-02).

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APPENDIX 1 - TYPICAL PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD


(PQR)
PURCHASE ORDER No:
PROCESS:
MANUAL/AUTO/SEMI-AUTO
DATE WELDED
JOINT:

GROOVE ANGLE:
ROOT FACE:
ROOT GAP:
PASS
PROCES
No
S

POLARIT
Y

AMPS
A

MAXIMUM THICKNESS OF
DEPOSITED
WELD
FOR EACH PROCESS:
GAS

VOLTS
V

TUNGSTEN
METAL AND SIZE:

PERCENTAGE
COMPOSITION
(MIXTURE)

GAS(ES)
SHIELDIN
G:
TRAILING:
BACKING:
VERIFIED BY VENDOR QC
NAME: SIGNATURE:
CSBP INSPECTOR DATE:
NAME: SIGNATURE:

Version No. 10.0

PQR No:
WPS No:
MATERIAL SPEC:
HEAT No:
SERIAL No:
THICKNESS:
DIAMETER:
ELECTRODE/WIRE:
TYPE:
BATCH No:
WELDING PROCESS:
WELDING POSITION:
ELECTRODE STICKOUT:
MAX. BEAD WIDTH:
INTERPASS CLEANING:
PREHEAT TEMP:
PREHEAT METHOD:
TRAVEL HEAT
INTERPAS ELECTRODE/WIRE GAS
SPEED
INPUT
S
MM/MIN KJ/MM
TEMP C
NAME
SIZE
FLOW
MM
RATE
L/MIN

TYPE

GAS CUP SIZES:


POSTWELD HEAT TREATMENT:
TEMPERATURE
TIME:
OTHER:

DATE:

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APPENDIX 2 - TYPICAL WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION


(WPS)
VENDOR:

WPS No:

PQR No:

REV:

DATE:

PAGE

PURCHASE ORDER No:

MATERIAL SPECIFICATION:

EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION:

THICKNESS RANGE:

OF

BASE METAL:
APPLICATION OF WPS:

DIAMETER RANGE:
POSITION:
WELD TYPICAL WELD SEQUENCE:

STANDARD
PREPARATION:

PROGRESSION CONSUMABLE:
TREATMENT:
EDGE PREP METHOD:
PREHEAT TEMP:

REFER ATTACHED SHEETS No OF PASSES MAY VERY


FOR
ACCORDING TO THICKNESS/
VARIATIONS:
POSITION

PREHEAT METHOD:

RETENTION TIME:
TEMP CHECK METHOD:
MAX INTERPASS TEMP:
GOUGE METHOD:
GOUGE CHECK METHOD:

MAXIMUM THICKNESS OF DEPOSITED WELD METAL FOR INTERPASS CLEANING:


EACH PROCESS:
TACKING METHOD:

MAXIMUM BEAD WIDTH:

WELD FINISH:
PASS
No..

ELECTRODE STICK OUT:

PROCES
S

+-

AMP

VOLT

TRAVEL

RANGE

RANGE

RANGE
MM/MIN

SIZE MM FLUX/GAS
TRADE NAME

PROCESS:

TUNGSTEN TYPE & SIZE:

AWS SPEC:

GAS CUP SIZES:

AWS CLASS:

BACKING:

TYPE:

A No:

GAS:

RATE:

F No:

SPEC/FLOWRATE

DURATION

PWHT REQUIRED:

FOR VENDOR

GOVERNING CODES

PREPARED BY:

DATE:

CONSUMABLE TRADE NAMES:

APPROVED BY:

DATE:

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