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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

IARC

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

SECTION 1. INTRODUCTION TO SAFETY IN THE USE


OF CHEMICALS
1. Chemical risks to health
Chemicals have become a part of our life, sustaining many of our activities, preventing and controlling many
diseases, increasing agricultural productivity.
However one can not ignore that many of these chemicals may, especially if not properly used, endanger our
health and poison our environment.
It has been estimated that approximately one thousand new chemicals come onto the market every year, and
about 100 000 chemical substances are used on a global scale. These chemicals are usually found as
mixtures in commercial products. One to two million such products or trade names exist in most industrialized
countries.
More substances and rising production mean more storage, transport, handling, use and disposal of
chemicals. The whole lifecycle of a chemical should be considered when assessing its dangers and benefits.
Most chemical accidents have a limited effect. Occasionally there is a disaster like the one in Bhopal, India, in
1984, with thousands of deaths and many people permanently disabled.
It is not just the worker handling chemicals who is at risk. We may be exposed in our homes through misuse
or by accidents, and be contaminated by consumer products including food.
The environment may be affected, chemicals may pollute the air we breathe, the water we drink, and the food
we eat. They may have entered into forests and lakes, destroying wildlife and changing the ecosystems.
Chemicals are not all of equal concern. The assessment of health risks of chemical substances is a
continuous process where information of the chemical hazards is made available through a variety of sources.
Remember: chemicals have power, and that is why they have become an important part of our life. Respect
that power and handle them with care.

2. How can workplace chemicals enter our body?


No chemical substance can cause adverse effects without first entering the body or coming to contact with it.
There are four main ways, that is routes of exposure, for chemical substances to enter the human body:
Inhalation (breathing in)
Absorption (through the skin or eyes)
Ingestion (eating, swallowing)
Transfer across the placenta of a pregnant woman to the unborn baby
Picture 1
Most chemicals used at the place of work may be dispersed into the air to form dust, mist, fumes, gas or
vapour and can then be inhaled. In this way also workers who are not actually handling them but stay within
the reach can be exposed to a mixture of chemicals from various sources.
Handling chemical substances without proper protection exposes the worker to the risk of absorbing harmful
amounts of chemical through the skin. This usually happens when handling the chemical in liquid form. Dust

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may also be absorbed through the skin if it is wetted by, for instance, sweat. The capacity of different chemical
substances to penetrate the skin varies considerably. Some substances pass through it without creating any
feeling. Skin absorption is, after inhalation, the second most common route through which occupational
exposure may take place.
The protective external layer of skin may be softened (by toluene, dilute washing soda solution, etc) thus
permitting other chemicals to enter readily to the bloodstream (such as aniline, phenol, benzene, etc).
Eyes may also absorb chemical substances, either from splashes or from vapours.
Dangerous chemicals can enter the body through ingestion as gases, dusts, vapours, fumes, liquids or solids.
Inhaled dust may be swallowed, and food or cigarettes may be contaminated by dirty hands. Eating, drinking
and smoking should be prohibited at a place of work where dangerous chemicals are used.
Whatever the route of entry, chemicals can reach the blood stream and be distributed all over the body. In this
way damage can be caused at the site of entry as well as to organs distant from the exposed area.
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Picture 3
Solid chemicals can be used in different forms: cakes, pellets, granules, powder wetted with oil, paste. Think
about dust formation when choosing the form.

3. How chemicals affect us?


The harmful effects of chemical substances depend on the toxicity and the exposure to that chemical. Toxicity
is a property of the chemical substance, while the exposure depends on the way the chemical is used. The
level of exposure depends on the concentration of the hazardous chemical and on the period of contact time.
Many substances do not give any warning by odour, even though they may be present at dangerous
concentrations in the workplace air.
Acute effects - Chronic effects
The effects may be acute: after a short exposure an immediate effect may be experienced. Chronic effects
usually require repeated exposure and involve a delay between the first exposure and appearance of adverse
health effects.
A substance may have acute and chronic effects. Both acute and chronic conditions can result in permanent
injury.
Injury from exposure to a chemical substance can be temporary, i.e. reversible. It will disappear when
exposure to that chemical stops.
Exposure to solvents may cause contact dermatitis, headache or nausea. These effects could be both acute
and temporary. Solvents can also cause chronic effects and result in an irreversible, permanent injury to the
nervous system.
Local effects - Systemic effects
Hazardous substances may cause local effects. Acute local effects may include corrosive injuries from acids
and bases or lung injuries from inhaled gases such as ozone, phosgene and nitrogen oxides.

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Many other gases cause adverse effects only after they have been inhaled repeatedly over a long time period.
Low concentrations of a gas may also be effective in this way. A persistent irritation of the respiratory system
can arise from exposure to gases such as sulphur oxides, hydrogen fluoride and hydrogen chloride.
Once the hazardous substance has entered the blood circulation, it may be distributed to all parts of the body.
It will reach the liver, which is the most important detoxication organ of the body. The liver attempts to convert
the toxic agents to a less toxic ones or to the ones useful to the body. This process is called metabolism.
Some substances such as alcohol and carbon tetrachloride can damage the liver. The body excretes
unwanted chemicals. The kidneys filter them from blood circulation, which is the main way that the body
excretes poisons, but in doing this, they can be damaged by toxic substances such as carbon tetrachloride,
ethylene glycol and carbon disulphide. Cadmium causes permanent damages to kidneys.
Other means of excretion are via faeces, sweat and through lung exhalation.
The nervous system is sensitive to chemicals. The adverse effects may be on the central nervous system or
on the nerves that transport impulses to other parts of the body. Organic solvents are commonly used at work
and are known to be able to affect the nervous system. Many other substances may behave in the same way
such as carbon disulphide, mercury, lead, manganese and arsenic.
Our body has a considerable capacity to excrete, to render dangerous substances harmless, and to protect
us. However, our defense system can be overloaded by repeated heavy exposure so that it no longer fulfills
its function. The body stores the harmful substance which may consequently result in health problems.
Lead is an example of a substance for which removal from the body takes a long time. Cadmium is an
example of a substance that is not processed by the body at all, and once it has entered it will stay there.
Picture 4
Picture 5
Picture 6 What all we get from raw oil! This is a description of the product coming from fractional distillation of
raw oil.
Picture 7
Picture 8

4. Common chemical groups that cause health risks


4.1 Dusts, fumes and gases
Dust may be just a nuisance, and the danger depends on the type of material in the dust, and on the amount
and the size of the particles.
The smaller the particle is the deeper it will penetrate into the lungs with the inhaled air, thereby passing the
defensive systems of the lungs. This type of dust is invisible to the eye and identified using microscope
technique. Such dust can accumulate in the lungs over a long period of time and cause a lung disease called
pneumoconiosis, which is a common incapacitating occupational disease. Dusts containing crystalline silica
or asbestos are particularly dangerous.
Sand and many types of stone contain crystalline silica, as do many ores, concrete, ceramics and diatomite.
Processing of these materials creates dust with result of silica accumulating in the lungs. This may lead after
years to a incurable lung disease, even though the exposure has been stopped years before.
Asbestos is a natural mineral fibre which is very resistant to fire and to many chemicals. Asbestos fibres are
very strong and thin. Asbestos exists in various forms and names: chrysotile, crocidolite, amosite,

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anthophyllite, actinolite and tremolite asbestos. Chrysotile is used in isolating materials, protective carpets
and clothes.
The dust penetrates the lungs destroying the lung tissue. This condition is called asbestosis. Asbestos can
also cause lung cancer. The risk of cancer is many times higher if the asbestos exposure is combined with
smoking. Many countries have restricted or banned the use of asbestos.
Exposure to metal fumes can cause damage to the body. `Metal fume fever' is a known health effect when
metal fumes, often containing zinc, are inhaled. It usually appears on the day following that of the exposure.
Gases do not necessarily have a warning odour at a dangerous concentration. The odour may be apparent
only at very high concentration in the air. Gases may have an irritating effect, or they may enter the blood
circulation and cause internal damage.
Sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides, chlorine and ammonia are toxic gases that are corrosive and irritating to the
respiratory system. They are widely used in industry. Phosgene is formed when solvents containing chlorine,
such as "TRI" (1,1,2- trichloroethylene), come into contact with hot surfaces or flames. Phosgene can be
deadly poisonous even before the odour is detected.
Carbon monoxide is a toxic, odourless, colourless gas which is formed by the incomplete burning of materials
of organic origin. It may enter the blood circulation. Some gases can pass through the skin, for example,
hydrogen cyanide.

4.2 Solvents
Most solvents are liquid organic chemicals. They are used because of their ability to dissolve other
substances, particularly fat and grease, which are insoluble in water. Many of them evaporate rapidly at
ambient temperatures. They are often flammable and may ignite by heat from smoking, welding or static
electricity. Vapours move with air currents and can ignite even by a distant heat source.
Inhalation is the most common way for solvents to enter the body, but some of them penetrate intact healthy
skin. Once in the blood stream a solvent can be transported to different organs, such as the brain and liver.
Solvents have different effects on humans, depending on their evaporation rate and their solubility in water.
The risks of health effects depend on the period of exposure and the concentration of the solvent in the
inhaled air.
Many solvents have a narcotic effect; they may cause dizziness, headache, reduced comprehension or
tiredness. They may also irritate the eyes and the respiratory tract. Frequent skin contact defats the protective
layer of the skin causing irritation. Some solvents are very hazardous to the liver, kidneys, bone marrow or
nervous system. Benzene, carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulphide belong to the category of solvents
which should be substituted with less dangerous ones.

4.3 Metals
Metals can enter the body in the form of dust and fumes (in grinding or welding) or even through the skin. One
of these is tetraethyl lead, which is used as an anti-knocking agent in petrol. Mercury vapours are often
inhaled, as this liquid metal evaporates readily at room temperatures.
Lead is used in various industries: battery, glass and mining industries, cable manufacturing, foundries and in
printing works. Steel constructions are protected with anti-corrosive paint containing lead, which may be
released during welding operations, for example, on ships.

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Mercury is present in many pesticides and pickling baths. In the environment, it may accumulate in fish.
Mercury poisoning has serious effects on the nervous system.
Nickel is present with other metals in various alloys. Nickel and its compounds are known to be sensitizers.
Once a person has had an allergic reaction to nickel, the reaction reoccurs following the contact with very
small amounts of nickel used in products such as leather, cement, or door handles. Some compounds of
nickel can cause cancer.
Chromium compounds, particularly chromates and bichromates, are widely used in industry. Cement contains
small amounts of chromium compounds. These compounds can cause allergy and even lung cancer. Unlike
cobalt and nickel, pure metallic chromium does not cause allergy. Chromium compounds may cause birth
defects if mothers are exposed to these compounds during pregnancy.
Arsenic compounds are used in pesticides, insecticides and in some colouring materials. Chronic arsenic
poisoning can start with irritation to the respiratory system, inflammation of the eyes, or skin problems,
followed by damage in nervous system. Arsenic and its compounds can cause cancer.

4.4 Acids and bases


Strong acids and bases are mostly used as water solutions. They are corrosive to human tissue. Working with
acids or bases can give rise to mists which have the same corrosive properties as the solutions.
When acids and bases are mixed with each other the phenomena of neutralization occurs, usually with strong
production of heat. The heat production has particularly serious effects when water is added to concentrated
sulphuric acid: the heat will splash the highly corrosive liquid up, risking injury to the worker.
Some acids are explosive when in contact with organic material, such as sawdust.
Serious damage can result when treating metal pieces in a acid bath. The bath may contain more than one
acid in a mixture and may release flammable hydrogen gas, as well as acid mist, when a piece of metal is
placed in it.
Phosphoric acid is used to treat metals. When in contact with hot surfaces, phosphoric acid can give off
poisonous gases. Ammonia, sodium and potassium hydroxides are commonly used bases. They are
corrosive to human tissue in such a way that a certain period of time is required before the corrosive feeling is
sensed. Bases penetrate the skin and cause deep sores. They are difficult to wash away. Dilute water
solutions are irritating.
Sodium and potassium hydroxides are used, for example, in hot degreasing baths for cleaning metals.

4.5 Pesticides
Pesticides are intended to destroy or control pests of all kind. They are used in industry, for example, to
impregnate wood, and in agriculture to control insects, weed, fungi, and rats. These are many different types
of pesticide compounds and they are used also as mixtures.
Some countries apply restrictions in using certain compounds, and the use of some of them is completely
banned because of their serious adverse effects. In Europe, the list of banned pesticides includes compounds
such as inorganic mercury compounds, camphechlor, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, HCH (lindane), heptachlor,
hexachlorobenzene, and nitrofen.
Insecticides are divided into following broad groups:
Organophosphorous compounds

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These are often acutely poisonous to insects and to humans. They can damage the nervous system
and even cause death. They are effective even at low concentrations. Dichlorvos, demeton, parathion
and thioazin belong to this group.
Organochlorine compounds
These compounds have a lower acute poisoning effect than organophosphorous compounds. They
decompose slowly and can therefore accumulate in the environment and in the body. Aldrin, dieldrin,
heptachlor, and DDT belong to this group.
Carbamates are insecticides and fungicides
They are poisonous to humans causing same type of symptoms as organophosphates. Dithiocarb
and carbaryl belong to this group.

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5. How to minimize the risks caused by chemicals?


Improving safe use of chemicals can be achieved at different levels.

5.1 In the enterprise


A Safety Committee should be formed with the task of working regularly with safety issues. It could start to
work with following:
Organizational measures

assess chemical hazards and set priorities concerning the safety in the organisation;
create emergency plans for the assessed hazards;
organize occupational health care and regular surveys as necessary;
organize contacts with authorities/laboratories to createa monitoring system for chemical hazards,
and to reliably measure and/or estimate occupational exposures to chemicals when needed;
start collecting case studies of accidents and sickness records in the enterprise to create a basis for
priority measures in the control of hazards;
identify chemicals in use;
obtain information of their hazards;
collect this data and make an inventory list of all chemicals used in the factory: create a Register for
Workplace Chemicals;
involve workers in safety organizations, such as the system of Safety Representatives, and Safety
Committees;

Technical measures to control the hazard


Technical measures can be used to prevent chemical hazards at source, and to prevent the transfer of
dangerous chemicals. By technical means it is possible to reduce the exposure of the worker.
Substitution
An effective control method for any hazardous chemical is substitution: a hazardous chemical is
replaced with a less hazardous one. This is especially important when the chemicals in question can
cause cancer, damage to the reproductive functions or create allergic reactions. Choosing a safer

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process or changing an old and hazardous process to a less dangerous one effectively reduces the
risks.
An example of safer choice is to have pellets or paste instead of powdered substances which readily produce
high levels of dangerous dusts. Water-based paints and adhesives are available to replace harmful products
containing solvents.
All possible information should be made available when considering the change of a substance or the whole
process so that the new choice does not create unexpected new dangers.
Engineering control
Closed system
If hazardous chemicals can not be replaced by less dangerous ones, exposure must be prevented by
protecting the worker. Enclosing the hazardous process or chemical is an effective method.
One example is to use sealed pipes to transfer solvents and other liquids instead of pouring them in the open
air. Vapours and gases caused by spray painting or produced in pickling or hardening baths in the metal
industry should be controlled, ventilated and not allowed to enter the workplace air.
Local exhaust ventilation
It is not always possible to enclose all dangerous operations. A properly designed local exhaust
ventilation is the second choice in order to remove the contaminants at the source. A local exhaust
ventilation system consists of a hood, ducts or pipes, a system to collect and separate the pollutants
from the clean air, and an efficient fan to create enough suction force.
The hazardous gases, fumes and dust can be collected from the vented air. They should not go untreated,
straight out, to pollute the surroundings of the factory and the environment. Attention should be paid to the
clean air inflow which replaces the exhaust. Inspection, proper maintenance, regular cleaning and changing of
filters are essential to protect the worker against hazardous contaminants.
General ventilation
Where it is difficult or impossible to prevent hazardous chemicals, fumes, dusts, mists or particles
from entering the workplace air at the source, a general dilution ventilation can be installed. This
should be designed to meet the needs of the specific work process and workplace. At its best it
should consist of an inflow of clean air and an outflow of exhaust forced by fans at right places. It can
also be used with other preventive measures.
Housekeeping
When working with dangerous chemicals, a proper housekeeping is essential. Storage areas must be
well organized and kept in order. The transport of chemicals within the industrial premises should be
planned and the transport routes kept clear. Maintenance of premises and equipment should also be
planned. These tasks should be dedicated to persons/work groups/departments. Workers using the
equipment should know the person responsible for repairing faulty equipment.
Monitoring the efficiency of housekeeping and inspections should be carried out regularly; this should involve
the workers themselves, who are experts in their own work.
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5.2 At places of work


A `Code of Practice' has been developed by the International Labour Organisation, and some countries have
applied these principles for organizing hazard control. At the shop-floor level,a Safety Committee could:
do regular inspection using checklists made for the particular chemicals and chemical processes in
use;
mark and label all chemicals;
keep at hand an inventory list of all chemicals handled in the place of work together with a collection
of chemical safety data sheets for these chemicals;
train workers to read and understand chemical safety information, including the health hazards and
routes of exposure; train them to handle dangerous chemicals and processes with respect;
plan, develop and choose the safe working procedures;
reduce the number of people coming into contact with dangerous chemicals;

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reduce the length of time and/or frequency of exposure of workers to dangerous chemicals;
train workers to know and understand the emergency procedures;
equip and train workers to use personnel protective equipment properly after all that is possible has
been done to eliminate hazards by means of other methods.

5.3 Storage
Planning and maintaining storage areas is very relevant for users of chemicals in order to avoid material
losses, accidents and disasters. Special attention should be paid to incompatible substances, suitable
location of products within the storage area and proper arrangements and climatic conditions. For example,
cylinders should be fixed with chains to upright position and the acids in the area or cupboard meant only for
them. The fumes or splashes should never reach the area where cylinders are kept.
Hazardous substances can leak, cause a fire or give off dangerous fumes and vapours. When two
substances come into contact with one another, they may react violently. The reaction products may be much
more dangerous than the original chemicals.
Written instructions of storage practices should be provided, and chemical safety data sheets of dangerous
substances kept in stock should be available in the storage area.

5.4 Waste
Chemicals react in the same characteristic ways whether they are wastes or are used in a production
process. The hazards are also the same. Where chemicals are used, the enterprise should plan labelling,
collecting and handling of wastes. Some countries have introduced legislation and provide detailed advises
on how to treat dangerous chemical waste. To gain maximum benefit for all, a response is essential, from the
shop-floor, where the chemicals are actually used, up to the management, which should plan the whole, safe
`lifecycle' for every substance. Cooperation with and within authorities is needed to fulfill these tasks.
Many accidents have based on a good belief that everyone is aware of the situation. Discuss in the work
place the ideas arising when asking the following questions:
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CHECKLIST TO SAFETY MANAGEMENT


Who is in charge of the job?
Do their responsibilities overlap with those of anyone else?
Is there anything which is not somebody's responsibility?
Have the safe ways of doing the job been studied/chosen/applied?
Is there any relevant code of practice or guidance note to be applied in this job?
Did the worker get necessary training to do this job?
Is the work safe or is the protective equipment needed?
Is the user of protective equipment/clothing been informed of proper use and limitation of protective
equipment?
Who has assessed whether the tool, machines, protective equipment have the right capacity for the
work to be done?
What are the consequences if thing go wrong?
How will the person in charge deal with any problems?
If things do go wrong, would your people know what to do? Emergency plan? How to call an
ambulance, firemen?

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If the work cannot be finished today can it be left in a safe state? Are clear instructions available for
the next shift?
How is the communication in your work place? Do those in production know what maintenance is
going to be done, are any closures in some part of the production? Do the maintenance people know
the special demands of the jobs related to the one they are working on?
Is there any organized checking that the jobs are done in the way intended, or for general good house
keeping?

ILO Convention 170, concerning safety in the use of chemicals at work


ILO Recommendation 177, concerning safety in the use of chemicals at work

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARBETARSKYDDSNMNDEN, Kemiska hlsorisker, Gummessons Tryckeri, Falkping, Sweden, 1990
BAKAR CHE MAN A. and GOLD D., Safety and Health in the use of Chemicals at Work: A training manual,
ILO, Geneva, 1993
FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Code of Conduct on the
Distribution and Use of Pesticides, Rome 1990
HALTON D.M., How Workplace Chemicals Enter the Body, CCOHS, Canadian Centre for Occupational
Health and Safety, Hamilton, Ontario, 1985
HSE, Health and Safety Executive, Essentials of Health and Safety at work, HMSO, London, 1990
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Code of Practice: Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work, Geneva
1993
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Safety and Health in the use of Agrochemicals: A Guide, Geneva,
1991
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, How to use the IPCS Health and Safety Guides
JOINT INDUSTRIAL SAFETY COUNCIL, Safety-Health and Working Conditions, TIBA Tryck AB, Stockholm,
1987
91/659/EEC Commission Directive of 3 December 1991 adapting to technical progress Annex I to Council
Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the
Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and
preparations (asbestos)
2455/92/EEC Council Regulation of 23 July 1992 concerning the export and import of certain dangerous
chemicals
Sykes R., Vhpassi A. and Ens H., Guidelines on Inspection of Chemical Factories, Especially Major
Accident Hazard Installations, Jakarta, 1990
TUC, Trade Union Congress, Hazards at Work, TUC Guide to health and safety, Macdermott and Chant Ltd.,
London, 1988

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Chemicals Convention, 1990 , No. 170


PREAMBLE
The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,
Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the International Labour
Office, and having met in its 77th Session on 6 June 1990, and
Noting the relevant international labour Conventions and Recommendations and, in
particular, the Benzene Convention and Recommendation, 1971, the Occupational
Cancer Convention and Recommendation, 1974, the Working Environment (Air
Pollution,
Noise
Vibration)
Convention
and
Recommendation,
1977,
the
href="c155.htm">Occupational Safety and Health Convention and Recommendation
Services Convention and href="r171.htm">Recommendation, 1985 the Asbestos
Convention and Recommendation1986, and the list of
Noting that the protection of workers from the harmful effects of chemicals also
enhances the protection of the general public and the environment, and
Noting that workers have a need
chemicals they use at work, and

for,

and

right

to,

information

about

the

Considering that it is essential to prevent or reduce the incidence of chemically


induced illnesses and injuries at work by:
(a) ensuring that all chemicals are evaluated to determine their hazards;
(b) providing employers with a mechanism to obtain from suppliers
information about the chemicals used at work so that they can implement
effective programmes to protect workers from chemical hazards;
(c) providing workers with information about the chemicals at their
workplaces, and about appropriate preventive measures so that they can
effectively participate in protective programmes;
(d) establishing principles for such programmes to ensure that chemicals
are used safely, and
Having regard to the need for co-operation within the International Programme on
Chemical Safety between the International Labour Organisation, the United Nations
Environment Programme and the World Health Organisation as well as with the Food
and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations and the United Nations
Industrial Development Organisation, and noting the relevant instruments, codes
and guide-lines promulgated by these organisations, and
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard to safety in
the use of chemicals at work, which is the fifth item on the agenda of the
session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of an international
Convention;

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adopts this twenty-fifth day of June of the year one thousand nine hundred and
ninety the following Convention, which may be cited as the Chemicals Convention,
1990:

PART I. SCOPE AND DEFINITIONS

Article 1
1. This Convention
chemicals are used.

applies

to

all

branches

of

economic

activity

in

which

2. The competent authority of a Member ratifying this Convention after consulting


the most representative organisations of employers and workers concerned, and on
the basis of an assessment of the hazards involved and the protective measures to
be applied:
(a) may exclude particular branches of economic activity undertakings or
products from the application of the Convention, or certain provisions
thereof, when:
(i) special problems of a substantial nature arise; and
(ii) the overall protection afforded in pursuance of national law and
practice is not inferior to that which would result from the full
application of the provisions of the Convention;
(b) shall make special provision to protect confidential information whose
disclosure to a competitor would be liable to cause harm to an employer's
business so long as the safety and health of workers are not compromised
thereby.
3. This Convention does not apply to articles which will not expose workers to a
hazardous chemical under normal or reasonably foreseeable conditions of use.
4. This Convention does not apply to organisms, but does apply to chemicals
derived from organisms.

Article 2
For the purposes of this Convention:
(a) the term chemicals means chemical elements and compounds and
mixtures thereof, whether natural or synthetic;
(b) the term hazardous chemical includes any chemical which has
been classified as hazardous in accordance with Article 6 or
for which relevant information exists to indicate that the
chemical is hazardous;
(c) the term use of chemicals at work means any work activity
which may expose a worker to a chemical, including:
(i) the production of chemicals;
(ii) the handling of chemicals;
(iii)
the storage of chemicals;
(iv) the transport of chemicals;
(v) the disposal and treatment of waste chemicals;
(vi) the release of chemicals resulting from work activities;
(vii)
the maintenance, repair and cleaning of equipment
and containers for chemicals;

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(d) the term branches of economic activity means all branches in


which workers are employed, including the public service;
(e) the term article means an object which is formed to a
specific shape or design during its manufacture or which is in
its natural shape, and whose use in that form is dependent in
whole or in part on its shape or design;
(f) the term workers' representatives means persons who are
recognised as such by national law or practice, in accordance
with the Workers' Representatives Convention, 1971.

PART II. GENERAL PRINCIPLES

Article 3
The most representative organisations of employers and workers
concerned shall be consulted on the measures to be taken to give
effect to the provisions of this Convention.

Article 4
In the light of national conditions and practice and in
consultation
with
the
most
representative
organisations
of
employers and workers, each Member shall formulate, implement and
periodically review a coherent policy on safety in the use of
chemicals at work.

Article 5
The competent authority shall have the power, if justified on
safety and health grounds, to prohibit or restrict the use of
certain hazardous chemicals, or to require advance notification and
authorisation before such chemicals are used.

PART III. CLASSIFICATION AND RELATED MEASURES

Article 6
CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS
1. Systems and specific criteria appropriate for the classification
of all chemicals according to the type and degree of their
intrinsic health and physical hazards and for assessing the
relevance of the information required to determine whether a
chemical is hazardous shall be established by the competent
authority, or by a body approved or recognised by the competent
authority, in accordance with national or international standards.

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2. The hazardous properties of mixtures composed of two or more


chemicals may be determined by assessments based on the intrinsic
hazards of their component chemicals.
3. In the case of transport, such systems and criteria shall take
into account the United Nations Recommendations on the transport of
dangerous goods.
4. The classification
progressively extended.

systems

and

their

application

shall

be

Article 7
LABELLING AND MARKING
1. All chemicals shall be marked so as to indicate their identity.
2. Hazardous chemicals shall in addition be labelled, in a way
easily understandable to the workers, so as to provide essential
information regarding their classification, the hazards they
present and the safety precautions to be observed.
3.
(1)
Requirements
for
marking
or
labelling
chemicals
pursuant to paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall be
established by the competent authority, or by a body approved
or recognised by the competent authority, in accordance with
national or international standards.
(2)
In the case of transport, such requirements shall take
into account the United Nations Recommendations on the
transport of dangerous goods.

Article 8
CHEMICAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS
1. For hazardous chemicals, chemical safety data sheets containing
detailed essential information regarding their identity, supplier
classification,
hazards,
safety
precautions
and
emergency
procedures shall be provided to employers.
2. Criteria for the preparation of chemical safety data sheets
shall be established by the competent authority, or by a body
approved or recognised by the competent authority, in accordance
with national or international standards.
3. The chemical or common name used to identify the chemical on the
chemical safety data sheet shall be the same as that used on the
label.

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Article 9
RESPONSIBILITIES OF SUPPLIERS
1. Suppliers of chemicals, whether manufacturers, importers or
distributors, shall ensure that:
(a) such chemicals have been classified in accordance with
Article 6 on the basis of knowledge of their properties and a
search of available information or assessed in accordance with
paragraph 3 below;
(b) such chemicals are marked so as to indicate their identity
in accordance with Article 7, paragraph 1;
(c) hazardous chemicals they supply are labelled in accordance
with Article 7, paragraph 2;
(d) chemical safety data sheets are prepared for such
hazardous chemicals in accordance with Article 8, paragraph 1,
and provided to employers.
2. Suppliers of hazardous chemicals shall ensure that revised
labels and chemical safety data sheets are prepared and provided to
employers, by a method which accords with national law and
practice, whenever new relevant safety and health information
becomes available.
3. Suppliers of chemicals which have not yet been classified in
accordance with Article 6 shall identify the chemicals they supply
and assess the properties of these chemicals on the basis of a
search of available information in order to determine whether they
are hazardous chemicals.

PART IV. RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS

Article 10
IDENTIFICATION
1. Employers shall ensure that all chemicals used at work are
labelled or marked as required by Article 7 and that chemical
safety data sheets have been provided as required by Article 8 and
are made available to workers and their representatives.
2. Employers receiving chemicals that have not been labelled or
marked as required under Article 7, or for which chemical safety
data sheets have not been provided as required under Article 8
shall obtain the relevant information from the supplier or from
other reasonably available sources, and shall not use the chemicals
until such information is obtained.
3. Employers shall ensure that only chemicals which are classified
in accordance with Article 6 or identified and assessed in
accordance with Article 9, paragraph 3, and labelled or marked in

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

accordance with Article 7 are used and


precautions are taken when they are used.

that

any

necessary

4. Employers shall maintain a record of hazardous chemicals used at


the workplace, cross-referenced to the appropriate chemical safety
data sheets. This record shall be accessible to all workers
concerned and their representatives.

Article 11
TRANSFER OF CHEMICALS
Employers shall ensure that when chemicals are transferred into
other containers or equipment, the contents are indicated in a
manner which will make known to workers their identity, any hazards
associated with their use and any safety precautions to be
observed.

Article 12
EXPOSURE
Employers shall:
(a) ensure that workers are not exposed to chemicals to an
extent which exceeds exposure limits or other exposure
criteria for the evaluation and control of the working
environment established by the competent authority, or by a
body approved or recognised by the competent authority, in
accordance with national or international standards;
(b) assess the exposure of workers to hazardous chemicals;
(c) monitor and record the exposure of workers to hazardous
chemicals when this is necessary to safeguard their safety and
health or as may be prescribed by the competent authority;
(d) ensure that the records of the monitoring of the working
environment and of the exposure of workers using hazardous
chemicals are kept for a period prescribed by the competent
authority and are accessible to the workers and their
representatives.

Article 13
OPERATIONAL CONTROL
1. Employers shall make an assessment of the risks arising from the
use of chemicals at work, and shall protect workers against such
risks by appropriate means, such as:
(a) the choice of chemicals that eliminate or minimise the
risk;
(b) the choice of technology that eliminates or minimises the
risk;
(c) the use of adequate engineering control measures;
(d) the adoption of working systems and practices that
eliminate or minimise the risk;

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

(e) the adoption of adequate occupational hygiene measures;


(f) where recourse to the above measures does not suffice, the
provision and proper maintenance of personal protective
equipment and clothing at no cost to the worker, and the
implementation of measures to ensure their use.
2. Employers shall:
(a) limit exposure to hazardous chemicals so as to protect the
safety and health of workers;
(b) provide first aid;
(c) make arrangements to deal with emergencies. Article 14
DISPOSAL
Hazardous chemicals which are no longer required and containers
which have been emptied but which may contain residues of hazardous
chemicals, shall be handled or disposed of in a manner which
eliminates or minimises the risk to safety and health and to the
environment, in accordance with national law and practice.

Article 15
INFORMATION AND TRAINING
Employers shall:
(a) inform the workers of the hazards associated with exposure
to chemicals used at the workplace;
(b) instruct the workers how to obtain and use the information
provided on labels and chemical safety data sheets;
(c) use the chemical safety data sheets, along with
information specific to the workplace, as a basis for the
preparation of instructions to workers, which should be
written if appropriate;
(d) train the workers on a continuing basis in the practices
and procedures to be followed for safety in the use of
chemicals at work.

Article 16
CO-OPERATION
Employers, in discharging their responsibilities, shall co-operate
as closely as possible with workers or their representatives with
respect to safety in the use of chemicals at work.

PART V. DUTIES OF WORKERS

Article 17
1. Workers shall co-operate as closely as possible with their
employers
in
the
discharge
by
the
employers
of
their
responsibilities and comply with all procedures and practices
relating to safety in the use of chemicals at work.

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2. Workers shall take all reasonable steps to eliminate or minimise


risk to themselves and to others from the use of chemicals at work.

PART VI. RIGHTS OF WORKERS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIVES

Article 18
1. Workers shall have the right to remove themselves from danger
resulting from the use of chemicals when they have reasonable
justification to believe there is an imminent and serious risk to
their safety or health, and shall inform their supervisor
immediately.
2. Workers who remove themselves from danger in accordance with the
provisions of the previous paragraph or who exercise any other
rights under this Convention shall be protected against undue
consequences.
3. Workers concerned and their representatives shall have the right
to:
(a) information on the identity of chemicals used at work, the
hazardous properties of such chemicals, precautionary measures
education and training;
(b) the information contained in labels and markings;
(c) chemical safety data sheets;
(d) any other information required to be kept by this
Convention.
4. Where disclosure of the specific identity of an ingredient of a
chemical mixture to a competitor would be liable to cause harm to
the employer's business, the employer may, in providing the
information required under paragraph 3 above, protect that identity
in a manner approved by the competent authority under Article 1
paragraph 2 (b).

PART VII. RESPONSIBILITY OF EXPORTING STATES

Article 19
When in an exporting member State all or some uses of hazardous
chemicals are prohibited for reasons of safety and health at work
this fact and the reasons for it shall be communicated by the
exporting member State to any importing country.

Part VIII. Final Provisions

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Article 20
The formal ratifications of this Convention shall be communicated
to the Director-General of the International Labour Office for
registration.

Article 21
1. This Convention shall be binding only upon those Members of the
International Labour Organisation whose ratifications have been
registered with the Director-General.
2. It shall come into force twelve months after the date on which
the ratifications of two Members have been registered with the
Director-General.
3. Thereafter, this Convention shall come into force for any Member
twelve months after the date on which its ratification has been
registered.

Article 22
1. A Member which has ratified this Convention may denounce
after the expiration of ten years from the date on which
Convention first comes into force, by an act communicated to
Director-General
of
the
International
Labour
Office
registration. Such denunciation shall not take effect until
year after the date on which it is registered.

it
the
the
for
one

2. Each Member which has ratified this Convention and which does
not, within the year following the expiration of the period of ten
years mentioned in the preceding paragraph, exercise the right of
denunciation provided for in this Article, will be bound for
another period of ten years and, thereafter, may denounce this
Convention at the expiration of each period of ten years under the
terms provided for in this Article.

Article 23
1. The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall
notify all Members of the International Labour Organisation of the
registration of all ratifications and denunciations communicated to
him by the Members of the Organisation.
2. When notifying the Members of the Organisation of the
registration of the second ratification communicated to him, the
Director-General shall draw the attention of the Members of the

Page 18 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

Organisation to the date upon which the Convention will come into
force.

Article 24
The Director-General of the International Labour Office shall
communicate to the Secretary-General of the United Nations for
registration in accordance with Article 102 of the Charter of the
United Nations full particulars of all ratifications and acts of
denunciation registered by him in accordance with the provisions of
the preceding Articles.

Article 25
At such times as it may consider necessary the Governing Body of
the International Labour Office shall present to the General
Conference a report on the working of this Convention and shall
examine the desirability of placing on the agenda of the Conference
the question of its revision in whole or in part.

Article 26
1. Should the Conference adopt a new Convention revising this
Convention in whole or in part, then, unless the new Convention
otherwise provides:
(a) the ratification by a Member of the new revising
Convention shall ipso jure involve the immediate denunciation
of this Convention, notwithstanding the provisions of Article
22 above, if and when the new revising Convention shall have
come into force;
(b) as from the date when the new revising Convention comes
into force this Convention shall cease to be open to
ratification by the Members.
2. This Convention shall in any case remain in force in its actual
form and content for those Members which have ratified it but have
not ratified the revising Convention.

Article 27
The English and French versions of the text of this Convention are
equally authoritative.

Chemicals Recommendation, 1990, No. 177


PREAMBLE
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The General Conference of the International Labour Organisation,


Having been convened at Geneva by the Governing Body of the
International Labour Office, and having met In Its 77th Session on
6 June 1990, and
Having decided upon the adoption of certain proposals with regard
to safety in the use of chemicals at work, which is the fifth item
on the agenda of the session, and
Having determined that these proposals shall take the form of a
Recommendation supplementing the Chemicals Convention, 1990;
adopts this twenty-fifth day of June of the year one thousand nine
hundred and ninety the following Recommendation, which may be cited
as the Chemicals Recommendation, 1990.

I. GENERAL PROVISIONS
1. The provisions of this Recommendation should be applied in
conjunction with those of the Chemicals Convention, 1990 (hereafter
referred to as "the Convention").
2. The most representative organisations of employers and workers
concerned should be consulted on the measures to be taken to give
effect to the provisions of this Recommendation.
3. The competent authority should specify categories of workers who
for reasons of safety and health are not allowed to use specified
chemicals or are allowed to use them only under conditions
prescribed in accordance with national laws or regulations.
4. The provisions of this Recommendation should also apply to such
self-employed persons as may be specified by national laws or
regulations.
5. The special provisions established by the competent authority to
protect confidential information, under Article 1, paragraph 2(b)
and Article 18, paragraph 4, of the Convention, should:
(a) limit the disclosure of confidential information to those
who have a need related to workers' safety and health;
(b) ensure that those who obtain confidential information
agree to use it only to address safety and health needs and
otherwise to protect its confidentiality;
(c)
provide
that
relevant
confidential
information
be
disclosed immediately in an emergency;
(d) provide for procedures to consider promptly the validity
of the confidentiality claim and of the need for the

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

information withheld where there is a disagreement regarding


disclosure.

II. CLASSIFICATION AND RELATED MEASURES


CLASSIFICATION
6. The criteria for the classification of chemicals established
pursuant to Article 6, paragraph 1, of the Convention should be
based upon the characteristics of chemicals including:
(a) toxic properties, including both acute and chronic health
effects in all parts of the body;
(b) chemical or physical characteristics, including flammable
explosive, oxidising and dangerously reactive properties;
(c) corrosive and irritant properties;
(d) allergenic and sensitising effects;
(e) carcinogenic effects;
(f) teratogenic and mutagenic effects;
(g) effects on the reproductive system.
7.
(1) As far as is reasonably practicable, the competent
authority
should
compile
and
periodically
update
a
consolidated list of the chemical elements and compounds used
at work, together with relevant hazard information.
(2) For chemical elements and compounds not yet included in
the consolidated list, the manufacturers or importers should,
unless exempted, be required to transmit to the competent
authority, prior to use at work, and in a manner consistent
with the protection of confidential information under Article
1, paragraph 2 (b), of the Convention, such information as is
necessary for the maintenance of the list.

LABELLING AND MARKING


8.
(1) The requirements for the labelling and marking of
chemicals established pursuant to Article 7 of the Convention,
should be such as to enable persons handling or using
chemicals to recognise and distinguish between them both when
receiving and when using them, so that they may be used
safely.
(2) The labelling requirements for hazardous chemicals should,
in conformity with existing national or international systems,
cover:
(a) the information to be given on the label including as
appropriate:
(i) trade names;
(ii) identity of the chemical;
(iii) name, address and telephone number of the supplier;
Page 21 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

(iv) hazard symbols;


(v) nature of the special risks associated with the use of the
chemical;
(vi) safety precautions;
(vii) identification of the batch;
(viii) the statement that a chemical safety data sheet giving
additional information is available from the employer;
(ix) the classification assigned under the system established
by the competent authority;
(b) the legibility, durability and size of the label;
(c) the uniformity of labels and symbols, including colours.
(3) The label should be easily understandable by workers.
(4) In the case of chemicals not covered by subparagraph (2)
above the marking may be limited to the identity of the
chemical.
9. Where it is impracticable to label or mark a chemical in view of
the size of the container or the nature of the package, provision
should be made for other effective means of recognition such as
tagging or accompanying documents. However, all containers of
hazardous chemicals should indicate the hazards of the contents
through appropriate wording or symbols.

CHEMICAL SAFETY DATA SHEETS


10.
(1) The criteria for the preparation of chemical safety data
sheets for hazardous chemicals should ensure that they contain
essential information including, as applicable:
(a) chemical product and company identification (including
trade or common name of the chemical and details of the
supplier or manufacturer);
(b) composition/information on ingredients (in a way that
clearly identifies them for the purpose of conducting a hazard
evaluation);
(c) hazards identification;
(d) first-aid measures;
(e) fire-fighting measures;
(f) accidental release measures;
(g) handling and storage;
(h) exposure controls/personal protection (including possible
methods of monitoring workplace exposure);
(i) physical and chemical properties;
(j) stability and reactivity;
(k) toxicological information (including the potential routes
of entry into the body and the possibility of synergism with
other chemicals or hazards encountered at work);
(l) ecological information;
(m) disposal considerations;

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(n) transport information;


(o) regulatory information;
(p) other information (including the date of preparation of
the chemical safety data sheet).
(2) Where the names or concentrations of the ingredients
referred to in subparagraph (1) (b) above constitute
confidential information they may, in accordance with Article
1, paragraph 2 (b), of the Convention, be omitted from the
chemical safety data sheet. In accordance with Paragraph 5 of
this Recommendation the information should be disclosed on
request and in writing to the competent authority and to
concerned employers, workers and their representatives who
agree to use the information only for the protection of
workers' safety and health and not otherwise to disclose it.

III. RESPONSIBILITIES OF EMPLOYERS


MONITORING OF EXPOSURE
11.
(1) Where workers are exposed to hazardous chemicals, the
employer should be required to:
(a) limit exposure to such chemicals so as to protect the
health of workers;
(b)
assess,
monitor
and
record,
as
necessary,
the
concentration of airborne chemicals at the workplace,
(2) Workers and their representatives and the competent
authority should have access to these records.
(3) Employers should keep the records provided for in this
Paragraph for a period of time determined by the competent
authority.

OPERATIONAL CONTROL WITHIN THE WORKPLACE


12.
(1) Measures should be taken by employers to protect workers
against hazards arising from the use of chemicals at work,
based upon the criteria established pursuant to Paragraphs 13
to 16 below.
(2) In accordance with the Tripartite Declaration of
Principles concerning Multinational Enterprises and Social
Policy, adopted by the Governing Body of the International
Labour Office, a national or multinational enterprise with
more than one establishment should provide safety measures
relating to the prevention and control of and protection
against, health hazards due to occupational exposure to
hazardous chemicals, without discrimination, to the workers in
all its establishments regardless of the place or country in
which they are situated.
Page 23 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

13. The competent authority should ensure that criteria are


established for safety in the use of hazardous chemicals, including
provisions covering, as applicable:
(a) the risk of acute or chronic diseases due to entry into
the body by inhalation, skin absorption or ingestion;
(b) the risk of injury or disease from skin or eye contact;
(c) the risk of injury from fire, explosion or other events
resulting from physical properties or chemical reactivity;
(d) the precautionary measures to be taken through:
(i) the choice of chemicals that eliminate or minimise such
risks;
(ii) the choice of processes, technology and installations
that eliminate or minimise such risks;
(iii) the use and proper maintenance of engineering control
measures;
(iv) the adoption of working systems and practices that
eliminate or minimise such risks;
(v) the adoption of adequate personal hygiene measures and
provision of adequate sanitary facilities;
(vi) the provision, maintenance and use of suitable personal
protective equipment and clothing, at no cost to the worker
where the above measures have not proved sufficient to
eliminate such risks;
(vii) the use of signs and notices;
(viii) adequate preparations for emergencies.
14. The competent authority should ensure that criteria are
established for safety in the storage of hazardous chemicals
including provisions covering, as applicable:
(a) the compatibility and segregation of stored chemicals;
(b) the properties and quantity of chemicals to be stored;
(c) the security and siting of and access to stores;
(d) the construction, nature and integrity of storage
containers;
(e) loading and unloading of storage containers;
(f) labelling and relabelling requirements;
(g) precautions against accidental release, fire, explosion
and chemical reactivity;
(h) temperature, humidity and ventilation;
(i) precautions and procedures in case of spillage;
(j) emergency procedures;
(k) possible physical and chemical changes in stored
chemicals.
15. The competent authority should ensure that criteria consistent
with
national
or
international
transport
regulations
are
established for the safety of workers involved in the transport of
hazardous chemicals, including provisions covering, as applicable:
(a)
the
properties
and
quantity
of
chemicals
to
be
transported;

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

(b) the nature, integrity and protection of packagings and


containers used in transport, including pipelines;
(c) the specifications of the vehicle used in transport;
(d) the routes to be taken;
(e) the training and qualifications of transport workers;
(f) labelling requirements;
(g) loading and unloading;
(h) procedures in case of spillage.
16.
(1) The competent authority should ensure that criteria
consistent
with
national
or
international
regulations
regarding disposal of hazardous waste are established for
procedures to be followed in the disposal and treatment of
hazardous chemicals and hazardous waste products with a view
to ensuring the safety of workers.
(2) These criteria should include provisions covering, as
applicable:
(a) the method of identification of waste products;
(b) the handling of contaminated containers;
(c) the identification, construction, nature, integrity and
protection of waste containers;
(d) the effects on the working environment;
(e) the demarcation of disposal areas;
(f) the provision, maintenance and use of personal protective
equipment and clothing;
(g) the method of disposal or treatment.
17. The criteria for the use of chemicals at work established
pursuant
to
the
provisions
of
the
Convention
and
this
Recommendation should be as consistent as possible with the
protection of the general public and the environment and any
criteria established for that purpose.

MEDICAL SURVEILLANCE
18.
(1) The employer, or the institution competent under national
law and practice, should be required to arrange, through a
method which accords with national law and practice, such
medical surveillance of workers as is necessary:
(a) for the assessment of the health of workers in relation to
hazards caused by exposure to chemicals;
(b) for the diagnosis of work-related diseases and injuries
caused by exposure to hazardous chemicals.
(2) Where the results of medical tests or investigations
reveal clinical or preclinical effects, measures should be
taken to prevent or reduce exposure of the workers concerned,
and to prevent further deterioration of their health.

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(3) The results of medical examinations should be used to


determine health status with respect to exposure to chemicals,
and should not be used to discriminate against the worker.
(4) Records resulting from medical surveillance of workers
should be kept for a period of time and by persons prescribed
by the competent authority.
(5) Workers should have access to their own medical records,
either personally or through their own physicians.
(6) The confidentiality of individual medical records should
be respected in accordance with generally accepted principles
of medical ethics.
(7) The results of medical examinations should be clearly
explained to the workers concerned.
(8) Workers and their representatives should have access to
the results of studies prepared from medical records, where
individual workers cannot be identified.
(9) The results of medical records should be made available to
prepare appropriate health statistics and epidemiological
studies provided anonymity is maintained, where this may aid
in the recognition and control of occupational diseases.

FIRST AID AND EMERGENCIES


19. In accordance with any requirements laid down by the competent
authority, employers should be required to maintain procedures
including first-aid arrangements, to deal with emergencies and
accidents resulting from the use of hazardous chemicals at work and
to ensure that workers are trained in these procedures.

IV. CO-OPERATION
20. Employers, workers and their representatives should co-operate
as closely as possible in the application of measures prescribed
pursuant to this Recommendation.
21. Workers should be required to:
(a) take care as far as possible of their own safety and
health and of that of other persons who may be affected by
their acts or omissions at work in accordance with their
training and with instructions given by their employer;
(b) use properly all devices provided for their protection or
the protection of others;
(c) report forthwith to their supervisor any situation which
they believe could present a risk, and which they cannot
properly deal with themselves.
22. Publicity material concerning hazardous chemicals intended for
use at work should call attention to their hazards and the
necessity to take precautions.
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23. Suppliers should, on Request, provide employers with such


information as is available and required for the evaluation of any
unusual hazards which might result from a particular use of a
chemical at work.

V. RIGHTS OF WORKERS
24.
(1) Workers and their representatives should have the right
to:
(a) obtain chemical safety data sheets and other information
from the employer so as to enable them to take adequate
precautions, in co-operation with their employer, to protect
workers against risks from the use of hazardous chemicals at
work;
(b) request and participate in an investigation by the
employer or the competent authority of possible risks
resulting from the use of chemicals at work.
(2) Where the information requested is confidential in
accordance with Article 1, paragraph 2 (b), and Article 18,
paragraph 4, of the Convention, employers may require the
workers or workers' representatives to limit its use to the
evaluation and control of possible risks arising from the use
of chemicals at work, and to take reasonable steps to ensure
that
this
information
is
not
disclosed
to
potential
competitors.
(3) Having regard to the Tripartite Declaration of Principles
concerning
Multinational
Enterprises
and
Social
Policy
multinational enterprises should make available, upon request,
to workers concerned workers' representatives, the competent
authority and employers' and workers' organisations in all
countries in which they operate, information on the standards
and procedures related to the use of hazardous chemicals
relevant to their local operations which they observe in other
countries.
25.
(1) Workers should have the right:
(a) to bring to the attention of their representatives, the
employer or the competent authority, potential hazards arising
from the use of chemicals at work;
(b) to remove themselves from danger resulting from the use of
chemicals when they have reasonable justification to believe
there is an imminent and serious risk to their safety or
health, and should inform their supervisor immediately;
(c) in the case of a health condition, such as chemical
sensitisation, placing them at increased risk of harm from a
hazardous chemical, to alternative work not involving that
chemical, if such work is available and if the workers

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

concerned have the qualifications or can reasonably be trained


for such alternative work;
(d) to compensation if the case referred to in subparagraph
(1) (c) results in loss of employment;
(e) to adequate medical treatment and compensation for
injuries and diseases resulting from the use of chemicals at
work.
(2) Workers who remove themselves from danger in accordance
with the provisions of subparagraph (1) (b) or who exercise
any of their rights under this Recommendation should be
protected against undue consequences.
(3) Where workers have removed themselves from danger in
accordance with subparagraph (1) (b), the employer, in cooperation with workers and their representatives, should
immediately investigate the risk and take any corrective steps
necessary.
(4) Women workers should have the right, in the case of
pregnancy or lactation, to alternative work not involving the
use of, or exposure to, chemicals hazardous to the health of
the unborn or nursing child, where such work is available, and
the right to return to their previous jobs at the appropriate
time.
26. Workers should receive:
(a) information on the classification and labelling of
chemicals and on chemical safety data sheets in forms and
languages which they easily understand;
(b) information on the risks which may arise from the use of
hazardous chemicals in the course of their work;
(c) instruction, written or oral, based on the chemical safety
data sheet and specific to the workplace if appropriate;
(d) training and, where necessary, retraining in the methods
which are available for the prevention and control of, and for
protection against, such risks, including correct methods of
storage, transport and waste disposal as well as emergency and
first-aid measures.

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SECTION 2. WHAT IS TOXICOLOGY


1. What is toxicology?
Toxicology is the science of adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms. Living organisms
include the algae in the sea, animals and people, all flora and fauna. There are no safe substances, all
chemicals can be poisonous and cause injury or death. But they can be used safely: the effect depends on
the dose and exposure. It is possible by limiting these to handle and benefit from the properties of chemical
substances in an `acceptably safe' way. Toxicological studies aim to assess the adverse effects related to
different doses in order to find this `acceptably safe' level.
The work is carried out in two phases: first by collecting data on the properties of chemicals, results of studies
and accidental misuse of chemicals, second by predicting the effects of chemicals in different situations.
To make relevant predictions there must be information available on:

the substance and its chemical and physical properties


the biological system affected
the effects or response caused by the substance
the exposure (dose, time, situation)

This information is obtained from laboratory tests with cells, bacteria, animals and from accidents involving
the substance.
Large amounts of toxicological information are collected into data bases and data banks.

2. Exposure
To have an adverse effect a substance must be able to enter the system. The exposure depends of the
amount of substance and the period during which it affects the target, e.g. humans, animals or bacteria.

2.1 Routes
The major routes through which the toxic substances may enter the body, under normal working condition,
are: inhalation, through the skin and ingestion.
For many substances the greatest effects and the most rapid responses occurs when the substance is
inserted directly into the blood circulation. In toxicological animal experiments the routes of exposure may be:

Inhalation (breathing in)


Absorption (through the skin or eyes)
Ingestion, oral (eating, swallowing)
Transfer across the placenta to the unborn baby
Intravenous (injection into the vein)
Intramuscular (injection into the muscle)
Subcutaneous (injection under the skin)

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Intraperitoneal (injection inside the membrane that lines the interior wall of the abdomen)

2.2 LD50 and LC50


For different substances the doses needed to produce an adverse effect varies widely. LD50 values are used
to compare acute toxicity.
Classification may be based on the LD50 and LC50 values (see Annex 8A in 'Identification, Classification and
Labelling of Chemicals' and 'Major Hazard Chemicals'). The assessment of the effects is tested in laboratories
using animals, mainly rats, mice and rabbits.
The test substance or preparation may be applied to the animal orally, under the skin, by inhalation, into the
abdomen or into the vein. LD50 and LC50 are the parameters used to quantify the results of different tests so
that they may be compared.
LD50 is the abbreviation used for the dose which kills 50% of the test population.
LC50 is the abbreviation used for the exposure concentration of a toxic substance lethal to half of the test
animals.
LD50 is expressed in milligrams per kilogram of body weight of the test animal (which must be mentioned).
LC50 is expressed in millilitres per kilogram of body weight of the test animal (which must be mentioned),
exposed to the substance by inhalation during a specified period. The variation in the numerical values of
LD50 and LC50 is wide.
The following list describes the variation in LD50 values measured in ingestion studies on the rat:
________________________________________
Substance
LD50 (mg/kg,
oral, rat)
________________________________________
Vitamin C
11 900
Ethyl alcohol ('alcohol') 7 060
Citric acid
5 040
Sodium chloride (table
3 000
salt)
Ferrous sulphate
320
Dieldrin
38
Parathion
2
Dioxin (contaminant in
0.02
herbicide)
________________________________________
It is important to mention the species on which the test was conducted because the numerical values of LD50
and LC50 depend on several factors, such as the biological system or animal, strain, sex, age and diet. The
LD50 of DDT insecticide administered orally is 87 mg/kg of body weight for a rat but 150 mg/kg of body weight
for a dog. The LD50 for dioxin is 0.02 mg/kg of body weight for a rat and 0.001 mg/kg of body weight for a
dog, i.e. the rat is twenty times more tolerant than the dog.
The assessment of how a human system would react is not straightforward estimation from the animal tests.
However, the animal test gives an idea of the level of the toxic effects.

2.3 Limit values

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


In order to control toxic effects, there is a need to set priorities, goals and strategies. In places of work one
way is to set limit values to guide the users. Occupational limit values are based on the best available
information from industrial experience, from experimental laboratory studies and from accidents. They are
informed and negotiated compromises, not fixed safety standards.
There are different kinds of limit values. The TLVs (Threshold Limit Values) are published by the American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and concern the airborne concentrations of
hazardous substances. They set a limit concentration below which it is believed that nearly all workers can be
repeatedly exposed day after day without adverse effect. The TLVs are regularly reviewed and corrected
when new information becomes available.
TLV-TWA (Threshold Limit Value - Time Weighted Average) is a time-weighted average concentration
for an eight hour working day or 40 hours a week to which nearly all workers may be repeatedly
exposed without adverse effect.
TLV-STEL (Threshold Limit Value - Short Term Exposure Limit) is the concentration to which workers
may be exposed for a short time (usually 15 minutes) without suffering from irritation, long-term or
irreversible tissue damage or impairment likely to increase accidental injury, affect self-rescue or
reduce work efficiency. Daily TLV-TWA values should not be exceeded.
TLV-C (Threshold Limit Value - Ceiling) is a concentration that should not be exceeded at all during
work exposure.

3. What are the responses of a system when exposed to poisons?


The human body needs very small quantities of some chemicals that are poisonous in large doses. This
applies, for example, to some metals, such as copper, magnesium and manganese, which pose a problem in
places of work. The adverse effect is strongly related to the dose. The ultimate effect is death. Usually the
effects of toxic chemicals are less severe, from altered food consumption to serious health problems.

3.1 Human body


The effects may be immediate or delayed, and they may be reversible or irreversible toxic effects (see Part 1.,
Introduction to Safety in the Use of Chemicals).

Local/systemic toxicity
There are two main ways in which chemicals may exert their effects. Local effects occur at the area of the
body which has been in contact with the chemical. Examples are injuries from acids or lung injuries from
inhaled reactive gases. Systemic effects occur after the chemical has been absorbed and distributed from the
entry point to other parts of the body. Most substances produce systemic effects, but some substances may
cause both types of effects. An example is tetraethyl lead, which is a gasoline additive and produces skin
effects at the contact site. It is absorbed and transported into the body causing typical effects on the central
nervous system and on other organs.

Target organs
The degree of the toxic effect is not the same in all organs. Usually there are one or two organs which show
the major toxic effect. These are referred as target organs of toxicity of the particular substance. The central
nervous system is the target organ of toxicity most frequently involved in systemic effects. The blood
circulation system, liver, kidneys, lungs and skin follow in frequency of systemic effects. Muscle and bones are
the target organs for a few substances. The male and female reproduction systems are vulnerable to many
substances.

Skin is the largest organ in the human body, 1.5-2 m 2 in area. It provides a protective cover to the
body but can fail if the load is overwhelming. A number of substances can penetrate healthy intact

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


skin and enter the blood circulation. Phenol is a substance that may even result in death after
exposure and penetration through the skin. The vast majority of work-related skin diseases are
contact eczemas, irritation and inflammation of the skin. This condition can be either a non-allergic or
allergic reaction to exposure to chemical substances. Examples of common contact sensitizers are
several colorants and dyes, metals such as nickel and its salts, chromium and cobalt salts and
organomercuric compounds, monomers of a number of acrylates and methacrylates, rubber additives
and pesticides. In practice chemical skin injury is also influenced by environmental conditions such as
humidity and heat.
The lung is the major route through which toxic substances in the workplace enter the body. It is also
the first organ to be affected by dusts, metal fumes, solvent vapours and corrosive gases. Allergic
reactions may be caused by substances such as cotton dust, TDI (toluene diisocyanate, used in the
manufacture of polyurethane plastics), and MIC (methylisocyanate, used in production of carbaryl
insecticide). In a catastrophic chemical accident in Bhopal, India, in 1984, more than 2000 people
died from exposure to MIC. Allergic reactions may result from exposure to bacteria or fungi: this is the
case in allergies from handling stocked hay (`farmer's lung') or dried sugar cane. When dust particles
of a certain size of some substances are inhaled the lungs are unable to remove them. They become
embedded in the lung causing a condition called pneumoconiosis. Pneumoconiosis is mainly a
problem for workers exposed to the dust of silica (quartz) and asbestos, and is the commonest nonmalignant occupational lung disease throughout the world. Other substances, such as formaldehyde,
sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and acid mists may cause irritation and reduce the breathing
capacity.
The nervous system, the `mystery of matter and mind', is sensitive to the hazardous effects of organic
solvents. Some metals affect the nervous system, especially heavy metals such as lead, mercury and
manganese. Organophosphate insecticides such as malathion and parathion interfere severely with
information transmission (chemical neurotransmitter function) in the nervous system, leading to
weakness, paralysis and sometimes death.
The blood circulation is a target for the adverse effects of solvents. Blood cells are mainly produced in
the bone marrow. Benzene affects the bone marrow; the first sign is mutation in the blood cells called
lymphocytes. To study mutation, lymphocytes are cultured in the laboratory to observe specific types
of cellular changes. Lead, in the form of the metal or its compounds, is another classic example of a
chemical that may cause blood problems. Lead in the blood may inhibit certain enzyme activities
involved in the production of hemoglobin in red blood cells. Chronic lead poisoning may result in a
reduced ability of the blood to distribute oxygen through the body, a condition known as anaemia.
The liver is the largest of the internal organs in the body and has several important functions. It is a
purification plant which breaks down unwanted substances in the blood. The liver has a considerable
reserve capacity; symptoms of liver disorder appear only in serious diseases. Solvents such as
carbon tetrachloride, chloroform and vinyl chloride, as well as alcohol, are hazardous to the liver.
The kidneys are part of the body's urinary system. They have the task of excreting the waste products
that the blood has transported from various organs of the body, of keeping the fluids in balance and of
ensuring that they contain an adequate blend of various necessary salts. They also maintain the
acidity of the blood at a constant level. Solvents may irritate and impair kidney function. The most
hazardous to the kidneys is carbon tetrachloride. Turpentine in large quantities is also harmful to the
kidneys: `painter's kidney' is a known condition related to occupational exposure. Other well-known
kidney- damaging substances are lead and cadmium.

Allergic reactions
An allergic reaction, or sensitization as it is also called, may appear after repeated contact to a substance.
Once the sensitization has bee produced, even very low doses can provoke a reaction. The different allergies
are numerous, varying from minor skin irritation to very severe or even fatal reactions.
The pattern of sensitization varies according to the species. In humans, the skin and the eyes are the most
common areas of allergic response, whereas, for example, in the guinea pigs reactions are more common in
the respiratory system.

Interactions

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


The effect of simultaneous exposure to two or more substances may differ from a simple additive effect
(1+1=2). Organophosphate pesticides, such as dialiphos, naled and parathion, are examples of chemicals
where the combined effect is the sum of the effects observed when the chemicals act individually.
The effect can be more than the sum of the individual effects of two chemicals (e.g., 1+1=4). An example of
an increase in risk is with asbestos fibres and cigarette smoking. They act together: the risk of developing
lung cancer after exposure to asbestos fibres is forty times greater for a smoker than for a non-smoker.
Another pair of the chemicals where the combined risk is greater than a mere additive effect are the solvents,
trichloroethylene and styrene.
The adverse effects of two substances may counteract one another (1+1=0). This effect is used to find an
antidote to a poison.
In other cases, a substance may not cause harm on its own but may make the effect of another chemical
much worse (0+1=3). For example, two commonly used solvents isopropanol and carbon tetrachloride have
this kind of joint effect. Isopropanol, at concentrations which are not harmful to the liver, increases the liver
damage caused by carbon tetrachloride.
In some cases, when the exposure to a substance is repeated the body may decrease its sensitivity to the
substance, i.e. it increases its tolerance to it.

3.2 The environment


The environment has a certain capacity to biodegrade toxic substances. However, some substances are
resistant to decomposing processes. The adverse effects increase with the concentration of these substances
and their accumulation in foodchains.
In the natural environment, large numbers of potentially toxic substances are present. In some cases, when
the substance is on its own it would cause no harm but it may interact with other toxic substances or under
specific conditions it may be concentrated or transformed to a more dangerous compound.
An example of an air pollution reaction is the production of photochemical smog. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
such as DDT and dieldrin have similar chemical and biological effects. When present together they lead to
more serious effects than when acting separately.
To assess the effects of toxic substances in the environment some indicators of ecotoxicity are used.
In laboratory, fish and insects called Daphnia (water-flea) are used to test acute toxic effects in the aquatic
environment. Green algal species are also used in the assessment of water pollution.
ANNEX 1. Factors that may influence the human reproduction system and the effects
ANNEX
2.
Substances
able
to
produce
occupational
lung
diseases
ANNEX 3. Route of absorption, distribution and excretion of potentially toxic substances
ANNEX 4. Pregnant woman at work

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARBETSMILJ (Working Environment/ The Work Environment Association), Your body at work, 2nd Ed.,
Stockholm 1987
CLAYTON G.D. and CLAYTON F.E., ed., Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 3rd Revised Ed., John
Wiley & Sons Inc., USA 1978

Page 33 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


East African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Supplement 2/ 1989, Institute of Occupational
Health, Finland 1989
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Vol I - III, Geneva
1983
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Chemical Safety, Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology,
Training Module No 1, Geneva 1992
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, How to use the IPCS Health and Safety Guides
KLAASSEN C.D., AMDUR M.O. and DOULL J., ed., Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, The Basic Science of
Poisons, 3rd Ed., Macmillan Publishing Company, New York 1986
NIOSH, RTECS Database, CCINFO Disc, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, Hamilton
1993
SAX N.I. and LEWIS R.J.Sr, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, VII ed., Nostrand Reinhold Co.,
New York 1988
SEILER H.G. and SIGEL H., Handbook of Toxicity of Inorganic Compounds, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York
1988

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

SECTION 3. IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION AND


LABELLING OF CHEMICALS
1. Introduction
The production and use of chemicals are fundamental factors in the economic development of all countries,
whether they are industrialized or developing. In one way or another, chemicals affect directly or indirectly the
lives of all humans and are essential to our feeding (fertilizers, pesticides, food additives, packing), our health
(pharmaceuticals, cleaning materials), or our well being (appliances, fuels, etc).
The first and most essential step leading to safe use of chemicals is to know their identity, to their hazards to
health and the environment and the means to control them. This knowledge should be available with
reasonable effort and cost. Furthermore, this inherently complex knowledge must be organized in such a way
that essential information on the hazards and corresponding protective measures can be identified and
conveyed to the user in a form that is easy to understand.
The hazard classification and labelling process is an essential tool for establishing an effective information
transfer so that the degree of the hazard the chemical represents for man and the environment can be
recognized, the correct preventive actions be chosen, and safe use achieved.
The International Labour Organization (ILO) has adopted the Convention No. 170 and Recommendation No.
177 on `Safety in the use of chemicals at work' in 1990.
International, regional, and national classification and labelling systems are already established and tested in
practice.

The United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods is widely recognized
and used among the UN member states.
An example of a system that has been designed for use in several countries is the classification and
labelling system of the European Communities (EC).
Several functioning national systems, such as those of Canada and USA, may also be used as
models for national systems.

This guide could be used as training material or at places of work when individual labels are checked or
prepared using the data on chemical substances listed in Annex 4. It may also serve as reference material, or
as a manual, providing basic safety information on these substances.
This guide describes the labelling system used in the countries of the European Union (EU) as an example
and the United Nations Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods is also briefly presented.
This document consists of:

EU symbols and indications of danger


EU standard risk phrases (R-phrases)
EU standard safety phrases (S-phrases)
list of dangerous substances with the classification and labelling requirements
IARC list of cancer causing substances, carcinogens
list of chemicals with properties potential to cause major hazard
list of some substances and products which are subject to a ban or restrictions in EU countries
UN list of hazard classes for transport of dangerous goods
UN symbols for transport of dangerous goods

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

2. Identification and Classification


The objective is to identify the hazardous properties of chemicals which may constitute a risk during normal
handling or use, risks to health, property or the environment.
The user of the chemicals is also to be introduced to the hazards they present and given the basic
information, in a suitable manner, such as using a properly made label.
In this document one component chemical is called a substance, a mixture composed of two or more
substances is called a preparation.
The hazards of preparations can be assessed using the information on hazards of their component
substances. (See example 2.)
For classification purposes the degree of hazard depends not only on the properties of a dangerous
substance but also on the level of exposure. This refers to the concentration of hazardous components in the
mixtures. In order to assess a preparation it is essential to know also the quantities of its hazardous minor
components.
The EU classification and labelling system used here as an example can be applied to dangerous substances
and preparations. However, this system should not be applied to medical or veterinary products, cosmetics,
munitions or explosives, pesticides specified elsewhere, waste and foodstuffs or animal feedstuffs in the
finished stage. These have their own specifications and requirements for labelling.

3. What is a hazardous chemical ?


The following properties contribute to risk to health resulting from acute, repeated or prolonged exposure:
very toxic or toxic
harmful
corrosive
irritant
cancer causing
hazards to reproduction
can cause non-heritable birth defects
sensitizing
Fire and explosion hazards may be classified as follows
explosive
oxidizing
extremely flammable
highly flammable
flammable
The following properties present a hazard to the environment and are:
toxic to living organisms
persistent in the environment
bioaccumulative
Also substances and preparations that cannot be classified by using the above system may be regarded as
dangerous if they have properties which are hazardous to health, to living organisms or if they can damage
property.

4. How to pass on the information to users?


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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


All chemicals, both substances and preparations, should have a clear marking to indicate their identity.
The packages and containers of dangerous substances and preparations should, in addition to marking only,
to have a label with required information.
The label should draw attention to the inherent danger to persons handling or using the chemical.
Symbols and pictograms have been established for each hazard category listed above. The symbol forms an
integral part of the label and gives an immediate idea of the types of hazards that the substance or the
preparation may cause. (Annex 1)
To specify the type of danger pertinent standard risk phrases should also be included in the label. (Annex 2)
Advice on the precautions necessary in the handling of chemicals are given with standard safety phrases also
included in the label. (Annex 3)

5. Where to find information about hazardous chemicals?


The chemical supplier, manufacturer or importer, should be able to provide detailed information and a Safety
Data Sheet.
In certain countries, such as those of the EU, the manufacturer or importer has the obligation to find and give
adequate information about a chemical for assessment of the health and environmental hazards of his
chemical for handling and for its labelling.
Safety data sheets have been prepared on many dangerous substances and preparations by manufacturers.
These should go together with the product to the occupational user. The information in these is not always
validated or checked.
On pure substances International Chemical Safety Cards are available. These contain validated basic
information, which may be used also for preparing safety data sheets on chemical preparations or products.
Lists of classified chemicals exist in several national legislations and regulations which provide information on
local requirements in the handling of dangerous chemicals.
The information for classification, and labels, may be obtained from tests, from literature, from practical
experience and from information requirements by international rules on the transport of dangerous
substances and wastes.
Some sources of information are listed in the bibliography.

6. How to classify for a label?


The label is the basic tool to keep the user informed on the classification and the most important safety
precautions.
This information must be given if the preparation contains at least one substance classified as dangerous to
man or the environment or if the preparation is otherwise regarded as dangerous, e.g. flammable, explosive.
(Annex 4)
In EU countries the label must clearly show

the trade name

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


the name and the address, including telephone number, of the manufacturer, the importer or the
distributor
the chemical name of the substance (in the case of a preparation, the chemical names of the
hazardous components)
danger symbols
risk phrases (R-phrases)
safety phrases (S-phrases)
the quantity of the contents of the package or container

The labels should be in the national, official language(s).


The label should show the chemical names of substances that are primarily responsible for the hazards. As a
general rule a maximum of four chemical names on the label should be sufficient.
In some cases, more than four names may be necessary; for example all cancer causing substances in the
preparation must be identified and the corresponding R- and S-phrases presented on the label.
If the preparation contains one or more of the substances requiring the following R-phrases, both the name of
the substance and the R-phrase should be mentioned in the label:
R39, R40, R42, R43, R42/43, R45, R46, R47, R48, R49, R60, R61, R62, R63, R64
As a general rule a maximum of four R-phrases and four S- phrases should suffice to describe the risks and
to formulate the most appropriate safety advice.
Symbols showing the most serious hazards should be chosen where more than one danger symbol has to be
assigned. As a general rule a maximum of two danger symbols are used.
The explanation of the letter symbols appearing in the attached lists are given below. Each letter symbol
refers to a danger symbol or pictogram in Annex 1:
Letter
symbol
E

F+

T+

Explanation
explosive
This symbol with the word 'explosive' denotes a substance which may explode under the effect of a
flame or if subjected to shocks or friction.
oxidizing
The symbol with the word 'oxidizing' refers to a substance which releases a lot of heat while it
reacts with other substances, particularly flammable substances.
highly flammable
This symbol with the words 'highly flammable' denotes a substance which may become hot and
finally catch fire in contact with air at ambient temperature or is a solid and may readily catch fire
after brief contact with the source of ignition and which continues to burn/to be consumed by
chemical reaction after removal of the source of ignition. If it is gas it may burn in air at normal
pressure. If it is a liquid it would catch fire with slight warming and exposure to a flame. In contact
with water or damp air the substance may release highly flammable gases in dangerous quantities.
extremely flammable
The same flammable symbol as above with words 'extremely flammable' denotes e.g. a liquid which
would boil at body temperature and would catch fire if vapours are exposed to a flame.
toxic
The symbol with skull and crossed bones with the word 'toxic' denotes a highly hazardous
substance.
very toxic
The same symbol as above with the words 'very toxic' is used to label a substance, which, if inhaled
or ingested or, if it penetrates the skin, may involve extremely serious immediate or long-term health

Page 38 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


risks and even death.
corrosive
The symbol with the word 'corrosive' will be found on a label of a substance which may destroy
living tissues on contact with them. Severe burns may result from splashes of such substance.
harmful (less than T)
The symbol with word 'harmful' denotes to substances which may cause health hazards less than
toxic. It could refer to other types of risks e.g. to allergic reactions.
irritant (less than C)
The same symbol as above with the word 'irritant'.

Xn

Xi

When more than one danger symbol is used


the obligation to apply symbol T or T+ will make symbols C, Xn and Xi optional
the obligation to apply symbol C will make symbols Xn and Xi optional
the obligation to apply symbol E will make symbols F and O optional
If a preparation is classified both harmful Xn and irritant Xi, it will be labelled harmful Xn, and the irritant
properties should be pointed out with appropriate R-phrases. The total amount of the substance in the
preparation has an effect in choosing the danger symbols, R- and S-phrases. (Annex 8)
Generally, no account needs to be taken of substances if they are present in following amounts, unless
another lower limit has been specifically given:

less than 0.1% by weight for substances classified as very toxic T+, or toxic T
less than 1% for substances classified as harmful Xn, corrosive C, irritant Xi,

Information such as "non-toxic", "not harmful" should not be used in the labels.
The pictorial symbol indicating danger is drawn in black and the background colour should be orange.
The dimensions of the label:
Capacity of the package

Minimum dimensions in
millimeters
52x74
74x105

Not exceeding three litres


more than three litres but not exceeding
50 litres
more than 50 litres but not exceeding 500 105x148
litres
more than 500 litres
148x210

Each danger symbol must cover at least 1/10 of the surface area of the label. The minimum size of the
danger symbol shall not be less than 10mm x 10mm.
Example 1. Classification of a substance
1,1,1-Trichloroethane, used as solvent
Classified as harmful Xn and dangerous to the environment N, with following
R-phrases and S-phrases
R 20
Harmful by inhalation.
R 59
Dangerous for the ozone layer.
S2
Keep out of the reach of children.
S 24/25 Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S 59
Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling.

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


S 61

Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special


instructions/Safety Data Sheets.
The label should carry this information. Check that the impurities do not
exceed the limit of notice for impurity substances classified toxic.

Example 2. Classification of a preparation:


A preparation used for degreasing metal parts contains following dangerous components
Dangerous substance
%
Petroleum distillate (flash point 43
35
C)
1,1,1-trichloroethane
20
Xylene (flash point over 21 C)
12
Preparation

Symbol

Risk phrases

Safety phrases

R45

S53-45

Xn,N
Xn
T,N

R20-59
R10-20/21-38
R45-10-20/21-59

S24/25-59-61
S25
S53-45-59-61

The R and S-phrases corresponding to the number codes are:


R 10
R 20
R 20/21
R 38
R 59
S 24/25
S 25
S 45
S 53
S 59
S 61

Flammable.
Harmful by inhalation.
Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin.
Irritating to skin.
Dangerous for the ozone layer.
Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
Avoid contact with eyes.
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the
label where possible)
Avoid exposure-obtain special instructions before use.
Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling.
Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/Safety Data Sheets.

7. How to compile a label?


The name, symbol, the risk phrases of that substance and the phrases for safety precaution when handling
that substance are in Annex 4.
The key to have the symbol picture is in Annex 1.
The key to have a sentence in words is for the risk phrases in Annex 2. and for the safety phrases in Annex 3.

Substance
TOLUENE

CAS number
108-88-3

Symbol
F, Xn

Risk phrase
R11-20

Safety phrase
(2-)16-25-29-33

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

HAZARD CATEGORIES OF SELECTED CLASSIFICATION


SYSTEMS
HAZARD
ILO UNRTDG EC USA CANADA
CATEGORIES
PHYSICAL HAZARDS
compressed gas
+
n
n
+
flammable
+
+
+ +
+
explosive
+
+
+ +
+
oxidizing
+
+
+ +
+
reactive
+
+
+ +
+
corrosive (materials)
+
+
n
n
+
HEALTH HAZARDS
toxic (acute)*
+
+
+ +
+
toxic (other)
+
+ +
+
irritant
+
+ +
+
corrosive (tissues)
+
+
+ +
+
sensitizer
+
+ +
+
carcinogen
+
+ +
+
reproductive effects**
+
+ +
+
mutagen
+
+ +
+
SPECIAL HAZARDS
environment
+
+
n
n

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

radioactive
infectious
miscellaneous***

+
+
+

n
n
n

n
n
n

n
n
n

LEGEND:
+ : defined category
n : defined under other legislation or code
- : not defined
* : includes oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity
** : includes reproductive and developmental toxicity
*** : specific to UN RTDG; included in national transport legislation

Definitions of data components in labels


COMPONENTS
FORMAT

ILO
none defined

UN RTDG
size of labels
varies with
transport mode.

EC
USA
Minimum label
none defined
dimensions are
defined for
different package
capacities;
contrasted danger
symbols and
background (black
on yellow
background);
language must be
that of the country
where the product
is put on market.

CANADA
1. Supplier
label:must appear
on all controlled
products received at
work-places;
required
information must be
set aside from sales
information;
surrounded by
WHMIS ; must be
printed in
contrasting colours;
must have all texts
in English and
French.

2. Workplace
label:must appear
on all products
produced in a
workplace or
transferred to other
containers by the
employer; may
appear in placard
form on products
received in bulk.
DATA ELEMENTS 1. Trade name
not mandated. 1. Chemical
1. Chemical
1. Supplier label:
2. Chemical
The UN RTDG identity
identity
-product identifier
identity
label defines
2. Hazard symbol 2. Supplier
-supplier
3. Supplier
hazards by the and indication of identification
identification
identification.
use of symbols, danger
3. Appropriate -reference to
4. Hazard symbols colours and
3. Risk phrases
hazard warnings existing CSDS
5. Risk phrases
danger warning 4. Safety phrases
-hazard symbols;
6. Safety phrases words for
5. Supplier
Employer must and for containers
7. Batch
specific hazards identification (full ensure that
over 100 ml:
identification
(explosive,
address and tel.
labels and other -risk and safety
8. Reference to
radioactive,
No.)
forms of
phrases
existing CSDS
corrosive, etc.). 6. EEC number if warning are in -first aid measures
9. Hazard
allocated
English and may 2. Workplace
classification
7. the wording

Page 42 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


"EEC label" where
label:
appropriate
-product identifier
add other
-information for the
languages if
safe handling of the
appropriate.
products
-reference to an
existing CSDS.
-may contain
WHMIS hazard
symbols or other
pictograms.
OTHER
Legibility,
Placarding of
ANSI Standard Chemical name
REQUIREMENTS durability and size, transport units
Z-129.1.1988
may be replaced by
uniformity of labels is defined,
defines
generic name or
and symbols,
including form,
acceptable
number in the case
including colours.In minimum size
precautionary of products covered
general, all
and colour of
phrases and
by provisions on
containers of
placards.
hazard symbols. exemption for
hazardous
confidential
chemicals should at
business
least indicate the
information.
hazards of the
contents through
appropriate
wording or
symbols.
Annex 1. Symbols and indications of danger
Annex 2. Risk phrases
Annex 3. Safety phrases
Annex 4. List of Substances with Risk and Safety Phrases Used in the Countries of EU
Annex 5. IARC list of carcinogens
Annex 6. List of chemicals, banned or severely restricted to certain uses
Annex 7. List of chemicals with potential to cause major hazard
Annex 8
A. General classification and labelling requirements for dangerous substances and preparations
B. Concentration limits to be used in applying the conventional method of assessing health hazard
Annex 9. United Nations Classification Recommendation on Transport of Dangerous Goods

BIBLIOGRAPHY
CLAYTON G.D. and CLAYTON F.E., ed., Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 3rd Revised Ed., John
Wiley & Sons Inc., USA 1978
67/548/EEC Council Directive of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative
provisions relating to the classification, packing and labelling of dangerous substances
This directive has been amended seven times and has eighteen adaptations to technical progress.
91/325/EEC Commission Directive of 1 March 1991 adapting to technical progress of the laws, regulations
and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packing and labelling of dangerous substances
92/32/EEC Council Directive of 30 April 1992 amending for the seventh time Directive 67/548/EEC on
approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packing and
labelling of dangerous substances

Page 43 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


88/379/EEC Council Directive of 7 June 1988 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative
provisions of the Member States relating to the classification, packing and labelling of dangerous preparations
This directive has four adaptations to the technical progress.
90/492/EEC Commission Directive of 5 September 1990 adapting to technical progress for the second time
Council Directive 88/379/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of
the Member States relating to the classification, packing and labelling of dangerous preparations
2455/92/EEC Council Regulation of 23 July 1992 concerning the export and import of certain dangerous
chemicals
91/338/EEC Council Directive of 18 June 1991 amending for the 10th time Directive 76/769/EEC on the
approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the
restrictions on the marketing of certain dangerous substances and preparations
76/769/EEC Council Directive of 27 July 1976 on the approximation of the laws, regulations and
administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the restrictions on the marketing of certain
dangerous substances and preparations
88/364/EEC Council Directive of 9 June 1988 on the protection of workers by banning of certain specified
agents and/or certain work activities (Fourth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 8 of Directive
80/1107/EEC)
91/339/EEC Council Directive of 18 June 1991 amending for 11th time Directive 76/769/EEC on the
approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to the
restrictions on the marketing of certain dangerous substances and preparations
91/659/EEC Commission Directive of 3 December 1991 adapting to technical progress Annex I to Council
Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the
Member States relating to the restrictions on the marketing of certain dangerous substances and preparations
(asbestos)
GARDNER and COOKE, Chemical Synonyms and Trade Names, Technical Press, London
HEALTH and SAFETY COMMISSION, Information Approved for the Classification, Packing and Labelling of
Dangerous Substances for Supply and Conveyance by Road, 2nd Ed., London 1988
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Code of Practice: Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work, Geneva
1993
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Convention No. 170 Concerning Safety in the Use of Chemicals at
Work, Geneva 1990
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Recommendation No. 177 Concerning Safety in the Use of Chemicals
at Work, Geneva 1990
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Vol I - III, Geneva
1983
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Major Hazard Control, A Practical Manual, 2nd Ed., Geneva 1990
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Occupational Cancer: Prevention and Control, Occupational Safety
and Health Series 39, 2nd Ed., Geneva 1988

Page 44 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Chemical Safety, Fundamentals of Applied Toxicology,
Training Module No 1, Geneva 1992
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria Series
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety and CEC, Commission of the European Communities,
International Chemical Safety Cards
National Board of Labour Protection, Finland, Dangerous Chemicals Classification, Warning Labelling,
Material Safety Data Sheets, 1991
SAX N.I. and LEWIS R.J.Sr, Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials, VII ed., Nostrand Reinhold Co.,
New York 1988
UNITED NATIONS, Transport of Dangerous Goods, 8th Ed., New York 1993

Page 45 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

Annex 1: Symbols and indications of danger


E

Explosive

Oxidizing

F+
Highly
flammable

Extremely
flammable

T+

Toxic

Very toxic

Page 46 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

Xn

Xi

Harmful

Irritant

Corrosive

Dangerous for
environment

Page 47 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 2.
Risk Phrases Used in the Countries of EU
(Phrases in parenthesis) are no longer in use.
Nature of Special Risks Attributed to Dangerous Substances and Preparations
R1
R2
R3
R4
R5
R6
R7
R8
R9
R10
R11
R12
(R13
R14
R15
R16
R17
R18
R19
R20
R21
R22
R23
R24
R25
R26
R27
R28
R29
R30
R31
R32
R33
R34
R35
R36
R37
R38
R39
R40
R41

Explosive when dry.


Risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of ignition.
Extreme risk of explosion by shock, friction, fire or other sources of
ignition.
Forms very sensitive explosive metallic compounds.
Heating may cause an explosion.
Explosive with or without contact with air.
May cause fire.
Contact with combustible material may cause fire.
Explosive when mixed with combustible material.
Flammable.
Highly flammable.
Extremely flammable.
Extremely flammable liquified gas.)
Reacts violently with water.
Contact with water liberates highly flammable gases.
Explosive when mixed with oxidizing substances.
Spontaneously flammable in air.
In use, may form flammable/explosive vapour-air mixture.
May form explosive peroxides.
Harmful by inhalation.
Harmful in contact with skin.
Harmful if swallowed.
Toxic by inhalation.
Toxic in contact with skin.
Toxic if swallowed.
Very toxic by inhalation.
Very toxic in contact with skin.
Very toxic if swallowed.
Contact with water liberates toxic gases.
Can become highly flammable in use.
Contact with acids liberates toxic gas.
Contact with acids liberates very toxic gas.
Danger of cumulative effects.
Causes burns.
Causes severe burns.
Irritating to eyes.
Irritating to respiratory system.
Irritating to skin.
Danger of very serious irreversible effects.
Possible risks of irreversible effects.
Risk of serious damage to eyes.

Page 48 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


R42
R43
R44
R45
R46
(R47
R48
R49
R50
R51
R52
R53
R54
R55
R56
R57
R58
R59
R60
R61
R62
R63
R64

May cause sensitization by inhalation.


May cause sensitization by skin contact.
Risk of explosion if heated under confinement.
May cause cancer.
May cause heritable genetic damage.
May cause birth defects.)
Danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure.
May cause cancer by inhalation.
Very toxic to aquatic organisms.
Toxic to aquatic organisms.
Harmful to aquatic organisms.
May cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment.
Toxic to flora.
Toxic to fauna.
Toxic to soil organisms.
Toxic to bees.
May cause long-term adverse effects in the environment.
Dangerous for the ozone layer.
May impair fertility.
May cause harm to the unborn child.
Possible risk of impaired fertility.
Possible risk of harm to the unborn child.
May cause harm to breastfed babies.

Combination of R-Phrases
R14/15
Reacts violently with water liberating highly flammable gases.
R15/29
Contact with water liberates toxic, highly flammable gas.
R20/21
Harmful by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R20/22
Harmful by inhalation and if swallowed.
R20/21/22
Harmful by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R21/22
Harmful in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R23/24
Toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R23/25
Toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
R23/24/25
Toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R24/25
Toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R26/27
Very toxic by inhalation and in contact with skin.
R26/28
Very toxic by inhalation and if swallowed.
R26/27/28
Very toxic by inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R27/28
Very toxic in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R36/37
Irritating to eyes and respiratory system.
R36/38
Irritating to eyes and skin.
R36/37/38
Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
R37/38
Irritating to respiratory system and skin.
R39/23
Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation.
R39/24
Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin.
R39/25
Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed.
R39/23/24
Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with
skin.
R39/23/25
Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
R39/24/25
Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
R39/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin
and if swallowed.

Page 49 of 236

R39/26
R39/27
R39/28
R39/26/27
R39/26/28
R39/27/28
R39/26/27/28
R40/20
R40/21
R40/22
R40/20/21
R40/20/22
R40/21/22
R40/20/21/22
R42/43
R48/20
R48/21
R48/22
R48/20/21
R48/20/22
R48/21/22
R48/20/21/22
R48/23
R48/24
R48/25
R48/23/24
R48/23/25
R48/24/25
R48/23/24/25
R50/53
R51/53
R52/53

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation.
Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin.
Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects if swallowed.
Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact
with skin.
Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects in contact with skin and if
swallowed.
Very toxic: danger of very serious irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with
skin and if swallowed.
Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation.
Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin.
Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects if swallowed.
Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and in contact with skin.
Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation and if swallowed.
Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects in contact with skin and if swallowed.
Harmful: possible risk of irreversible effects through inhalation, in contact with skin and if
swallowed.
May cause sensitization by inhalation and skin contact.
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin.
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed.
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
and in contact with skin.
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation
and if swallowed.
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
and if swallowed.
Harmful: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation,
in contact with skin and if swallowed.
Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation.
Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin.
Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure if swallowed.
Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and
in contact with skin.
Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation and
if swallowed.
Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure in contact with skin
and if swallowed.
Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through inhalation, in
contact with skin and if swallowed.
Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic
environment.
Toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic
environment.
Harmful to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic
environment.

Page 50 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 3
Safety Phrases Concerning Dangerous Chemical Substances and Preparations used
in the Countries of EU
(Phrases in parenthesis) are no longer in use.
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
S6
S7
S8
S9
S12
S13
S14
S15
S16
S17
S18
S20
S21
S22
S23
S24
S25
S26
S27
S28
S29
S30
S33
(S34
S35
S36
S37
S38
S39
S40
S41
S42
S43
(S44
S45

Keep locked up.


Keep out of the reach of children.
Keep in a cool place.
Keep away from living quarters.
Keep contents under ... (appropriate liquid to be specified by the manufacturer).
Keep under ... (inert gas to be specified by the manufacturer).
Keep container tightly closed.
Keep container dry.
Keep container in a well-ventilated place.
Do not keep container sealed.
Keep away from food, drink and animal feeding stuffs.
Keep away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer).
Keep away from heat.
Keep away from sources of ignition - No smoking.
Keep away from combustible material.
Handle and open container with care.
When using do not eat or drink.
When using do not smoke.
Do not breathe dust.
Do not breathe gas/fumes/vapour/spray (appropriate wording to be specified by the
manufacturer).
Avoid contact with skin.
Avoid contact with eyes.
In case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and seek medical advice.
Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.
After contact with skin, wash immediately with plenty of ... (to be specified by the
manufacturer).
Do not empty into drains.
Never add water to this product.
Take precautionary measures against static discharges.
Avoid shock and friction.)
This material and its container must be disposed of in a safe way.
Wear suitable protective clothing.
Wear suitable gloves.
In case of insufficient ventilation, wear suitable respiratory equipment.
Wear eye/face protection.
To clean the floor and all objects contaminated by this material, use ... (to be specified by the
manufacturer).
In case of fire and/or explosion, do not breathe fumes.
During fumigation/spraying, wear suitable respiratory equipment (appropriate wording to be
specified by the manufacturer).
In case of fire, use ... (indicate in the space the precise type of fire-fighting equipment. If
water increases the risk, add - Never use water).
If you feel unwell, seek medical advice (show the label where possible).)
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately (show the label

Page 51 of 236

S46
S47
S48
S49
S50
S51
S52
S53
(S54
(S55
S56
S57
(S58
S59
S60
S61
S62

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


where possible).
If swallowed, seek medical advice immediately and show this container or label.
Keep at temperature not exceeding ...C (to be specified by the manufacturer).
Keep wetted with ... (appropriate material to be specified by the manufacturer).
Keep only in the original container.
Do not mix with ... (to be specified by the manufacturer).
Use only in well-ventilated areas.
Not recommended for interior use on large surface areas.
Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.
Obtain the consent of pollution control authorities before discharging to wastewater treatment
plants.)
Treat using the best available techniques before discharge into drains or the aquatic
environment.)
Dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special waste collection point.
Use appropriate container to avoid environmental contamination.
To be disposed of as hazardous waste.)
Refer to manufacturer/supplier for information on recovery/recycling.
This material and its container must be disposed of as hazardous waste.
Avoid release to the environment. Refer to special instructions/Safety data sheets.
If swallowed do not induce vomiting: seek medical advice immediately and show this
container or label.

Combination of S-Phrases
S1/2
Keep locked up and out of reach of children.
S3/7
Keep container tightly closed in a cool place.
(S3/9
Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place.)
(S3/7/9
Keep container tightly closed in a cool, well-ventilated place.)
S3/9/14
Keep in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the
manufacturer).
S3/9/49
Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place.
S3/9/14/49 Keep only in the original container in a cool, well-ventilated place away from ... (incompatible
materials to be indicated by the manufacturer).
S3/14
Keep in a cool place away from ... (incompatible materials to be indicated by the manufacturer).
S7/8
Keep container tightly closed and dry.
S7/9
Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place.
S20/21
When using do not eat, drink or smoke.
S24/25
Avoid contact with skin and eyes.
S36/37
Wear suitable protective clothing and gloves.
S36/39
Wear suitable protective clothing and eye/face protection.
S37/39
Wear suitable gloves and eye/face protection.
S36/37/39 Wear suitable protective clothing, gloves and eye/face protection.
S47/49
Keep only in the original container at temperature not exceeding ...C (to be specified by the
manufacturer).
S3/7
Keep container tightly closed in a cool place.
S7/47
Keep container tightly closed and at a temperature not exceeding ...0C (to be specified by the
manufacturer).
S29/56
Do not empty into drains, dispose of this material and its container at hazardous or special
waste collection point.

Page 52 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 4.
List of Substances with Risk and Safety Phrases Used in the Countries of EU
Note A
Note B

Where a substance is listed under a generic name (e.g. `...compounds' or `...salts') the
correct chemical name should be stated on the label. For example for BeCl2: Beryllium
chloride
Some substances (acids, bases, etc.) are placed on the market in aqueous solutions at
various concentrations and therefore require different labelling since hazards vary at different
concentrations.
The entries with Note B have a general designation of the type `...% Nitric acid'. The
actual concentration of the solution is stated on the label: `45% Nitric acid.

Note C

Note D

Note E

Note F
Note G

Page No.

Percentages always refer to weight ratio, unless otherwise stated. Additional data
(e.g. specific gravity, Baum values) or descriptions (e.g. glacial, fuming) are
permitted.
Some organic substances may be in a specific isomeric form or as a mixture of isomers with
a general designation. In this case the label states clearly whether the substance is a specific
isomer or a mixture of isomers. For example `Xylene' is specified: `o-Xylene' or `Xylene,
mixture of isomers'.
Some substances which polymerize readily or decompose spontaneously are normally
placed on the market in a stabilized form. However, such substances are sometimes placed
on the market in a non-stabilized form. This must be stated on the label with the name of the
substance:
`Methacrylic acid (non-stabilized)'.
Substances with specific effects on human health (classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic
and/or toxic to reproduction) if they are also classified as `Very toxic (T+)', `Toxic (T)' or
`Harmful (Xn)'. The word also shall precede the risk phrases R20, R21, R22, R23, R24, R25,
R26, R27, R28 when in a combination, for example:
R45-23 May cause cancer. Also toxic by inhalation.
R46-27/28 May cause heritable genetic damage. Also very toxic in contact with skin
and if swallowed.
The substance may contain a stabilizer. If the stabilizer changes the hazardous properties of
the substance as listed, a label must be compiled in accordance with rules for the resulting
hazardous preparations.
The substance may be marketed in an explosive form in which case it must be assessed
using the appropriate test methods and the label should reflect its explosive property.

Page 53 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


\wp51\stt\ipcs\18 November 1996
Classification using Risk- and Safety Phrases

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

ACEPHATE
(2)-36
ACETAL
(2-)9-16-33
ACETALDEHYDE
(2-)16-33-36/37
ACETAMIDE
(2-)36/37
ACETIC ACID, conc.>90%
(1/2-)23-26-45 Note B
ACETIC ACID, conc. 25%-90%
(1/2-)23-26-45 Note B
ACETIC ANHYDRIDE
(1/2-)26-45
ACETONE
(2-)9-16-23-33
ACETONE CYANOHYDRIN
(1/2-)7/9-27-45-61
ACETONITRILE
(1/2-)16-27-45
ACETOPHENONE
(2-)26
ACETYLACETONE
(2-)21-23-24/25
ACETYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)9-16-26-45
ACETYLENE
(2-)9-16-33
3-ACETYL-6-METHYL-2H-PYRAN-2,4(3H)-DIONE
(2)
ACLONIFEN
60-61
ACONITINE
(1/2-)24-45
ACONITINE, SALTS
(1/2-)24-45 Note A
ACROLEIN
(1/2-)3/9/14-26-36/37/39-38-45
ACRYLALDEHYDE
(1/2-)3/9/14-26-36/37/39-38-45
ACRYLAMIDE
48/23/24/25 53-45 Note D, E
ACRYLATES, with the exception of those
(2-)26-28
specified elsewhere in this Annex, conc.10%
ACRYLIC ACID
(1/2-)26-36-45 Note D
ACRYLONITRILE
23/24/25-38
53-45 Note D, E

30560-19-1

Xn

22

105-57-7

F,Xi

11-36/38

75-07-0

F+,Xn

12-36/37-40

60-35-5

Xn

40

64-19-7

10-35

34

108-24-7

10-34

67-64-1

11

75-86-5

T+,N

26/27/28-50

75-05-8

F,T

11-23/24/25

98-86-2

Xn

22-36

123-54-3

Xn

10-22

75-36-5

F,C

11-14-34

74-86-2

F+

5-6-12

520-45-6

Xn

22

74070-46-5

50/53

302-27-2

T+

26/28

T+

26/28

107-02-8

F,T+

11-25-26-34

107-02-8

F,T+

11-25-26-34

79-06-1

45-46-24/25-

Xi

36/37/38

79-10-7

10-34

107-13-1

F,T

45-11-

Page 54 of 236

ADIPIC ACID
(2)
ADZN
(2-)39-41-47
ALACHLOR
(2-)36/37/39
ALDICARB
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
ALDRIN
48/24/25-50/53 (1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61
ALLETHRIN
(2-)36
ALLIDOCHLOR
(2-)26-28-36/37/39
ALLYL ALCOHOL
36/37/38-50 (1/2-)36/37/39-38-45-61
ALLYLAMINE
51/53
(1/2-)9-16-24/25-45-61
5-ALLYL-1,3-BENZODIOXOLE
53-45 Note E
ALLYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)16-29-33-45-61 Note D
ALLYL 2,3-EPOXYPROPYL ETHER
(2-)24/25
ALLYL GLYCIDYL ETHER
(2-)24/25
ALLYL IODIDE
(1/2-)7-26-45
ALUMINIUM, ALKYLS
(1/2-)16-43-45 Note A
ALUMINIUM CHLORIDE, anhydrous
(1/2-)7/8-28-45
ALUMINIUM LITHIUM HYDRIDE
(2-)7/8-24/25-43
ALUMINIUM PHOSPHIDE
(1/2-)3/9/14-30-36/37-45
ALUMINIUM POWDER, PYROPHORIC
(2-)7/8-43
ALUMINIUM POWDER, STABILIZED
(2-)7/8-43
ALUMINIUM-TRI-ISOPROPOXIDE
(2-)8-16
AMETRYN
(2-)36
AMIDITHION
(2-)24-36
AMINES, POLYETHYLENEPOLY50/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-60-61
4-AMINOAZOBENZENE
53-45
o-AMINOAZOTOLUENE
53-45
3-AMINOBENZENE SULPHONIC ACID
(2-)25-28
4-AMINOBENZENE SULPHONIC ACID
(2-)24-37
4-AMINOBIPHENYL
53-45 Note E
4-AMINOBIPHENYL, SALTS

124-04-9

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xi
36

78-67-1

E,Xn

2-11-20/22

15972-60-8

Xn

22-40-43

116-06-3

T+

27/28

309-00-2

T,N

24/25-40-

584-79-2

Xn

22

93-71-0

Xn

21/22-36/38

107-18-6

T,N

10-23/24/25-

107-11-9

F,T,N

11-23/24/25-

94-59-7

45-22-40

107-05-1

F,T+,N

11-26-50

106-92-3

Xn

20-43

106-92-3

Xn

20-43

556-56-9

10-34

F,C

14-17-34

7446-70-0

34

16853-85-3

15

20859-73-8

F,T+

15/29-28-32

7429-90-5

15-17

10-15

555-31-7

11

834-12-8

Xn

22

919-76-6

Xn

22

68131-73-7

C,N

21/22-34-43-

60-09-3

45

97-56-3

45-43

121-47-1

Xn

20/21/22

121-57-3

Xi

36/38-43

92-67-1

45-22

45-22

Page 55 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


53-45 Note A, E
1-AMINOBUTANE
(1/2-)3-16-26-29-36/37/39-45
2-AMINOBUTANE
(1/2-)9-16-26-28-36/37/39-45-61
AMINOCARB
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
5-AMINO-4-CHLORO-2-PHENYLPYRIDAZIN-3(2H)-ONE
(2-)24-37
4-AMINO-N,N-DIETHYLANILINE
(1/2-)26-36-45
Page No.
2
18/11/96

109-73-9

F,C

11-20/21/22-35

13952-84-6

F,C,N

11-20/22-35-50

2032-59-9

24/25

1698-60-8

Xi

43

93-05-0

25-34

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

3-AMINO-N,N'-DIMETHYLANILINE
(1/2-)28-45 Note C
4-AMINO-N,N-DIMETHYLANILINE
(1/2-)28-45 Note C
4-AMINO-2',3-DIMETHYLAZOBENZENE
53-45
2-AMINO-4,6-DINITROPHENOL
52/53
(2-)35-61
2-AMINOETHANOL
(2)
2-AMINOETHYLDIMETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)16-23-26-28-36-45
4-AMINO-3-FLUOROPHENOL
53-45-61 Note E
2-AMINO-2-METHYLPROPANOL
(2)
3-AMINOMETHYL-3,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXYLAMINE
52/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
2-AMINOPHENOL
(2-)28-36/37
5-AMINO-PHENYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-1-YL-N,N,N',N'(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45
TETRAMETHYL PHOSPHONIC DIAMIDE
2-AMINOPROPANE
(2-)16-26-29
1-AMINOPROPAN-2-OL
(1/2-)23-26-36-45
3-AMINOPROPYLDIETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
3-AMINOPROPYLDIMETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
3-AMINOPROPYLTRIETHOXYSILANE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
2-AMINOTOLUENE
53-45-61 Note E
AMITRAZ
(2-)22
AMITROLE
(2-)36-37-61
AMMONIA, anhydrous

2836-04-6

23/24/25

99-98-9

23/24/25

97-56-3

45-43

96-91-3

E,Xn

1-20/21/22-

141-43-5

Xn

20-36/37/38

108-00-9

F,C

11-21/22-35

399-95-1

T,N

45-22-43-51/53

124-68-5

Xi

36/38

2855-13-2

21/22-34-43-

95-55-6

Xn

20/22-40

1031-47-6

T+

27/28

75-31-0

F+,Xi

12-36/37/38

78-96-6

34

104-78-9

10-21/22-34-43

109-55-7

10-22-34-43

919-30-2

22-34

95-53-4

T,N

45-23/25-36-50

33089-61-1

Xn

22

61-82-5

Xn,N

40-48/22-51/53

7664-41-7

T,N

10-23-34-50

Page 56 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)9-16-26-36/37/39-45-61
AMMONIA SOLUTION conc.25%
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61 Note B
AMMONIA SOLUTION 5%conc.<10%
(2-)7-26 Note B
AMMONIUM BIFLUORIDE
(1/2-)22-26-37-45
AMMONIUM BIS(2,4,6-TRINITROPHENYL)AMINE
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
(2-)22
AMMONIUM DICHROMATE
25-2653-45-60-61 Note E
50/53
AMMONIUM FLUORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
AMMONIUM HEXAFLUOROSILICATE
(1/2-)26-45 Note A
AMMONIUM HYDROGEN DIFLUORIDE
(1/2-)22-26-37-45
AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE
(2-)14-16-27-36/37 Note G
AMMONIUM POLYSULPHIDES
(1/2-)26-45
AMYL ACETATE
(2-)23 Note C
AMYLALCOHOL, except tert-PENTANOL
(2-)24/25 Note C
AMYLASE, I(2-)22-24-36/37
AMYLASES with exception of those specified
(2-)22-24-36/37
elsewhere in this Annex
AMYL FORMATE
(2) Note C
AMYL PROPIONATE
(2-)23 Note C
ANILAZINE
(2-)22
ANILINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61

1336-21-6

C,N

34-50

1336-21-6

Xi

36/37/38

1341-49-7

T,C

25-34

2844-92-0

E,T+,N

1-26/27/28-33-

12125-02-9

Xn

22-36

7789-09-5

E,T+,N

49-46-1-8-2137/38-41-43-

12125-01-8

23/24/25

16919-19-0

23/24/25

1341-49-7

T,C

25-34

7790-98-9

9-44

9080-17-5

31-34

628-63-7

10

30899-19-5

Xn

10-20

9000-90-2

Xn

42

Xn

42

638-49-3

10

624-54-4

10

101-05-3

Xi

36/38

62-53-3

T,N

20/21/22-40-

T,N

48/23/24/25-50
20/21/22-40-

90-04-0

T+,N

48/23/24/25-50
45-26/27/28-

104-94-9

T+,N

26/27/28-33-50

Xn

20/22

7647-18-9

34-37

10025-91-9

34-37

ANILINE, SALTS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note A
o-ANISIDINE
33-51/53
53-45-61 Note E
p-ANISIDINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
ANTIMONY COMPOUNDS except TETROXIDE and
(2-)22* Note A
PENTOXIDE, TRISULPHIDE, PENTASULPHIDE and
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
*If appropriate
ANTIMONY PENTACHLORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
ANTIMONY TRICHLORIDE
(1/2-)26-45

Page 57 of 236

ANTIMONY TRIFLUORIDE
7783-56-4
(1/2-)7-26-45
ANTIMONY TRIOXIDE
1309-64-4
(2-)22-36/37
ANTU
86-88-4
(1/2-)25-36/37-45
ARSENIC
7440-38-2
(1/2-)20/21-28-45
ARSENIC ACID and its SALTS
53-45 Note A, E
ARSENIC COMPOUNDS, conc.0.2%, with the
(1/2-)20/21-28-45 Note A
exception of those specified elsewhere in this Annex
ARSENIC OXIDE
1303-28-2
53-45 Note E
ARSENIC PENTOXIDE
1303-28-2
53-45 Note E
ARSENIC TRIOXIDE
1327-53-3
53-45 Note E
ARSINE
7784-42-1
50/53
(1/2-)9-16-28-33-36/37-45-60-61
Page No.
3
18/11/96

Substance
Safety phrases
ASBESTOS
53-45 Note E
ATRAZINE
(2-)36/37-46
ATROPINE
(1/2-)25-45
ATROPINE, SALTS
(1/2-)25-45 Note A
AURAMINE
(2-)36/37-61
AURAMINE, SALTS
(2-)36/37-61 Note A
AZACONAZOLE
(2-)24
AZINPHOS-ETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
AZINPHOS-METHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
AZIRIDINE
26/27/28-3453-45-61 Note D, E
AZOBENZENE
(2-)28
AZOTHOATE
(2-)13
AZOXYBENZENE
(2-)28
BARBAN
(2-)24-36/37
BARIUM CARBONATE

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T
23/24/25
Xn

40

T+

28-40

23/25

45-23/25

23/25

45-23/25

45-23/25

T+

45-28-34

F+,T+,N

12-26-48/20-

Symbol

Risk-phrases

45-48/23

1912-24-9

Xn

20/22-36-40-43

51-55-8

T+

26/28

T+

26/28

Xn,N

22-36-40-51/53

Xn,N

22-36-40-51/53

60207-31-0

Xn

22-44

2642-71-9

T+

24-28

86-50-0

T+

24-28

151-56-4

F,T+,N

45-46-11-

103-33-3

Xn

51/53
20/22

5834-96-8

Xn

20/22

495-48-7

Xn

20/22

101-27-9

Xn

22-43

513-77-9

Xn

22

CAS number

492-80-8

Page 58 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)24/25
BARIUM CHLORATE
13477-00-4 O,Xn
9-20/22
(1/2-)13-27
BARIUM CHLORIDE
10361-39-4 T
20-25
(1/2-)45
BARIUM SALTS, conc.1%, with the exception
Xn
20/22
(2-)28 Note A
of BARIUM SULPHATE, salts of 1-AZO-2-HYDROXUNAPHTHALENYL ARYL SULPHONIC ACID
and salts specified elsewhere in this Annex
BARIUM PERCHLORATE
13465-95-7 O,Xn
9-20/22
(2-)27
BARIUM PEROXIDE
1304-29-6
O,Xn
8-20/22
(2-)13-27
BARIUM POLYSULPHIDES
50864-67-0 Xi
31-36/37/38
(2-)28
BARIUM SULPHIDE
21109-95-5 Xn
20/22-31
(2-)28
BENAZOLIN
3813-05-6
Xi
36/38
(2-)22
BENDIOCARB
22781-23-2 T
21-25
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
BENOMYL
17804-35-2 Xn
40
(2-)36/37
BENQUINOX
495-73-8
T
21-25
(1/2-)36/37-45
BENSULIDE
741-58-2
Xn
22
(2-)24-36
BENTAZONE
25057-89-0 Xn
22-36
(2-)26
BENZAL CHLORIDE
98-87-3
T
22-23-37/3840-41
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
BENZALDEHYDE
100-52-7
Xn
22
(2-)24
BENZENE
71-43-2
F,T
45-1148/23/24/25
53-45 Note E
BENZENE-1,3-DIAMINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE
541-69-5
T,N
23/24/25-4350/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
BENZENE-1,4-DIAMINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE
624-18-0
T,N
23/24/25-4350/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
1,3-BENZENEDIOL
108-46-3
Xn,N
22-36/38-50
(2-)26-61
BENZENE-1,2:3,4-TETRACARBOXYLIC DIANHYDRIDE
89-32-7
Xi
36/37/38
(2-)25
BENZENE-1,2,4-TRICARBOXYLIC-1,2-ANHYDRIDE
552-30-7
Xn
36/37/38-42
(2-)22-28
BENZIDINE
92-87-5
T,N
45-22-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
BENZIDINE, SALTS
T,N
45-22-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
BENZIDINE BASED AZO DYES;
T
45
53-45 Note A
4,4'-DIARYLAZOBIPHENYL DYES, with exception
of those specified elsewhere in this Annex
1,2-BENZISOTHIAZOL-3(2H)-ONE
2634-33-5
Xn
22-38-43
(2-)24-37
BENZO[e]ACEPHENANTHRYLENE
205-99-2
T
45
53-45
BENZO[a]ANTHRACENE
56-55-3
T
45
53-45

Page 59 of 236

BENZO[d,e,f]CHRYSENE
53-45
BENZO[b]FLUORANTHENE
53-45
BENZO[j]FLUORANTHENE
53-45
BENZO[k]FLUORANTHENE
53-45
BENZOGUANAMINE
(2)
BENZONITRILE
(2-)23
BENZOPHENONE-3,3',4,4'-TETRACARBOXYLIC
(2-)25
DIANHYDRIDE
BENZO[a]PYRENE
53-45
p-BENZOQUINONE
(1/2-)26-28-45
p-BENZOQUINONE 1-BENZOYLHYDRAZONE 4-OXIME
(1/2-)36/37-45
BENZOTHIAZOLE-2-THIOL
(2-)24-37-60-61
1-(2-BENZOTHIAZOLYL)-3-METHYLUREA
(2-)24/25
(BENZOTHIAZOL-2-YLTHIO)SUCCINIC ACID
(2-)24-37
Page No.
4
18/11/96

50-32-8

Substance
Safety phrases

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T
45-46-60-61

205-99-2

45

205-82-3

45

207-08-9

45

91-76-9

Xn

22

100-47-0

Xn

21/22

2421-28-5

Xi

36/37

50-32-8

45-46-60-61

106-51-4

23/25-36/37/38

495-73-8

21-25

149-30-4

Xi,N

43-50/53

1929-88-0

Xn

22

95154-01-1

Xi

43

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

I-3-(3-(2H-BENZOTRIAZOL-2-YL)-5-tertXn,N
43-48/22-51/53
(2-)36/37-61
BUTYL-4-HYDROXYPHENYL)PROPIONYLomega-HYDROXYPOLY(OXYETHYLENE) and
I-3-(3-(2H-BENZOTRIAZOL-2-YL)-5-tert-BUTYL-4-HYDROXYPHENYL)PROPIONYLomega-3(3-(2H-BENZOTRIAZOL-2-YL)-5-tert-BUTYL-4-HYDROXYPHENYL)PROPIONYLHYDROXYPOLY(OXYETHYLENE)
BENZOTRICHLORIDE
98-07-7
T
45-22-2337/38-41
53-45 Note E
BENZOTRIFLUORIDE
98-08-8
F,N
11-51/53
(2-)16-23-61
BENZOYL CHLORIDE
98-88-4
C
34
(1/2-)26-45
BENZOYL PEROXIDE
94-36-0
E,Xi
2-7-36-43
(2-)3/7-14-36/37/39
BENZOYLPROP-ETHYL
33878-50-1 Xn
22
(2-)24
BENZTHIAZURON
1929-88-0
Xn
22
(2-)24/25
BENZYL ALCOHOL
100-51-6
Xn
20/22
(2-)26
BENZYLAMINE
100-46-9
C
21/22-34
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
BENZYL BENZOATE
120-51-4
Xn
22
(2-)25

Page 60 of 236

BENZYL BROMIDE
(2-)39
BENZYL CHLORIDE
40-41
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
BENZYL CHLOROFORMATE
(1/2-)26-45
S-BENZYL DIISOPROPYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
(2)
BENZYLDIMETHYLAMINE
34-52/53
(1/2-)26-36-45-61
S-BENZYL N,N-DIPROPYLTHIOCARBAMATE
(2-)37-61
(N-BENZYL-N-ETHYL)AMINO-3'(2-)26-39-61
HYDROXYACETOPHENONE HYDROCHLORIDE
BENZYL-2-HYDROXYDECYLDIAMMONIUM BENZOATE
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45-60-61
BENZYLIDENE CHLORIDE
40-41
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
BENZYLTRIBUTYLAMMONIUM 4-HYDROXYNAPHTHALENE(2-)22-61
1-SULPHONATE
BENZYL VIOLET 4B
(2-)36/37
BERYLLIUM
36/37/38-

100-39-0
100-44-7

22-23-37/38-

501-53-1

34-37

26087-47-8

Xn

22

103-83-3

10-20/21/22-

52888-80-9

Xn,N

22-48/22-51/53

55845-90-4

Xi,N

41-51/53

113694-52-3 C,N

22-34-50/53

98-87-3

22-23-37/38-

102561-46-6 Xn,N

20-51/53

1694-09-3

Xn

40

7440-41-7

T+

49-25-2643-48/23

53-45, Note E
BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS
36/37/3853-45 Note A, E
BHC
(1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
BINAPACRYL
53-45 Note E
BIOALLETHRIN
(2-)24
S-BIOALLETHRIN
(2-)36/37-60-61
BIPHENYL
(2-)23-60-61
BIPHENYL-4-YLAMINE
53-45 Note E
BIPHENYL-4-YLAMINE, SALTS
53-45 Note A, E
BIPHENYL-4,4'-YLENEDIAMINE
53-45-60-61 Note E
BIPHENYL-4,4'-YLENEDIAMINE, SALTS
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
2,2-BIS(ACRYLOYLOXYMETHYL)BUTYL ACRYLATE
(2-)39 Note D
N,N-BIS(3-AMINOPROPYL)METHYLAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) ETHER
(1/2-)7/9-27-38-45
BIS(CHLOROMETHYL) ETHER
53-45 Note E
O,O-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL)

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xi
36/37/38

T+

49-25-2643-48/23

608-73-1

T,N

21-25-40-50/53

485-31-4

61-21/22

584-79-2

Xn

22

28434-00-6

Xn,N

21/22-50/53

92-52-4

Xi,N

36/37/38-50/53

92-67-1

45-22

45-22

T,N

45-22-50/53

T,N

45-22-50/53

15625-89-5

Xi

36/38-43

105-83-9

22-23/24-34

111-44-4

T+

10-26/27/28-40

542-88-1

T+

45-10-22-24-26

4104-14-7

T+,N

27/28-50/53

92-87-5

Page 61 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
N-ACETIMIDOYLPHOSPHOROAMIDOTHIOATE
1,1-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL)ETHANOL
(2-)36
BIS(2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHYL)(METHYL)AMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
BIS(I,I-DIMETHYLBENZYL) PEROXIDE
(2-)3/7-14-36/37/39
2,5-BIS(1,1-DIMETHYLBUTYL)HYDROQUINONE
61
1,1'-BIS(3,5-DIMETHYLMORPHOLINOCARBONYL(2-)22-36
METHYL)-4,4'-BIPYRIDYLIUM ION
1,3-BIS(2,3-EPOXYPROPOXY)BENZENE
(1/2-)23-24-45
1,4-BIS(2,3-EPOXYPROPOXY)BUTANE
(2-)26-28-37/39
1,3-BIS(2,3-EPOXYPROPOXY)-2,2-DIMETHYLPROPANE
(2-)24-37
BIS[4-(2,3-EPOXYPROPOXY)PHENYL]PROPANE
(2-)28-37/39
1,2-BIS(ETHOXYCARBONYL)ETHYL O,O-DIMETHYL
(2-)24
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
3-[BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)AMINOMETHYL]
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45-60-61
BENZOTHIAZOLE-2(3H)-THIONE
N,N-BIS(2-ETHYLHEXYL)-((1,2,4-TRIAZOL(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45-61
1-YL)METHYL)AMINE
Page No.
5
18/11/96

Substance
Safety phrases
BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYL)-METHYL-(1,2,4-TRIAZOL(2-)26-61
4-YLMETHYL)SILANE HYDROCHLORIDE
BIS(HYDROXYLAMMONIUM) SULPHATE
48/22-50
(2-)22-24-37-61
2,5-BIS-(HYDROXYMETHYL)OXOLANE
(2-)39
BIS(8-HYDROXYQUINOLINE) SULPHATE
(2-)36
BIS(2-METHOXYETHYL) PHTHALATE
53-45
BIS(METHOXYTHIOCARBONOYL) DISULPHIDE
(2)
BISPHENOL-A-DIGLYCIDYL ETHER
(2-)28-37/39
BIS(PIPERIDINOTHIOCARBONYL) DISULPHIDE
(2-)24-26-37
BIS(2,2,6,6-TETRAMETHYL-4-PIPERIDYL)SUCCINATE
(2-)26-61
BIS(2,4,6-TRINITROPHENYL)AMINE

80-06-8

Xn

22

3030-47-5

22-24-34

80-43-3

O,Xi

7-36/38

51/53

Xn

22-36/37/38

101-90-6

23/24/25-40-43

2425-79-8

Xn

20/21-36/38-43

17557-23-2

Xi

38-43

1675-54-3

Xi

36/38-43

121-75-5

Xn

22

105254-85-1 C,N

34-43-50/53

91273-04-0

C,N

34-43-51/53

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

Xi,N

36-51/53

10039-54-0

Xn,N

22-36/38-43-

104-80-3

Xi

36/37/38

134-31-6

Xn

22

117-82-8

61-62

1468-37-7

Xn

22

1675-54-3

Xi

36/38-43

94-37-1

Xi

36/37/38-43

62782-03-0

Xi

36-52/53

131-73-7

E,T+,N

2-26/27/28-33-

Page 62 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


51/53
(1/2-)35-36-45-61
4,4'-BI-o-TOLUIDINE
53-45-61 Note E
BLASTICIDIN-S
(1/2-)24/25-36/37-45
BORON TRIBROMIDE
(1/2-)9-26-28-36/37/39-45
BORON TRICHLORIDE
(1/2-)9-26-28-36/37/39-45
BORON TRIFLUORIDE
(1/2-)9-26-28-36/37/39-45
BRODIFACOUM
(1/2-)36/37-45
BROMELAIN, juice
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
BROMINE
(1/2-)7/9-26-45
BROMOACETIC ACID
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
BROMOBENZENE
(2-)61
BROMOBENZYLBROMOTOLUENE, mixture of isomers
(2-)24-37-41-60-61
0-4-BROMO-2,5-DICHLOROPHENYL O,O-DIETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
O-4-BROMO-2,5-DICHLOROPHENYL O-METHYL
50/53
(1/2-)25-36/37/39-45-60-61
PHENYLPHOSPHONOTHIOATE
BROMOETHANE
(2-)28
2-(2-BROMOETHOXY)ANISOLE
(2-)22-61
BROMOETHYLENE
53-45
BROMOFENOXIM
(2-)25
BROMOFORM
(1/2-)28-45-61
BROMOMETHANE
50/53-59
(1/2-)15-27-36/37/39-3845-59-61
BROMOPHOS
(2-)36
BROMOPHOS-ETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
1-BROMOPROPANE
(2-)9-24
I-BROMOTOLUENE
(2-)39
BROMOXYNIL
(1/2-)36/37-45
BROMOXYNIL OCTANOATE
(2-)36/37
BRONOPOL
41-50/53
(2-)26-37/39-60-61
BRUCINE
(1/2-)13-45

119-93-7

T,N

45-22-51/53

2079-00-7

T+

28

10294-33-4

T+,C

14-26/28-35

10294-34-5

T+

14-26/28-34

7637-07-2

T+,C

14-26-35

56073-10-0

T+

27/28-48/24/25

9001-00-7

Xn

36/37/38-42

7726-95-6

T+,C

26-35

79-08-3

T,C

23/24/25-35

108-86-1

Xi,N

10-38-51/53

99688-47-8

Xn,N

43-48/22-50/53

4824-78-6

T,N

21-25-50/53

21609-90-5

T,N

21-25-39/25-

74-96-4

Xn

20/21/22

4463-59-6

Xn

22-52/53

593-60-2

F+,T

45-12

13181-17-4

Xn

22

75-25-2

T,N

23-36/38-51/53

74-83-9

T,N

23-36/37/38-

2104-96-3

Xn

22

4824-78-6

T,N

21-25-50/53

106-94-5

Xn

10-20

100-39-0

Xi

36/37/38

1689-84-5

25-63

1689-99-2

Xn

21/22-63

52-51-7

Xn,N

21/22-37/38-

357-57-3

T+

26/28

Page 63 of 236

BRUCINE, SALTS
(1/2-)13-45 Note A
BUFENCARB
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
BUTANAL
(2-)9-29-33
1,3-BUTADIENE
53-45 Note D
BUTADIENE DIEPOXIDE
36/37/38-40(1/2-)23-24-45
BUTANEDIOLDIGLYCIDYL ETHER
(2-)26-28-37/39
BUTANE
(2-)9-16 Note C
BUTANOL, except tert-BUTYL ALCOHOL
(2-)16 Note C
tert-BUTANOL
(2-)9-16
2-BUTANONE
(2-)9-16-25-33
2-BUTANONE OXIME
(2-)23-24
2-BUTENAL
(1/2-)29-33-45
BUTENE, all isomers
(2-)9-16-33 Note C
2-BUTOXYETHANOL
(2-)24/25
2-(2-BUTOXYETHOXY)ETHANOL
(2-)26
2-(2-BUTOXYETHOXY)ETHYL THIOCYANATE
(1/2-)13-36/37-45
2-BUTOXYETHYL ACETATE
(2-)24
3-BUTOXY-2-PROPANOL
(2)
1-(2-BUTOXYPROPOXY)PROPAN-2-OL
(2)
n-BUTYL ACETATE
(2)
sec-BUTYL ACETATE
(2-)16-23-29-33 Note C
Page No.
6
18/11/96

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T+
26/28
8065-36-9

24/25

123-72-8

11

106-99-0

F+,T

45-12

1464-53-5

23/24/2542/43

2425-79-8

Xn

20/21-36/38-43

106-97-8

F+

12

71-36-3(n)

Xn

10-20

75-65-0

F,Xn

11-20

78-93-3

F,Xi

11-36/37

96-29-7

Xi

36-43

123-73-9

F,T

11-23-36/37/38

F+

12

111-76-2

Xn

20/21/22-37

112-34-5

Xi

36

112-56-1

10-24/25

112-07-2

Xn

20/21

5131-66-8

Xi

36/38

24083-03-2

Xn

21/22

123-86-4

10

105-46-4

11

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

tert-BUTYL ACETATE
(2-)16-23-29-33 Note C
ISOBUTYL ACETATE
(2-)16-23-29-33 Note C
n-BUTYL ACRYLATE
(2-)9 Note D
tert-BUTYL ALCOHOL

540-88-5

11

110-19-0

11

141-32-2

Xi

10-36/37/38-43

75-65-0

F,Xn

11-20

Page 64 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)9-16
BUTYL ALCOHOL, except tert-BUTYL ALCOHOL
(2-)16 Note C
BUTYLAMINE
(1/2-)3-16-26-29-36/37/39-45
sec-BUTYLAMINE
(1/2-)9-16-26-28-36/37/3945-61
2-tert-BUTYLAMINOETHYL METHACRYLATE
(2-)26 Note D
BUTYL BUTYRATE
(2) Note C
BUTYL CHLORIDE
(2-)9-16-29
BUTYL CHLOROFORMATE
(1/2-)26-36-45
4-tert-BUTYL-2-CHLOROPHENYL METHYL
(2-)36/37-60-61
METHYLPHOSPHORAMIDATE
tert-BUTYL CUMYL PEROXIDE
(2-)3/7-14-36/37/39
BUTYL (DIALKYLOXY(DIBUTOXYPHOSPHORYLOXY))(2-)7/9-16-26-43-61
TITANIUM (TRIALKYLOXY)TITANIUM PHOSPHATE
tert-BUTYL-I,I-DIMETHYL(2-)3/7-14-36/37/39
BENZYL PEROXIDE
6-sec-BUTYL-2,4-DINITROPHENOL
36-44-50/53 53-45-60-61 Note E
2-tert-BUTYL-4,6-DINITROPHENOL
53-45 Note E
2-sec-BUTYL-4,6-DINITROPHENYL
(1/2-)37-45
ISOPROPYL CARBONATE
2-sec-BUTYL-4,6-DINITROPHENYL-3-METHYL53-45 Note E
CROTONATE
1,3-BUTYLENEGLYCOL DIACRYLATE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45 Note D
1,4-BUTYLENEGLYCOL DIACRYLATE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45 Note D
BUTYL-2,3-EPOXYPROPYL ETHER
(2-)24/25
BUTYL ETHYL KETONE
(2-)24
BUTYL FORMATE, all isomers
(2-)9-16-33 Note C
BUTYL GLYCIDYL ETHER
(2-)24/25
BUTYLGLYCOL ACETATE
(2-)24
n-BUTYL METHACRYLATE
(2) Note D
BUTYL METHYL KETONE
(1/2-)9-16-29-45-51
1-BUTYL-2-METHYLPYRIDIUM BROMIDE
(2-)61
sec-BUTYL NITRITE

71-36-3 (n) Xn

10-20

109-73-9

F,C

11-20/21/22-35

13952-84-6

F,C,N

11-20/22-35-50

3775-90-4

Xi

36/38-43

109-21-7

10

109-69-3

11

592-34-7

10-23-34

299-86-5

Xn,N

21/22-50/53

3457-61-2

O,Xi

7-38

F,Xi,N

11-36-51/53

3457-61-2

O,Xi

7-38

88-85-7

T,N

61-62-24/25-

1420-07-1

61-24/25-36-44

973-21-7

25

485-31-4

61-21/22

19485-03-1

21-34-43

1070-70-8

21-34-43

2426-08-6

Xn

20-43

106-35-4

Xn

10-20-36

592-84-7(n) F

11

2426-08-6

Xn

20-43

112-07-2

Xn

20/21

97-88-1

Xi

10-36/37/38-43

591-78-6

F,T

11-48/23

26576-84-1

Xn

22-52/53

924-43-6

F,Xn

11-20/22

Page 65 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)16-24-46
tert-BUTYL NITRITE
(2-)16-24-46
BUTYL PROPIONATE, all isomers
(2) Note C
2-BUTYNE-1,4-DIOL
(1/2-)22-36-45
BUTYRALDEHYDE
(2-)9-29-33
BUTYRALDEHYDE OXIME
(1/2-)23-36-45
BUTYRIC ACID
(1/2-)26-36-45
n-BUTYRONITRILE
(1/2-)45
BUTYRYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)16-23-26-36-45
CADMIUM CHLORIDE
53-45 Note E
CADMIUM COMPOUNDS, except CADMIUM
(2-)22* Note A
SULPHOSELENIDE, mixture of CADMIUM
SULPHIDE with ZINC- or MERCURY SULPHIDE
*If appropriate
CADMIUMCYANIDE
33-40
(1/2-)7-28-29-45
CADMIUM FLUORIDE
(1/2-)22-45
CADMIUM FLUOROSILICATE
(1/2-)22-45
CADMIUMFORMATE
(1/2-)22-45
CADMIUM HEXAFLUOROSILICATE
(1/2-)22-45
CADMIUM IODIDE
(1/2-)22-45
CADMIUM OXIDE
53-45 Note E
CADMIUM SULPHATE
53-45 Note E
CADMIUM SULPHIDE
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
CAFFEINE
(2)
CALCIUM
(2-)8-24/25-43
CALCIUM CARBIDE
(2-)8-43
CALCIUM CHLORIDE
(2-)22-24
CALCIUM CHROMATE
53-45-60-61 Note E
CALCIUM CYANAMIDE
(2-)22-26-36/37/39
Page No.
7
18/11/96
Substance
Safety phrases

540-80-7

F,Xn

11-20/22

591-01-2(n) -

10

110-65-6

25-34

123-72-8

11

110-69-0

22-24-36

107-92-6

34

109-74-0

10-23/24/25

141-75-3

F,C

11-34

10108-64-2

45-48/23/25

Xn

20/21/22

542-83-6

T+

26/27/28-32-

7790-79-6

23/25-33-40

17010-21-8

23/25-33-40

4464-23-7

23/25-33-40

17010-21-8

23/25-33-40

7790-80-9

23/25-33-40

1306-19-0

49-22-48/23/25

10124-36-4

49-22-48/23/25

1306-23-6

22-40-48/23/25

58-08-2

Xn

22

7440-70-2

15

75-20-7

15

10043-52-4

Xi

36

13765-19-0

T,N

45-22-50/53

156-62-7

Xn

22-37-41

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

Page 66 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


CALCIUM CYANIDE
592-01-8
(1/2-)7/8-23-36/37-45
CALCIUM HYDRIDE
7789-78-8
(2-)7/8-24/25-43
CALCIUM HYPOCHLORITE, active Chlorine>39%
7778-54-3
(1/2-)26-43-45
CALCIUM IODOXYBENZOATE, all isomers
(2-)35 Note C
CALCIUM OCTADECYLXYLENESULPHONATE
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45-61
CALCIUM PHOSPHIDE
1305-99-3
(1/2-)22-43-45
CALCIUM POLYSULPHIDES
1344-81-6
(2-)28
CALCIUM SULPHIDE
20548-54-3
(2-)28
CALOMEL
10112-91-1
(2-)13-24/25-46
CAMPHECHLOR
8001-35-2
40-50/53
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
epsilon-CAPROLACTAM
105-60-2
(2)
CAPTAFOL
2425-06-1
53-45
CAPTAN
133-06-2
(2-)36/37
CARBADOX
6804-07-5
53-45 Note E
CARBANONITRIL
420-04-2
(1/2-)3-22-36/37-45
CARBARYL
63-25-2
(2-)22-24
CARBENDAZIM
10605-21-7
(2-)36/37
CARBOFURAN
1563-66-2
(1/2-)36/37-45
4,4'CARBONIMIDOYLBIS[N,N-DIMETHYLANILINE]
492-80-8
(2-)36/37-61
4,4'CARBONIMIDOYLBIS[N,N-DIMETHYLANILINE], SALTS
(2-)36/37-61 Note A
CARBON DISULPHIDE
75-15-0
48/23-62-63
(1/2-)16-33-36/37-45
CARBON MONOXIDE
630-08-0
53-45, Note E
CARBON TETRACHLORIDE
56-23-5
48/23(1/2-)23-36/37-45-59-61

T+

28-32

15

O,C

8-31-34

C,N

34-51/53

F,T+

15/29-28

Xi

31-36/37/38

Xi

31-36/37/38

Xn

22-36/37/38

T,N

21-25-37/38-

Xn

20/22-36/37/38

45-43

Xn

36-40-43

F,T

45-11-22

21-25-36/38-43

Xn

22

Xn

40

T+

26/28

Xn,N

22-36-40-51/53

Xn,N

22-36-40-51/53

F,T

11-36/38-

F+,T

61-12-23-48/23

T,N

23/24/25-40-

CARBONYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)9-26-36/37/39-45
4,4'-CARBONYLDI(PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE)
(2-)25
CARBOPHENOTHION
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
CARTAP HYDROCHLORIDE
(2-)36/37
CAUSTIC POTASH
(1/2-)26-37/39-45
CAUSTIC SODA

75-44-5

T+

52/53-59
26-34

2421-28-5

Xi

36/37

786-19-6

T,N

24/25-50/53

15263-52-2

Xn

21/22

1310-58-3

35

1310-73-2

35

Page 67 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)26-37/39-45
CELLOBIOHYDROLASE, exo(2-)22-24-36/37
CELLULASE
(2-)22-24-36/37
CELLULASES with exception of those specified
(2-)22-24-36/37
elsewhere in this Annex
CELLULOSE NITRATE, containing a maximum of
(2-)16-33-37/39
12.6% NITROGEN
CELLULOSE NITRATE, containing more than 12,6%
(2-)35
NITROGEN
CHLORAL HYDRATE
(1/2-)25-45
2-CHLORALLYL (DIETHYL)DITHIOCARBAMATE
53-45, Note E
CHLORALOSE
(2-)16-24/25-28
CHLORAMINE-T, SODIUM SALT
(2-)7-15
CHLORANIL
(2)37-60-61
CHLORDANE
(2-)36/37-60-61
CHLORDECONE
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
CHLORDIMEFORM
(2-)22-36/37
CHLORDIMEFORM HYDROCHLORIDE
(2-)22-36/37
CHLORENDIC ANHYDRIDE
(2-)25
CHLORFENAC
(2-)36
CHLORFENETHOL
(2-)36
CHLORFENPROP-METHYL
(2-)36/37
CHLORFENSON
(2-)37
CHLORFENVINPHOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
CHLORINE
(1/2-)9-45-61
CHLORMEPHOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
CHLORMEQUAT CHLORIDE
(2-)36/37
CHLOROACETIC ACID
(1/2-)23-37-45-61
CHLOROACETONITRILE
(1/2-)45
CHLOROACETYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)9-26-45
S-2-CHLOROALLYL (DIETHYL)DITHIOCARBAMATE
53-45, Note E
CHLOROANILINE mono-, di-, tri-

37329-65-0

Xn

42

9012-54-8

Xn

42

9012-54-8

Xn

42

11

9004-70-0

1-3

302-17-0

25-36/38

95-06-7

45-22

15879-93-3

Xn

20/22

127-65-1

Xi

36/37/38

118-75-2

Xi,N

36/38-50/53

57-74-9

Xn,N

21/22-40-50/53

143-50-0

24/25-40

6164-98-3

Xn

21/22-40

19750-95-9

Xn

22-40

115-27-5

Xi

36/37/38

85-34-7

Xn

22

80-06-8

Xn

22

14437-17-3

Xn

21/22

80-33-1

Xn

22-38

470-90-6

T+,N

24-28-50/53

7782-50-5

T,N

23-36/37/38-50

24934-91-6

T+

27/28

999-81-5

Xn

21/22

79-11-8

T,N

25-34-50

107-14-2

23/24/25

79-04-9

34-37

95-06-7

45-22

T,N

23/24/25-33-

Page 68 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
CHLOROANILINES with exception of those
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
specified elsewhere in this Annex
Page No.
8
18/11/96

T+,N

26/27/28-33-

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

2-CHLOROBENZALDEHYDE
(1/2-)26-45
o-CHLOROBENZALDEHYDE
(1/2-)26-45
CHLOROBENZENE
(2-)24/25-61
CHLOROBENZILATE
(2)
2-CHLOROBENZONITRILE
(2-)23
2-CHLOROBUTA-1,3-DIENE
(2-)16 Note D
1-CHLOROBUTANE
(2-)9-16-29
4-CHLOROBUT-2-YNYL 3-CHLOROPHENYLCARBAMATE
(2-)24-36/37
CHLOROCRESOL
(2-)26-36/37/39-61
4-CHLORO-m-CRESOL
(2-)26-36/37/39-61
3-CHLORO-6-CYANO-BICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTAN-2-ONE(1/2-)28-36/37-45
O(N-METHYLCARBAMOYL)OXIME
2-(4-CHLORO-6-ETHYLAMINO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2(2-)37
YLAMINO)-2-METHYLPROPIONITRILE
2-CHLORO-1-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)VINYL DIETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHATE
2-CHLORO-2-DIETHYLCARBAMOYL-1-METHYLVINYL
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-60-61
DIMETHYL PHOSPHATE
2-CHLORO-4-DIMETHYLAMINO-6-METHYLPYRIMIDINE
(1/2-)36/37-45
CHLORODIMETHYL ETHER
53-45 Note E
CHLORODINITROBENZENE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
1-CHLORO-2,3-EPOXYPROPANE
23/24/25-34-43
53-45 Note E
CHLOROETHANE
(2-)9-16-33-36/37-61
2-CHLOROETHANOL
(1/2-)7/9-28-45
2-CHLOROETHYL CHLOROPROPYL 2-CHLOROETHYL(2)
PHOSPHONATE and 2-CHLOROETHYL CHLOROPROPYL

89-98-5

34

89-98-5

34

108-90-7

Xn,N

10-20-51/53

510-15-6

Xn

22

873-32-5

Xn

21/22-36

126-99-8

F,Xn

11-20/22-36

109-69-3

11

101-27-9

Xn

22-43

59-50-7

Xn,N

21/22-41-43-50

59-50-7

Xn,N

21/22-41-43-50

15271-41-7

T+

24-28

21725-46-2

Xn

22

470-90-6

T+,N

24-28-50/53

13171-21-6

T+,N

24-28-40-50/53

535-89-7

T+

28

107-30-2

F,T

45-11-20/21/22

T,N

23/24/25-33-

106-89-8

45-10-

75-00-3

F+,Xn

12-40-52/53

107-07-3

T+

26/27/28

Xn

22

Page 69 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


2-CHLOROPROPYLPHOSPHONATE, mixture of isomers
CHLOROETHYLENE
75-01-4
53-45 Note D
2-CHLOROETHYLTRIMETHYL AMMONIUM CHLORIDE
999-81-5
(2-)36/37
CHLOROFORM
67-66-3
48/20/22
(2-)36/37
CHLOROFORMIC ACID BUTYL ESTER
592-34-7
(1/2-)26-36-45
CHLOROFORMIC ACID PROPYL ESTER
109-61-5
(1/2-)26-36-45
2-CHLORO-N-ISOPROPYLACETANILIDE
1918-16-7
(2-)24-37
CHLOROMETHANE
74-87-3
(2-)9-16-33
(CHLOROMETHYL)BIS(4-FLUOROPHENYL)METHYLSILANE 85491-26-5
61
O-(3-CHLORO-4-METHYLCOUMARIN-7-YL) O,O56-72-4
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
DIETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
CHLOROMETHYL METHYL ETHER
107-30-2
53-45 Note E
4-CHLORO-3-METHYLPHENOL
59-50-7
(2-)26-36/37/39-61
4-(4-CHLORO-o-TOLYLOXY) BUTYRIC ACID
94-81-5
(2-)24/25
2-(4-CHLORO-O-TOLYLOXY) PROPIONIC ACID
93-65-2
(2-)26-37/39
3-CHLORO-2-METHYLPROPENE
563-47-3
43-51/53
(2-)9-16-26-29-36/37/39-45-61
CHLORONITROANILINES with exception of those
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
specified elsewhere in this Annex
2-CHLORO-4-NITROANILINE
121-87-9
(2-)22-24-61
1-CHLORO-4-NITROBENZENE
100-00-5
(1/2-)28-37-45
p-CHLORONITROBENZENE
100-00-5
(1/2-)28-37-45
2-CHLORO-6-NITRO-3-PHENOXYANILINE
74070-46-5
60-61
O-(3-CHLORO-4-NITROPHENYL) O,O-DIMETHYL
500-28-7
(2-)13
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
O-4-CHLORO-3-NITROPHENYL O,O-DIMETHYL
5826-76-6
(2-)13
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
1-CHLORO-1-NITROPROPANE
600-25-9
(2)
S-(6-CHLORO-2-OXOBENZOXAZOLIN-3-YLMETHYL)
2310-17-0
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
O,O-DIETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
1-CHLOROPENTANE
543-59-9
(2-)9-29 Note C
2-CHLOROPENTANE
625-29-6
(2-)9-29 Note C
3-CHLOROPENTANE
616-20-6
(2-)9-29 Note C
3-CHLORO-4,5,I,I,I-PENTAFLUOROTOLUENE
77227-99-7

F+,T

45-12

Xn

21/22

Xn

22-38-40-

10-23-34

10-23-34

Xn

22-36-43

F+,Xn

12-40-48/20

51/53

T+,N

21-28-50/53

F,T

45-11-20/21/22

Xn,N

21/22-41-43-50

Xn

22

Xn

22-38-41

F,C,N

11-20/22-34-

T+,N

26/27/28-33-

Xn,N

22-51/53

23/24/25-33

23/24/25-33

50/53

Xn

20/21/22

Xn

20/21/22

Xn

20/22

T,N

21-25-50/53

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

Xn,N

10-20/22-50-58

Page 70 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)51-60-61
CHLOROPHACINONE
48/24/25
(1/2-)36/37-45
CHLOROPHENOL, all isomers
(2-)28 Note C
4-CHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID
(2)
O-4-(4-CHLOROPHENYLAZO)PHENYL O,O-DIMETHYL
(2-)13
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
Page No.
9
18/11/96

Substance
Safety phrases

3691-35-8

T+

23-27/28-

Xn

20/21/22

122-88-3

Xn

22

5834-96-8

Xn

20/22

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

Xn

22-36

50/53

Xi,N

36-50/53

Xn

22-40

25

Xn

22

T+

23-27/28-

C,N

34-43-48/22-

T,N

24/25-50/53

T+,N

24-28-50/53

T+

22-26-36/37/38

F,Xn

11-20/22-36

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

F,T+,N

11-26-50

22-35

14-35-37

4-CHLOROPHENYL BENZENESULPHONATE
80-38-6
(2-)24-26
(CHLOROPHENYL)(CHLOROTOLYL)METHANE
60-61
2-(4-(3-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-4,5106359-93-7
(2-)26-60-61
DIHYDROPYRAZOLYL)PHENYLSULPHONYL)ETHYLDIMETHYLAMMONIUM HYDROGEN PHOSPHONATE
3-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-1,1-DIMETHYLUREA
150-68-5
(2-)36/37
4-(2-CHLOROPHENYLHYDRAZONO)-3-METHYL-55707-69-7
(1/2-)22-24-36/37-45
ISOXAZOLONE
3-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-1-METHOXY-1-METHYLUREA
1746-81-2
(2-)22
2-[2-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-PHENYLACETYL]INDAN3691-35-8
48/24/25
(1/2-)36/37-45
1,3-DIONE
2-(4-(3-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-2-PYRAZOLIN-1-YL)
50/53
(1/2-)24-26-28-37/39-45-60-61
PHENYLSULPHONYL)ETHYLDIMETHYLAMMONIUM FORMATE
S-(4-CHLOROPHENYLTHIOMETHYL) O,O-DIETHYL
786-19-6
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
2-CHLORO-1-PHTHALIMIDOETHYL O,O-DIETHYL
10311-84-9
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
CHLOROPICRIN
76-06-2
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
CHLOROPRENE
126-99-8
(2-)16 Note D
1-CHLOROPROPANE
540-54-5
(2-)9-29 Note C
2-CHLOROPROPANE
75-29-6
(2-)9-29 Note C
3-CHLOROPROPENE
107-05-1
(1/2-)16-29-33-45-61 Note D
2-CHLOROPROPIONIC ACID
598-78-7
(1/2-)23-26-28-36-45
CHLOROSULPHONIC ACID
7790-94-5

Page 71 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)26-45
CHLOROSULPHURIC ACID
(1/2-)26-45
CHLOROTHALONIL
(2-)36/37
2-CHLOROTOLUENE
(2-)24/25-61 Note C
3-CHLOROTOLUENE
(2-)24/25-61 Note C
4-CHLOROTOLUENE
(2-)24/25-61 Note C
CHLOROTOLUENE
(2-)24/25-61 Note C
I-CHLOROTOLUENE
40-41
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
N2-(4-CHLORO-o-TOLYL)-N1,N1-DIMETHYL(2-)22-36/37
FORMAMIDINE
N2-(4-CHLORO-o-TOLYL)-N1,N1-DIMETHYL(2-)22-36/37
FORMAMIDINE HYDROCHLORIDE
4-CHLORO-o-TOLYLOXYACETIC ACID
(2-)26-37-39
4-(2-CHLORO-4-TRIFLUOROMETHYL)PHENOXY-248/25-50/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-60-61
FLUOROANILINE HYDROCHLORIDE
3-CHLORO-5-TRIFLUOROMETHYL-2-PYRIDYLAMINE
(2-)61
CHLOROTRINITROBENZENE
(mix)
(1/2-)35-45 Note C
CHLORPHONIUM CHLORIDE
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
CHLORPYRIFOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
CHLORTHIAMID
(2-)36
CHLORTHION
(2-)13
CHLORTHIOPHOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
CHOLCHICINE
(1/2-)13-45
CHROMIC CHROMATE
50/53
53-45-60-61
CHROMIC OXYCHLORIDE
50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
CHROMIUM III CHROMATE
50/53
53-45-60-61
CHROMIUM VI COMPOUNDS with exception of
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
BARIUM CHROMATE and compounds specified
elsewhere in this Annex
CHROMIUM TRIOXIDE
50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
CHROMYL DICHLORIDE
50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
C.I. DIRECT BLACK 38
53-45
C.I. DIRECT BLUE 6

7790-94-5

14-35-37

1897-45-6

Xn

40

95-49-8

Xn,N

20-51/53

108-41-8

Xn,N

20-51/53

106-43-3

Xn,N

20-51/53

25168-05-2

Xn,N

20-51/53

100-44-7

22-23-37/38-

6164-98-3

Xn

21/22-40

19750-95-9

Xn

20-40

94-74-6

Xn

22-38-41

T,N

22-41-43-

79456-26-1

Xn

22-52/53

28260-61-9

E,T+

2-26/27/28

115-78-6

21-25-36/38

2921-88-2

T,N

24/25-50/53

1918-13-4

Xn

22

500-28-7

Xn

20/21/22

21923-23-9

T+

24-28

64-86-8

T+

26/28

24613-89-6

O,T,C,N

45-8-35-43-

14977-61-8

O,T,C,N

49-46-8-35-43-

24613-89-6

O,T,C,N

45-8-35-43-

T,N

49-43-50/53

1333-82-0

O,T,C,N

49-8-25-35-43-

14977-61-8

O,T,C,N

49-46-8-35-43-

1937-37-7

45-63

2602-46-2

45-63

Page 72 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


53-45
C.I. DIRECT BROWN 95
53-45
C.I. DIRECT RED 28
53-45
C.I. SOLVENT YELLOW 34
(2-)36/37-61
CINERIN I
(2)
CINERIN II
(2)
CITRAL
(2-)24/25-37
CLOFOP-ISOBUTYL
(2)
Page No.
10
18/11/96

Substance
Safety phrases

16071-86-6

45

573-58-0

45-63

492-80-8

Xn,N

22-36-40-51/53

25402-06-6

Xn

22

121-20-0

Xn

22

5392-40-5

Xi

38-43

51337-71-4

Xn

22

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

Xi,N

41-51/53

Xn

42/43

Xn

22-43

Xi

43

T+

26/28

Xn

43

Xn

22

50/53

Xn

10-22

Xn

22

Xn

22-36/38

Xn

48/22

25-48/25

T+,N

21-28-50/53

T+

27/28-48/24/25

25

Xn

22

CLOPYRALID
1702-17-6
(2-)26-39-61
COBALT
7440-48-4
(2-)22-24-37
COBALT OXIDE
1307-96-6
(2-)24-37
COBALT SULPHIDE
1317-42-6
(2-)24-37
COLCHICINE
64-86-8
(1/2-)13-45
COLOPHONY
8050-09-7
(2-)24-37
COPPER CHLORIDE
7758-89-6
(2-)22
COPPER(I) O,O-DIISOPROPYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
60-61
and COPPER(I) O-ISOPROPYL O-(4-METHYLPENT2-YL) PHOSPHORODITHIOATE and COPPER(I)
O,O-BIS(4-METHYLPENT-2-YL) PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
COPPER NAPHTHENATE
1338-02-9
(2)
COPPER (I) OXIDE
1317-39-1
(2-)22
COPPER SULPHATE
7758-98-7
(2-)22
COUMACHLOR
81-82-3
(2-)37
COUMAFURYL
117-52-2
(1/2-)37-45
COUMAPHOS
56-72-4
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
COUMATETRALYL
5836-29-3
(1/2-)36/37-45
COUMITHOATE
572-48-5
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
4-CPA
122-88-3

Page 73 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2)
CRESOL, all isomers
(1/2-)36/37/39-45 Note C
CRESYL GLYCIDYL ETHER
(2-)26-28 Note C
CRIMIDINE
(1/2-)36/37-45
CROTONALDEHYDE
(1/2-)29-33-45
CROTOXYPHOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
CRUFOMATE
(2-)36/37-60-61
CRYOLITE
(1/2-)22-37-45
CUMENE
(2) Note C
CUMENE HYDROPEROXIDE
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45-50
CUMITHOATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
CYANAMIDE
(1/2-)3-22-36/37-45
CYANAZINE
(2-)37
CYANIDES, with the exception of COMPLEX
(1/2-)7-28-29-45 Note A
CYANIDES as FERROCYANIDES, FERRICYANIDES
and MERCURIC OXOCYANIDE
S-[N-(1-CYANO-1-METHYLETHYL)CARBAMOYLMETHYL]
(1/2-)36/37-45
O,O-DIETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
CYANOFENPHOS
(1/2-)36/37-45
CYANOGEN
(1/2-)23-45
O-4-CYANOPHENYL O,O-DIMETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
(2-)36/37-60-61
CYANOPHOS
(2-)36/37-60-61
2-CYANOPROPAN-2-OL
(1/2-)7/9-27-45-61
CYANTHOATE
(1/2-)36/37-45
CYANURIC CHLORIDE
(2-)28
CYCLOBUTANE-1,3-DIONE
(2-)9-16-33
CYCLOHEXANE
(2-)9-16-33
CYCLOHEXANE-1,2-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE
(2-)23-39CYCLOHEXANOL
20/22-37/38
(2-)24/25
CYCLOHEXANONE
(2-)25
CYCLOHEXANONE PEROXIDE, mixture
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45 Note C
CYCLOHEX-4-ENE-1,2-DICARBOXYLIC ANHYDRIDE
(2-)25

24/25-34

26447-14-3

Xi

38

535-89-7

T+

28

123-73-9

F,T

11-23-36/37/38

7700-17-6

24/25

299-86-5

Xn,N

21/22-50-53

15096-52-3

20/22-48/23/25

98-82-8

Xi

10-37

80-15-9

O,C

7-20/22-34

572-48-5

25

420-04-2

21-25-36/38-43

21725-46-2

Xn

22

T+

26/27/28-32

3734-95-0

T+

24-28

13067-93-1

21-25-36-39/25

460-19-5

F,T

11-23

2636-26-2

Xn,N

21/22-50/53

2636-26-2

Xn,N

21/22-50/53

75-86-5

T+,N

26/27/28-50

3734-95-0

T+

24-28

108-77-0

Xi

36/37/38

15506-53-3

11

110-82-7

11

85-42-7

Xi
108-93-0

108-94-1

Xn

10-20

12262-58-7

E,C

2-7-22-34

85-43-8

Xi

36/37

36/37/38
Xn

Page 74 of 236

CYCLOHEXYL ACRYLATE
(2) Note D
CYCLOHEXYLAMINE
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
2-CYCLOHEXYL-4,6-DINITROPHENOL
(1/2-)13-45
CYCLOOCT-4-EN-1-YL METHYL CARBONATE
(2-)24-37
CYCLOPENTANE
(2-)9-16-29-33
CYCLOPENTANE-1,2,3,4-TETRACARBOXYLIC
(2-)25
DIANHYDRIDE
CYCLOPENTANONE
(2-)23
CYCLOPROPANE
(2-)9-16-33
CYHEXATIN
(2-)13
CHYMOTRYPSIN
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
2,4-D
(2-)36/37
Page No.
11
18/11/96

3066-71-5

Substance
Safety phrases
2,4-D, SALTS and ESTERS
(2-)13 Note A
DALAPON
(2-)26-39
DAMINOZIDE
(2-)36/37
DAPSONE
(2-)22
DAZOMET
(2-)15-22-24
2,4-DB
(2-)36/37
2,4-DB, SALTS
(2-)13 Note A
DDT
50/53
(1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61
DECACHLOROPENTACYCLO
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
(5.2.1.02,6.03,9.05,8) DECAN-4-ONE
DECARBOFURAN
(1/2-)13-36/37-45
DEHYDRACETIC ACID
(2)
DEMEPHION-O
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
DEMEPHION-S
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
DEMETON

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xi
37/38

108-91-8

10-21/22-34

131-89-5

23/24/25

87731-18-8

Xi

43

287-92-3

11

6053-68-5

Xi

36/37

120-92-3

Xi

10-36/38

75-19-4

F+

12

13121-70-5

Xn

20/21/22

9004-07-3

Xn

36/37/38-42

94-75-7

Xn

22-36/37/38

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

Xn

20/21/22

75-99-0

Xn

22-38-41

1596-84-5

Xn

40

80-08-0

Xn

22

533-74-4

Xn

22-36

94-82-6

Xn

21/22

Xn

20/21/22

50-29-3

T,N

25-40-48/25-

143-50-0

24/25-40

1563-67-3

23/24/25

520-45-6

Xn

22

682-80-4

T+

24-28

2587-90-8

T+

24-28

8065-48-3

T+,N

27/28-50

Page 75 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
DEMETON-O
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
DEMETON-O-METHYL
(1/2-)24-36/37-45
DEMETON-S
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
DEMETON-S-METHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
DEMETON-S-METHYL SULPHONE
(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45
2,4-DES
(2-)26
DESMETRYNE
(2-)36/37
DIACETONE ALCOHOL
(2-)7-16-24/25
DIACETONE ALCOHOL, TECHNICAL
(2-)7-16-24/25
N,N'-DIACETYLBENZIDINE
(2-)22-36
DIALIFOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
DI-ALLATE
(2-)25-36/37
N,N-DIALLYLCHLOROACETAMIDE
(2-)26-28-36/37/39
DIALLYL PHTHALATE
(2-)24/25
4,4'-DIAMINOBIPHENYL
53-45-60-61 Note E
4,4'-DIAMINODIPHENYLMETHANE
4353-45-61 Note E
4,4'-DIAMINO DIPHENYL SULPHONE
(2-)22
1,2-DIAMINOETHANE
42/43
(1/2-)23-26-36/37/39-45
2,5-DIAMINOTOLUENE SULPHATE
50/53
(1/2-)24-37-45-60-61
S-(4,6-DIAMINO-1,3,5-TRIAZIN-2-YLMETHYL)
(2-)61
O,O-DIMETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
DIAMMINEDIISOCYANATOZINC
(2-)22-26-36/37/39-41-61
o-DIANISIDINE
53-45 Note E
o-DIANISIDINE, SALTS
53-45 Note A, E
3,6-DIAZAOCTANE-1,8-DIAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
DIAZINON
(2-)24/25-60-61
DIAZOMETHANE
53-45
DIBENZ[a,h]ANTHRACENE
53-45
DIBENZOYL PEROXIDE
(2-)3/7-14-36/37/39

298-03-3

T+,N

27/28-50

867-27-6

25

126-75-0

T+

27/28

919-86-8

T,N

24/25-51/53

17040-19-6

21-25

149-26-7

Xn

22-38-41

1014-69-3

Xn

21/22

123-42-2

F,Xi

11-36

123-42-2

F,Xi

11-36

613-35-4

Xn

20/21/22

10311-84-9

T+,N

24-28-50/53

2303-16-4

Xn

22-40

93-71-0

Xn

21/22-36/38

131-17-9

Xn

22

92-87-5

T,N

45-22-50/53

101-77-9

T,N

45-20/21/22-

80-08-0

Xn

48/20/21-51/53
22

107-15-3

10-21/22-34-

6369-59-1

T,N

20/21-25-43-

78-57-9

Xn

22-52/53

Xn,N

22-41-42/43-50

45-22

45-22

112-24-3

21-34-43-52/53

333-41-5

Xn,N

22-50/53

334-88-3

45

53-70-3

45

94-36-0

E,Xi

2-7-36-43

119-90-4

Page 76 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T
45-46-60-25-

1,2-DIBROMO-3-CHLOROPROPANE
48/20/2253-45-61 Note E

96-12-8

O-1,2-DIBROMO-2,2-DICHLOROETHYL
(2-)36/37
DIMETHYL PHOSPHATE
1,2-DIBROMOETHANE
36/37/3853-45-61 Note E

300-76-5

Xn

52/53
21/22-36/38

106-93-4

T,N

45-23/24/25-

3,5-DIBROMO-4-HYDROXYBENZALDEHYDE
(2-)25
O-(2,4-DINITROPHENYL) OXIME
3,5-DIBROMO-4-HYDROXYBENZONITRILE
(1/2-)36/37-45
DIBROMOMETHANE
(2-)24-61
DI-n-BUTYLAMINE
(2)
DI-sec-BUTYLAMINE
(2)
DIBUTYL ETHER
(2)
DI-n-BUTYL ETHER
(2)
DI-tert-BUTYL PEROXIDE
(2-)3/7-14-16-36/37/39
DIBUTYLTIN HYDROGEN BORATE
48/25-50/53 (1/2-)22-26-36/37-45-60-61
DICHLOBENIL
(2-)36/37
DICHLOFENTHION
(2)-60-61
Page No.
12
18/11/96

13181-17-4

Xn

51/53
22

1689-84-5

25-63

74-95-3

Xn

20-52/53

111-92-2

Xn

10-20/21/22

626-23-3

Xn

10-20/21/22

142-96-1

Xi

10-36/37/38

142-96-1

Xi

10-36/37/38

110-05-4

O,F

7-11

75113-37-0

T,N

21/22-41-43-

1194-65-6

Xn

21

97-17-6

Xn,N

22-50/53

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

DICHLOFLUANID
(2-)22-24-60-61
DICHLONE
(2-)26
DICHLOROACETIC ACID
(1/2-)26-45
DICHLOROACETYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)9-26-45
DICHLOROACETYLENE
(2-)36/37
S-2,3-DICHLOROALLYL DIISOPROPYLTHIOCARBAMATE
(2-)25-36/37
DICHLOROANILINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
1,2-DICHLOROBENZENE
50/53
(2-)23-60-61
1,3-DICHLOROBENZENE
(2-)61
1,4-DICHLOROBENZENE

1085-98-9

Xi,N

36-43-50/53

117-80-6

Xn

22-36/38

79-43-6

35

79-36-7

35

7572-29-4

E,Xn

2-40-48/20

2303-16-4

Xn

22-40

T,N

23/24/25-33-

95-50-1

Xn,N

22-36/37/38-

541-73-1

Xn,N

22-51/53

106-46-7

Xn

22-36/38

Page 77 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)22-24/25-46
o-DICHLOROBENZENE
95-50-1
Xn,N
22-36/37/3850/53
(2-)23-60-61
p-DICHLOROBENZENE
106-46-7
Xn
22-36/38
(2-)22-24/25-46
3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE
91-94-1
T,N
45-21-43-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
3,3'-DICHLOROBENZIDINE, SALTS
T,N
45-21-43-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
2,6-DICHLOROBENZONITRILE
1194-65-6
Xn
21
(2-)36/37
3,3'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL-4,4'-YLENEDIAMINE
91-94-1
T,N
45-21-43-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
3,3'-DICHLOROBIPHENYL-4,4'-YLENEDIAMINE, SALTS
T,N
45-21-43-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
1,4-DICHLOROBUT-2-ENE
764-41-0
T+,N
45-24/25-2634-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
DICHLORO
76253-60-6 N
50/53
60-61
[(DICHLOROPHENYL)METHYL]METHYLBENZENE
2,2'-DICHLORODIETHYL ETHER
111-44-4
T+
10-26/27/28-40
(1/2-)7/9-27-38-45
3,5-DICHLORO-2,4-DIFLUOROBENZOYL FLUORIDE
101513-70-6 T,C
22-23-29-3443-52/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
1,1-DICHLOROETHANE
75-34-3
F,Xn
11-22-36/3752/53
(2-)16-23-61
1,2-DICHLOROETHANE
107-06-2
F,T
45-11-2236/37/38
53-45 Note E
1,1-DICHLOROETHYLENE
75-35-4
F+,Xn
12-20-40
(2-)7-16-29 Note D
1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE
540-59-0
F,Xn
11-20-52/53
(2-)7-16-29-61 Note C
cis-DICHLOROETHYLENE
156-59-2
F,Xn
11-20-52/53
(2-)7-16-29-61 Note C
trans-DICHLOROETHYLENE
156-60-5
F,Xn
11-20-52/53
(2-)7-16-29-61 Note C
1,3-DICHLORO-5-ETHYL-5-METHYLIMIDAZOLIDINE89415-87-2 O,T+,N
8-22-26-34-4350
(1/2-)8-26-36/39-45-61
2,4-DIONE
2,4-DICHLORO-3-ETHYLPHENOL
C,N
34-50/53
(1/2-)26-36/39-45-60-61
N'-DICHLOROFLUOROMETHYLTHIO-N,N-DIMETHYL-N'- 1085-98-9
Xi,N
36-43-50/53
(2-)22-24-60-61
PHENYLSULPHAMIDE
N-(DICHLOROFLUOROMETHYLTHIO)PHTHALIMIDE
719-96-0
Xi
38
(2-)28
DICHLOROISOCYANURIC ACID
2782-57-2
O,Xn
8-22-31-36/37
(2-)8-26-41
DICHLOROISOCYANURIC ACID, SODIUM SALT,
2893-78-9
O,Xn
8-22-31-36/37
(2-)8-26-41
and POTASSIUM SALT
2244-21-5
DICHLOROMETHANE
75-09-2
Xn
40
(2-)23-24/25-36/37
2,2'-DICHLORO-4,4'-METHYLENEDIANILINE
101-14-4
T,N
45-22-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
2,2'-DICHLORO-4,4'-METHYLENEDIANILINE, SALTS
T,N
45-22-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
2,3-DICHLORO-1,4-NAPHTHOQUINONE
117-80-6
Xn
22-36/38
(2-)26

Page 78 of 236

1,1-DICHLORO-1-NITROETHANE
(1/2-)26-45
DICHLOROPHEN
(2-)26
2,4-DICHLOROPHENOL
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID
(2-)36/37
4-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY) BUTYRIC ACID
(2-)36/37
2-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY)ETHYL HYDROGENSULPHATE
(2-)26
2-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENOXY) PROPIONIC ACID
(2-)26-36/37
O-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL) O,O-DIETHYL
(2)-60-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
3-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-1,1-DIMETHYLUREA
(2-)22-37
1-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYLIMINO) THIOSEMICARBAZIDE
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
3-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-1-METHOXY-1-METHYLUREA
(2-)36/37
S-(2,5-DICHLOROPHENYLTHIOMETHYL) O,O-DIETHYL
(1/2-)13-45-60-61
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
1,2-DICHLOROPROPANE
(2-)16-24
1,3-DICHLORO-2-PROPANOL
53-45 Note E
1,1-DICHLOROPROPENE
(1/2-)16-29-33-45-61
1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE
36/37/38(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61 Note D, C

594-72-9

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T
23/24/25

97-23-4

Xn

22-36

120-83-2

C,N

21/22-34-51/53

94-75-7

Xn

22-36/37/38

94-82-6

Xn

21/22

149-26-8

Xn

22-38-41

120-36-5

Xn

21/22-38-41

97-17-6

Xn,N

22-50/53

330-54-1

Xn

48/22

5836-73-7

T+

28

330-55-2

Xn

40

2275-14-1

T,N

23/24/25-50/53

78-87-5

F,Xn

11-20/22

96-23-1

45-21-25

563-58-6

F,T

11-25-52/53

542-75-6

T,N

10-20/21-25-

(Z)-1,3-DICHLOROPROPENE
36/37/38(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61 Note D, C

10061-01-5

T,N

43-50/53
10-20/21-25-

3',4'-DICHLOROPROPIONANILIDE
(2-)22
Page No.
13
18/11/96

709-98-8

Xn

43-50/53
22

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

2,2-DICHLOROPROPIONIC ACID
(2-)26-39
3,6-DICHLOROPYRIDINE-2-CARBOXYLIC ACID
(2-)26-39-61
2,4-DICHLORO-I-(PYRIMIDIN-5-YL)
(2)
BENZHYDRYL ALCOHOL
3,7-DICHLOROQUINOLINE-8-CARBOXYLIC ACID
(2-)24-37
3,5-DICHLORO-4-(1,1,2,2-TETRAFLUOROETHOXY)
(2-)24/25-26-57-60-61

75-99-0

Xn

22-38-41

1702-17-6

Xi,N

41-51/53

26766-27-8

Xn

22

84-087-01-4 Xi

43

104147-32-2 Xn,N

22-50/53

Page 79 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


ANILINE
2,6-DICHLORO (THIOBENZAMIDE)
(2-)36
I,I-DICHLOROTOLUENE
38-40-41
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
DICHLORO-1,3,5-TRIAZINETRIONE
(2-)8-26-41
DICHLORO-1,3,5-TRIAZINETRIONE, SODIUM SALT,
(2-)8-26-41
POTASSIUM SALT
2,2-DICHLOROVINYL DIMETHYL PHOSPHATE
(1/2-)23-36/37-45
2,2-DICHLOROVINYL-2-ETHYLSULPHINYLETHYL
(1/2-)13-45
METHYL PHOSPHATE
DICHLORPROP
(2-)26-36/37
DICHLORPROP, SALTS
(2-)13 Note A
DICHLORVOS
(1/2-)23-36/37-45
DICHROMIUM TRIS(CHROMATE)
50/53
53-45-60-61
DICLOFOP-METHYL
(2)
DICOFOL
(2-)36/37
DICOUMARIN
(1/2-)37-45
DICROTOPHOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
DICUMYL PEROXIDE
(2-)3/7-14-36/37/39
5,10-DIHYDRO-5,10-DIOXONAPHTHO(2,3-b)(1,4)(2-)24
DITHIAZINE-2,3-DICARBONITRILE
DICYCLOHEXYLAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-60-61
DICYCLOHEXYLAMMONIUM NITRITE
(2-)15-41
DICYCLOHEXYLCARBODIIMIDE
(1/2-)24-26-37/39-45
DICYCLOHEXYLMETHANE-4,4'-DIISOCYANATE
42/43
(1/2-)26-28-38-45
DIELDRIN
48/25-50/53
(1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61
1,2,3,4-DIEPOXYBUTANE
36/37/38-40(1/2-)23-24-45
DIETHANOLAMINE
(2-)26
DIETHANOLAMINE SALT of 4-CPA
(2)
1,1-DIETHOXYETHANE
(2-)9-16-33
I-(DIETHOXYPHOSPHINOTHIOYLIMINO)
(2-)36
PHENYL ACETONITRILE

1918-13-4

Xn

22

98-87-3

22-23-36/37-

2782-57-2

O,Xn

8-22-31-36/37

2893-78-9

O,Xn

8-22-31-36/37

2244-21-5
62-73-7

24/25

7076-53-1

23/24/25

120-36-5

Xn

21/22-38-41

Xn

20/21/22

62-73-7

24/25

24613-89-6

O,T,C,N

45-8-35-43-

51338-27-3

Xn

22

115-32-2

Xn

21/22-38-43

66-76-2

22-48/25

141-66-2

T+,N

24-28-50/53

80-43-3

O,Xi

7-36/38

3347-22-6

Xn

22

101-83-7

C,N

22-34-50/53

3129-91-7

Xn

20/22

538-75-0

22-24-41-43

5124-30-1

23-36/37/38-

60-57-1

T+,N

25-27-40-

1464-53-5

23/24/2542/43

111-42-2

Xi

36/38

Xn

22

105-57-7

F,Xi

11-36/38

14816-18-3

Xn

22

Page 80 of 236

DIETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)3-16-26-29-36/37/39-45
2-DIETHYLAMINOETHANOL
(2-)28
2-DIETHYLAMINOETHYL METHACRYLATE
(2-)26 Note D
2,6-DIETHYLANILINE
(2-)23-34
N,N-DIETHYLANILINE
51/53
(1/2-)28-37-45-61
DIETHYLCARBAMOYL CHLORIDE
36/37/38-40
(2-)26-36/37
N,N-DIETHYL-1,3-DIAMINOPROPANE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
O,O-DIETHYL O-2-DIETHYLAMINO-6(1/2-)23-36/37-45-60-61
METHYLPYRIMIDIN-4-YL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIACRYLATE
(1/2-)28-39-45 Note D
DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE
(1/2-)33-35-36/37-45
DIETHYLENETRIAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
DIETHYL ETHER
(2-)9-16-29-33
DIETHYL(ETHYLDIMETHYLSILANOLATO)ALUMINIUM
(1/2-)6-16-30-36/39-43-45
O,O-DIETHYL S-[2-(ETHYLSULPHINYL)ETHYL]
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
O,O-DIETHYL-O-[2-(ETHYLTHIO)ETHYL] PHOSPHORO(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
THIOATE
O,O-DIETHYL-S-[2-(ETHYLTHIO)ETHYL] PHOSPHORO(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
DITHIOATE
DIETHYL-S-[2-(ETHYLTHIO)ETHYL] PHOSPHORO(1/2-)28-36/37-45
THIOATE
O,O-DIETHYL ETHYLTHIOMETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
O,O-DIETHYL ISOPROPYLCARBAMOYLMETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
Page No.
14
18/11/96

109-89-7

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


F,C
11-20/21/22-35

100-37-8

Xi

36/37/38

105-16-8

Xn

20-36/38-43

579-66-8

Xn

22

91-66-7

T,N

23/24/25-33-

88-10-8

Xn

20/22-

104-78-9

10-21/22-34-43

23505-41-1

T,N

21-25-50/53

4074-88-8

24-36/38-43

693-21-0

E,T+

3-26/27/28-33

111-40-0

21/22-34-43

60-29-7

F+

12-19

55426-95-4

F,C

14/15-17-35

2497-07-6

T+

24-28

298-03-3

T+,N

27/28-50

298-04-4

T+,N

27/28-50/53

126-75-0

T+

27/28

298-02-2

T+

27/28

2275-18-5

T+

27/28

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

O,O-DIETHYL-O-2-ISOPROPYL-6-METHYL(2-)24/25-60-61
PYRIMIDIN-4-YL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
DIETHYL KETONE
(2-)9-16-33
O,O-DIETHYL-O-(4-METHYLCOUMARIN-7-YL)
(1/2-)13-28-45

333-41-5

Xn,N

22-50/53

96-22-0

11

299-45-6

T+

26/27/28

Page 81 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
DIETHYL 4-METHYL-1,3-DITHIOLAN(1/2-)36/37/39-45-61
2-YLIDENEPHOSPHOROAMIDATE
DIETHYL 3-METHYLPYRAZOL-5-YL PHOSPHATE
(1/2-)13-28-45
O,O-DIETHYL O-[4-(METHYLSULPHINYL)PHENYL]
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
O,O-DIETHYL O-4-NITROPHENYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
DIETHYL OXALATE
(2-)23
S-(O,O-DIETHYL 4-OXOBENZOTRIAZIN-3-YLMETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
N,N-DIETHYL-p-PHENYLENDIAMINE
(1/2-)26-36-45
DIETHYL SULPHATE
20/21/22-34
53-45 Note E
O,O-DIETHYL O-7,8,9,10-TETRAHYDRO-6(1/2-)28-36/37-45
OXOBENZO[c]CHROMEN-3-YL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
N,N-DIETHYL-m-TOLUAMIDE
(2)
O,O-DIETHYL O-3,5,6-TRICHLORO-2-PYRIDYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
DIFENACOUM
(1/2-)36/37-45
DIFENZOQUAT-METHYLSULPHATE
(2)
DIGITOXIN
(1/2-)-45
DIGOL DINITRATE
(1/2-)33-35-36/37-45
9,10-DIHYDRO-8a,10a-DIAZONIAPHENANTHRENE ION
(1/2-)22-36/37/39-45
2,3-DIHYDRO-2,2-DIMETHYLBENZOFURAN-7-YL
(1/2-)36/37-45
METHYLCARBAMATE
2,3-DIHYDRO-5-METHOXY-2-OXO-1,3,4-THIADIAZOL(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45-60-61
3-YLMETHYL-O,O-DIMETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
2,3-DIHYDRO-2-METHYLBENZOFURAN-7-YL
(1/2-)13-36/37-45
METHYLCARBAMATE
1,2-DIHYDROXYBENZENE
(2-)22-26-37
1,4-DIHYDROXYBENZENE
(2-)24/25-39
DI-ISOBUTYLENE
(2-)9-16-29-33
DI-ISOBUTYL KETONE
(2-)24
2,6-DI-ISOCYANATE TOLUENE
(1/2-)23-26-28-38-45 Note C
DI-ISOPROPANOLAMINE
(2-)26

950-10-7

T+,N

27/28-51/53

108-34-9

T+

26/27/28

115-90-2

T+,N

27/28-50/53

56-38-2

T+,N

27/28-50/53

95-92-1

Xn

22-36

2642-71-9

T+

24-28

93-05-0

25-34

64-67-5

45-46-

572-48-5

25

134-62-3

Xn

22-36/38

2921-88-2

T,N

24/25-50/53

56073-07-5

T+

28-48/25

43222-48-6

Xn

22

71-63-6

23/25-33

693-21-0

E,T+

3-26/27/28-33

2764-72-9

24/25-36/37/38

1563-66-2

T+

26/28

950-37-8

T+,N

21-28-50/53

1563-67-3

23/24/25

120-80-9

Xn

21/22-36/38

123-31-9

Xn

20/22

107-39-1

11

108-83-8

Xi

10-37

91-08-7

23-36/37/38-42

110-97-4

Xi

36

Page 82 of 236

DI-ISOPROPYL ETHER
(2-)9-16-33
DI-ISOPROPYL KETONE
(2-)16-23
O,O-DIISOPROPYL 2-PHENYLSULPHONYL(2-)24-36
AMINOETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
N,N'-DIISOPROPYLPHOSPHORODIAMINIC FLUORIDE
(1/2-)13-45
DIKETENE
(2-)3 Note D
DILAUROYL PEROXIDE
(2-)3/7-14-36/37/39
DILITHIUM 6-ACETAMIDO-4-HYDROXY-3-(4-((2(2-)24-37
SULPHONATOOXY)ETHYLSULPHONYL)PHENYLAZO)
NAPHTHALENE-2-SULPHONATE
DIMEFOX
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-38-45
DIMEPRANOL
(1/2-)23-26-36-45
DIMERCURY DICHLORIDE
(2-)13-24/25-46
DIMETAN
(1/2-)36/37-45
DIMETHOATE
(2-)36/37
3,3'-DIMETHOXYBENZIDINE
53-45 Note E
3,3'-DIMETHOXYBENZIDINE, SALTS
53-45 Note A, E
1,1-DIMETHOXYETHANE
(2-)9-16-33
1,2-DIMETHOXYETHANE
(2-)24/25
DIMETHYL ACETAL
(2-)9-16-33
N,N-DIMETHYLACETAMIDE
(2-)26-28-36
O,S-DIMETHYL ACETYLPHOSPHORAMIDOTHIOATE
(2-)36
2-DIMETHYLAMINO-5,6-DIMETHYLPYRIMIDIN-4-YL
(1/2-)22-37-45
DIMETHYLCARBAMATE
2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHANOL
(2-)28
Page No.
15
18/11/96

108-20-3

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


F
11-19

565-80-0

11

741-58-2

Xn

22

371-86-8

T+

39/26/27/28

674-82-8

Xn

10-20

105-74-8

Xi

43

115-26-4

T+

27/28

108-16-7

10-22-34

10112-91-1

Xn

22-36/37/38

122-15-6

25

60-51-5

Xn

21/22

119-90-4

45-22

45-22

534-15-6

11

110-71-4

Xn

10-19-20

534-15-6

11

127-19-5

Xn

20/21-36

30560-19-1

Xn

22

23103-98-2

25

108-01-0

Xi

10-36/37/38

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)16-23-26-28-36-45
3-DIMETHYLAMINOMETHYLENEAMINOPHENYL
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
METHYLCARBAMATE
2-DIMETHYLAMINOETHYL METHACRYLATE

108-00-9

F,C

11-21/22-35

22259-30-9

T+

28

2867-47-2

Xn

21/22-36/38-43

Page 83 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)26-28 Note D
3-(DIMETHYLAMINO)PROPYLUREA
(2-)26-39
N-DIMETHYLAMINOSUCCINAMIC ACID
(2-)36/37
4-DIMETHYLAMINO-3-TOLYL METHYLCARBAMATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
4-DIMETHYLAMINO-3,5-XYLYL METHYLCARBAMATE
(1/2-)36/37-45
N,N-DIMETHYLANILINE
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
2,2'-DIMETHYL-2,2'AZODIPROPIONITRILE
(2-)39-41-47
N,N-DIMETHYLBENZENE-1,3-DIAMINE
(1/2-)28-45 Note C
N,N'-DIMETHYLBENZENE-1,4-DIAMINE
(1/2-)28-45 Note C
3,3'-DIMETHYLBENZIDINE
53-45-61 Note E
3,3'-DIMETHYLBENZIDINE, SALTS
53-45-61 Note A, E
N,N'-DIMETHYLBENZIDINE
(2-)22-36
2,2-DIMETHYL-1,3-BENZODIOXOL-4-OL
(2-)24-26-39
I,I-DIMETHYLBENZYL HYDROPEROXIDE
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45-50
1,1'-DIMETHYL-4,4'-BIPYRIDINIUM ION
(1/2-)22-36/37/39-45
DIMETHYLCARBAMOYL CHLORIDE
36/37/38
53-45 Note E
1-DIMETHYLCARBAMOYL-5-METHYLPYRAZOL-3-YL
(1/2-)36/37-45
DIMETHYLCARBAMATE
DIMETHYL CARBONATE
(2-)9-16
N,N-DIMETHYL-2-(3-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)-4,5(2-)24-37-61
DIHYDROPYAZOL-1-YLPHENYLSULPHONYL)ETHYLAMINE
1,4-DIMETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
(2-)9-16-33
N,N-DIMETHYL-1,3-DIAMINOPROPANE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
DIMETHYLDICHLOROSILANE
(2)
DIMETHYL cis-2-DIMETHYLCARBAMOYL-1(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
METHYLVINYL PHOSPHATE
N,N-DIMETHYL-2,2-DIPHENYLACETAMIDE
(2)
DIMETHYL ETHER
(2-)9-16-33
DIMETHYL FORMAMIDE
53-45 Note E
N,N-DIMETHYLFORMAMIDE
53-45 Note E
2,6-DIMETHYLHEPTAN-4-ONE
(2-)24
1,2-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE

31506-43-1

Xi

41

1596-84-5

Xn

40

2032-59-9

24/25

315-18-4

T+

21-28

121-69-7

T,N

23/24/25-40-

78-67-1

E,Xn

2-11-20/22

2836-04-6

23/24/25

99-98-9

23/24/25

119-93-7

T,N

45-22-51/53

T,N

45-22-51/53

2810-74-4

Xn

20/21/22

22961-82-6

Xi

41

80-15-9

O,C

7-20/22-34

4685-14-7

24/25-36/37/38

79-44-7

45-22-23-

644-64-4

21-25

616-38-6

11

10357-99-0

Xn,N

43-48/22-51/53

589-90-2

11

109-55-7

10-22-34-43

75-78-5

F,Xi

11-36/37/38

141-66-2

T+,N

22-28-50/53

957-51-7

Xn

22

115-10-6

F+

12

68-12-2

61-20/21-36

68-12-2

61-20/21-36

108-83-8

Xi

10-37

540-73-8

45-23/24/25

Page 84 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


53-45 Note E
N,N-DIMETHYLHYDRAZINE
53-45 Note E
1,2-DIMETHYLIMIDAZOLE
(2-)24-26
O,O-DIMETHYL-S-2-(1-METHYLCARBAMOYLETHYL(1/2-)36/37-45-61
THIO)ETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
O,O-DIMETHYL METHYLCARBAMOYLMETHYL
(2-)36/37
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
O,O-DIMETHYL-S-METHYLCARBAMOYLMETHYL
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
DIMETHYL-1-METHYL-2-(METHYLCARBAMOYL)VINYL
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHATE
2,2'-DIMETHYL-4,4'51/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
METHYLENEBIS(CYCLOHEXYLAMINE)
O,O-DIMETHYL-O-(4-METHYLTHION-m-TOLYL)
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
DIMETHYL 4-(METHYLTHIO)PHENYL PHOSPHATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
O,O-DIMETHYL-O-4-NITRO-m-TOLYL
(2-)60-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
O,O-DIMETHYL-S-(MORPHOLINOCARBONYLMETHYL)
(1/2-)13-45-60-61
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
O,O-DIMETHYL O-4-NITROPHENYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
DIMETHYLNITROSOAMINE
48/25-51/53
53-45-61 Note E
7,7-DIMETHYL-3-OXA-6-AZAOCTAN-1-OL
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45
O,O-DIMETHYL 4-OXOBENZOTRIAZIN-3-YLMETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
5,5-DIMETHYL-3-OXOCYCLOHEX-1-ENYL
(1/2-)36/37-45
DIMETHYLCARBAMATE
2,4-DIMETHYLPENTAN-3-ONE
(2-)16-23
O,S-DIMETHYL PHOSPHOROAMIDOTHIOATE
(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45-61
Page No.
16
18/11/96

57-14-7

F,T

45-11-23/25-34

1739-84-0

Xn

22-38-41

2275-23-2

T,N

21-25-50

60-51-5

Xn

21/22

1113-02-6

T,N

21-25-50

6923-22-4

T+,N

24-28-50/53

6864-37-5

T,C,N

22-23/24-35-

55-38-9

T,N

21-25-50/53

3254-63-5

T+

27/28

122-14-5

Xn,N

22-50/53

144-41-2

T,N

23/24/25-50/53

298-00-0

T+

24-28

62-75-9

T+,N

45-25-26-

22-35

86-50-0

T+

24-28

122-15-6

25

565-80-0

11

10265-92-6

T+,N

24-28-36-50

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

O,O-DIMETHYL S-PHTHALIMIDOMETHYL
(2-)22-36/37
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
2,2-DIMETHYL PROPANE

732-11-6

Xn

21/22

463-82-1

F+

12

Page 85 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)9-16-33
N,N'-(2,2-DIMETHYLPROPYLIDENE)HEXAMETHYLENE
(2-)24-37
DIAMINE
DIMETHYLSULFAMOYLCHLORIDE
53-45 Note E
DIMETHYL SULPHATE
53-45 Note E
N,N-DIMETHYLTOLUIDINE, all isomers
52/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
DIMETHYL 2,2,2-TRICHLORO-1-HYDROXY(2-)24-37
ETHYLPHOSPHONATE
O,O-DIMETHYL-O-2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENYL
(2-)25-36/37
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
2,6-DIMETHYL-4-TRIDECYLMORPHOLINE
(2-)25-36/37
2,2-DIMETHYLTRIMETHYLENE DIACRYLATE
(1/2-)28-39-45 Note D
DIMETILAN
(1/2-)36/37-45
DIMEXANO
(2)
DINEX
(1/2-)13-45
DINEX, SALTS and ESTERS
(1/2-)13-45 Note A
DINICKEL TRIOXIDE
53-45
2,4-DINITROANILINE
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
DINITROBENZENE, all isomers
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
4,6-DINITRO-o-CRESOL, AMMONIUM SALT
(1/2-)13-28-45
4,6-DINITRO-o-CRESOL, POTASSIUM SALT
(1/2-)13-45
4,6-DINITRO-o-CRESOL, SODIUM SALT
(1/2-)13-45
DINITROGEN TETROXIDE
(1/2-)9-26-28-36/37/39-45
2,6-DINITRO-4-OCTYLPHENYL and
(2-)37
2,4-DINITRO-6-OCTYLPHENYL CROTONATES
DINITROPHENOL
(1/2-)28-37-45 Note C
DINITROPHENOL, SALTS
(1/2-)28-37-45 Note A
DINITROTOLUENE
(1/2-)28-37-45 Note C
DINOBUTON
(1/2-)37-45
DINOCAP
(2-)37
DINOCTON
(2)
DINOCTON-6
(2)

1000-78-8

Xi

38-43

13360-57-1

T+

45-21/22-26-34

77-78-1

T+

45-25-26-34

23/24/25-33-

52-68-6

Xn

22-43

299-84-3

Xn

21/22

24602-86-6

Xn

21/22

2223-82-7

24-36/38-43

644-64-4

21-25

1468-37-7

Xn

22

131-89-5

23/24/25

23/24/25

1314-06-3

49-43

97-02-9

T+,N

26/27/28-33-

25154-54-5

T+,N

26/27/28-33-

2980-64-5

T+

26/27/28-33

5787-96-2

23/24/25-33

2312-76-7

23/24/25-33

10544-72-6

T+

26-34

39300-45-3

Xn

22-38

25550-58-7

23/24/25-33

23/24/25-33

25321-14-6

23/24/25-33

973-21-7

25

39300-45-3

Xn

22-38

63919-26-6

Xn

22

8069-76-9

Xn

22

Page 86 of 236

8,9-DINORBORN-5-ENE-2,3-DICARBOXYLIC
(2-)39 Note C
ANHYDRIDE
DINOSAM
(1/2-)13-45
DINOSAM, SALTS and ESTERS
(1/2-)13-45 Note A
DINOSEB
36-44-50/53 53-45-60-61 Note E
DINOSEB, SALTS and ESTERS
36-44
53-45 Note A, E
DINOTERB
36-44
53-45 Note E
DINOTERB, SALTS and ESTERS
53-45 Note A, E
DIOXACARB
(1/2-)37-45
1,4-DIOXANE
(2-)16-36/37
1,4-DIOXAN-2,3-DIYL-O,O,O',O'-TETRAETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
DI(PHOSPHORODITHIOATE)
DIOXATHION
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
1,3-DIOXOLANE
(2-)16
2-(1,3-DIOXOLAN-2-YL)PHENYL METHYLCARBAMATE
(1/2-)37-45
N-(4-(4-(2,5-DIOXOPYRROL(2-)24-37-60-61
1-YL)BENZYL)PHENYL)ACETAMIDE
DIPENTENE
(2-)28
DIPHACINONE
(1/2-)36/37-45
DIPHENAMID
(2)
DIPHENYL
(2-)23-60-61
DIPHENYLAMINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
1,2-DIPHENYLHYDRAZINE
53-45 Note E
DIPHENYLMETHANEDIISOCYANATE, isomers
(2-)26-28-38-45 Note C
and homologues
DIPHENYLMETHANE-2,2'-DIISOCYANATE
(2-)26-28-38-45 Note C
DIPHENYLMETHANE-2,4'-DIISOCYANATE
(2-)26-28-38-45 Note C
DIPHENYLMETHANE-4,4'-DIISOCYANATE
(2-)26-28-38-45 Note C
DIPICRYLAMINE, AMMONIUM SALT
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
Page No.
17
18/11/96
Substance
Safety phrases

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


123748-85-6 Xn
22-36/37/38-42
4097-36-3

23/24/25

23/24/25

T,N

61-62-24/25-

61-62-24/25-

61-23/24/25-

61-23/24/25

6988-21-2

25

123-91-1

F,Xn

11-19-36/37-40

78-34-2

T+

24-26/28

78-34-2

T+

24-26/28

646-06-0

11

6988-21-2

25

Xi,N

43-50/53

138-86-3

Xi

10-38

82-66-6

T+

28-48/23/24/25

957-51-7

Xn

22

92-52-4

Xi,N

36/37/38-50/53

122-39-4

T,N

23/24/25-33-

122-66-7

45-22

9016-87-9

Xn

20-36/37/38-42

2536-05-2

Xn

20-36/37/38-42

5873-54-1

Xn

20-36/37/38-42

101-68-8

Xn

20-36/37/38-42

2844-92-0

E,T+,N

1-26/27/28-33-

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

88-85-7

1420-07-1

Page 87 of 236

DIPROPYLAMINE
(1/2-)16-26-36/37/39-45
DIPROPYLENETRIAMINE
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45
DI-n-PROPYL ETHER
(2-)9-16-33
DIPROPYL KETONE
(2-)23
DIQUAT
(1/2-)22-36/37/39-45
DIQUAT, SALTS
(1/2-)22-36/37/39-45 Note A
DISODIUM N-CARBOXYMETHYL-N-(2(2-)26-39
(2-HYDROXYETHOXY)ETHYL)GLYCINATE
DISODIUM ETHYLENEBISDITHIOCARBAMATE
(2-)8-24/25-46
DISODIUM S,S'-HEXANE-1,6-DIYLDI(THIOSULPHATE)
(2-)22-24-37-61
DIHYDRATE
DISODIUM METASILICATE
(1/2-)13-24/25-36/37/39-45
DISODIUM 7-OXABICYCLO(2,2,1)HEPTANE-2,3(1/2-)36/37/39-45
DICARBOXYLATE
DISULFOTON
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
DISULPHUR DICHLORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
DITALIMFOS
(2-)36/37
DITHALLIUM SULPHATE
(1/2-)13-36/37-45
DITHIANON
(2-)24
DIURON
(2-)22-37
DIXANTHOGEN
(2-)24
DNOC
40-44
(1/2-)36/37-45
DNOC, AMMONIUM SALT
(1/2-)13-28-45
DNOC, POTASSIUM SALT
(1/2-)13-45
DNOC, SODIUM SALT
(1/2-)13-45
DODECYLQUANIDIUM ACETATE
(2-)26
DODECYL 3,4,5-TRIHYDROXYBENZOATE
(2-)24-37
DODEMORPH
(2-)26
DODINE
(2-)26
DRAZOXOLON
(1/2-)22-24-36/37-45
EDIFENPHOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45

142-84-7

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


F,C
11-20/21/22-35

56-18-8

T+,C

22-24-26-35-43

111-43-3

11-19

123-19-3

10

2764-72-9

24/25-36/37/38

24/25-36/37/38

92511-22-3

Xi

41

142-59-6

Xn

22-37-43

Xi

43-52/53

6834-92-0

34-37

129-67-9

21-25-36/37/38

298-04-4

T+,N

27/28-50/53

10025-67-9

14-34-37

5131-24-8

Xi

38-43

7446-18-6

T+

28-38-48/25

3347-22-6

Xn

22

330-54-1

Xn

48/22

502-55-6

Xn

22

534-52-1

T+

27/28-33-36-

2980-64-5

T+

26/27/28-33

5787-96-2

23/24/25-33

2312-76-7

23/24/25-33

2439-10-3

Xn

22-36/38

1166-52-5

Xi

43

1593-77-7

Xi

36/37/38

2439-10-3

Xn

22-36/38

5707-69-7

25

17109-49-8

23/24/25

Page 88 of 236

ENDOSULFAN
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
ENDOTHAL
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
ENDOTHAL-SODIUM
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
ENDOTHION
(1/2-)36/37-45
ENDRIN
(1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61
EPHEDRINE
(2-)22-25
EPHEDRINE, SALTS
(2-)22-25 Note A
EPICHLOROHYDRIN
23/24/25-34-43
53-45 Note E
EPN
(1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61
(EPOXYETHYL)BENZENE
53-45 Note E
1,2-EPOXY-4-EPOXYETHYLCYCLOHEXANE
(1/2-)23-24-45
2,3-EPOXY-1,4,5,6,7,8,8-HEPTACHLORO(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
3a,4,7,7a-TETRAHYDRO-4,7-METHANOINDANE
1,2-EPOXY-3-PHENOXYPROPANE
(2-)24/25
1,2-EPOXYPROPANE
20/21/22-36/37/38 53-45 Note E
2,3-EPOXY-1-PROPANOL
36/37/38-42/43 (1/2-)45
2,3-EPOXYPROPYL ACRYLATE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45 Note D
2,3-EPOXYPROPYL-2-ETHYLCYCLOHEXYL ETHER
(2-)26-28-37/39
2,3-EPOXYPROPYL METHACRYLATE
36/38-43
(2-)26-28 Note D
EPOXYRESIN, reaction product:
(2-)28-37/39
BISPHENOL-A(EPICHLOROHYDRIN), average
molecule weight <700
1,2-EPOXY-3-(TOLYLOXY)PROPANE
(2-)26-28 Note C
EPTC
(2-)23
ERBON
(2)
ERIONITE
53-45
ESERIN
(1/2-)25-45
ETHANAL
(2-)16-33-36/37
ETHANE
(2-)9-16-33
ETHANEDIOL
(2)
ETHANE-1,2-DIONE
(2-)26-28 Note B

115-29-7

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T,N
24/25-36-50/53

145-73-3

21-25-36/37/38

129-67-9

21-25-36/37/38

2778-04-3

24/25

72-20-8

T+,N

24-28-50/53

299-42-3

Xn

22

Xn

22

106-89-8

45-10-

2104-64-5

T+,N

27/28-50/53

96-09-03

45-21-36

106-87-6

23/24/25-40

1024-57-3

T,N

25-33-40-50/53

122-60-1

Xn

21-43

75-56-9

F+,T

45-12-

556-52-5

21/22-23-

106-90-1

23/24/25-34-43

130014-35-6 Xi

36/38-43

106-91-2

Xn

20/21/22-

25068-38-6

Xi

36/38-43

26447-14-3

Xi

38

759-94-4

Xn

22

136-25-4

Xn

22

12510-42-8

45

57-47-6

T+

26/28

75-07-0

F+,Xn

12-36/37-40

74-84-0

F+

12

107-21-1

Xn

22

107-22-2

Xi

36/38

Page 89 of 236

ETHANETHIOL
(2-)16-25
Page No.
18/11/96

75-08-1

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


F,Xn
11-20

18

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

ETHANOL
(2-)7-16
ETHANOLAMINE
(2)
ETHIOFENCARB
(2)
ETHION
(1/2-)25-36/37-45
ETHIRIMOL
(2-)36/37
ETHOATE-METHYL
(2-)36/37
ETHOPROPHOS
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
ETHOXIDES, ALKALI
(1/2-)8-16-26-43-45 Note A
2-ETHOXYANILINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45 Note C
4-ETHOXYANILINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45 Note C
N-ETHOXYCARBONYL-N-METHYLCARBAMOYLMETHYL
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
O,O-DIETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
6-ETHOXY-1,2-DIHYDRO-2,2,4-TRIMETHYLQUINOLINE
(2-)24
2-ETHOXYETHANOL
20/21/22
53-45 Note E
2-ETHOXYETHYL ACETATE
53-45 Note E
ETHOXYQUIN
(2-)24
ETHYL ACETATE
(2-)16-23-29-33
ETHYL ACRYLATE
36/37/38-43 (2-)9-16-33-36/37 Note D
ETHYL ALCOHOL
(2-)7-16
ETHYLAMINE
(2-)16-26-29
2-ETHYLAMINO-4-ISOPROPYLAMINO-6-METHYLTHIO(2-)36
1,3,5-TRIAZINE
N-ETHYLANILINE
(1/2-)28-37-45
ETHYLBENZENE
(2-)16-24/25-29
ETHYL BROMIDE
(2-)28
ETHYL BROMOACETATE

64-17-5

11

141-43-5

Xn

20-36/37/38

29973-13-5

Xn

22

563-12-2

21-25

23947-60-6

Xn

21

116-01-8

Xn

21/22

13194-48-4

T+

25-27

F,C

11-14-34

94-70-2

23/24/25-33

156-43-4

23/24/25-33

2595-54-2

T,N

24/25-50/53

91-53-2

Xn

22

110-80-5

60-61-10-

111-15-9

60-61-20/21/22

91-53-2

Xn

22

141-78-6

11

140-88-5

F,Xn

11-20/21/22-

64-17-5

11

75-04-7

F+,Xi

12-36/37

834-12-8

Xn

22

103-69-5

23/24/25-33

100-41-4

F,Xn

11-20

74-96-4

Xn

20/21/22

105-36-2

T+

26/27/28

Page 90 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)7/9-26-45
2-ETHYLBUTAN-1-OL
(2)
2-ETHYL BUTANOL
(2)
ETHYL CARBAMATE
53-45
S-(N-ETHYLCARBAMOYLMETHYL) O,O-DIMETHYL
(2-)36/37
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
ETHYL CHLORIDE
(2-)9-16-33-36/37-61
ETHYL CHLOROACETATE
(1/2-)7/9-45-61
ETHYL CHLOROFORMATE
(1/2-)9-16-26-28-33-36/37/39-45
ETHYL CYCLOHEXYL GLYCIDYL ETHER
(2-)26-28-37/39
ETHYL 5-(1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10,10-DECACHLORO(1/2-)36/37-45
-4-HYDROXYPENTACYCLO[5.2.1.02,6.03,9.05,8]
DEC-4-YL)OXOVALERATE
ETHYL 2-(DIMETHOXYPHOSPHINOTHIOYLTHIO)-2(2-)22-36/37
PHENYLACETATE
ETHYLDIMETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)3-16-26-36-45
ETHYL trans-3-DIMETHYLAMINOACRYLATE
(2-)24-37
S-ETHYL DIPROPYLTHIOCARBAMATE
(2-)23
ETHYLENE
(2-)9-16-33
ETHYLENE BIS(TRICHLOROACETATE)
(2)
ETHYLENE CHLOROHYDRIN
(1/2-)7/9-28-45
ETHYLENEDIAMINE
42/43
(1/2-)23-26-36/37/39-45
ETHYLENE DIAMMONIUM O,O-BIS(OCTYL)
(1/2-)24/25-26-28-39-45-60-61
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE, mixture of isomers
ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE
36/37/3853-45-61 Note E
ETHYLENE DICHLORIDE
36/37/38
53-45 Note E
ETHYLENE DIMETHACRYLATE
(2) Note D
ETHYLENE DINITRATE
(1/2-)33-35-36/37-45
2,2'-(ETHYLENEDIOXY)DIETHYL DIACRYLATE
(2-)26-28 Note D
ETHYLENE GLYCOL
(2)
ETHYLENE GLYCOL DIMETHACRYLATE
(2) Note D
ETHYLENE GLYCOL DIMETHYL ETHER
(2-)24/25

97-95-0

Xn

21/22

97-95-0

Xn

21/22

51-79-6

45

116-01-8

Xn

21/22

75-00-3

F+,Xn

12-40-52/53

105-39-5

T,N

23/24/25-50

541-41-3

F,T+

11-22-26-34

130014-35-6 Xi

36/38-43

4234-79-1

22-24

2597-03-7

Xn

21/22

598-56-1

F+,C

12-20/22-34

924-99-2

Xi

43

759-94-4

Xn

22

74-85-1

F+

12

2514-53-6

Xi

38

107-07-3

T+

26/27/28

107-15-3

10-21/22-34-

C,N

22-34-50/53

106-93-4

T,N

45-23/24/25-

107-06-2

F,T

51/53
45-11-22-

97-90-5

Xi

36/37

628-96-6

E,T+

2-26/27/28-33

1680-21-3

Xi

36/38-43

107-21-1

Xn

22

97-90-5

Xi

36/37

110-71-4

Xn

10-19-20

Page 91 of 236

ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE


(1/2-)33-35-36/37-45
ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER
(2-)24/25
ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOETHYL ETHER
20/21/22
53-45 Note E
ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOISOPROPYL ETHER
(2-)24/25
ETHYLENE GLYCOL MONOMETHYL ETHER
20/21/22
53-45 Note E
Page No.
19
18/11/96

628-96-6

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


E,T+
2-26/27/28-33

111-76-2

Xn

20/21/22-37

110-80-5

60-61-10-

109-59-1

Xn

20/21-36

109-86-4

60-61-10-

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

2-ETHYLHEXYL 3,5-BIS(1,1-DIMETHYLETHYL)53-45
4-HYDROXYPHENYL METHYL THIOACETATE
ETHYLENEIMINE
26/27/28-3453-45-61 Note D, E

80387-97-9

61-43

151-56-4

F,T+,N

45-46-11-

ETHYLENE OXIDE
36/37/38
53-45 Note E
ETHYLENE THIOUREA
53-45 Note E
ETHYL FORMATE
(2-)9-16-33
ETHYL GLYCOL
20/21/22
53-45 Note E
ETHYLGLYCOL ACETATE
53-45 Note E
2-ETHYLHEXANE-1,3-DIOL
(2-)26
2-ETHYLHEXANOIC ACID
(2-)36/37
2-ETHYLHEXYL ACRYLATE
(2-)24-37 Note D
O-ETHYLHYDROXYLAMINE
36-43(1/2-)16-26-36/37/39-38-

75-21-8

F+,T

51/53
45-46-12-23-

96-45-7

61-22

109-94-4

11

110-80-5

60-61-10-

111-15-9

60-61-20/21/22

94-96-2

Xi

36

149-57-5

Xn

63

103-11-7

Xi

37/38-43

624-86-2

F,T,N

11-23/24/25-

45-61
ETHYLIDENE DICHLORIDE
52/53
(2-)16-23-61
ETHYL LACTATE
(2-)23
ETHYL MERCAPTAN
(2-)16-25
ETHYL METHACRYLATE
(2-)9-16-29-33 Note D
ETHYL METHYL ETHER
(2-)9-16-33
ETHYL METHYL KETONE
(2-)9-16-25-33
ETHYL METHYL KETOXIME
(2-)23-24
ETHYL NITRATE

48/20-50
75-34-3

F,Xn

11-22-36/37-

97-64-3

10

75-08-1

F,Xn

11-20

97-63-2

F,Xi

11-36/37/38-43

540-67-0

F+

12

78-93-3

F,Xi

11-36/37

96-29-7

Xi

36-43

625-58-1

Page 92 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)23-24/25
ETHYL NITRITE
(2)
O-ETHYL-O-4-NITROPHENYL
(1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61
PHENYLPHOSPHONOTHIOATE
(ETHYL-3-OXOBUTANOATO-O'1,O'3)(2-DIMETHYL(2-)26-39
AMINOETHANOLATO)(1-METHOXYPROPAN-2OLATO)ALUMINIUM(III), dimerised
O-ETHYL PHENYL ETHYLPHOSPHONODITHIOATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
ETHYL PROPIONATE
(2-)16-23-29-33
ETHYL SILICATE
(2)
S-[2-(ETHYLSULPHINYL)ETHYL]-O,O-DIMETHYL
(1/2-)13-28-45
PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
S-[2-(ETHYLSULPHINYL)ETHYL]-O,O-DIMETHYL
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
S-ETHYLSULPHINYLMETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
O,O-DIISOPROPYLPHOSPHORODITHIOATE
S-[2-(ETHYLSULPHONYL)ETHYL]-O,O-DIMETHYL
(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
O-[2-(ETHYLTHIO)ETHYL] O,O-DIMETHYL
(1/2-)24-36/37-45
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
S-2-(ETHYLTHIO)ETHYL-O,O-DIMETHYL
(1/2-)36/37-45
PHOSPHORDITHIOATE
S-2-(ETHYLTHIO)ETHYL-O,O-DIMETHYL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
O-ETHYL-O-2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENYL
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45-60-61
ETHYLPHOSPHONOTHIOATE
ETHYNE
(2-)9-16-33
ETRIMFOS
(2)
FAST GARNET GBC BASE
53-45
FATTY ACIDS, TALL-OIL, reaction products
(2-)28-37-61
with IMINOETHANOL and BORIC ACID
FENAMINOSULF
(1/2-)36/37-45
FENAMIPHOS
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45
FENAZAFLOR
(2-)36/37
FENBUTATIN OXIDE
(2-)36/37
FENCHLORPHOS
(2-)25-36/37

109-95-5

E,Xn

2-20/21/22

2104-64-5

T+,N

27/28-50/53

Xi

10-41

944-22-9

T+,N

27/28-50/53

105-37-3

11

78-10-4

Xn

10-20-36/37

2703-37-9

T+

26/27/28

301-12-2

T,N

24/25-50

5827-05-4

T+

25-27

17040-19-6

21-25

867-27-6

25

640-15-3

21-25

919-86-8

T,N

24/25-51/53

327-98-0

T+,N

24-28-50/53

74-86-2

F+

5-6-12

38260-54-7

Xn

22

97-56-3

45-43

Xi, N

38-51/53

140-56-7

21-25

22224-92-6

T+

24-28

14255-88-0

Xn

21/22

13356-0806

Xn

21-36/38

299-84-3

Xn

21/22

Page 93 of 236

FENITROTHION
(2-)60-61
FENOPROP
(2-)37
FENOPROP, SALTS
(2-)13 Note A
FENSON
(2-)24-26
FENSULFOTHION
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45-60-61
FENTHION
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
Page No.
20
18/11/96

122-14-5
93-72-1

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn,N
22-50/53
Xn

22-38

Xn

20/21/22

80-38-6

Xn

22-36

115-90-2

T+,N

27/28-50/53

55-38-9

T,N

21-25-50/53

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

FENTIN ACETATE
36/38-43-50/53 (1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
FENTIN HYDROXIDE
36/38-50/53
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
FENURON-TCA
(2)
FERBAM
(2)
FICIN
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
FLUENETIL
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
FLUORINE
(1/2-)9-26-36/37/39-45
2-FLUOROACETAMIDE
(1/2-)36/37-45
FLUOROACETATES, soluble
(1/2-)20-22-26-45 Note A
FLUOROACETIC ACID
(1/2-)20-22-26-45
FLUOROBORIC ACID, conc.>25%
(1/2-)26-27-45 Note B
N-(FLUORODICHLOROMETHYLTHIO)PHTHALIMIDE
(2-)28
2-FLUOROETHYL BIPHENYL-4-YLACETATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
FLUOROSILICATES, with the exception of those
(2-)13-24/25 Note A
specified elsewhere in this Annex
FLUOROSILICATES, ALKALINE (Na, K, NH4)
(1/2-)26-45 Note A
FLUOROSILICIC ACID
(1/2-)26-27-45 Note B
FLUOROSULPHONIC ACID
(1/2-)26-45
FLUOROSULPHURIC ACID
(1/2-)26-45
2-FLUORO-5-TRIFLUOROMETHYLPYRIDINE
(2-)24-37-61

900-95-8

T+,N

24/25-26-

76-87-9

T+,N

24/25-26-

4482-55-7

Xi

38

14484-64-1

Xi

36/37/38

9001-33-6

Xn

36/37/38-42

4301-50-2

T+

27/28

7782-41-4

T+,C

7-26-35

640-19-7

T+

24-28

T+

28

144-49-0

T+

28

16872-11-0

34

719-96-0

Xi

38

4301-50-2

T+

27/28

Xn

22

23/24/25

16961-83-4

34

7789-21-1

20-35

7789-21-1

20-35

69045-82-5

Xi

10-43-52/53

Page 94 of 236

FOLPET
(2-)36/37
FONOFOS
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
FORMALDEHYDE, reaction products with
(2-)24-37
BUTYLPHENOL
FORMALDEHYDE solution, 1%conc.<5%
(1/2-)23-37 Note B, D
FORMALDEHYDE solution, 5%conc.<25%
36/37/38-40-43 (1/2-)26-36/37-51 Note B, D
FORMALDEHYDE solution, conc.>25%
40-43
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-51
Note B, D
FORMETANATE
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
FORMETANATE HYDROCHLORIDE
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
FORMIC ACID, conc.>90%
(1/2-)23-26-45 Note B
FORMIC ACID, 10%<CONC.40%
(1/2-)7/9-26-45 Note B
HYDROCARBONS
53-45
C26-C55 aromatic rich
HYDROCHLORIC ACID, 10%conc.<25%
(1/2-)26 Note B
HYDROCHLORIC ACID, conc.25%
(1/2-)26-45 Note B
HYDROCYANIC ACID
(1/2-)7/9-16-36/37-38-45
HYDROFLUORIC ACID
(1/2-)7/9-26-36/37-45 Note B
Page No.
22
18/11/96

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn
36-40-43

133-07-3
944-22-9

T+,N

27/28-50/53

91673-30-2

Xi

43

50-00-0

Xn

40-43

50-00-0

Xn

20/21/22-

50-00-0

23/24/25-34-

22259-30-9

T+

28

23422-53-9

T+

28

64-18-6

35

34-37
T

45

Xi

36/37/38

34-37

74-90-8

F+,T+

12-26

7664-39-3

T+,C

26/27/28-35

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

HYDROGEN
(2-)9-16-33
HYDROGEN BROMIDE
(1/2-)7/9-26-45
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, water solution
(1/2-)26-45 Note B
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE, anhydrous
(1/2-)9-26-36/37/39-45
HYDROGEN CYANIDE
(1/2-)7/9-16-36/37-38-45
HYDROGEN CYANIDE, SALTS with the exception of
(1/2-)7-28-29-45 Note A
complex cyanides as FERRO-, FERRICYANIDES,
MERCURIC OXOCYANIDE
HYDROGEN FLUORIDE
(1/2-)7/9-26-36/37/39-45
HYDROGEN IODIDE anhydrous
(1/2-)9-26-36/37/39-45

1333-74-0

F+

12

10035-10-6

35-37

34-37

7647-01-0

T,C

23-35

74-90-8

F+,T+

12-26

T+

26/27/28-32

32057-09-3

T+,C

26/27/28-35

10034-85-2

35

97722-04-8

Page 95 of 236

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, conc.20%


(1/2-)3-28-36/39-45 Note B
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE, 5%conc.<20%
(2-)28-39 Note B
HYDROGEN SODIUM N-CARBOXYLATOETHYL(2-)24-37-61
N-OCTADEC-9-ENYLMALEATE
HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
(1/2-)9-16-28-36/37-45-61
HYDROIODIC ACID, conc.>25%
(1/2-)26-45 Note B
HYDROQUINONE
(2-)24/25-39
4-HYDROXY-3,5-DI-IODOBENZONITRILE
(1/2-)36/37-45
2-HYDROXYETHYL ACRYLATE
(1/2-)26-36/39-45 Note D
2-HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE
(2-)26-28 Note D
2-HYDROXYETHYL OCTYL SULPHIDE
(2-)26
HYDROXYLAMINE
43(2-)22-26-36/37/39-61

7722-84-1

HYDROXYLAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE
48/22-50
(2-)22-24-37-61
HYDROXYLAMINE SULPHATE (1:1)
48/22-50
(2-)22-24-37-61
HYDROXYLAMINE SULPHATE (2:1)
48/22-50
(2-)22-24-37-61
HYDROXYLAMMONIUM CHLORIDE
48/22-50
(2-)22-24-37-61
HYDROXYLAMMONIUM HYDROGENSULPHATE
48/22-50
(2-)22-24-37-61
4-HYDROXY-4-METHYLPENTAN-2-ONE
(2-)7-16-24/25
4-HYDROXY-3-[3-OXO-1-(4-CHLOROPHENYL)BUTYL]
(2-)37
COUMARIN
4-HYDROXY-3-[3-OXO-1-(2-FURYL)BUTYL]COUMARIN
(1/2-)37-45
4-HYDROXY-3-(3-OXO-1-PHENYLBUTYL)COUMARIN
53-45 Note E
HYDROXYPROPYL ACRYLATE, mixture of isomers
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45 Note C, D
HYDROXYPROPYL METHACRYLATE, mixture of
(2-)26-28 Note D
isomers
5-(I-HYDROXY-I-2-PYRIDYLBENZYL)-7(2)
(I-2-PYRIDYLBENZYLIDENE)BICYCLO [2.2.1]
HEPT-5-ENE-2,3-DICARBOXIMIDE
4-HYDROXY-3-(1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRO-1-NAPHTHYL)
(1/2-)36/37-45
COUMARIN
HYOSCINE
(1/2-)25-45
HYOSCINE, SALTS
(1/2-)25-45 Note A

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


O,C
8-34
Xi

36/38

Xi

43-52/53

F+,T+,N

12-26-50

34

123-31-9

Xn

20/22

1689-83-4

21-25-63

818-61-1

24-34-43

868-77-9

Xi

36/38-43

3547-33-9

Xi

41

7803-49-8

Xn,C

5-22-37/38-41-

5470-11-1

Xn,N

48/22-50
22-36/38-43-

10046-00-1

Xn,N

22-36/38-43-

10039-54-0

Xn,N

22-36/38-43-

5470-11-1

Xn,N

22-36/38-43-

10046-00-1

Xn,N

22-36/38-43-

123-42-2

F,Xi

11-36

81-82-3

Xn

48/22

117-52-2

25-48/25

81-81-2

61-48/25

25584-83-2

23/24/25-34-43

923-26-2

Xi

36/38

2761-09-3
991-42-4

Xn

22

5836-29-3

T+

27/28-48/24/25

51-34-3

T+

26/27/28

T+

26/27/28

7783-06-4

Page 96 of 236

HYOSCYAMINE
(1/2-)24-45
HYOSCYAMINE, SALTS
(1/2-)24-45 Note A
IMAZALIL
(2)
IMAZALIL SULPHATE
(2-)26
IMIDAZOLIDINE-2-THIONE
53-45 Note E
2-IMIDAZOLINE-2-THIOL
53-45 Note E
2,2'-IMINODIETHANOL
(2-)26
2,2'-IMINODIETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
1,1'-IMINODIPROPAN-2-OL
(2-)26
3,3'-IMINODI(PROPYLAMINE)
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45
IODINE
(2-)23-25
IODOACETIC ACID
(1/2-)22-36/37/39-45
IODOMETHANE
37/38-40
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
IODOXYBENZENE
(2-)35
3-IODPROPENE
(1/2-)7-26-45
IOXYNIL
(1/2-)36/37-45
IOXYNIL OCTANOATE
(2-)36/37
IPROBENFOS
(2)
ISOBENZAN
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
ISOBORNYL THIOCYANOACETATE
(2-)24/25
Page No.
23
18/11/96

101-31-5

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T+
26/28
T+

26/28

35554-44-0

Xn

22-36

58594-72-2

Xn

22-41

96-45-7

61-22

96-45-7

61-22

111-42-2

Xi

36/38

111-40-0

21/22-34-43

110-97-4

Xi

36

56-18-8

T+,C

22-24-26-35-43

7553-56-2

Xn

20/21

64-69-7

T,C

25-35

74-88-4

21-23/25-

696-33-3

556-56-9

10-34

1689-83-4

21-25-63

3861-47-0

Xn

22-63

26087-47-8

Xn

22

297-78-9

T+,N

27/28-50

115-31-1

Xn

22

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

ISOBUTYL ACRYLATE
(2-)9-24-37 Note D
ISOBUTYL 2-(4-(4-CHLOROPHENOXY)
(2)
PHENOXY)PROPIONATE
ISOBUTYL 3,4-EPOXYBUTYRATE
(2-)24-28-36/37-60-61
4,4'-ISOBUTYLETHYLIDENEDIPHENOL
(2-)26-60-61
ISOBUTYLISOPROPYLDIMETHOXYSILANE
(2-)25-26-36/37
ISOBUTYL METHACRYLATE

106-63-8

Xn

10-20/21-38-43

51337-71-4

Xn

22

100181-71-3 Xi,N

38-43-50/53

6807-17-6

36-50/53

Xi,N

111439-76-0 Xn

10-20-38

97-86-9

10-36/37/38-43

Xi

Page 97 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)24-37 Note D
ISOBUTYRIC ACID
(2)
ISOBUTYRYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)16-23-26-36-45
3-ISOCYANATOMETHYL-3,5,5-TRIMETHYLCYCLOHEXYL42/43
(1/2-)26-28-38-45
ISOCYANATE
4-ISOCYANATOSULPHONYLTOLUENE
(2-)26-28-30
ISODRIN
(1/2-)13-28-45-60-61
ISOFENPHOS
(1/2-)36/37-45
ISOLAN
(1/2-)28-36/37/39-45
ISOPENTANE
(2-)9-16-29-33 Note C
ISOPHORONE
(2-)26
ISOPHORONE DIAMINE
52/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
ISOPHORONE DI-ISOCYANATE
42/43
(1/2-)26-28-38-45
ISOPRENE
(2-)9-16-29-33 Note D
ISOPROCARB
(2)
ISOPROPANOLAMINE
(1/2-)23-26-36-45
ISOPROPENYL BENZENE
(2)
2-ISOPROPOXYETHANOL
(2-)24/25
2-ISOPROPOXYPHENYL METHYLCARBAMATE
(1/2-)37-45
ISOPROPYL ACETATE
(2-)16-23-29-33 Note C
ISOPROPYL ALCOHOL
(2-)7-16 Note C
ISOPROPYLAMINE
(2-)16-26-29
6-ISOPROPYLAMINO-2-METHYLAMINO-4-METHYLTHIO(2-)36/37
1,3,5-TRIAZINE
ISOPROPYLBENZENE
(2) Note C
3-ISOPROPYL-2,1,3-BENZOTHIADIAZIN-4-ONE(2-)26
2,2-DIOXIDE
ISOPROPYL CHLOROACETATE
(1/2-)26-37/39-45
ISOPROPYL FORMATE
(2-)9-16-33 Note C
4,4'-ISOPROPYLIDENEDIPHENOL
(2-)24-26-37
exo-4-ISOPROPYL-1-METHYL-1,4(2-)26
EPOXYCYCLOHEXAN-2-OL

79-31-2

Xn

21/22

79-30-1

F,C

11-35

4098-71-9

23-36/37/38-

4083-64-1

Xn

14-36/37/38-42

465-73-6

T+,N

26/27/28-50/53

25311-71-1

24/25

119-38-0

T+

27/28

78-78-4

11

78-59-1

Xi

36/37/38

2855-13-2

21/22-34-43-

4098-71-9

23-36/37/38-

78-79-5

F+

12

2631-40-5

Xn

22

78-96-6

34

98-83-9

Xi

10-36/37

109-59-1

Xn

20/21-36

114-26-1

25

108-21-4

11

67-63-0

11

75-31-0

F+,Xi

12-36/37/38

1014-69-3

Xn

21/22

98-82-8

Xi

10-37

25057-89-0

Xn

22-36

105-48-6

10-25-36/37/38

625-55-8

11

80-05-7

Xi

36/37/38-43

87172-89-2

O,Xn

8-22-36

Page 98 of 236

5-ISOPROPYL-3-METHYLPHENYL METHYLCARBAMATE
(1/2-)24-37-45
1-ISOPROPYL-3-METHYLPYRAZOL-5-YL
(1/2-)28-36/37/39-45
DIMETHYLCARBAMATE
S-[2-(ISOPROPYL SULPHINYL)-ETHYL]
(1/2-)13-45
O,O-DIMETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
ISOPROTURON
(2-)36/37
ISOTHIOATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
ISOXATHION
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
KELEVAN
(1/2-)36/37-45
LEAD ACETATE
48/22
53-45 Note E
LEAD ALKYLS
26/27/28-33-50/53 53-45-60-61 Note A, E
LEAD AZIDE
33
53-45 Note E
LEAD CHROMATE
50/53
53-45-60-61
LEAD COMPOUNDS with the exception of those
53-45 Note A, E
specified elsewhere in this Annex
LEAD DIACETATE
53-45 Note E
LEAD HEXAFLUOROSILICATE
53-45 Note E
LEAD(II) METHANESULPHONATE
33-3853-45-57-61 Note E

2631-37-0

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T
25

119-38-0

T+

27/28

2635-50-9

23/24/25

34123-59-6

Xn

22-40

36614-38-7

24/25

18854-01-8

24/25

4234-79-1

22-24

1335-32-6

61-62-33-40-

T+,N

61-62-

13424-46-9

E,T

61-62-3-20/22-

7758-97-6

T,N

61-62-33-40-

61-62-20/22-33

301-04-2

61-62-33-48/22

25808-74-6

61-62-20/22-33

17570-76-2

T,N

61-62-20/22-

LEADSTYPHNATE
33
53-45 Note E
LEAD 2,4,6-TRINITRORESORCINOXIDE
33
53-45 Note E
LEPTOPHOS
50/53
(1/2-)25-36/37/39-45-60-61
LINDANE
36/38-50/53
(1/2-)13-45-60-61
LINURON
(2-)36/37
LITHIUM
(1/2-)8-43-45
Page No.
24
18/11/96

15245-44-0

E,T

41-48/20/22-58
61-62-3-20/22-

15245-44-0

E,T

61-62-3-20/22-

21609-90-5

T,N

21-25-39/25-

58-89-9

T,N

23/24/25-

330-55-2

Xn

40

7439-93-2

F,C

14/15-34

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

F,C

14-17-34

12057-74-8

F,T+

15/29-28

7439-95-4

15-17

MAGNESIUM ALKYLS, C1-5


(1/2-)16-43-45 Note A
MAGNESIUM PHOSPHIDE
(1/2-)22-43-45
MAGNESIUM POWDER, PYROPHORIC

Page 99 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)7/8-43
MAGNESIUM POWDER OR TURNINGS, stabilized
7439-95-4
(2-)7/8-43
MALATHION
121-75-5
(2-)24
MALEIC ACID
110-16-7
(2-)26-28-37
MALEIC ANHYDRIDE
108-31-6
(2-)22-28-39
MALONONITRILE
109-77-3
(1/2-)23-27-45
MANGANESE DIOXIDE
1313-13-9
(2-)25
MANGANESE SULPHATE
7785-87-7
(2-)22
MANNITOL HEXANITRATE
15825-0-4
(2-)35
MCPA
94-74-6
(2-)26-37-39
MCPA, SALTS and ESTERS
(2-)13 Note A
MCPB
94-81-5
(2-)24/25
MCPB, SALTS and ESTERS
(2-)24/25 Note A
MECARBAM
2595-54-2
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
MECOPROP
93-65-2
(2-)26-37/39
MECOPROP, SALTS
(2-)13 Note A
MEDINOTERB ACETATE
2487-01-6
(1/2-)36/37-45
MENAZON
78-57-9
(2-)61
p-MENTHA-1,8,(9)-DIENE
138-86-3
(2-)28
p-MENTHANE HYDROPEROXIDE
80-47-7
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45
8-p-MENTYL HYDROPEROXIDE
80-47-7
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45
MEPHOSFOLAN
950-10-7
(1/2-)36/37/39-45-61
MERCAPTODIMETUR
2032-65-7
(1/2-)22-37-45
MERCURIC CHLORIDE
7487-94-7
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
MERCURIC FULMINATE
628-86-4
(1/2-)3-35-45
MERCURIC OXYCYANIDE
1335-31-5
(1/2-)28-35-45
MERCURY
7439-97-6
(1/2-)7-45
MERCURY ALKYLS
(1/2-)13-28-36-45 Note A
MERCURY DICHLORIDE
7487-94-7
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
MERCURY, INORGANIC COMPOUNDS with exception of
(1/2-)13-28-45 Note A

11-15

Xn

22

Xn

22-36/37/38

Xn

22-36/37/38-42

23/24/25

Xn

20/22

Xn

48/20/22

Xn

22-38-41

Xn

20/21/22

Xn

22

Xn

22

T,N

24/25-50/53

Xn

22-38-41

Xn

20/21/22

21-25

Xn

22-52/53

Xi

10-38

O,C

7-20-34

O,C

7-20-34

T+,N

27/28-51/53

25

T+

28-34-48/24/25

E,T

3-23/24/25-33

E,T

3-23/24/25-33

23-33

T+

26/27/28-33

T+

28-34-48/24/25

T+

26/27/28-33

Page 100 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


MERCURIC SULPHIDE and those specified
elsewhere in this Annex
MERCURY, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS with exception of
(1/2-)13-28-36-45 Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
MESITYLENE
(2)
MESITYL OXIDE
(2-)25
METALDEHYDE
(2-)13-25-46
METANILIC ACID
(2-)25-28
METHACRYLATES with the exception of those
(2-)26-28
specified elsewhere in this Annex, conc.10%
METHACRYLIC ACID
(1/2-)15-26-45 Note D
METHACRYLONITRILE
(1/2-)9-16-18-29-45 Note D
METHALLYL CHLORIDE
43-51/53
(2-)9-16-26-29-36/37/39-45-61
METHAMIDOPHOS
(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45-61
METHANE
(2-)9-16-33
METHANESULPHONIC ACID
(1/2-)26-36-45
METHANETHIOL
(2-)16-25
METHANOL
(1/2-)7-16-24-45
METHAZOLE
(2-)36/37
METHENAMINE
(2-)16-22-24-37
METHIDATHION
(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45-60-61
METHIOCARB
(1/2-)22-37-45
METHOMYL
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
METHOXIDES, ALKALI
(1/2-)8-16-26-43-45 Note A
2-METHOXYANILINE
33-51/53
53-45-61 Note E
4-METHOXYANILINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
3-METHOXYBUTYL ACETATE
(2-)25
2-METHOXYCARBONYL-1-METHYLVINYL DIMETHYL
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45
PHOSPHATE
2-METHOXYETHANOL
20/21/22
53-45 Note E
2-METHOXYETHYL ACETATE
53-45 Note E
Page No.
25
18/11/96

T+

26/27/28-33

108-67-8

Xi

10-37

141-79-7

Xn

10-20/21/22

108-62-3

Xn

10-22

121-47-1

Xn

20/21/22

Xi

36/37/38

79-41-4

34

126-98-7

F,T

11-23/24/25-43

563-47-3

F,C,N

11-20/22-34-

10265-92-6

T+,N

24-28-36-50

74-82-8

F+

12

75-75-2

34

74-93-1

F+,Xn

12-20

67-56-1

F,T

11-23/25

20354-26-1

Xn

21/22-36/38

100-97-0

F,Xn

11-42/43

950-37-8

T+,N

21-28-50/53

2032-65-7

25

16752-77-5

T+

28

F,C

11-14-34

90-04-0

T+,N

45-26/27/28-

104-94-9

T+,N

26/27/28-33-50

4435-53-4

Xi

36

7786-34-7

T+

27/28

109-86-4

60-61-10-

110-49-6

60-61-20/21/22

Page 101 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

2-METHOXYETHYLCARBAMOYLMETHYL
(2-)24-36
O,O-DIMETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
2-METHOXYETHYLMERCURY CHLORIDE
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
2-METHOXY-1-METHYLETHYL ACETATE
(2-)25
4-METHOXY-4-METHYLPENTAN-2-ONE
(2-)23
4-METHOXY-2-NITROANILINE
52/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
1-METHOXY-2-PROPANOL
(2-)24
S-(5-METHOXY-4-OXOPYRAN-2-YLMETHYL) DIMETHYL
(1/2-)36/37-45
PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
METHYL ACETATE
(2-)16-23-29-33
METHYL ACETOACETATE
(2-)26
METHYL ACRYLAMIDOMETHOXYACETATE
53-45 Note E
(containing 0.1% ACRYLAMIDE)
METHYL ACRYLATE
36/37/38
(2-)9-16-33 Note D
METHYL ALCOHOL
(1/2-)7-16-24-45
METHYLAMINE, mono-, di-, tri
(2-)16-26-39
METHYLAMINE, mono-, solution
(1/2-)3-16-26-29-36/37/39-45

919-76-6

Xn

22

123-88-6

25-34-48/25

108-65-6

Xi

10-36

107-70-0

10

96-96-8

T+

26/27/28-33-

107-98-2

10

2778-04-3

24/25

79-20-9

11

105-45-3

Xi

36

77402-03-0

45-46-22-36

96-33-3

F,Xn

11-20/22-

67-56-1

F,T

11-23/25

F+,Xn

12-20-37/38-41

74-89-5

F+,C

12-20/22-34

Note B
METHYLAMINE, di-, solution
(1/2-)3-16-26-29-36/37/39-45

124-40-3

F+,C

12-20/22-34

Note B
METHYLAMINE, tri-, solution
(1/2-)3-16-26-29-36/37/39-45

75-50-3

F+,C

12-20/22-34

109-83-1

34

109-83-1

34

100-61-8

T,N

23/24/25-33-

75-55-8

F,T+

45-11-

592-62-1

45-61

592-62-1

45-61

Note B
2-METHYLAMINOETHANOL
(1/2-)23-26-36-45
N-METHYL-2-AMINOETHANOL
(1/2-)23-26-36-45
N-METHYLANILINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
METHYLAZIRIDINE
26/27/28-41
53-45 Note E
METHYL-O,N,N-AZOXYMETHYL ACETATE
53-45
METHYL AZOXY METHYL ACETATE
53-45

Page 102 of 236

DL-I-METHYLBENZYLAMINE
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45
METHYL BROMIDE
50/53-59
(1/2-)15-27-36/37/39-38-

618-36-0
74-83-9

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


C
21/22-34
T,N

45-59-61
2-METHYLBUTA-1,3-DIENE
78-79-5
F+
(2-)9-16-29-33 Note D
2-METHYLBUTAN-2-OL
75-85-4
F,Xn
(2-)9-16-24/25
3-METHYLBUTAN-2-ONE
563-80-4
F
(2-)9-16-33
2-(1-METHYLBUTYL)-4,6-DINITROPHENOL
4097-36-3
T
(1/2-)13-45
METHYL n-BUTYL KETONE
591-78-6
F,T
(1/2-)9-16-29-45-51
METHYLCARBOPHENOTHIONE
953-17-3
T
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
METHYL CHLORIDE
74-87-3
F+,Xn
(2-)9-16-33
METHYL CHLOROACETATE
96-34-4
T
37/38-41
(1/2-)26-37/39-45
METHYL 2-CHLORO-3-(4-CHLOROPHENYL) PROPIONATE 14437-17-3 Xn
(2-)36/37
METHYL CHLOROFORM
71-55-6
Xn,N
(2-)24/25-59-61 Note F
METHYL CHLOROFORMATE
79-22-1
F,T
(1/2-)9-16-33-45
METHYLCYCLOHEXANE
108-87-2
F
(2-)9-16-33
2-METHYLCYCLOHEXANOL
583-59-5
Xn
(2-)24/25
2-METHYLCYCLOHEXANONE
583-60-8
Xn
(2-)25
METHYL 3,4-DICHLOROPHENYLCARBANILATE
1918-18-9
Xn
(2)
N-METHYLDIETHANOLAMINE
105-59-9
Xi
(2-)24
METHYL I-((4,6-DIMETHOXYPYRIMIDIN-2-YL)
83055-99-6 Xi,N
(2-)24-37-61
UREIDOSULPHONYL)-o-TOLUATE
6-METHYL-1,3-DITHIOLO(4,5-b)QUINOXALIN-2-ONE 2439-01-2
Xi
(2-)24-37
4,4'-METHYLENEBIS(2-CHLOROANILINE)
101-14-4
T,N
53-45-60-61 Note E
4,4'-METHYLENEBIS(2-CHLOROANILINE), SALTS
T,N
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
3,3'-METHYLENE BIS(4-HYDROXYCOUMARIN)
66-76-2
T
(1/2-)37-45
1,1'-[METHYLENEBIS(4,1-PHENYLENE)]DIPYRROLEXi,N
(2-)24-37-60-61
2,5-DIONE and 1-(4-(4-)5-OXO-2H-2-FURYLIDENEAMINO)BENZYL)
PHENYL)PYRROLE-2,5-DIONE
2,2'-METHYLENE BIS-(3,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL)
70-30-4
T,N
(1/2-)20-37-45-60-61
METHYLENE CHLORIDE
75-09-2
Xn
(2-)23-24/25-36/37
4,4'-METHYLENEDIANILINE
101-77-9
T,N
4353-45-61 Note E

23-36/37/38-

12
11-20
11
23/24/25
11-48/23
24/25
12-40-48/20
10-23/2521/22
20-59
11-23-36/37/38
11
20
10-20
22
36
43-51/53
36-43
45-22-50/53
45-22-50/53
22-48/25
43-50/53

24/25-50/53
40
45-20/21/22-

Page 103 of 236

METHYLENE DIBROMIDE
(2-)24-61
4,4'-METHYLENEDI(CYCLOHEXYL ISOCYANATE)
42/43
(1/2-)26-28-38-45
METHYLENE DITHIOCYANATE
(2-)24-37-61
Page No.
26
18/11/96

74-95-3

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


48/20/21-51/53
Xn
20-52/53

5124-30-1

23-36/37/38-

6317-18-6

Xi,N

43-50

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

4,4'-METHYLENEDI-o-TOLUIDINE
53-45-60-61 Note E
N-METHYL-2-ETHANOLAMINE
(1/2-)23-26-36-45
METHYL ETHYL KETONE
(2-)9-16-25-33
METHYL FORMATE
(2-)9-16-33
METHYLGLYCOL ACETATE
53-45 Note E
5-METHYLHEPTAN-3-ONE
(2-)23
5-METHYLHEXAN-2-ONE
(2-)23
1-METHYLIMIDAZOLE
(1/2-)26-36-45
2,2'-(METHYLIMINO)DIETHANOL
(2-)24
METHYL IODIDE
37/38-40
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
METHYL ISOAMYL KETONE
(2-)23
METHYL ISOBUTYL CARBINOL
(2-)24/25
METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE
(2-)9-16-23-33
METHYL ISOCYANATE
36/37/38
(1/2-)9-30-43-45
METHYL ISOPROPYL KETONE
(2-)9-16-33
METHYL ISOTHIOCYANATE
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
METHYL LACTATE
(2-)23
METHYL MERCAPTAN
(2-)16-25
METHYL METHACRYLATE
(2-)9-16-29-33 Note D
exo-(+/-)-1-METHYL-2-(2-METHYLBENZYLOXY)(2-)22-61
4-ISOPROPYL-7-OXABICYCLO(2.2.1)HEPTANE
2-METHYL-1-(4-METHYLTHIOPHENYL)(2-)22-61
2-MORPHOLINOPROPAN-1-ONE

838-88-0

T,N

45-22-43-50/53

109-83-1

34

78-93-3

F,Xi

11-36/37

107-31-3

F+

12

110-49-6

60-61-20/21/22

541-85-5

Xi

10-36/37

110-12-3

10

616-47-7

21/22-34

105-59-9

Xi

36

74-88-4

21-23/25-

110-12-3

10

108-11-2

Xi

10-37

108-10-1

11

624-83-9

F+,T

12-23/24/25-

563-80-4

11

556-61-6

23/25-34-43

547-64-8

10

74-93-1

F+,Xn

12-20

80-62-6

F,Xi

11-36/37/38-43

89368-00-3

Xn,N

20-51/53

71868-10-5

Xn,N

22-51/53

Page 104 of 236

METHYL 2-(2-NITROBENZYLIDENE)ACETOACETATE
39562-27-1
(2-)24-37-61
METHYL 2-OCTYL-4,6-DINITROPHENYL CARBONATE
63919-26-6
(2)
and METHYL 4-OCTYL-2,6-DINITROPHENYL CARBONATE
1-METHYL-3-NITRO-1-NITROSOGUANIDINE
70-25-7
51/53
53-45-61 Note E
METHYLOXIRANE
75-56-9
20/21/22-36/37/38 53-45 Note E
2-METHYLPENTANE-2,4-DIOL
107-41-5
(2)
4-METHYLPENTAN-2-OL
108-11-2
(2-)24/25
4-METHYLPENTAN-2-ONE
108-10-1
(2-)9-16-23-33
4-METHYLPENT-3-EN-2-ONE
141-79-7
(2-)25
3-(3-METHYLPENT-3-YL)ISOXAZOL-5-YLAMINE
82560-06-3
(1/2-)22-26-36/37/39-45-61
2-METHYL-1-PENTYLPYRIDINIUM BROMIDE
(2-)36/37-61
METHYL PHENOL, all isomers
(1/2-)36/37/39-45 Note C
2-METHYL-m-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
823-40-5
50/53
(2-)24-36/37-60-61
4-METHYL-m-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
95-80-7
43-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
2-METHYL-p-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
95-70-5
50/53
(1/2-)24-37-45-60-61
2-METHYL-p-PHENYLENEDIAMINE SULPHATE
615-50-9
50/53
(1/2-)24-37-45-60-61
4-METHYL-m-PHENYLENEDIAMINE SULPHATE
65321-67-7
43-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
S-(1-METHYL-1-PHENYLETHYL) PIPERIDINE-161432-55-1
(2-)61
CARBOTHIOATE
2-METHYL-4-PHENYLPENTANOL
92585-24-5
(2-)24-37-61
2-METHYLPROPAN-2-OL
75-65-0
(2-)9-16
2-METHYL-2-PROPENE NITRILE
126-98-7
(1/2-)9-16-18-29-45 Note D
2-METHYLPROPENOIC ACID
79-41-4
(1/2-)15-26-45 Note D
METHYL PROPIONATE
554-12-1
(2-)16-23-29-33
2-METHYLPYRIDINE
109-06-8
36/37
(2-)26-36
4-METHYLPYRIDINE
108-89-4
36/37/38
(1/2-)26-36-45
N-METHYL-2-PYRROLIDONE
872-50-4
(2-)41
METHYL 3-SULPHAMOYL-2-THENOATE
(2-)24-37
I-METHYLSTYRENE
98-83-9
(2)
o-METHYLSTYRENE
611-15-4
(2-)24
METHYL-2,3,5,6-TETRACHLORO-4-PYRIDYLSULPHONE 13108-52-6

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xi,N
43-51/53
Xn

22

T,N

45-20-36/38-

F+,T

45-12-

Xi

36/38

Xi

10-37

11

Xn

10-20/21/22

23/25-41-52/53

Xn

21/22-52/53

24/25-34

Xn,N

21/22-40-43-

T,N

45-21-25-36-

T,N

20/21-25-43-

T,N

20/21-25-43-

T,N

45-21-25-36-

Xn,N

22-51/53

Xi,N

43-51/53

F,Xn

11-20

F,T

11-23/24/25-43

34

11

Xn

10-20/21/22-

10-20/22-24-

Xi

36/38

Xi

43

Xi

10-36/37

Xn

20

Xn

21/22-36-43

Page 105 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)26/28
2-METHYL-5-(1,1,3,3-TETRAMETHYLBUTYL)
(2-)24/25-26-37-61
HYDROQUINONE
N-METHYL-N,2,4,6-TETRANITROANILINE
(1/2-)35-45
2-METHYL-2-METHYLTHIOPROPIONALDEHYDE
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
O-(METHYLCARBAMOYL)OXIME
4-METHYLTHIO-3,5-XYLYL METHYLCARBAMATE
(1/2-)22-37-45
N-METHYL-m-TOLUIDINE
52/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
N-METHYL-o-TOLUIDINE
52/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
N-METHYL-p-TOLUIDINE
52/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
Page No.
27
18/11/96

Xi,N

41-43-51/53

479-45-8

E,T

2-23/24/25-33

116-06-3

T+

27/28

2032-65-7

25

696-44-6

23/24/25-33-

611-21-2

23/24/25-33-

623-09-5

23/24/25-33-

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

5-METHYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOLO(3,4-b)BENZO(2)
1,3-THIAZOLE
METHYLTRICHLOROSILANE
(2-)26-39
1-METHYLTRIMETHYLENE DIACRYLATE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45 Note D
METHYL VINYL ETHER
(2-)9-16-33 Note D
METAM-SODIUM
(2-)26-36/37/39
METOLCARB
(2)
METRIBUZIN
(2)
MEVINPHOS
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45
MEXACARBATE
(1/2-)36/37-45
MIBK
(2-)9-16-23-33
MIPAFOX
(1/2-)13-45
MOLINATE
(2-)24
MOLYBDEMUM TRIOXIDE
(2-)22-25
MONOCHLOROANILINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
MONOCHLOROBENZENE
(2-)24/25-61
MONOCROTOPHOS
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-60-61
MONOLINURON

41814-78-2

Xn

22

75-79-6

F,Xi

11-14-36/37/38

19485-03-1

21-34-43

107-25-5

F+

12

137-42-8

Xn

21/22-31-41

1129-41-5

Xn

22

21087-64-9

Xn

22

7786-34-7

T+

27/28

315-18-4

T+

21-28

108-10-1

11

371-86-8

T+

39/26/27/28

2212-67-1

Xn

22

1313-27-5

Xn

36/37-48/20/22

T,N

23/24/25-33-

108-90-7

Xn,N

10-20-51/53

6923-22-4

T+,N

24-28-50/53

1746-81-2

Xn

22

Page 106 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)22
MONOMETILAN
(1/2-)13-45
MONOPROPYLENE GLYCOL METHYL ETHER
(2-)24
MONURON
(2-)36/37
MORFAMQUAT
(2-)22-36
MORFAMQUAT, SALTS
(2-)22-36 Note A
MORPHOLINE
(1/2-)23-36-45
MORPHOLINE-4-CARBONYL CHLORIDE
(2-)26-30-36-38
MORPHOTHION
(1/2-)13-45-60-61
NABAM
(2-)8-24/25-46
NALED
(2-)36/37
1-NAPHTHOL
(2-)22-26-37/39
2-NAPHTHOL
(2-)24/25
-NAPHTHOL
(2-)24/25
1-NAPHTHYLAMINE
(2-)24-61
2-NAPHTHYLAMINE
53-45-61 Note E
2-NAPHTHYLAMINE, SALTS
53-45-61 Note A, E
I-NAPHTHYLAMINE
(2-)24-61
-NAPHTHYLAMINE
53-45-61 Note E
1,5-NAPHTYLENEDIAMINE
(2-)36/37-60-61
1,5-NAPHTHYLENE DI-ISOCYANATE
(2-)26-28-38-45
NAPHTHYLINDANDIONE
(1/2-)13-45
2-(1-NAPHTHYL)-INDAN-1,3-DIONE
(1/2-)13-45
1-NAPHTHYL-n-METHYLCARBAMATE
(2-)22-24
1-NAPHTHYLTHIOUREA
(1/2-)25-36/37-45
1-(1-NAPHTHYL)-2-THIOUREA
(1/2-)25-36/37-45
NEOPENTANE
(2-)9-16-33
NEOPENTYLGLYCOL DIACRYLATE
(1/2-)28-39-45 Note D
NICKEL
(2-)22-36
NICKEL CARBONATE
(2-)22-36/37

2532-43-6

23/24/25

107-98-2

10

150-68-5

Xn

22-40

Xn

22-36/37/38

Xn

22-36/37/38

110-91-8

10-20/21/22-34

15159-40-7

Xn

14-36/37-40

144-41-2

T,N

23/24/25-50/53

142-59-6

Xn

22-37-43

300-76-5

Xn

21/22-36/38

90-15-3

Xn

21/22-37/38-41

135-19-3

Xn

20/22

135-19-3

Xn

20/22

134-32-7

Xn,N

22-51/53

91-59-8

T,N

45-22-51/53

T,N

45-22-51/53

134-32-7

Xn,N

22-51/53

91-59-8

T,N

45-22-51/53

2243-62-1

Xn,N

40-50/53

3173-72-6

Xn

20-36/37/38-42

1786-03-4

25

1786-03-4

25

63-25-2

Xn

22

86-88-4

T+

28-40

86-88-4

T+

28-40

463-82-1

F+

12

2223-82-7

24-36/38-43

7440-02-0

Xn

40-43

3333-67-3

Xn

22-40-43

Page 107 of 236

NICKEL DIHYDROXIDE
(2-)22-36
NICKEL DIOXIDE
53-45
NICKEL MONOXIDE
53-45
NICKEL SUBSULPHIDE
53-45
NICKEL SULPHATE
(2-)22-36/37
NICKEL SULPHIDE
53-45
NICKEL TETRACARBONYL
53-45 Note E
NICOTINE
(1/2-)36/37-45
NICOTINE, SALTS
(1/2-)13-28-45 Note A
NITRAPYRIN
(2-)24
NITRIC ACID, conc.>20%
(1/2-)23-26-36-45 Note B
NITRIC ACID, 5%conc.<20%
(1/2-)23-26-27 Note B
NITRIC ACID and SULPHURIC ACID,
(1/2-)23-26-30-36-45 Note B
mixture NITRIC ACID conc.>30%
1,1',1"-NITRILOTRIPROPAN-2-OL
(2-)26
5-NITROACENAPHTHENE
53-45
Page No.
28
18/11/96

12054-48-7

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn
20/22-40-43

12035-36-8

49-43

1313-99-1

49-43

12035-72-2

49-43

7786-81-4

Xn

22-40-42/43

16812-54-7

49-43

13463-39-3

F,T+

61-11-26-40

54-11-5

T+

25-27

T+

26/27/28

1929-82-4

Xn

22

7697-37-2

O,C

8-35

35

51602-38-1

O,C

8-35

122-20-3

Xi

36

602-87-9

45

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

NITROANILINE, all isomers


52/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
2-NITRO-p-ANISIDINE
52/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
NITROBENZENE
48/23/24(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61

99-09-2 (o) T

23/24/25-33-

96-96-8

T+

26/27/28-33-

98-95-3

T,N

23/24/25-40-

4-NITROBIPHENYL
53-45
NITROCELLULOSE, containing a maximum of 12.6%
(2-)16-33-37/39
NITROGEN
NITROCELLULOSE, containing more than 12,6%
(2-)35
NITROGEN
NITROETHANE
(2-)9-25-41
NITROFEN
53-45
NITROGEN DIOXIDE

92-93-3

51/53-62
45

11

1-3

79-24-3

Xn

10-20/22

1836-75-5

45-61

10102-44-0

T+

26-34

Page 108 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)9-26-28-36/37/39-45
NITROGLYCERINE
(1/2-)33-35-36/37-45
NITROGLYCOL
(1/2-)33-35-36/37-45
NITROMANNITE
(2-)35
NITROMETHANE
(2-)41
2-NITRONAPHTHALENE
53-45
4-NITROPHENOL
(2-)28
p-NITROPHENOL
(2-)28
1-NITROPROPANE
(2-)9
2-NITROPROPANE
53-45 Note E
4-NITROSOANILINE
(2-)25-28
N-NITROSODIMETHYLAMINE
48/25-51/53
53-45-61 Note E
NITROSODIPROPYLAMINE
53-45-61 Note E
2,2'-(NITROSOIMINO)BISETHANOL
53-45
2-NITROTOLUENE
51/53
(1/2-)28-37-45-61 Note C
4-NITROTOLUENE
51/53
(1/2-)28-37-45-61 Note C
NITROTOLUIDINE
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
NONANOIC ACID
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45
5-NONYL-1,2,4-TRIAZOL-3-YLAMINE
(2-)22-26-61
NORBORMIDE
(2)
NORURON
(2)
1,3,4,5,6,7,8,8-OCTACHLORO-1,3,3a,4,7,7a-HEXA
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61
HYDRO-4,7-METHANOISOBENZOFURAN
1,2,4,5,6,7,8,8-OCTACHLORO-3a,4,7,7a-TETRA(2-)36/37-60-61
HYDRO-4,7-METHANOINDAN
OCTAMETHYLPYROPHOSPHORAMIDE
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
OCTANE
(2-)9-16-29-33
OCTYLENE GLYCOL
(2-)26
2-(OCTYLTHIO)ETHANOL
(2-)26
OCTYL 3,4,5-TRIHYDROXYBENZOATE
(2-)24-37
OLEUM ... % SO3
(1/2-)26-30-45 Note B

55-63-0

E,T+

3-26/27/28-33

628-96-6

E,T+

2-26/27/28-33

15825-70-4

75-52-5

Xn

5-10-22

581-89-5

45

100-02-7

Xn

20/21/22-33

100-02-7

Xn

20/21/22-33

108-03-2

Xn

10-20/21/22

79-46-9

45-10-20/22

659-49-4

Xn

20/21/22

62-75-9

T+,N

45-25-26-

621-64-7

T,N

45-22-51/53

1116-54-7

45

88-72-2

T,N

23/24/25-33-

99-99-0

T,N

23/24/25-33-

T,N

23/24/25-33-

34

Xn,N

22-36-51/53

991-42-4

Xn

22

2163-79-3

Xn

22

297-78-9

T+,N

27/28-50

57-74-9

Xn,N

21/22-40-50/53

152-16-9

T+

27/28

111-65-9

11

94-96-2

Xi

36

3547-33-9

Xi

41

1034-01-0

Xn

22-43

14-35-37

112-05-0

Page 109 of 236

OMETHOATE
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-61
ORTOPHOSPHORIC ACID, 10%conc.<25%
(2-)25 Note B
ORTOPHOSPHORIC ACID, conc.25%
(1/2-)26-45 Note B
OSMIC ACID
(1/2-)7/9-26-45
OSMIUM TETROXIDE
(1/2-)7/9-26-45
OUABAIN
(1/2-)45
OXADIAZON
60-61
OXALIC ACID
(2-)24/25
OXALIC ACID, SALTS
(2-)24/25 Note A
OXALIC ACID DIETHYLESTER
(2-)23
OXAMYL
(1/2-)36/37-45
OXIRANE
36/37/38
53-45 Note E
OXYCARBOXIN
(2)
OXYDEMETON-METHYL
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-61
2,2'-OXYDIETHYL DIACRYLATE
(1/2-)28-39-45 Note D
OXYDIETHYLENE BIS(CHLOROFORMATE)
(2-)23-26
OXYDISULFOTON
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
OXYGEN
(2-)17
PAPAIN
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
PAPAVERINE
(2-)22
PAPAVERINE, SALTS
(2-)22 Note A
Page No.
29
18/11/96

1113-02-6

Substance
Safety phrases
PARALDEHYDE
(2-)9-16-29-33
PARAQUAT
(1/2-)22-36/37/39-45
PARAQUAT, SALTS
(1/2-)22-36/37/39-45 Note A
PARATHION
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
PARATHION-METHYL

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T,N
21-25-50
Xi

36/38

7664-38-2

34

20816-12-0

T+

26/27/28-34

20816-12-0

T+

26/27/28-34

630-60-4

23/25-33

19666-30-9

50/53

144-62-7

Xn

21/22

Xn

21/22

95-92-1

Xn

22-36

23135-22-0

T+

21-26/28

75-21-8

F+,T

45-46-12-23-

5259-88-1

Xn

22

301-12-2

T,N

24/25-50

4074-88-8

24-36/38-43

106-75-2

Xn

22-38-41

2497-07-6

T+

24-28

7782-44-7

9001-73-4

Xn

36/37/38-42

58-74-2

Xn

22

Xn

22

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

123-63-7

11

4685-14-7

24/25-36/37/38

24/25-36/37/38

56-38-2

T+,N

27/28-50/53

298-00-0

T+

24-28

Page 110 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PCB
(2-)35-60-61 Note C
PEBULATE
(2-)23
PENDIMETHALIN
(2)
PENTACHLOROBENZENE
(2-)41-46-50-60-61
PENTACHLOROETHANE
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-61
PENTACHLORONAPHTHALENE
50/53
(2-)35-60-61 Note C
PENTACHLORONITROBENZENE
(2-)24-37
PENTACHLOROPHENOL
36/37/38-

1336-36-3

Xn,N

33-50/53

1114-71-2

Xn

22

40487-42-1

Xn

22

608-93-5

F,Xn,N

11-22-50/53

76-01-7

T,N

40-48/23-51/53

Xn,N

21/22-36/38-

82-68-8

Xi

43

87-86-5

T+,N

24/25-2640-50/53

(1/2-)22-36/37-45-52-60-61
PENTACHLOROPHENOL, SALTS
36/37/38(1/2-)2236/37-45-52-60-61 Note A
PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRA-ACRYLATE
(2-)26-39 Note D
PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANITRATE
(2-)35
PENTAERYTHRITOL TRIACRYLATE
(2-)39 Note D
PENTAETHYLENEHEXAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-60-61
PENTANE
(2-)9-16-29-33 Note C
1,5-PENTANEDIAL
42/43-50
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
PENTANE-2,4-DIONE
(2-)21-23-24/25
tert-PENTANOL
(2-)9-16-24/25
PENTAN-3-ONE
(2-)9-16-33
PENTRIT
(2-)35
PENTYL ACETATE
(2-)23 Note C
PENTYL METHYLPHOSPHINATE and
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
2-METHYLBUTYL METHYLPHOSPHINATE mixture
PENTYL NITRITE, mixture of isomers
(2-)16-24-46
PENTYL PROPIONATE
(2-)23 Note C
PEPSIN A
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
PERACETIC ACID, conc.10%
35
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45

T+,N

24/25-2640-50/53

4986-89-4

Xi

36/38-43

78-11-5

3524-68-3

Xi

36/38-43

4067-16-7

C,N

34-43-50/53

109-66-0

11

111-30-8

T,N

23/25-34-

123-54-6

Xn

10-22

75-85-4

F,Xn

11-20

96-22-0

11

78-11-5

628-63-7

10

87025-52-3

34

463-04-7

F,Xn

11-20/22

110-46-3
624-54-4

10

9001-75-6

Xn

36/37/38-42

79-21-0

O,C

7-10-20/21/22-

Note B, D

Page 111 of 236

PERCHLORIC ACID, conc.50%


(1/2-)23-26-36-45 Note B
PERCHLORIC ACID, 10%conc.<50%
(1/2-)23-28-36 Note B
PERCHLOROETHYLENE
(2-)23-36/37-61
PERMETHRIN
(2)
PEROXYACETIC ACID, conc.10%
35
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45

7601-90-3

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


O,C
5-8-35
C

34

127-18-4

Xn,N

40-51/53

52645-53-1

Xn

22

79-21-0

O,C

7-10-20/21/22-

78-11-5

45

45

91995-78-7
66-71-7

25

94-70-2

23/24/25-33

156-43-4

23/24/25-33

2275-14-1

T,N

23/24/25-50/53

108-95-2

24/25-34

122-99-6

Xn

22-36

2597-03-7

Xn

21/22

14255-88-0

Xn

21/22

108-45-2

T,N

23/24/25-43-

95-54-5

T,N

23/24/25-43-

106-50-3

T,N

23/24/25-43-

541-69-5

T,N

23/24/25-43-

624-18-0

T,N

23/24/25-43-

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

1-PHENYLETHYLAMINE

98-84-0

21/22-34

Note B, D
P.E.T.N.
(2-)35
PETROLEUM DISTILLATES,
53-45
light naphthalenic distillate solvent
heavy paraffinic distillate solvent
light paraffinic distillate solvent
heavy naphthalenic distillate solvent
PETROLEUM DISTILLATES,
53-45
light vacuum gas oil solvent
1,10-PHENANTHROLINE
(1/2-)45
o-PHENETIDINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45 Note C
p-PHENETIDINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45 Note C
PHENKAPTON
(1/2-)13-45-60-61
PHENOL
(1/2-)28-45
2-PHENOXYETHANOL
(2-)26
PHENTHOATE
(2-)22-36/37
PHENYL 5,6-DICHLORO-2-TRIFLUOROMETHYL(2-)36/37
BENZIMIDAZOLE-1-CARBOXYLATE
m-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note
o-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note
p-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note
m-PHENYLENEDIAMINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note
p-PHENYLENEDIAMINE DIHYDROCHLORIDE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note
Page No.
30
18/11/96

64742-03-6
64742-04-7
64742-05-8
64742-11-6

C
C
C
C
C

Page 112 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39-45
PHENYL GLYCIDYL ETHER
(2-)24/25
PHENYLHYDRAZINE
(1/2-)28-45-61
PHENYMERCURY ACETATE
(1/2-)23-24/25-37-45
PHENYLMERCURY HYDROXIDE and
48/24/25
(1/2-)23-24/25-37-45
PHENYLMERCURY NITRATE mixture
PHENYLOXIRANE
53-45 Note E
2-PHENYLPHENOL
(2-)22
2-PHENYLPHENOL, SODIUM SALT
(2-)22-26
1-PHENYL-3-PYRAZOLIDONE
(2)
PHORATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PHOSACETIM
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSALONE
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
PHOSFOLAN
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PHOSGENE
(1/2-)9-26-36/37/39-45
PHOSMET
(2-)22-36/37
PHOSNICHLOR
(2-)13
PHOSPHAMIDON
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-60-61
PHOSPHORIC ACID, conc.25%
(1/2-)26-45 Note B
PHOSPHORIC ACID, 10%conc.<25%
(2-)25 Note B
PHOSPHORUS OXYCHLORIDE
(1/2-)7/8-26-45
PHOSPHORUS PENTACHLORIDE
(1/2-)7/8-26-45
PHOSPHORUS PENTASULPHIDE
(2)
PHOSPHORUS PENTOXIDE
(1/2-)22-26-45
PHOSPHORUS, RED
(2-)7-43
PHOSPHORUS SESQUISULPHIDE
(2-)7-16-24/25
PHOSPHORUS TRIBROMIDE
(1/2-)26-45
PHOSPHORUS TRICHLORIDE
(1/2-)7/8-26-45
PHOSPHORUS, WHITE and YELLOW
(1/2-)5-26-28-45
PHOSPHORYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)7/8-26-45
PHOXIM

122-60-1

Xn

21-43

100-63-0

T,N

23/24/25-36-50

62-38-4

25-34-48/24/25

8003-05-2

25-34-37-44-

96-09-3

45-21-36

90-43-7

Xi

36/38

132-27-4

Xn

22-38-41

92-43-3

Xn

22

298-02-2

T+

27/28

4104-14-7

T+,N

27/28-50/53

2310-17-0

T,N

21-25-50/53

947-02-4

T+

27/28

75-44-5

T+

26-34

732-11-6

Xn

21/22

5826-76-6

Xn

20/21/22

13171-21-6

T+,N

24-28-40-50/53

7664-38-2

34

Xi

36/38

10025-87-3

34-37

10026-13-8

34-37

1314-80-3

F,Xn

11-20/22-29

1314-56-3

35

11-16

1314-85-8

F,Xn

11-22

7789-60-8

14-34-37

7719-12-2

34-37

12185-10-3

F,T+,C

17-26/28-35

10025-87-3

34-37

14816-18-3

Xn

22

Page 113 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)36
PHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE
(2)
PHYSOSTIGMINE
(1/2-)25-45
PHYSOSTIGMINE, SALTS
(1/2-)25-45 Note A
2-PICOLINE
36/37
(2-)26-36
4-PICOLINE
36/37/38
(1/2-)26-36-45
PICRAMIC ACID
52/53
(2-)35-61
PICRIC ACID
(1/2-)28-35-37-45
PICRIC ACID, SALTS
(1/2-)28-35-37-45 Note A
PILOCARPINE
(1/2-)25-45
PILOCARPINE, SALTS
(1/2-)25-45 Note A
PINDONE
(1/2-)37-45
PIPERAZINE
(1/2-)22-26-36/37/39-45-61
2-PIPERAZIN-1-YLETHYLAMINE
52/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
PIPERIDINE
(1/2-)16-26-27-45
PIPEROPHOS
(2)
PIRIMICARB
(1/2-)22-37-45
PIRIMIPHOS-ETHYL
(1/2-)23-36/37-45-60-61
PIRIMIPHOS-METHYL
(2)
2-PIVALOYLINDAN-1,3-DIONE
(1/2-)37-45
POLYCHLOROBIPHENYLS
(2-)35-60-61 Note C
POLYETHYLENEPOLYAMINES with the exception
50/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-60-61
of those specified elsewhere in this Annex
POTASSIUM
(1/2-)5*-8-45 *If appropriate
POTASSIUM BIFLUORIDE
(1/2-)22-26-37-45
POTASSIUM BROMATE
53-45 Note E
POTASSIUM CHLORATE
(2-)13-16-27
POTASSIUM CHROMATE
36/37/38-43-50/53 53-45-60-61 Note E
POTASSIUM CYANATE
(2-)24/25
POTASSIUM DICHROMATE
26-37/3853-45-60-61 Note E

85-44-9

Xi

36/37/38

57-47-6

T+

26/28

T+

26/28

109-06-8

Xn

10-20/21/22-

108-89-4

10-20/22-24-

96-91-3

E,Xn

1-20/21/22-

88-89-1

E,T

2-4-23/24/25

E,T

3-23/24/25

T+

26/28

T+

26/28

83-26-1

25-48/25

110-85-0

34-42/43-52/53

140-31-8

21/22-34-43-

110-89-4

F,T

11-23/24-34

24151-93-7

Xn

22

23103-98-2

25

23505-41-1

T,N

21-25-50/53

29232-93-7

Xn

22

83-26-1

25-48/25

1336-36-3

Xn,N

33-50/53

C,N

21/22-34-43-

7440-09-7

F,C

14/15-34

7789-29-9

T,C

25-34

7758-01-2

O,T

45-9-25

3811-04-9

O,Xn

9-20/22

7789-00-6

T,N

49-46-

590-28-3

Xn

22

7778-50-9

T+,N

49-46-21-25-

92-13-7

41-43-50/53

Page 114 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T
23/24/25

POTASSIUM FLUORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
POTASSIUM mu-FLUORO-BIS(TRIETHYLALUMINIUM)
(1/2-)16-30-36/39-43-45
Page No.
31
18/11/96

7789-23-3
12091-08-6

F,C

11-14/15-20-35

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

POTASSIUM HEKSAFLUOROSILICATE
(1/2-)26-45 Note A
POTASSIUM HYDROGEN DIFLUORIDE
(1/2-)22-26-37-45
POTASSIUM HYDROGENSULPHATE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE
(1/2-)26-37/39-45
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, conc.5%
(1/2-)26-27-37/39
POTASSIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, 0.5%conc.<2%
(2-)26
POTASSIUM 2-HYDROXYCARBAZOLE-1-CARBOXYLATE
(2-)22-26-61
POTASSIUM NITRITE
(1/2-)45
POTASSIUM PERCHLORATE
(2-)13-22-27
POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE
(2)
POTASSIUM POLYSULPHIDES
(1/2-)26-45
POTASSIUM SULPHIDE
(1/2-)26-45
PROFENOFOS
(2-)36/37
PROFLURALIN
(2)
PROMECARB
(1/2-)24-37-45
PROPACHLOR
(2-)24-37
PROPANAL
(2-)9-16-29
PROPANE
(2-)9-16-33
1,3-PROPANESULTONE
53-45 Note E
PROPANIL
(2-)22
1-PROPANOL
(2-)7-16 Note C
PROPAN-2-OL
(2-)7-16 Note C
3-PROPANOLIDE
53-45 Note E
PROPARGITE

16871-90-2

23/24/25

7789-29-9

T,C

25-34

7646-93-7

34-37

1310-58-3

35

35

Xi

36/38

96566-70-0

Xn

22-36/37-52/53

7758-09-0

O,T

8-25

7778-74-7

O,Xn

9-22

7722-64-7

O,Xn

8-22

37199-66-9

31-34

1312-73-8

31-34

41198-08-7

Xn

20/21/22

26399-36-0

Xi

36

2631-37-0

25

1918-16-7

Xn

22-36-43

123-38-6

F,Xi

11-36/37/38

74-98-6

F+

12

1120-71-4

45-21/22

709-98-8

Xn

22

71-23-8

11

67-63-0

11

57-57-8

T+

45-26-36/38

2312-35-8

Xn

22-36

Page 115 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)24
PROPARGYL ALCOHOL
(1/2-)26-28-36-45
PROPAZINE
(2-)36/37
PROPENE
(2-)9-16-33
2(-3(PROP-1-EN-2-YL)PHENYL)PROP-2-YL
48/20-50/53 (1/2-)7-15-28-36/37/39-38ISOCYANATE
45-60-61
PROPETAMPHOS
(1/2-)37-45
1,3-PROPIOLACTONE
53-45 Note E
PROPIONALDEHYDE
(2-)9-16-29
PROPIONIC ACID, conc.25%
(1/2-)23-36-45 Note B
PROPIONIC ACID, 10%conc.<25%
(2)
PROPIONIC ANHYDRIDE
(1/2-)26-45
PROPIONYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)9-16-26-45
PROPOXUR
(1/2-)37-45
PROPYL ACETATE
(2-)16-23-29-33 Note C
PROPYL BENZENE
(2) Note C
PROPYL BROMIDE
(2-)9-24
S-PROPYLBUTYLETHYL THIOCARBAMATE
(2-)23
PROPYL CHLORIDE
(2-)9-29 Note C
PROPYL CHLOROFORMATE
(1/2-)26-36-45
PROPYLENE
(2-)9-16-33
PROPYLENE CARBONATE
(2)
PROPYLENEDIAMINE
(1/2-)26-37/39-45
PROPYLENE GLYCOL MONOBUTYL ETHER
(2)
PROPYLENEIMINE
26/27/28-41
53-45 Note E
PROPYLENE OXIDE
20/21/22-36/37/38 53-45 Note E
1,3-PROPYLENE OXIDE
(2-)9-16-26-29
PROPYLENETHIOUREA
(2-)36/37
PROPYL FORMATE
(2-)9-16-33 Note C
PROPYLISOME
(1/2-)36/37-45

107-19-7

10-23/24/25-34

139-40-2

Xn

40

115-07-1

F+

12

2094-99-7

T+,N

26-34-42/43-

31218-83-4

25

57-57-8

T+

45-26-36/38

123-38-6

F,Xi

11-36/37/38

79-09-4

34

79-09-4

Xi

36/37/38

123-62-6

34

79-03-8

F,C

11-14-34

114-26-1

25

109-60-4

11

103-65-1

Xi

10-37

106-94-5

Xn

10-20

1114-71-2

Xn

22

540-54-5

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

109-61-5

10-23-34

115-07-1

F+

12

108-32-7

Xi

36

78-90-0

10-21/22-35

5131-66-8

Xi

36/38

75-55-8

F,T+

45-11-

75-56-9

F+,T

45-12-

503-30-0

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

2122-19-2

Xn

40

110-74-7

11

83-59-0

22-24

Page 116 of 236

2-(PROPYLOXY)ETHANOL
(2-)24/25-36/37
PROPYL PROPIONATE
(2)
PROPYL 3,4,5-TRIHYDROXYBENZOATE
(2-)24-37
PROP-2-YN-1-OL
(1/2-)26-28-36-45
PROTEASES, with exception of those specified
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
elsewhere in this Annex
PROTEINASE, microbial neutral
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
PROTHIOCARB HYDROCHLORIDE
(2)
PROTHOATE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45
PROXAN-SODIUM
(2-)13
Page No.
32
18/11/96

2807-30-9

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn
10-21-36

106-36-5

10

121-79-9

Xn

22-43

107-19-7

10-23/24/25-34

Xn

36/37/38-42

9068-59-1

Xn

36/37/38-42

19622-19-6

Xn

22

2275-18-5

T+

27/28

140-93-2

Xn

22-38

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

PYRAZON
(2-)24-37
PYRAZOPHOS
(2)
PYRAZOXON
(1/2-)13-28-45
PYRETHRIN I
(2-)13
PYRETHRIN II
(2-)13
PYRETHRINS including CINERINS
(2-)13
PYRIDINE
(2-)26-28
PYROCATECHOL
(2-)22-26-37
PYROGALLOL
(2)
PYROMELLITIC DIANHYDRIDE
(2-)25
QUINALPHOS
(1/2-)22-36/37-45
QUINOL
(2-)24/25-39
QUINOMETHIONATE
(2-)24-37
QUINONE
(1/2-)26-28-45
QUINTOZENE
(2-)24-37
RED SQUILL
(1/2-)36/37-45

1698-60-8

Xi

43

13457-18-6

Xn

22

108-34-9

T+

26/27/28

121-21-1

Xn

20/21/22

121-29-9

Xn

20/21/22

Xn

20/21/22

110-86-1

F,Xn

11-20/21/22

120-80-9

Xn

21/22-36/38

87-66-1

Xn

20/21/22

89-32-7

Xi

36/37/38

13593-03-8

21-25

123-31-9

Xn

20/22

2439-01-2

Xi

36-43

106-51-4

23/25-36/37/38

82-68-8

Xi

43

507-60-8

T+

28

Page 117 of 236

RENNIN
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
RESMETHRIN
(2)
RESORCINOL
(2-)26
RESORCINOL DIGLYCIDYL ETHER
(1/2-)23-24-45
ROSIN
(2-)22-23-24-37
ROTENONE
(1/2-)22-24/25-36-45
RYANIA
(2-)36/37
SABADILLA
(2-)36/37/39
SAFROLE
53-45 Note E
SCHRADAN
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
SCILLIROSIDE
(1/2-)36/37-45
SCOPOLAMINE
(1/2-)25-45
SECBUMETON
(2)
SELENIUM
(1/2-)20/21-28-45
SELENIUM COMPOUNDS except CADMIUM
(1/2-)20/21-28-45 Note A
SULPHOSELENIDE
SESAMEX
(2)
SILVER NITRATE
(2-)26-45
SIMAZINE
(2-)36/37
SIMETRYN
(2)
SODIUM
(1/2-)5*-8-43-45
*If appropriate
SODIUM AZIDE
(1/2-)28-45
SODIUM BIFLUORIDE
(1/2-)22-26-37-45
SODIUM 2-BIPHENYLATE
(2-)22-26
SODIUM CARBONATE
(2-)22-26
SODIUM CHLORATE
(2-)13-17-46
SODIUM CHLOROACETATE
(1/2-)22-37-45
SODIUM 3-CHLOROACRYLATE
(2-)36/37
SODIUM-N-CHLORO-p-TOLUENESULPHONAMIDE
(2-)7-15

9001-98-3

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn
36/37/38-42

10453-86-8

Xn

22

108-46-3

Xn

22-36/38

101-90-6

23/24/25-40-43

8050-09-7

Xn

42/43

83-79-4

25-36/37/38

15662-33-6

Xn

21/22

8051-02-3

Xi

36/37/38

94-59-7

45-22-40

152-16-9

T+

27/28

507-60-8

T+

28

51-34-3

T+

26/27/28

26259-45-0

Xn

22-36

7782-49-2

23/25-33

23/25-33

51-14-9

Xn

22

7761-88-8

34

122-34-9

Xn

40

1014-70-6

Xn

22

7440-23-5

F,C

14/15-34

26628-22-8

T+

28-32

1333-83-1

T,C

25-34

132-27-4

Xn

22-38-41

497-19-8

Xi

36

7775-09-9

O,Xn

9-22

3926-62-3

25-38

4312-97-4

Xn

21/22

127-65-1

Xi

36/37/38

Page 118 of 236

SODIUM CYANATE
(2-)24/25
SODIUM DEHYDRACETATE
(2)
SODIUM DICHLOROISOCYANURATE, DIHYDRATE
(2-)8-26-41
SODIUM DICHROMATE
2653-45-60-61 Note E
50/53
SODIUM DICHROMATE, DIHYDRATE
26-37/3853-45-60-61 Note E

917-61-3

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn
22

4418-26-2

Xn

22

51580-86-0

Xn

22-31-36/37

10588-01-9

O,T+,N

49-46-8-21-2537/38-41-43-

7789-12-0

T+,N

49-46-21-25-

SODIUM 4-DIMETHYLAMINOBENZENEDIAZOSULPHONATE
(1/2-)36/37-45
SODIUM DITHIONITE
(2-)7/8-26-28-43
SODIUM FLUORIDE
(1/2-)22-36-45
SODIUM FLUOROACETATE
(1/2-)13-22-36/37-45
SODIUM HEXAFLUOROSILICATE
(1/2-)26-45 Note A
SODIUM HYDRIDE
(2-)7/8-24/25-43
SODIUM HYDROGENSULPHATE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45
SODIUM HYDROSULPHITE
(2-)7/8-26-28-43
SODIUM HYDROXIDE
(1/2-)26-37/39-45
SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, conc.5%
(1/2-)26-27-37/39-45
Page No.
33
18/11/96

140-56-7

41-43-50/53
21-25

7775-14-6

Xn

7-22-31

7681-49-4

25-32-36/38

62-74-8

T+

26/27/28

16893-85-9

23/24/25

7646-69-7

15

7681-38-1

34-37

7775-14-6

Xn

7-22-31

1310-73-2

35

35

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

34

Xi

36/38

7681-52-9

31-34

7681-52-9

Xi

31-36/38

140-93-2

Xn

22-38

137-42-8

Xn

21/22-31-41

7632-00-0

O,T

8-25

127-68-4

Xi

36-43

SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, 2conc.<5%


(1/2-)26-27-37/39-45
SODIUM HYDROXIDE SOLUTION, 0.5%conc.<2%
(2-)26
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION, active
(1/2-)28-45-50 Note B
Chlorine10%
SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE SOLUTION, 5%active
(2-)25-46-50 Note B
Chlorine conc.<10%
SODIUM ISOPROPYLXANTHATE
(2-)13
SODIUM METHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
(2-)26-36/37/39
SODIUM NITRITE
(1/2-)45
SODIUM 3-NITROBENZENESULPHONATE
(2-)24-26-37

Page 119 of 236

SODIUM PERCHLORATE
(2-)13-22-27
SODIUM PEROXIDE
(1/2-)8-27-39-45
SODIUM POLYSULPHIDES
(1/2-)26-45
SODIUM SULPHIDE
(1/2-)26-45
SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE
(2-)24-25
SODIUM 4-2,4,4-TRIMETHYLPENTYLCARBONYLOXY)
43-48/23
(1/2-)22-24-36-45
BENZENESULPHONATE
STANNIC CHLORIDE
(1/2-)7/8-26-45
STRONTIUM CHROMATE
53-45-60-61 Note E
g-STROPHANTIN
(1/2-)45
STROPHANTIN-K
(1/2-)45
STRYCHNINE
(1/2-)36/37-45
STRYCHNINE, SALTS
(1/2-)13-28-45 Note A
STYPHNIC ACID
(2-)35
STYRENE
(2-)23 Note D
STYRENE OXIDE
53-45 Note E
SUBTILISIN
(2-)22-24-26-36/37/39
SUCCINIC ANHYDRIDE
(2-)25
SULFALLATE
53-45 Note E
SULFOTEP
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45
SULPHAMIC ACID
(2-)26-28
SULPHANILIC ACID
(2-)24-37
SULPHOLANE
(2-)25
SULPHUR DICHLORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
SULPHUR DIOXIDE
(1/2-)9-26-36/37/39-45
SULPHURIC ACID, conc.>15%
(1/2-)26-30-45 Note B
SULPHURIC ACID, 5%<CONC.30% HNO3
SULPHUR TETRACHLORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
SULPHURYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
SULPHURYL DIFLUORIDE
(1/2-)23-37/38-45
SWEP

7601-89-0

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


O,Xn
9-22

1313-60-6

O,C

8-35

1344-08-7

31-34

1313-82-2

31-34

650-51-1

Xn

22

22-23-36/37-

7646-78-8

34-37

7789-06-2

T,N

45-22-50/53

630-60-4

23/25-33

11005-63-3

23/25-33

57-24-9

T+

27/28

T+

26/28

82-71-3

E,Xn

2-4-20/21/22

100-42-5

Xn

10-20-36/38

96-09-3

45-21-36

9014-01-1

Xn

36/37/38-41-42

108-30-5

Xi

36/37

95-06-7

45-22

3689-24-5

T+

27/28

5329-14-6

Xi

36/38

121-57-3

Xi

36/38-43

126-33-0

Xn

22

10545-99-0

14-34-37

7446-09-5

23-34

7664-93-9

35

13451-08-6

14-34-37

7791-25-5

14-34-37

2699-79-8

23/25-36/37/38

1918-18-9

Xn

22

Page 120 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2)
2,4,5-T
(2-)24
2,4,5-T, SALTS AND ESTERS
(2-)24 Note A
2,3,6-TBA
(2)
TECNAZENE
(2-)24-37
TEPP
(1/2-)36/37/39-38-45-61
TERBUFOS
(1/2-)36/37-45
TERBUMETON
(2)
3,6,9,12-TETRA-AZATETRADECAMETHYLENEDIAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-60-61
TETRACHLORO-p-BENZOQUINONE
(2-)37-60-61
1,1,2,2-TETRABROMOETHANE
(1/2-)24-27-45-61
1,1,2,2-TETRACHLOROETHANE
(1/2-)38-45
TETRACHLOROETHYLENE
(2-)23-36/37-61
TETRACHLOROISOPHTHALONITRILE
(2-)36/37
TETRACHLOROMETHANE
48/23(1/2-)23-36/37-45-59-61

93-76-5

Xn

22-36/37/38

Xn

22-36/37/38

50-31-7

Xn

22

117-18-0

Xi

43

107-49-3

T+,N

27/28-50

13071-79-9

T+

27/28

33693-04-8

Xn

22

4067-16-7

C,N

34-43-50/53

118-75-2

Xi,N

36/38-50/53

79-27-6

T+

26-36-52/53

79-34-5

T+

26/27

127-18-4

Xn,N

40-51/53

1897-45-6

Xn

40

56-23-5

T,N

23/24/25-40-

2,3,5,6-TETRACHLORO-4-(METHYLSULPHONYL)
(2-)26/28
PYRIDINE
2,3,4,6-TETRACHLOROPHENOL
(1/2-)26-28-37-45
TETRACHLOROTEREPHTHALONITRILE
(2-)24-37-61
O,O,O',O'-TETRAETHYL DITHIOPYROPHOSPHATE
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45
Page No.
34
18/11/96

13108-52-6

Xn

52/53-59
21/22-36-43

58-90-2

25-36/38

1897-41-2

Xi

43-53

3689-24-5

T+

27/28

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

TETRAETHYLENEPENTAMINE
51/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
O,O,O',O'-TETRAETHYL S,S'-METHYLENE
(1/2-)25-36/37-45
DI(PHOSPHORODITHIOATE)
TETRAETHYL PYROPHOSPHATE
(1/2-)36/37/39-38-45-61
TETRAETHYL SILICATE
(2)
TETRAHYDRO-3,5-DIMETHYL-1,3,5-THIADIAZINE(2-)15-22-24
2-THIONE
TETRAHYDROFURAN

112-57-2

C,N

21/22-34-43-

563-12-2

21-25

107-49-3

T+,N

27/28-50

78-10-4

Xn

10-20-36/37

533-74-4

Xn

22-36

109-99-9

F,Xi

11-19-36/37

Page 121 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)16-29-33
TETRAHYDROFURAN-2,5-DIYLDIMETHANOL
104-80-3
(2-)39
TETRAHYDROFURFURYL ALCOHOL
97-99-4
(2-)39
TETRAHYDRO-2-FURYLMETHANOL
97-99-4
(2-)39
3a,4,7,7a-TETRAHYDRO-4,7-METHANOINDENE
77-73-6
36/37/38-51-53 (2-)36/37-61
1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENE
119-64-2
(2-)26-28
1,2,3,4-TETRAHYDRO-1-NAPHTHYL HYDROPEROXIDE
771-29-9
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45
TETRAHYDROPHTHALIC ANHYDRIDE
85-43-8
(2-)25
TETRAHYDROTHIOPHENE
110-01-0
36/37
(2-)16-23-36/37
TETRAHYDROTHIOPHENE-1,1-DIOXIDE
126-33-0
(2-)25
TETRALIN HYDROPEROXIDE
771-29-9
(1/2-)3/7-14-36/37/39-45
TETRAMETHYLENE DIACRYLATE
1070-70-8
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45 Note D
N,N,N',N'-TETRAMETHYLETHYLENEDIAMINE
110-18-9
(1/2-)16-26-36/37/39-45
N,N,N',N''-TETRAMETHYL-p-PHENYLENEDIAMINE
100-22-1
(2-)28
N,N,N',N'-TETRAMETHYLPHOSPHORODIAMINIC
115-26-4
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-38-45
FLUORIDE
TETRAMETHYLTHIURAM DISULPHIDE
137-26-8
40-43
(2-)36/37
1,2,3,4-TETRANITROCARBAZOLE
6202-15-9
(2-)35
TETRANITRONAPHTHALENE
(mix) 55810-18-9
(2-)35 Note C
O,O,O',O'-TETRAPROPYL DITHIOPYROPHOSPHATE
3244-90-4
(2-)36/37-60-61
TETRASODIUM 5'-(4,6-DICHLORO-5-CYANOPYRIMIDIN(2-)22-61
2-YLAMINO)-4'-HYDROXY-2,3'-AZODINAPHTHALENE1,2',5,7'-DISULPHONATE
TETRYL
479-45-8
(1/2-)35-45
TGIC (triglycidylisocyanurate)
2451-62-9
43-48/2253-45-61 Note E
THALLIC SULPHATE
(1/2-)13-36/37-45
THALLIUM
(1/2-)13-28-45
THALLIUM COMPOUNDS
(1/2-)13-28-45 Note A
THIAZFLURON
(2)
THIOACETAMIDE
53-45 Note E
THIOBENCARB
(2)

Xi

36/37/38

Xi

36

Xi

36

F,Xn,N

11-20/22-

Xi

19-36/38

O,C

7-22-34

Xi

36/37

F,Xn

11-20/21/22-

Xn

22

O,C

7-22-34

21-34-43

F,C

11-20/22-34

Xn

20/21/22

T+

27/28

Xn

20/22-36/37-

E,Xn

1-20/21/22

E,Xn

2-20/21/22-33

Xn,N

21/22-50/53

Xn,N

45-51/53

E,T

2-23/24/25-33

46-23/25-41-

7446-18-6

T+

52/53
28-38-48/25

7440-28-0

T+

26/28-33

T+

26/28-33

25366-23-8

Xn

22

62-55-5

45-22-36/38

28249-77-6

Xn

22

Page 122 of 236

THIOCARBAMIDE
(2-)22-24-36/37-61
THIOCARBONYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)7-9-36/37-45
THIOCYANIC ACID
(2-)13
THIOCYANIC ACID, SALTS
(2-)13 Note A
THIOCYCLAM-OXALATE
(2-)36/37-46
2,2'-THIODIETHANOL
(2)
2-THIO-1,3-DITHIOLO-[4,5-b]QUINOXALINE
(2-)24
THIOFANOX
(1/2-)27-36/37-45
THIODIGLYCOL
(2)
THIOGLYCOLIC ACID
(1/2-)25-27-28-45
THIOMETON
(1/2-)36/37-45
THIONAZIN
(1/2-)36/37/39-38-45
THIONYL CHLORIDE
(1/2-)26-45
THIOPHANATE-METHYL
(2-)36/37
THIOQUINOX
(2-)24
THIOUREA
(2-)22-24-36/37-61
THIRAM
40-43
(2-)36/37
THYMOL
(1/2-)26-28-36/37/39
TIN(II) METHANESULPHONATE
(1/2-)22-26-36/37/39-45
TITANIUM TETRACHLORIDE
(1/2-)7/8-26-45
TNT
(1/2-)35-45
o-TOLIDINE, SALTS
53-45-61 Note A, E
TOLUENE
(2-)16-25-29-33
TOLUENE-2,4-DIAMMONIUM SULPHATE
43-50/53
53-45-60-61 Note E
Page No.
35
18/11/96

62-56-6

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn,N
22-40-51/53

463-71-8

22-23-36/37/38

463-56-9

Xn

20/21/22-32

Xn

20/21/22-32

31895-22-4

Xn

21/22

111-48-8

Xi

36

93-75-4

Xn

22

39196-18-4

T+

27/28

111-48-8

Xi

36

68-11-1

23/24/25-34

640-15-3

21-25

297-97-2

T+

27/28

7719-09-7

14-34-37

23564-05-8

Xn

40

93-75-4

Xn

22

62-56-6

Xn,N

22-40-51/53

137-26-8

Xn

20/22-36/37-

89-83-8

22-34

53408-94-9

22-34-43

7550-45-0

14-34-36/37

118-96-7

E,T

2-23/24/25-33

T,N

45-22-51/53

108-88-3

F,Xn

11-20

65321-67-7

T,N

45-21-25-36-

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

TOLUENE-2,6-DIISOCYANATE
(1/2-)23-26-28-38-45 Note C

91-08-7

23-36/37/38-42

Page 123 of 236

TOLUENE-2,4-DIISOCYANATE
(1/2-)23-26-28-38-45 Note C
p-TOLUENESULPHONIC ACID, containing more
(1/2-)26-37/39-45
than 5% H2SO4
p-TOLUENESULPHONIC ACID, containing a maximum
(2-)26-37
of 5% H2SO4
4-TOLUENESULPHONYLISOCYANATE
(2-)26-28-30
m-TOLUIDINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
p-TOLUIDINE
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
o-TOLUIDINE
53-45-61 Note E
4-o-TOLYLAZO-o-TOLUIDINE
53-45
TOSYLISOCYANATE
(2-)26-28-30
TOXAPHENE
40-50/53
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
TRIADIMEFON
(2)
TRIALKYLBORANES
(1/2-)7-23-26-36/37/39
-43-45 Note A
TRI-ALLATE
(2)
TRIAMIPHOS
(1/2-)22-28-36/37-45
TRIARIMOL
(2)
3,6,9-TRIAZAUNDECAMETHYLENEDIAMINE
51/53
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
1,2,4-TRIAZOL-3-YLAMINE
(2-)36-37-61
TRIAZOPHOS
(1/2-)23-36/37-45
TRIBROMOMETHANE
(1/2-)28-45-61
TRIBUTYL-(2,4-DICHLOROBENZYL) PHOSPHONIUM
(1/2-)36/37/39-45
CHLORIDE
TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE
(2-)25
TRIBUTYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
48/23/25
(1/2-)35-36/37/39-45 Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
TRICHLORFON
(2-)24-37
TRICHLOROACETIC ACID
(1/2-)24/25-26-45
TRICHLOROACETONITRILE
(1/2-)45
S-2,3,3-TRICHLOROALLYL-DIISOPROPYL(2)
THIOCARBAMATE

548-84-9

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T
23-36/37/38-42
C

34

104-15-4

Xi

36/37/38

4083-64-1

Xn

14-36/37/38-42

108-44-1

T,N

23/24/25-33-50

106-49-0

T,N

23/24/25-33-50

95-53-4

T,N

45-23/25-36-50

97-56-3

45-43

4083-64-1

Xn

14-36/37/38-42

8001-35-2

T,N

21-25-37/38-

43121-43-3

Xn

22

F,C

17-34

2303-17-5

Xn

22

1031-47-6

T+

27/28

26766-27-8

Xn

22

112-57-2

C,N

21/22-34-43-

61-82-5

Xn,N

40-48/22-51/53

24017-47-8

24/25

75-25-2

T,N

23-36/38-51/53

115-78-6

21-25-36/38

126-73-8

Xn

22

21-25-36/38-

52-68-6

Xn

22-43

76-03-9

35

545-06-2

23/24/25

2303-17-5

Xn

22

Page 124 of 236

TRICHLOROANILINE
50/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-60-61 Note C
2,3,6-TRICHLOROBENZOIC ACID
(2)
1,1,1-TRICHLORO-2,2-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL)ETHANE
50/53
(1/2-)22-36/37-45-60-61
2,2,2-TRICHLORO-1,1-BIS(4-CHLOROPHENYL)(2-)36/37
ETHANOL
2,3,4-TRICHLOROBUT-1-ENE
36/37/38-40-50/53 (1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
1,1,1-TRICHLOROETHANE
(2-)24/25-59-61 Note F
1,1,2-TRICHLOROETHANE
(2-)9
2,2,2-TRICHLOROETHANE-1,1-DIOL
(1/2-)25-45
TRICHLOROETHYLENE
(2-)23-36/37-61
TRICHLOROISOCYANURIC ACID
(2-)8-26-41
TRICHLOROMETHANE
48/20/22
(2-)36/37
TRICHLORO(METHYL)SILANE
(2-)26-39
TRICHLORONATE
(1/2-)23-28-36/37-45-60-61
TRICHLORONITROMETHANE
(1/2-)36/37-38-45
2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOL
(2-)26-28-60-61
2,4,6-TRICHLOROPHENOL
(2-)36/37
2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID
(2-)24
2-(2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY)ETHYL
(2)
2,2-DICHLOROPROPIONATE
2-(2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXY) PROPIONIC ACID
(2-)37
2,3,6-TRICHLOROPHENYLACETIC ACID
(2-)36
1,2,3-TRICHLOROPROPANE
(2-)37/39 Note D
TRICHLOROSILANE
(2-)24/25-43
I,I,I-TRICHLOROTOLUENE
37/38-41
53-45 Note E
2,4,6-TRICHLORO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE
(2-)28
TRICHLORO-1,3,5-TRIAZINE-2,4,6-TRIONE
(2-)8-26-41
TRICRESYL PHOSPHATE, o-o-o, o-o-m, o-o-p,
51/53
(1/2-)20/21-28-45-61 Note C
o-m-m, o-m-p, o-p-p, conc.1%
TRICRESYL PHOSPHATE, m-m-m, m-m-p, m-p-p,
(2-)28-61 Note C
p-p-p, conc.5%
Page No.
36

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


T,N
23/24/25-3350-31-7

Xn

22

50-29-3

T,N

25-40-48/25-

115-32-2

Xn

21/22-38-43

2431-50-7

T,N

22-23-

71-55-6

Xn,N

20-59

79-00-5

Xn

20/21/22

302-17-0

25-36/38

79-01-6

Xn

40-52/53

87-90-1

O,Xn

8-22-31-36/37

67-66-3

Xn

22-38-40-

75-79-6

F,Xi

11-14-36/37/38

327-98-0

T+,N

24-28-50/53

76-06-2

T+

22-26-36/37/38

95-95-4

Xn,N

22-36/38-50/53

88-06-2

Xn

22-36/38-40

93-76-5

Xn

22-36/37/38

136-25-4

Xn

22

93-72-1

Xn

22-38

85-34-7

Xn

22

96-18-4

Xn

20/21/22

10025-78-2

15-17

98-07-7

45-22-23-

108-77-0

Xi

36/37/38

87-90-1

O,Xn

8-22-31-36/37

T,N

39-23/24/25-

Xn,N

21/2251/53

Page 125 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


18/11/96

Substance
Safety phrases

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

TRICYCLAZOLE
(2)
TRICYCLOHEXYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception
(2-)26-28 Note A
of those specified elsewhere in this Annex
TRI(CYCLOHEXYL)TIN HYDROXIDE
(2-)13
TRIDEMORPH
(2-)25-36/37
TRIETHOXYISOBUTYLSILANE
(2-)24
TRIETHYLAMINE
(1/2-)3-16-26-29-36/37/39-45
TRIETHYLENE GLYCOL DIACRYLATE
(2-)26-28 Note D
TRIETHYLENETETRAMINE
(1/2-)26-36/37/39-45-61
TRIETHYL PHOSPHATE
(2-)25
TRIETHYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
(1/2-)26-27-28-45 Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
TRIFENMORPH
(2-)22-24
TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID, conc.>10%
(1/2-)9-26-27-28-45 Note B
TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID, 1%conc.<5%
23-26
I,I,I-TRIFLUOROTOLUENE
(2-)16-23-61
TRIFLURALINE (containing <0.5ppm NPDA)
(2-)24-37
TRIHEXYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
(2-)26-28 Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
1,2,3-TRIHYDROXYBENZENE
(2)
TRILEAD BIS(ORTHOPHOSPHATE)
53-45 Note E
TRIMELLITIC ANHYDRIDE
(2-)22-28
1,2,4-TRIMETHYLBENZENE
(2-)26
1,7,7-TRIMETHYLBICYCLO(2,2,1)HEPT-2-YL
(2-)24/25
THIOCYANATOACETATE
TRIMETHYLBORATE
(2-)23-25
3,5,5-TRIMETHYL-2-CYCLOHEXEN-1-ONE
(2-)26
TRIMETHYLENEDIAMINETETRAACETIC ACID

41814-78-2

Xn

22

Xn

20/21/22

13121-70-5

Xn

20/21/22

24602-86-6

Xn

21/22

17980-47-1

Xi

38

121-44-8

F,C

11-20/21/22-35

1680-21-3

Xi

36/38-43

112-24-3

21-34-43-52/53

78-40-0

Xn

22

T+

26/27/28

1420-06-0

Xn

22

76-05-1

20-35

76-05-1

Xi

36/38

98-08-8

F,N

11-51/53

1582-09-8

Xi

36-43

Xn

20/21/22

87-66-1

Xn

20/21/22

7446-27-7

61-62-33-48/22

552-30-7

Xn

36/37/38-42

95-63-6

Xn

10-20-36/37/38

115-31-1

Xn

22

121-43-7

Xn

10-21

78-59-1

Xi

36/37/38

1939-36-2

Xn

22-36

Page 126 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(2-)22-26
2,2,4-TRIMETHYLHEXAMETHYLENE-1,6-DIISOCYANATE
(1/2-)26-28-38-45 Note C
2,4,4-TRIMETHYLHEXAMETHYLENE-1,6DIISOCYANATE and their mixtures
1,3a,8-TRIMETHYL-5-METHYLCARBAMOYLOXY(1/2-)-25-45
1,2,3,3a,8,8a-HEXAHYDROPIXIOLO[2,3-b]INDOL
TRIMETHYLOLPROPANE TRIACRYLATE
(2-)39 Note D
2,4,4-TRIMETHYLPENT-1-ENE
(2-)9-16-29-33
TRIMETHYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
(1/2-)26-27-28-45 Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
2,4,6-TRIMETHYL-1,3,5-TRIOXAN
(2-)9-16-29-33
2,4,6-TRINITROANISOLE
(2-)35
TRINITROBENZENE
(1/2-)35-45 Note C
TRINITROCRESOL
(2-)35 Note C
2,4,6-TRINITROPHENOL
(1/2-)28-35-37-45
2,4,6-TRINITRORESOCINOL
(2-)35
2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE
(1/2-)35-45
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
TRINITROXYLENE
(mix)
(2-)35 Note C
8,9,10-TRINORBORN-5-ENE-DICARBOXYLIC
(2-)39
ANHYDRIDE
8,9,10-TRINORBORN-2-YL ACRYLATE
(2-)28 Note D
TRIOCTYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
(2) Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
1,3,5-TRIOXAN
(2-)24/25
TRIOXYMETHYLENE
(2-)24/25
TRIPENTYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
(2-)26-28 Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
TRIPHENYL PHOSPHITE
(2-)28
TRIPHENYLTIN ACETATE
36/37/38TRIPHENYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
(1/2-)26-27-28-45 Note A
those specified elsewhere in this Annex
TRIPHENYLTIN HYDROXIDE
36/38-50/53
(1/2-)36/37-45-60-61
TRIPROPYLTIN COMPOUNDS with the exception of
(1/2-)26-27-28-45 Note A

16938-22-0

23-36/37/38-42

57-47-6

T+

26/28

15625-89-5

Xi

36/38-43

107-39-1

11

T+

26/27/28

123-63-7

11

606-35-3

E,Xn

2-20/21/22

25377-32-6

E,T+

2-26/27/28-33

28905-71-7

E,Xn

2-4-20/21/22

88-89-1

E,T

2-4-23/24/25

82-71-3

E,Xn

2-4-20/21/22

118-96-7

E,T

2-23/24/25-33

15646-96-5

43-50/53
67297-26-1

E,Xn

2-20/21/22-33

129-64-6

Xi

36/37/38

10027-06-2

Xn

21-38-43

Xi

36/37/38

110-88-3

Xn

22

110-88-3

Xn

22

Xn

20/21/22

101-02-0

Xi

36/38

900-95-8

T+,N

24/25-26-

23/24/25

T+,N

24/25-26-

23/24/25

76-87-9

Page 127 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


those specified elsewhere in this Annex
TRIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) PHOSPHATE
(2)
Page No.
37
18/11/96

Substance
Safety phrases

115-96-8

Xn

22-36/38

CAS number

Symbol

Risk-phrases

Xi

36

Xn

22-36/38

Xn

22

24/25

46-23/25-41-

T,N

52/53
39-23/24/25-

F,T+

15/29-28-32

T+

26/28

Xn

36/37/38-42

Xn

10-20/21/22

T+

26/28-33

T+

26/28-33

45

34

Xi

36-43

T,N

21-25-50

Xn

20

Xi

36/37/38

Xn

22

11

F+,T

45-12

F+,T

45-12

(TRIS(CHLOROMETHYL)PHTHALOCYANINATO)COPPER(II),
(2-)26
reaction products with N-METHYLPIPERAZINE
and METHOXYACETIC ACID
2,4,6-TRIS(DIMETHYLAMINOMETHYL)PHENOL
90-72-2
(2-)26-28
TRIS(DODECYL-3-METHYL-27276-58-6
(2-)24
PHENYLBENZIMIDAZOLIUM)HEXACYANOFERRATE
N,N,N-TRIMETHYLANILINIUM CHLORIDE
138-24-9
(1/2-)25-39-45-53
1,3,5-TRIS(OXIRANYLMETHYL)-1,3,5-TRIAZINE2451-62-9
43-48/2253-45-61 Note E
2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-TRIONE
TRITOLYL PHOSPHATE, o-o-o, o-o-m, o-o-p,
51/53
(1/2-)20/21-28-45-61 Note C
o-m-m, o-m-p, o-p-p
TRIZINC DIPHOSPHIDE
1314-84-7
(1/2-)3/9/14-30-36/37-45
L TROPYL-TROPAT
101-31-5
(1/2-)-24-45
TRYPSIN
9002-07-7
(2-)22-24-26-36/37
TURPENTINE
(mix) 8006-64-2
(2)
URANIUM
7440-61-1
(1/2-)20/21-45
URANIUM COMPOUNDS
(1/2-)20/21-45 Note A
URETHANE
51-79-6
53-45
VALERIC ACID
109-52-4
(1/2-)26-36-45
VALINAMIDE
20108-78-5
(2-)24-26-37
VAMIDOTHION
2275-23-2
(1/2-)36/37-45-61
VANADINIUM PENTOXIDE
1314-62-1
(2-)22
VERATRINE
8051-02-3
(2-)36/37/39
VERNOLATE
1929-77-7
(2)
VINYL ACETATE
108-05-4
(2-)16-23-29-33 Note D
VINYL BROMIDE
593-60-2
53-45
VINYL CHLORIDE
75-01-4

Page 128 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


53-45 Note D
VINYLCYCLOHEXANE DIEPOXIDE
(1/2-)23-24-45
VINYLIDENE CHLORIDE
(2-)7-16-29 Note D
2-VINYLTOLUENE
(2-)24
WARFARIN
53-45 Note E
XENYLAMINE, SALTS
53-45 Note A, E
XMC
(2)
m-XYLENE
(2-)25 Note C
o-XYLENE
(2-)25 Note C
p-XYLENE
(2-)25 Note C
XYLENE, mixture of isomers
(2-)25 Note C
XYLENOL, all isomers
(mix)
(1/2-)28-45 Note C
XYLIDINE
51/53
(1/2-)28-36/37-45-61 Note C
XYLYLCARB
(2)
3,5-XYLYL METHYLCARBAMATE
(2)
ZINC ALKYLES
(1/2-)16-43-45 Note A
ZINC BISDIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE
(2-)36/37
ZINC CHLORIDE
(1/2-)7/8-28-45
ZINC CHROMATES, including ZINC POTASSIUM
53-45-60-61 Note A, E
CHROMATE
ZINC 2-HYDROXY-5-C13-18 ALKYLBENZOATE
(2-)26-61
ZINC PHOSPHIDE
(1/2-)3/9/14-30-36/37-45
ZINC POWDER, ZINC DUST
(2-)7/8-43
ZINC POWDER, ZINC DUST, PYROPHORIC
(2-)7/8-43
ZINC SULPHATE
(2-)22-25
ZIRAM
(2-)36/37
ZIRCONIUM POWDER, STABILIZED
(2-)7/8-43
ZIRCONIUM POWDER, PYROPHORIC
(2-)7/8-43

106-87-6

23/24/25-40

75-35-4

F+,Xn

12-20-40

611-15-4

Xn

20

81-81-2

61-48/25

45-22

2655-14-3

Xn

22

108-38-3

Xn

10-20/21-38

95-47-6

Xn

10-20/21-38

106-42-3

Xn

10-20/21-38

1330-20-7

Xn

10-20/21-38

1300-71-6

24/25-34

T,N

23/24/25-33-

2425-10-7

Xn

22

2655-14-3

Xn

22

F,C

14-17-34

137-30-4

Xn

22-36/37/38-40

7646-85-7

34

T,N

45-22-43-50/53

Xi,N

36/38-51/53

T+,F

15/29-28-32

10-15

7440-66-6

15-17

7733-02-0

Xi

36/38

137-30-4

Xn

22-36/37/38-40

15

15-17

1314-84-7

7740-67-7

ANNEX 5. WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION


INTERNATIONAL AGENCY FOR RESEARCH ON CANCER
Page 129 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

LISTS OF IARC EVALUATIONS ACCORDING TO IARC MONOGRAPHS


IARC, Lyon 1993
`Occupational sources' column edited by IPCS, Geneva, 1993
Any comments related to the IARC Monographs should be sent to Dr. H. Vainio, Chief, Unit of
Carcinogen Identification and Evaluation, International Agency for Research on Cancer
Address:
Group 1

150 cours Albert Thomas


69372 Lyon Cedex 08
France
The agents and industrial processes which have been evaluated by
IARC Monographs Programme as being carcinogenic to humans.

Group 2A

The agents and industrial processes which have been evaluated by


IARC Monographs Programme as being probably carcinogenic to humans.

Group 2B

The agents and industrial processes which have been evaluated by


IARC Monographs Programme as being possibly carcinogenic to humans.

________________________________________________________________________________

Agent/Industrial process

CAS Number
Occupational
sources
________________________________________________________________________________

Group 1 Carcinogenic to humans


Aflatoxins (1993)(a)
contaminants,

1402-68-2

4-Aminobiphenyl

92-67-1

Arsenic and
Asbestos
Azathioprine
Benzene
material
Benzidine
impurity
Beryllium and

arsenic

compounds(b)

mycotoxins
Rubber manufacture
/1.,p.1292/f
7440-38-2
Drug, pesticide
1332-21-4 Roofing, friction
material
446-86-6
Drug
71-43-2
Solvent, raw
92-87-5

beryllium

compounds(d)

N,N-Bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine
(Chlornaphazine)
Bis(chloromethyl)ether and
chloromethyl methyl ether (technical-grade)
1,4-Butanediol dimethanesulfonate (Myleran)
Cadmium and cadmium compounds(d)
Chlorambucil
agent
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-(4-methylcyclohexyl)

Feedstuff

Raw material,

7440-41-7
Raw material,
electronics industry
494-03-1 Drug
542-88-1
Laboratory chemical
107-30-2
55-98-1 Antineoplastic agent
7440-43-9
Raw material
305-03-3
Antineoplastic

Page 130 of 236

-1-nitrosourea
(Methyl-CCNU)
Chromium(VI)
compounds
manufacturing

(1990)

Ciclosporin (1990)
Cyclophosphamide
agent
Diethylstilboestrol
Erionite
Melphalan
agent
8-Methoxypsoralen (Methoxsalen) plus
ultraviolet radiation
MOPP and other combined chemotherapy
including alkylating agents
Mustard gas (Sulfur mustard)
/2.,90-110/
2-Naphthylamine
Nickel
compounds (1990)
Oestrogen replacement therapy
1.,p.1666/
Oestrogens, nonsteroidal(b)
Oestrogens,

oesteroidal(b)

Oral contraceptives, combined(c)


Oral contraceptives, sequential
Radon and its decay products (1988)
Solar radiation (1992)
Talc containing asbest-form fibres
Thiotepa

(1990)

Treosulfan
agent
Vinyl chloride (monomer)

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


13909-09-6 Antineoplastic agent
/3.,p.191/
Pigment
/1.,p.470/
79217-60-0 Drug /2.,91-527/
50-18-0
Antineoplastic
56-53-1
Drug
66733-21-9
Natural
mineral fibre
/2.,pp.88-936/
148-82-3
Antineoplastic
298-81-7

505-60-2
91-59-8

Dermatological drug
/4.,p.243/
Antineoplastic agents
War gas
Dye manufacturing
Pigment, batteries,
impurity
Hormones /

Hormones,
pharmaceutical
industry /1.,p.1666/
Hormones,
pharmaceutical
industry /1.,p.1666/
Hormones
Hormones
10043-92-2
Mining
Extenders in paints
and ceramic products
/1.,p.2141/
52-24-4
Antineoplastic agent
/2.,91-572/
299-75-2
Antineoplastic
75-01-4

Plastic industry

Mixtures
Alcoholic beverages (1988)
Analgesic mixtures containing phenacetin
Betel quid with tobacco
Coal-tar pitches
Coal-tars
Mineral oils, untreated and mildly treated
Salted fish (Chinese-style) (1993)
Shale-oils
Soots
Tobacco products, smokeless

Drugs
65996-93-2 Raw material
8007-45-2
Drug, raw material
Use of crude
oil distillates
/2.,91-960/
68308-34-9

Page 131 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Tobacco smoke
Exposure circumstances
Aluminium production
Auramine
Boot and shoe manufacture and repair
Coal gasification
Coke production
Furniture and cabinet making
Haematite mining (underground) with exposure to radon
Iron and steel founding
Isopropanol manufacture, strong-acid process
Magenta, manufacture of (1993)
Painter, occupational exposure (1989)
Rubber industry
Strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid (1992)
________________________________________________________________________________

Agent/Industrial process

CAS Number

Occupational
sources
________________________________________________________________________________
Group 2A Probably carcinogenic to humans
Acrylonitrile
Adriamycind
agent
Androgenic (anabolic) steroids
Azacitidine (1990)(d)
Benz[a]anthracene(d)
Benzidine-based dyes(d)
Benzo[a]pyrene(d)
Bischloroethyl nitrosourea (BCNU)
1,3-Butadiene (1992)
Captafol (1991)(d)
pesticides

107-13-1
23214-92-8

Raw material
Antineoplastic

/2.,pp.82-736/
Drugs
320-67-2
Antineoplastic agent
/2.,pp.91-572/
56-55-3
Impurity
Dyes
50-32-8
Impurity
154-93-8 Antineoplastic agent
106-9-90
Manufacture of
synthetic rubber
/1.,p.347/
2425-06-1
Fungicides,

/1.,pp.927-1616/
Chloramphenicol (1990)(d)
56-75-7
Antibiotics /
1.,p.171/
1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea 13010-47-4
Antineoplastic
agent
(CCNU)(d)
para-Chloro-ortho-toluidine and
its strong acid salts (1990)(d)
95-69-2
Synthesis of organic
dyestuffs
/1.,pp.146-147/
Chlorozotocin (1990)(d)
54749-90-5
Antineoplastic
agent
/2.,pp.91-572/
Cisplatin(d)
15663-27-1 Antineoplastic agent
/5.,II/p.125/
Dibenz[a,h]anthracene(d)
53-70-3
Coal-tar /

Page 132 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


1.,p.1765/
Diethyl sulfate (1992)(d)
Dimethylcarbamoyl chloride(d)
Dimethyl sulfate(d)
Epichlorohydrin(d)
products,
Ethylene dibromide(d)
Ethylene oxide
N-Ethyl-N-nitrosourea(d)
synthesis
Formaldehyde

IQ(d) (2-Amino-3-methylimid-azo[4,5-f]
-quinoline) (1993)
5-Methoxypsoralend

64-67-5

Raw material,
laboratories
79-44-7
Laboratories
77-78-1
Raw material,
laboratories
106-89-8
Epoxyres in
raw material,
laboratories
106-93-4
Soil fumigant,
leaded gasoline
/1.p.623/
75-21-8
Pesticide,
intermediate
759-73-9
Laboratory
of diazoethane
/6.,p.192/
50-00-0
Preservative,
disinfectant, textile,
wood/timber industry,
raw material
76180-96-6 Grilled fish
and meat
/2.,pp.92-1997/
484-20-8
Dermatological agent
/4.,p.243/

4,4'-Methylene bis(2-chloroaniline)
(MOCA) (1993)

101-14-4

N-Methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine
(MNNG)(d)

70-25-7

N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea(d)
synthesis
Nitrogen mustar(d)
N-Nitrosodiethylamine(d)
N-Nitrosodimethylamine(d)
Phenacetin
Procarbazine hydrochloride(d)
Propylene oxide(d)
propylene
Silica, crystalline
Styrene oxide
additive
Tris(2,3-dibromopropyl)phosphate
Ultraviolet radiation A (1992)(d)
Ultraviolet radiation B (1992)(d)
Ultraviolet radiation C (1992)(d)

Polyurethane
industry, curing agent

Laboratory agent
/2.,pp.92-1997/
684-93-5
Laboratory
of diazomethane
/21.,p.192/
51-75-2
Basis for some
antineoplastic agents
55-18-5
Laboratories
62-75-9
Laboratories,
pollutant
62-44-2
Drug
366-70-1 Antineoplastic agent
/2.,pp.85-1341/
75-56-9
Production of
glycol /1.,p.771/
14808-60-7 Ceramic
industry /1.,p.2034/
96-09-3
Epoxy resin
/7/
126-72-7

Solar radiation
Solar radiation
Welding operation,

Page 133 of 236

Vinyl

bromided

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


laser
593-60-2
As an intermediate
in organic synthesis,
manufacture of
polymers /8.,p.135/

Mixtures
Creosotes

8001-58-9 Wood preservative for


roofing

Diesel engine exhaust (1989)


Hot mate (1991)
Beverage
Non-arsenical insecticides, spraying
and Occupational exposures in application of (1991)
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB)
1336-36-3
Limited application
in
capacitors
Exposure circumstances
Art glass, glass containers and pressed ware (manufacture of) (1993)
Hairdresser or barber (1993)
Petroleum refining (1989)
Sunlamps and sunbeds (1992)
________________________________________________________________________________

Agent/Industrial process

CAS Number Occupational


sources
________________________________________________________________________________

Group 2B Possibly carcinogenic to humans


A-a-C; (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole)
Acetaldehyde
Acetamide
Acrylamide
AF-2; [2-(2-Furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide]
Aflatoxin
cows

M1 (1993)

para-Aminoazobenzene
ortho-Aminoazotoluene
2-Amino-5-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-1,3,4thiadiazole
Amitrole

26148-68-5
Grilled food,
tobacco smoke
/9.,p.294/
75-07-0
Manufacture of acetic
acid and ethyl
acetate /1.,p.36/
60-35-5
As a solvent for
organic compounds,
plasticizer /1.,p.139/
79-06-1
Manufacture of
acrylamide polymers
/1.,p.138/
3688-53-7

Ex-food
preservative
/10.,p.48/
6795-23-9
Found in the milk
60-09-3
97-56-3

fed toxic meals /11/


Dyes /1.,p.231/
Dyes /1.,p.231/

712-68-5 Drug /12.,p.39/


61-82-5
Herbicide

Page 134 of 236

ortho-Anisidine
Antimony trioxide

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


90-04-0
Laboratories
1309-64-4 Tartar emetic, paint
pigment /1.,p.177/
140-57-8
Pesticide
1912-24-9
Herbicide /

(1989)

AramiteR
Atrazine (1991)
1.,p.1626/
Auramine (technical-grade)

492-80-8

Dye manufacture
/2.,pp.80-121/
115-02-6
Antineoplastic

Azaserine
agent
Benzo[b]fluoranthene
Benzo[j]fluoranthene
Benzo[k]fluoranthene
Benzyl violet 4B

205-99-2
Impurity
205-82-3
Impurity
207-08-9
Impurity
1694-09-3
Textile dye
/13.,p.155/
11056-06-7
Antineoplastic drug
/12.,p.34/

Bleomycinse(e)
Bracken fern
Bromodichloromethane (1991)
Butylated

hydroxyanisole

75-27-4
(BHA)

b--Butyrolactone
Caffeic acid (1993)
plants
Carbon-black

/11.,p.207/
Manufacture of natural
and synthetic rubber
56-23-5
Solvent, raw

extracts

Carbon tetrachloride
material
Ceramic fibres (1988)

Use in manufacture of
paper felts, furnace
/2.,91-1961/
57-74-9
Pesticide
143-50-0
Pesticide
115-28-6
Chemical

Chlordane (1991)
Chlordecone (Kepone)
Chlorendic acid (1990)
intermediate

in the manufacture of
unsaturated polyester
resins /2.,pp.90-1979/
Intermediates
106-47-8
Dye industry
67-66-3
Solvent, raw

a-Chlorinated toluenes
para-Chloroaniline (1993)
Chloroform
material
Chlorophenols
Chlorophenoxy herbicides
4-Chloro-ortho-phenylenediamine
CI Acid Red 114 (1993)
CI Basic Red 9 (1993)
CI Direct Blue 15 (1993)
Citrus Red No. 2 (CI 12156)
Cobalt and cobalt compounds
magnets
para-Cresidine
Cycasin

Intermediate
solvent /5.,II/23/
25013-16-5
Food additive
/2.,pp.87-1414/
3068-88-0
Laboratories
331-39-5
Constituent of

(1991)

Fungicides,
bactericides
/1.,p.1673/
Herbicides
95-83-0 Hair-dye component
/14.,p.83/
6459-94-5
Dye
569-61-9
Dye
2429-74-5
Dye
6358-53-8
Dye
7440-48-4
Manufacture of
/1.,p.493/
120-71-8
Dye manufacturing
14901-08-7
Naturally occurring

Page 135 of 236

Dacarbazine
Dantron (Chrysazin; 1,8Dihydroxyanthraquinone)(1990)
Daunomycin
DDT (para,para'-DDT) (1991)
N,N'-Diacetylbenzidine
2,4-Diaminoanisole
4,4'-Diaminodiphenyl ether
2,4-Diaminotoluene
Dibenz[a,h]acridine
Dibenz[a,j]acridine
1.,p.460/
7H-Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole
Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene
Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene
Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene
Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene
1,2-Dibromo-3-chloropropane
para-Dichlorobenzene
3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine
3,3'-Dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether
1,2-Dichloroethane
material
Dichloromethane (Methylene chloride)
1,3-Dichloropropene
(technical-grade)
Dichlorvos (1991)
Diepoxybutane
Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate
1,2-Diethylhydrazine
Diglycidyl resorcinol ether
Dihydrosafrole
intermediate

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


toxin, seeds, roots
and leaves of cycad
plants /15.,p.122/
4342-03-4 Antineoplastic drug
/16.,p.35/
117-10-2 Drug/2.,pp.91-572/
20830-81-3 Antineoplastic agent
50-29-3
Pesticide
613-35-4
Dye manufacturing
615-05-4
Dye manufacturing,
hair dye
101-80-4
Dye manufacturing
95-80-7
Dye manufacturing,
raw material, hair dye
226-36-8
Pollutant/1.,p.460/
224-42-0
Pollutant /
194-59-2

Tobacco smoke
/17.,p.318/
192-65-4
Diesel and gasoline
engine exhaust fumes
/18.,p.33/
189-64-0
Diesel and gasoline
engine exhaust fumes
/18.,p.33/
189-55-9
Diesel and gasoline
engine exhaust fumes
/18.,p.33/
191-30-0
Diesel and gasoline
engine exhaust fumes
/18.,p.33/
96-12-8
Pesticide
106-46-7
Fumigants,
insecticides
/1.,p.460/
91-94-1
Raw material, dye
manufacturing
28434-86-8
Dye, raw material
107-06-2
Solvent, raw
75-09-2
Solvent
542-75-6 Pesticides
/2.,pp.88-1251/
62-73-7
Pesticide
1464-53-5 Raw material,
laboratories
117-81-7
Plastic industry
/1.,p.1691/
1615-80-1 Laboratory chemical
/19.,p.154/
101-90-6
Epoxy resin,
aircraft equipment
industry /20.,p.154/
94-58-6
Chemical
for manufacture of
piperonyl butoxide
/15.,p.235/

Page 136 of 236

Diisopropyl sulfate (1992)

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


2973-10-6
Manufacturing of
isopropanol
119-90-4
Dye, laboratories
60-11-7
Dye, laboratories

3,3'-Dimethoxybenzidine (ortho-Dianisidine)
para-Dimethylaminoazobenzene
trans-2-[(Dimethylamino)methylimino]-5-[2(5-nitro-2-furyl)25962-77-0 Limited usage as a
vinyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazole
pharmaceutical
/21.,p.148/
2,6-Dimethylaniline (2,6-Xylidine) (1993)
87-62-7
Synthesis of
other chemicals
/1.,p.142/
3,3'-Dimethylbenzidine (ortho-Tolidine)
119-93-7
Dye, laboratories
Dimethylformamide (1989)
68-12-2
Solvent for liquids
and organic compounds
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine
57-14-7
Rocket fuel
formulations, chemical
synthesis /3.,p.149/
1,2-Dimethylhydrazine
540-73-8
Chemical intermediate
/19.,p.146/
1,6-Dinitropyrene (1989)
42397-64-8
Diesel and gasoline
engine exhaust fumes
/18.,p.216/
1,8-Dinitropyrene (1989)
42397-65-9
Diesel and gasoline
engine exhaust fumes
/18.,p.232/
1,4-Dioxane
123-91-1
Raw material,
solvent
Disperse Blue 1 (1990)
2475-45-8
Dye, hair dye
Ethyl
acrylate
140-88-5
As a component of
solution for coating
textiles, paper and
leather /1.,p.53/
Ethylene thiourea
96-45-7
Raw material,
laboratories, rubber
industry
Ethyl methanesulfonate
62-50-0
Laboratories
2-(2-Formylhydrazino)-4-(5-nitro-2furyl)thiazole
3570-75-0 No use
Glasswool (1988)
Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido
[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole)
67730-11-4 Charred fraction of
cooked fish and meat
/10.,p.37/
Glu-P-2 (2-Aminodipyrido
[1,2-a:3',2'-d]imidazole)
67730-10-3 Charred fraction of
cooked fish and meat
/10.,p.37/
Glycidaldehyde
765-34-4
Acrolein metabolite
Griseofulvin
126-07-8
Antibiotic drug,
veterinary medicine
HC Blue No. 1 (1993)
2784-94-3
Hair dye
Heptachlor (1991)
76-44-8
Pesticide
Hexachlorobenzene
118-74-1
Fungicide
Hexachlorocyclohexanes
Pesticide /
1.,p.1616/
Hexamethylphosphoramide
680-31-9
Solvent
Hydrazine
302-01-2
Raw material
Indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene
193-39-5
Tobacco smoke,
inhalation of polluted

Page 137 of 236

Iron-dextran complex
Lasiocarpine
an

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


air /17.,p.376/
9004-66-4
Drug
303-34-4
Used medicinally as

emetic and in the


treatment of snake
bites /15.,p.282/
Lead [7439-92-1] and lead compounds, inorganic
Manufacture of pipes,
cable sheating
/1.,p.1200/
Magenta (containing CI Basic Red 9) (1993) 632-99-5
Dyes and dyestuff
/1.,p.699/
MeA-a-C (2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido
[2,3-b]indole)
68006-83-7 Grilled food, tobacco
smoke /9.,p.279/
Medroxyprogesterone acetate
71-58-9
Hormones,
pharmaceutical
industry/2.,pp.80-725/
MeIQ (2-Amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo
[4,5-f]quinoline) (1993)
77094-11-2 Grilled beef and fish
/9.,p.279/
MeIQx (2-Amino 3,8-dimethylimidazo
[4,5-f]quinoxaline) (1993)
77500-04-0 Fried fish and beef
/9.,p.279/
Merphalan
531-76-0
Antineoplastic
agent
2-Methylaziridine
75-55-8
Intermediate
Methylazoxymethanol
acetate
592-62-1
Cancer research
5-Methylchrysene
3697-24-3 Diesel and gasoline
engine exhaust fumes
/18.,p.32/
4,4'-Methylene
bis(2-methylaniline)
838-88-0
Dye manufacture /
22/
4,4'-Methylenedianiline (4,4'Diaminodiphenylmethane)
101-77-9 Production of
isocyanates and
polyisocyanates
/1.,p.144/
Methylmercury compounds (1993)
Methyl methanesulfonate
66-27-3
Produced for
research
purposes
2-Methyl-1-nitroanthraquinone
(uncertain purity)
129-15-7 Dye intermediate
/2.,pp.82-1639/
N-Methyl-N-nitrosourethane
615-53-2
Laboratory chemical
/10.,p.213/
Methylthiouracil
56-04-2
Antineoplastic
agent
Metronidazole
443-48-1
Drug
Mirex
2385-85-5 Pesticides
/1.,p.1616/
Mitomycin C
50-07-7
Antineoplastic
agent
Monocrotaline
315-22-0
Consumptions of
extracts of crotalaria
species as bush teas
5-(Morpholinomethyl)-3-[(5nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2-oxazolidinone
3795-88-8
Former drug /22/

Page 138 of 236

Nafenopin
Nickel, metallic

(1990)

Nitridazole
Nitrilotriacetic acid and its salts (1990)

5-Nitroacenaphthene
6-Nitrochrysene

(1989)

Nitrofen, technical-grade
2-Nitrofluorene (1989)
1-[(5-Nitrofurfurylidene)amino]-2imidazolidinone

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


3771-19-5
Drug /22/
7440-02-0 Manufacture of acidresisting and magnetic
alloys /1.,p.1438/
61-57-4
Drug
139-13-9
Softener in cleaning
agents and phosphate
substitute in
detergents /23.,p.119/
602-87-9
Diesel exhaust
/3.,p.215/
7496-02-8 Gasoline and diesel
engine exhaust fumes
/2.,90-252/
1836-75-5
Herbicide
607-57-8
Gasoline and diesel
engine exhaust fumes
/2.,90-252/

555-84-0 Former drug


/21.,p.182/
N-[4-(5-Nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]acetamide 531-82-8
Analgesics,
anti-inflammatory
agent /24.,p.34/
Nitrogen mustard N-oxide
126-85-2
Intermediate in
production of
antineoplastic drugs
2-Nitropropane
79-46-9
Use in vinyl epoxy
paints, printing inks,
adhesives
1-Nitropyrene (1989)
5522-43-0
Diesel engine
exhaust
fumes /18.,p.232/
4-Nitropyrene (1989)
57835-92-4 Laboratory chemical
N-Nitrosodi-n-butylamine
924-16-3
N-Nitrosodiethanolamine
1116-54-7 Isolated from cosmetic
products /1.,p.1235/
N-Nitrosodi-n-propylamine
621-64-7
Isolated in some
pesticides /6.,p.179/
3-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)propionitrile
60153-49-3
Constitutent of
betel
nut
4-(N-Nitrosomethylamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)1-butanone (NNK)
64091-91-4 Tobacco smoke
/25.,pp.209...223/
N-Nitrosomethylethylamine
10595-95-6
Tobacco smoke
/26.,p.222/
N-Nitrosomethylvinylamine
4549-40-0
Apple brandy
/26.,p.258/
N-Nitrosomorpholine
59-89-2
Rubber industry
N'-Nitrosonornicotine
16543-55-8 Tobacco smoke
/2.,pp.85-128/
N-Nitrosopiperidine
100-75-4
Fried meat and fish,
rubber /26.,p.289/
N-Nitrosopyrrolidine
930-55-2
Tobacco smoke, fried
meat and fish
/26.,p.314/
N-Nitrososarcosine
13256-22-9
Fried meat
/26.,p.328/

Page 139 of 236

Ochratoxin A (1993)
Oil Orange SS
Panfuran S, containing
dihydroxymethylfuratrizine
Pentachlorophenol (1991)
Phenazopyridine hydrochloride
Phenobarbital
Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride
Phenyl glycidyl ether (1989)
Phenytoin
PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo
[4,5-b]pyridine) (1993)
Ponceau MX
Ponceau 3R
Potassium bromate

Progestins
1,3-Propane sultone
b-Propiolactone

Propylthiouracil
agent
Rockwool (1988)
Saccharin
Safrole
Slagwool (1988)
Sodium ortho-phenylphenate
Sterigmatocystin
Streptozotocin
Styrenee
material
Sulfallate
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin
(TCDD)

Tetrachloroethylene
cleaning/1.,p.677/
Thioacetamide
4,4'-Thiodianiline
Thiourea

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Mycotoxin
/2.,pp.91-221/
2646-17-5
Dye
303-47-9

794-93-4 Drug
87-86-5
136-40-3
50-06-6
63-92-3
122-60-1
57-41-0

Pesticide
Drug /4.,p.312/
Drug /4.,p.312/
Drug /27/
Epoxy compounds
Drug /5.,II/47/

105650-23-5 Cooked food, tobacco


smoke /22/
3761-53-3
Dye
3564-09-8
Dye
7758-01-2
Flour milling
industries as additive
to improve baking
properties
/2.,pp.82-697/
Drugs
1120-71-4 Sulfopropylation of
organic compounds
/1.,p.121/
57-57-8
Used in organic
synthesis, vapour
sterillant,
disinfectant /1.,p.1185/
51-52-5
Antineoplastic
81-07-2

Artificial sweeteners
/28.,p.111/
94-59-7
Parfumery, soaps,
flavouring agent in
drugs /15.,p.234/
132-27-4

Fungicide
/2.,pp.84-1614/
10048-13-2 Mycotoxin
18883-66-4 Drug
100-42-5
Solvent, raw
95-06-7

Herbicide

1746-01-6

By-product during the


synthesis of 2,4,5trichlorophenol
/1.,p.638/
127-18-4
Dry
62-55-5

Use as an analytical
reagent in the
laboratory /1.,p.1391/
139-65-1
Dye intermediate
/27.,p.152/
62-56-6
Photocopying, raw
material

Page 140 of 236

Toluene diisocyanates

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


26471-62-5 Manufacture of
elastomers of
polyuretane/1.,p.1161/
95-53-4
Dye

ortho-Toluidine
Trichlormethine (Trimustine hydrochloride)
(1990)
817-09-4
Trp-P-1
(3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5Hpyrido[4,3-b]indole)
Trp-P-2
(3-Amino-1-methyl-5Hpyrido[4,3-b]indole)
Trypan blue
Uracil mustard
agent
Urethane

Antineoplastic agent
/2.,pp.91-574/

62450-06-0 Charred fraction of


cooked fish and meat
/10.,p.252/
62450-07-1 Charred fraction of
cooked fish and meat
/10.,p.252/
72-57-1
Dye
66-75-1
Antineoplastic
51-79-6

Raw material

Mixtures
Bitumens, extracts of steam-refined and
air-refined
8052-42-4
Carrageenan, degraded
9000-07-1
Food additive
Chlorinated paraffins of average carbon chain length C12 and
average degree of chlorination approximately 60% (1990)
Coffee (urinary bladder) (1991)
Diesel fuel, marine(e) (1989)
Engine exhaust, gasoline (1989)
Fuel oils, residual (heavy) (1989)
Gasoline(e) (1989)
Pickled vegetables (traditional in Asia)
(1993)
Polybrominated
biphenyls (Firemaster
BP-6)
59536-65-1 Flame
retardant
Toxaphene (Polychlorinated camphenes)
8001-35-2
Pesticide
Toxins derived from Fusarium moniliforme
(1993)
Mycotoxins
Welding fumes (1990)
Exposure circumstances
Carpentry and joinery
Textile manufacturing industry (work in) (1990)
________________________________________________________________________________

(a) Year in brackets: year in which the evaluation was published


subsequent to the Supplement 7 Working Group for agents,
mixtures and exposure circumstances considered in Volumes 43-58
of the Monographs.
(b) This evaluation applies to the group of chemicals as a whole and not
necessarily to all individual chemicals within the group.

Page 141 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


(c) There is also conclusive evidence that these agents have a protective
effect against cancers of the ovary and endometrium.
(d) Overall evaluation upgraded from 2B to 2A with supporting evidence from
other relevant data.
(e) Overall evaluation upgraded from 3 to 2B with supporting evidence from
other relevant data.
(f)List of references:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

ILO Encyclopedia of Occupational Safety and Health, 3th editon, 1983


CIS-ILO Microfiche-Collection
Kellard., B., Hazardous Substances -Carcinogenic Guide, Croner
Publication Ltd, Croner House, London, UK, 1991
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Overall Evaluation of Carcinogenety, supp.7, 1987
International
Program of Chemical Safety/International Register of
Potentially Toxic Chemicals, Computerized Listing of Chemicals Being
Tested for Toxic Effects, UNEP/ILO/WHO, August 1990
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, vol.17,
1978
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, Material Safety DataSheets (MSDS/FTSS) CD-INFO Disqs, 93-2
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Chemicals used in Plastics and Elastomers, vol.39, 1986
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Naturally Occuring Toxins and Synthetic Food Components etc.,
vol.40, 1986
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Food Additives, Feed Additives and Naturally Occuring Substances,
vol.31, 1983
The Merck Index, An Encyclopedia of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th edition, 1976
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans,
vol.50, 1991
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Aromatic Amines and Related Nitro Compounds, Hair Dyes, etc.,
vol.16, 1978
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Aromatic Amines, Antraquinones etc., vol.27,1982
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Some Naturally Occuring Substances, vol.10, 1976
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans Pharmaceutical Drugs, vol.50, 1990
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans,
vol.31, 1989
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans from
Diesel and Some Nitroarenes, vol.46,1989
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans,
vol.4,1974
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic risks to humans Allyl Compounds, Aldehyds, Epoxides and Peroxides, vol 36, 1985
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans,
vol.7, 1974
Silver Platter cancer CD, 1993
Nordic Councils of Ministers, Effects on Reproduction of Chloroform and
1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropene, Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate,
Solna, Sweden, 1992
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic risks to humans -

Page 142 of 236

25.
26.
27.
28.

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Some Nitroso Compounds, vol.40, 1990
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic risks to humans Polynuclear Aromatic Compounds etc., vol.37, 1985
Canadian Centre of Occupational Safety and Health, CD-INFO disq
series: NIOSHTIC(R), 1993
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic risks to humans,
vol. 27, 1987
IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic risks to humans,
vol. 22, 1980

Page 143 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 6.
List of chemicals banned or severely restricted to certain uses owing to their effects on health and the
environment in the countries of EU
Use
Use
Chemical
CAS number
category limitation
MERCURIC OXIDE
21908-53-2
P
SR
MERCUROUS CHLORIDE
10112-91-1
P
SR
OTHER INORGANIC MERCURY COMPOUNDS
P
B
ALKYL MERCURY COMPOUNDS
P
SR
ALKOXYALKYL AND ARYL MERCURY COMPOUNDS
P
B
ALDRIN
309-00-2
P
SR
CHLORDANE
57-74-9
P
B
DIELDRIN
60-57-1
P
B
DDT
50-29-3
P
B
ENDRIN
72-20-8
P
SR
HCH (contains < 99% gamma isomer)
608-73-1
P
B
HEPTACHLOR
74-44-8
P
B
HEXACHLOROBENZENE
118-74-1
P
B
CAMPHECHLOR (TOXAPHENE)
8001-35-2
P
B
POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS (PCB), except MONO- and
1336-36-3
I
B
DICHLORINATED BIPHENYLS
POLYCHLORINATED TERPHENYLS (PCT)
61788-33-8
I
B
PREPARATIONS with a PCB or PCT content higher than 0.01% by
I
B
weight
TRIS(2,3-DIBROMOPROPYL) PHOSPHATE
126-72-7
I
SR
TRIS-AZIRIDINYL-PHOSPHIOXIDE
545-55-1
I
SR
POLYBROMINATED BIPHENYLS (PBB)
I
SR
CROCIDOLITE
12001-28-4
I
SR
NITROFEN
1836-75-5
P
B
1,2-DIBROMOETHANE
106-93-4
P
B
1,2-DICHLOROETHANE
107-06-2
P
B
AMOSITE
12172-73-5
B
ANTHOPHYLLITE ASBESTOS
77536-67-5
B
ACTINOLITE ASBESTOS
77536-66-4
B
TREMOLITE ASBESTOS
77536-68-6
B
CADMIUM and its compounds
7440-43-9
R
2-NAPHTYLAMINE and its salts
91-59-8
B
4-AMINOPHENYL and its salts
92-67-1
B
BENZIDINE and its salts
92-87-5
B
4-NITROPHENYL
92-93-3
B
LEGEND:
Use category:
P plant-protection product
I industrial chemical
Use limitation:
SR severe restriction
B ban
R restrictions

Page 144 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 7.
Substances and Quantities Potential to Cause Major Accidents
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43

Major hazard substance


4-AMINODIPHENYL
BENZIDINE
BENZIDINE AND SALTS
DIMETHYLNITROSAMINE
2-NAPHTHYLAMINE
BERYLLIUM (powders, compounds)
BIS(CHLOROMETHYL)ETHER
1,3-PROPANESULTONE
2,3,7,8-TETRACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN
ARSENIC PENTOXIDE, ARSENIC(V)ACID and SALTS
ARSENIC TRIOXIDE, ARSENIOUS(III)ACIDS and SALTS
ARSENIC HYDRIDE (ARSINE)
DIMETHYLCARBAMOYL CHLORIDE
4-(CHLOROFORMYL) MORPHOLINE
CARBONYL CHLORIDE (PHOSGENE)
CHLORINE
HYDROGEN SULPHIDE
ACRYLONITRILE
HYDROGEN CYANIDE
CARBON DISULFIDE
BROMINE
AMMONIA
ACETYLENE (ETHYNE)
HYDROGEN
ETHYLENE OXIDE
PROPYLENE OXIDE
2-CYANOPROPAN-2-OL (ACETONE CYANOHYDRIN)
2-PROPENAL (ACROLEIN)
2-PROPEN-1-OL (ALLYL ALCOHOL)
ALLYLAMINE
ANTIMONY HYDRIDE (STIBINE)
ETHYLENEIMINE
FORMALDEHYDE (CONCENTRATION= 90%)
HYDROGEN PHOSPHIDE (PHOSPHINE)
BROMOMETHANE (METHYL BROMIDE)
METHYL ISOCYANATE
NITROGEN OXIDES
SODIUM SELENITE
BIS(2-CHLOROETHYL) SULPHIDE
PHOSACETIM
TETRAETHYL LEAD
TETRAMETHYL LEAD
PROMURIT ( 1-(3,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)- 3TRIAZENETHIOCARBOXAMIDE )
44 CHLORFENVINPHOS
45 CRIMIDINE
46 CHLOROMETHYL METHYL ETHER

Quantity
1kg
1kg
1kg
1kg
1kg
10kg
1kg
1kg
1kg
500kg
100kg
10kg
1kg
1kg
750kg
25t
50t
200t
20t
200t
500t
500t
50t
50t
50t
50t
200t
200t
200t
200t
100kg
50t
50t
100kg
200t
150kg
50t
100kg
1kg
100kg
50t
50t
100kg

CAS No.
92-67-1
92-87-5

100kg
100kg
1kg

470-90-6
535-89-7
107-30-2

62-75-9
91-59-8
7440-41-7
542-88-1
1120-71-4
1746-01-6
1303-28-2
1327-53-3
7784-42-1
79-44-7
15159-40-7
75-44-5
7782-50-5
7783-06-4
107-13-1
74-90-8
75-15-0
7726-95-6
7664-41-7
74-86-2
1333-74-0
75-21-8
75-56-9
75-56-9
107-02-8
107-18-6
107-11-9
7803-52-3
151-56-4
50-00-0
7803-51-2
74-83-9
624-83-9
11104-93-1
10102-18-8
505-60-2
4104-14-7
78-00-2
75-74-1
5836-73-7

Page 145 of 236

47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


DIMETHYL PHOSPHORAMIDOCYANIDIC ACID
1t
63917-41-9
CARBONPHENOTHION
100kg
786-19-6
DIALIFOS
100kg
10311-84-9
CYANTHOATE
100kg
3734-95-0
AMITON
1kg
78-53-5
OXYDISULFOTON
100kg
2497-07-6
OO-DIETHYL S-ETHYLSULPHINYLMETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
100kg
2588-05-8
OO-DIETHYL S-ETHYLSULPHONYLMETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE 100kg
2588-06-9
DISULFOTON
100kg
298-04-4
DEMETON
100kg
8065-48-3
PHORATE
100kg
298-02-2
OO-DIETHYL S-ETHYLTHIOMETHYL PHOSPHOROTHIOATE
100kg
2600-69-3
OO-DIETHYL S-ISOPROPYLTHIOMETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE 100kg
78-52-4
PYRAZOXON
100kg
108-34-9
PENSULFOTHION
100kg
115-90-2
PARAOXON (DIETHYL 4-NITROPHENYLPHOSPHATE)
100kg
311-45-5
PARATHION
100kg
56-38-2
AZINPHOS-ETHYL
100kg
2642-71-9
OO-DIETHYL S-PROPYLTHIOMETHYL PHOSPHORODITHIOATE
100kg
3309-68-0
THIONAZIN
100kg
297-97-2
CARBOFURAN
100kg
1563-66-2
PHOSPHAMIDON
100kg
13171-21-6
TIRPATE(2,4-DIMETHYL-1,3-DITHIOLANE- 2-CARBOXALDEHYDEO- 100kg
26419-73-8
METHYLCARBAMOYLOXIME)
MEVINPHOS
100kg
7786-34-7
PARATHION-METHYL
100kg
298-00-0
AZINPHOS-METHYL
100kg
86-50-0
CYCLOHEXIMIDE
100kg
66-81-9
DIPHACINONE
100kg
82-66-6
TETRAMETHYLENEDISULPHOTETRAMINE
1kg
80-12-6
EPN
100kg
2104-64-5
4-FLUOROBUTYRIC ACID
1kg
462-23-7
4-FLUOROBUTYRIC ACID, SALTS
1kg
4-FLUOROBUTYRIC ACID, ESTERS
1kg
4-FLUOROBUTYRIC ACID, AMIDES
1kg
4-FLUOROCROTONIC ACID
1kg
37759-72-1
4-FLUOROCROTONIC ACID, SALTS
1kg
4-FLUOROCROTONIC ACID, ESTERS
1kg
4-FLUOROCROTONIC ACID, AMIDES
1kg
FLUOROACETIC ACID
1kg
144-49-0
FLUOROACETIC ACID, SALTS
1kg
FLUOROACETIC ACID, ESTERS
1kg
FLUOROACETIC ACID, AMIDES
1kg
FLUENETIL
100kg
4301-50-2
4-FLUORO-2-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID
1kg
4-FLUORO-2-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID, SALTS
1kg
4-FLUORO-2-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID, ESTERS
1kg
4-FLUORO-2-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID, AMIDES
1kg
HYDROGEN FLUORIDE
50t
7664-39-3
HYDROXYACETONITRILE (GLYCOLONITRILE)
100kg
107-16-4
1,2,3,7,8,9-HEXACHLORODIBENZO-P-DIOXIN
100kg
19408-74-3
ISODRIN
100kg
465-73-6

Page 146 of 236

98
99
100
101
102
103
104
105
106
107
108
109
110
111
112
113
114
115
116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146

HEXAMETHYLPHOSPHOROAMIDE
JUGLONE (5-HYDROXYNAPHTHALENE-1,4-DIONE)
WARFARIN
4,4'-METHYLENEBIS(2-CHLOROANILINE)
ETHION
ALDICARB
NICKEL TETRACARBONYL
ISOBENZAN
PENTABORANE
1-PROPEN-2-CHLORO-1,3-DIOL-DIACETATE
PROPYLENEIMINE
OXYGEN DIFLUORIDE
SULPHUR DICHLORIDE
SELENIUM HEXAFLUORIDE
HYDROGEN SELENIDE
TEPP
SULFOTEPP
DIMEFOX
1-TRI(CYCLOHEXYL)STANNYL-1H-1,2,4-TRIAZOLE
TRIETHYLENEMELAMINE
COBALT METAL, OXIDES, CARBONATES, SULPHIDES, as powders
NICKEL METAL, OXIDES, CARBONATES, SULPHIDES, as powders
ANABASINE
TELLURIUM HEXAFLUORIDE
TRICHLOROMETHANESULPHENYL CHLORIDE
1,2-DIBROMOETHANE (ETHYLENE DIBROMIDE)
FLAMMABLE SUBSTANCES as defined in 82/501/EEC Annex IV(c)(i)
FLAMMABLE SUBSTANCES as defined in 82/501/EEC Annex IV(c)(ii)
DIAZODINITROPHENOL
DIETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE
DINITROPHENOL, SALTS
1-GUANYL-4-NITROSAMINOGUANYL-1-TETRAZENE
BIS(2,4,6-TRINITROPHENYL)AMINE
HYDRAZINE NITRATE
NITROGLYCERIN
PENTAERYTHRITOL TETRANITRATE
CYCLOTRIMETHYLENE TRINITRAMINE
TRINITROANILINE
2,4,6-TRINITROANISOLE
TRINITROBENZENE
TRINITROBENZOIC ACID

CHLOROTRINITROBENZENE
N-METHYL-N,2,4,6-TETRANITROANILINE
2,4,6-TRINITROPHENOL (PICRIC ACID)
TRINITROCRESOL
2,4,6-TRINITROPHENETOLE
2,4,6-TRINITRORESORCINOL (STYPHNIC ACID)
2,4,6-TRINITROTOLUENE
(a) AMMONIUM NITRATES1
(b) AMMONIUM NITRATES IN THE FORM OF FERTILISERS2
147 NITROCELLULOSE (containing > 12,6% of NITROGEN)

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


1kg
680-31-9
100kg
481-39-0
100kg
81-81-2
10kg
101-14-4
100kg
563-12-2
100kg
116-06-3
10kg
13463-39-3
100kg
297-78-9
100kg
19624-22-7
10kg
10118-77-6
50t
75-55-8
10kg
7783-41-7
1t
10545-99-0
10kg
7783-79-1
10kg
7783-07-5
100kg
107-49-3
100kg
3689-24-5
100kg
115-26-4
100kg
41083-11-8
10kg
51-18-3
1t
7440-48-4
1t
7440-02-0
100kg
494-52-0
100kg
7783-80-4
100kg
594-42-3
50t
106-93-4
200t
50 000t
10t
87-31-0
10t
693-21-0
50t
10t
109-27-3
50t
131-73-7
50t
13464-97-6
10t
55-63-0
50t
78-11-5
50t
121-82-4
50t
29652-12-1
50t
606-35-9
50t
99-35-4
50t
35860-50-5;
129-66-8
50t
28260-61-9
50t
479-45-8
50t
88-89-1
50t
28905-71-7
50t
4732-14-3
50t
82-71-3
50t
118-96-7
2 500t
6484-52-2
10 000t
100t
9004-70-0

Page 147 of 236

148
149
150
151
152

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


SULPHUR DIOXIDE
250t
7446-09-5
HYDROGEN CHLORIDE (LIQUIFIED GAS)
250t
7647-01-0
FLAMMABLE SUBSTANCES as defined in 82/501/EEC Annex IV(c)(iii) 200t
SODIUM CHLORATE
250t
7775-09-9
50t
107-71-7
tert-BUTYL PEROXYACETATE (concentration 70%)

153 tert-BUTYL PEROXYISOBUTYRATE (concentration 80%)


154 tert-BUTYL PEROXYMALEATE (concentration 80%)

50t

109-13-7

50t

1931-62-0

50t

2372-21-6

50t

2144-45-8

50t

2167-23-9

50t

3006-86-8

159 DI-sec-BUTYL PEROXYDICARBONATE (concentration 80%)


160 2,2-DIHYDROPEROXYPROPANE (concentration 30%)

50t

19910-65-7

50t

2614-76-8

161 DI-N-PROPYL PEROXYDICARBONATE (concentration 80%)


162 3,3,6,6,9,9-HEXAMETHYL- 1,2,4,5-TETROXACYCLONONANE
(concentration 75%)
163 METHYL ETHYL KETONE PEROXIDE (concentration 60%)

50t

16066-38-9

50t

22397-33-7

50t

1338-23-4

164 METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE PEROXIDE (concentration


165 PERACETIC ACID (concentration 60%)

50t

37206-20-5

50t

79-21-0

166 LEAD AZIDE


167 LEAD 2,4,6-TRINITRORESORCINOXIDE LEAD STYPHNATE)
168 MERCURY FULMINATE

50t
50t
10t

169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176

50t
50t
50t
10t
50t
50t
50t
50t

13424-46-9
63918-97-8
20820-45-5;
628-86-4
2691-41-0
20062-22-0
3058-38-6
628-96-6
625-58-1
831-52-7
18810-58-7
3437-84-1

50t

14666-78-5

50t

927-07-2

155 trt-BUTYL PEROXY ISOPROPYL CARBONATE (concentration


156 IBENZYL PEROXYDICARBONATE (concentration 90%)
157 2,2-BIS(tert-BUTYLPEROXY)BUTANE (concentration 70%)
158 1,1-BIS(tert-BUTYLPEROXY)CYCLOHEXANE (concentration

CYCLOTETRAMETHYLENETETRANITRAMINE
2,2',4,4',6,6'-HEXANITROSTILBENE
1,3,5-TRIAMINO-2,4,6-TRINITROBENZENE
ETHYLENE GLYCOL DINITRATE
ETHYL NITRATE
SODIUM PICRAMATE
BARIUM AZIDE

DI-ISOBUTYL PEROXIDE (concentration 50%)


177 DIETHYL PEROXYDICARBONATE (concentration 30%)
178 tert-BUTYL PEROXYPIVALATE (concentration 77%)

80%)

80%)

60%)

179 LIQUID OXYGEN


2 000t
7782-44-7
180 SULFUR TRIOXIDE
100t
7446-11-9
1
This applies to ammonium nitrate and mixtures of ammonium nitrate where the nitrogen content derived
from ammonium nitrate is >28% by weight, and to aqueous solutions with concentration more than 90% of
ammonium nitrate
2

This applies to ammonium nitrate fertilizers (defined in Directive 80/876/EEC) and to compound fertilizers
where the nitrogen content derived from ammonium nitrate is >28% by weight. The compound fertilizer may
contain also other fertilizing agents, such as phosphate and potash.

Page 148 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 8.
A. General Classification and Labelling Requirements for Dangerous Substances and Preparations
The assessment of the effects on health is tested using animals. The test substance or preparation can be
applied to the animal orally, under the skin or by inhalation. LD50 and LC50 are the parameters to explain the
results of different tests so that they are comparable. LD50 is an abbreviation used for the dose which kills
50% of the test population. LC50 is an abbreviation used for the exposure concentration of a toxicant lethal to
half of the test animals.
Classification to hazard categories can be done by determining the acute toxicity in animals, expressed in
LD50 or in LC50 values and using the following limit figures

Category LD50 absorbed orally LD50 dermal absorption


in rat mg/kg
in rat or rabbit mg/kg
bodyweight
bodyweight
Very toxic

25

LC50 absorbed by
inhalation in rat,
mg/litre par 4 hours

50

0.25

Toxic

25 -200

50 - 400

0.25 to 1

Harmful

200 - 2000

400 - 2000

1 to 5

LD50 and LC50 can be found for many substances and preparations in the literature.
The substances and preparations have also other effects, like flammability. These should be included in the
assessment of hazards for final classification.
B. Concentration Limits to be used in applying the Conventional Method of Assessing Health Hazards
Tables 1 - 6. Non-gaseous substances and preparations
Tables 7 - 12. Gaseous substances and preparations
Table 1. Acute lethal effects
Classification of the substance

Classification of the preparation


T+

T+ with R26, R27, R28

concentration

T with R23, R24, R25

7%

1%

Xn

conc. < 7%

concentration

0.1%

25%

Xn with R20, R21, R22

1%

conc. < 1%
conc. < 25%

concentration

25%

Table 2. Non-lethal irreversible effects after a single exposure


Classification of
the substance

Classification of the preparation


T+

T+ with R39

concentration

T
10%

1%

concentration < 10%

Xn
0.1%

concentration < 1%

Page 149 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


R39 obligatory

R39 obligatory

T with R39

R40 obligatory

concentration 10%
R39 obligatory

1%

Xn with R40

concentration < 10%


R40 obligatory

concentration 10%
R40 obligatory

The R-phrases R20 to R28 are also to be assigned to indicate route of administration or means of
exposure.
Table 3. Severe effects after repeated or prolonged exposure
Classification of the substance

Classification of the preparation


T

T with R48

Xn

concentration 10%
R48 obligatory

1%

Xn with R48

concentration < 10%


R48 obligatory

concentration 10%
R48 obligatory

The R-phrases R20 to R28 are also to be assigned to indicate route of administration or means of
exposure.
Table 4. Corrosive or irritant effects
Classification of the
substance and/or
relevant R-phrase

Classification of the preparation and R-phrase

at least C with
R35
C with R35

concentration
10%

C with R34

at least C with
R34

at least Xi with
R41

5%

at least Xi with R36, R37


R38

conc. <
10%
R34 obligatory

1% conc. < 5%
R36/ R38 obligatory

concentration
10%
R34 obligatory

5% conc. < 10%


R36, R38 obligatory

Xi with R41

concentration
10%
R41 obligatory

Xi with R36, R37, R38

5% conc. <10%
R36 obligatory
concentration 20%
R36, R37, R38 obligatory,
if they apply

Table 5. Sensitizing effects


Classification of the substance

Classification of the preparation


at least Xn and R42

Xn and R42

concentration 1%
R42 obligatory

Xi and R43
Xn and R42/43

at least Xi and R43

concentration 1%
R43 obligatory
concentration

1%

Page 150 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


R42/43 obligatory
Table 6. Carcinogenic/mutagenic/teratogenic effects
cancer causing - carcinogenic
hazards in reproduction - mutagenic
non-heritable birth defects - teratogenic
Classification of the substance

Classification of the preparation


at least T

at least Xn

T with R45 or R49 for carsinogenic substances of category 1 or 2 concentration 0.1%


R45, R49 obligatory
Xn with R40 for carcinogenic substances of category 3
T with R46 for mutagenic substances of category 1

concentration 1%
R40 obligatory
concentration 0.1%
R46 obligatory

Xn with R46 for mutagenic substances of category 2

concentration
0.1%
R46 obligatory

Xn with R40 for mutagenic substances of category 3

concentration 1%
R40 obligatory

T with R61 for substances causing birth defects of category 1 or concentration 0.5%
2
R61 obligatory
Xn with R63 for substances causing birth defects of category 3
T with R60 for substances impairing fertility of category 1 or 2

concentration 5%
R63 obligatory
concentration 0.5%
R60 obligatory

Xn with R62 for substances possibly impairing fertility of category


3
Category 1
Category 2
Category 3

concentration 5%
R62 obligatory

Substances proved to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic or to impair fertility in humans


and animals.
Substances which are probably carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic or propably impair fertility
based in animal tests or by some other important information.
Substances which have tested to be possibly carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic or to impair
fertility in animal tests or based on some other important information, and substances which
are suspected to have the hazard but more research is needed.

Table 7. Gaseous preparations; acute lethal effects


Classification of the
substance (gas)

Classification of the gaseous preparation


T+ with R26

T+ with R26, R27, R28


T with R23, R24, R25
Xn with R20, R21, R22

concentration
1%

T with R23
0.2%

Xn with R20

concentration 0.02%
< 1%

concentration

5%

0.5%

concentration <
0.2%
concentration <
5%

concentration

5%

Page 151 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Table 8. Gaseous preparations; non-lethal irreversible effects after a single exposure
Classification of the
substance (gas)

Classification of the gaseous preparation


T+

T+ with R39

concentration 1%
R39 obligatory

0.2%

T with R39

Xn

concentration < 1%
R39 obligatory

0.02% conc. < 0.2%


R40 obligatory

concentration 5%
R39 obligatory

0.5% conc. < 5%


R40 obligatory

Xn with R40

concentration 5%
R40 obligatory

The R-phrases R20, R23 or R26 are also to be assigned to indicate route of administration or means of
exposure.
Table 9. Gaseous preparations; severe effects after repeated or prolonged exposure
Classification of the substance (gas)

Classification of the gaseous preparation


T

T with R48

Xn

concentration 5%
R48 obligatory

Xn with R48

0.5%

concentration < 5%
R48 obligatory

concentration 5%
R48 obligatory

The R-phrases R20 or R23 are also to be assigned to indicate route of administration or means
of exposure.
Table 10. Gaseous preparations; corrosive or irritant effects
Classification of the
substance (gas)

Classification of the gaseous preparation and R-phrase


at least C with
R35

C with R35

C with R34

conc. 1%
R35 obligatory

at least C with R34

at least Xi with R41

concentration
&lt; 1%
R34 obligatory

at least Xi with R36, R37


R38

0.2%

0.02% conc. &lt; 0.2%


R37 obligatory

concentration 5%
R34 obligatory

0.5%

concentration &lt;
5%
R37 obligatory

0.5%

concentration &lt;
5%
R36 obligatory

Xi with R41

conc. 5%
R41 obligatory

Xi with R36, R37,


R38

concentration 5%
R36, R37, R38 obligatory, if
they apply to the
substances

Table 11. Gaseous preparations; sensitizing effects


Classification of the substance (gas)

Classification of the gaseous preparation


at least Xn and R42

Page 152 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Xn and R42

concentration 0.2%
R42 obligatory

Xn and R42/43

concentration 0.2%
R42/43 obligatory

Table 12. Gaseous preparations; carcinogenic/mutagenic/teratogenic effects


carcinogenic - cancer causing
mutagenic - hazards in reproduction
teratogenic - non-heritable birth defects
Classification of the substance (gas)

Classification of the gaseous preparation


at least T

T with R45 or R49 for carsinogenic substances of


category 1 or 2

concentration 0.1%
R45, R49 obligatory

Xn with R40 for carcinogenic substances of category 3


T with R46 for mutagenic substances of category 1

at least Xn

concentration 1%
R40 obligatory
concentration 0.1%
R46 obligatory

Xn with R46 for mutagenic substances of category 2

concentration 0.1%
R46 obligatory

Xn with R40 for mutagenic substances of category 3

concentration 1%
R40 obligatory

T with R61 for substances causing birth defects of


category 1 or 2

concentration 0.2%
R61 obligatory

Xn with R63 for substances causing birth defects of


category 3
T with R60 for substances impairing fertility of category
1 or 2
Xn with R62 for substances possibly impairing fertility
of category 3

concentration 1%
R63 obligatory
concentration 0.2%
R60 obligatory
concentration 1%
R62 obligatory

Page 153 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 9.
United Nations Classification Recommendation on Transport of Dangerous Goods
List of Classes
1. EXPLOSIVES
1.1.
Substances
and
articles
which
have
a
mass
explosion
hazard
1.2. Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
1.3. Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor
projection
hazard
but
not
a
mass
explosion
hazard
1.4.
Substances
and
articles
which
present
no
significant
hazard
1.5.
Very
insensitive
substances
which
have
a
mass
explosion
hazard
1.6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
2. GASES
2.1.
Flammable
gases
2.2
Non-flammable,
non-toxic
gases
2.3. Toxic gases
3. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
4. FLAMMABLE SOLIDS
4.1.
Flammable
solids
4.2.
Substances
liable
to
spontaneous
combustion
4.3. Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases
5. OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES; ORGANIC PEROXIDES
5.1.
Oxidizing
substances
5.2. Organic peroxides
6. POISONOUS (=TOXIC) SUBSTANCES
6.1.
Toxic
substances
6.2. Infectious substances
7. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
8. CORROSIVE SUBSTANCES
9. MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES

4. CHEMICAL SAFETY CARDS


Each person involved in handling dangerous substances or preparations should be provided with written
instructions on the properties of the chemicals, including illustrations and pictograms. These safety
instructions and information should be collected and stored in a place easily accessible at the workplace.
Every chemical container and package in the workplace, no matter how small or big, should have an
appropriate, clearly understandable label.
Due to the lack of space, the information on the label on each container or package is often incomplete. It is,
therefore, necessary to have access to more detailed information or instructions for the safe use of chemicals.
A chemical safety data sheet provides the following basic information about the chemical:
1. Identification :
o Name of the substance or preparation
o Name, address and telephone number of the company/supplier/undertaking
2. Composition and information on ingredients
3. Hazards identification

Page 154 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.

First-aid measures
Fire-fighting measures
Spillage, accidental release measures
Handling and storage
Exposure controls and personal protection
Physical and chemical properties
Stability and reactivity
Toxicological information
Ecological information
Disposal considerations
Transport information
National regulations and references
Other information

Chemical safety data sheets should be available within the enterprise for every chemical substance that has
been classified as hazardous. They should also be available for preparations (products) containing any of the
hazardous substances as components.
Chemical safety data sheets are published under several names, such as:

international chemical safety card, ICSC


chemical safety card
chemical info-sheet
material safety data sheet, MSDS
product safety data sheet
health and safety data
safety data sheet.

There are two different types of chemical safety data sheets:


chemical safety data sheets prepared by working groups of experts containing information based on
laboratory tests and checked knowledge.
chemical safety data sheets prepared by the manufacturer or retailer.
Validated data sheets on pure substances are available, e.g., from the International Programme on Chemical
Safety (IPCS) or from national institutions such as the Canadian Centre for Occupational Safety and Health.
These can be used by manufacturers as basic information sources when they create chemical safety data
sheets for their own products. They can also be used on the shopfloor by workers handling the dangerous
substances, for example solvents in paint factories, in metal workshops to deal with degreasing baths and in
laundries for washing solvents, detergents, etc.
In several countries the manufacturer or importer has an obligation to provide chemical safety data sheets on
dangerous, classified substances and preparations for industrial users: this includes all products containing
components dangerous to human health, the environment or property.

How to compile a chemical safety data sheet


The sheet should provide information in a clear and concise manner, preferably in the form of standard
phrases. Additional information may be necessary in some cases in view of the wide range of properties of
the substances and preparations. If information on certain properties of the substance or preparation is of no
significance or is technically impossible to provide, the reasons for this should be clearly stated.
When a safety data sheet is revised, the changes should be brought to the attention of the recipient of the
substance or preparation. For example, when a dangerous solvent in paint is changed to a less hazardous
one without changing other qualities or the name of the paint, a new safety data sheet should be prepared to
go with the revised formula of the paint to the user.

Page 155 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


The following notes are intended as a guide to the compilation of a chemical safety data sheet when choosing
the information to be included.

1. Identification of the substance/preparation and the company/undertaker


The names and terms used for identification must be the same as those used on the actual label. There
should be a specific identifier, such as a series of numbers and/or letters, for preparations which have the
same name, in order to distinguish, for example, paints of different colours.
The name, address and telephone number of the manufacturer, importer or distributor are important for
further information inquiries and are in many countries required by law.

2. Composition/information on ingredients
The information on the ingredients enables the user to identify readily the relevant risks. For preparations it is
not necessary to reveal the full composition. However, substances which are known to present a health
hazard and substances for which an exposure limit value has been given should be included in the safety
data sheet with an indication of the concentration range (for example, the substances listed in `Identification,
Classification and Labelling of Dangerous Chemicals', Annex 4)
To identify the possible hazards of a substance, its chemical name should be compared with preferred names
of dangerous substances from existing lists or data bases.
To identify the ingredient substances of a preparation other information besides the name of the substance
may be included, for example, the Chemical Abstract Service number (CAS No) and/or the number given in
the Register of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) number and/or the number given in the
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical Substances (EINECS).
Even if certain substances are to be kept confidential, their chemical nature and the potential hazards
associated with that substance should be described. They should also have an unambiguous generic name.

3. Hazard identification
Under this heading should be given brief and clear descriptions of the most important hazards the substance
or the preparation creates for man, the environment or property.
Also the most important adverse human health effects and symptoms should be listed here. Furthermore,
these should all be related to the use and possible misuse that can reasonably be foreseen.
This information should be compatible with that shown on the product label but need not repeat it.

4. First aid measures


Describe the first aid measures, i.e. the actions to be taken immediately in case of overexposure to the
chemical.
If immediate medical attention is required, it should be specified here.
Subdivide the information according to the different routes of exposure under different subheadings:
o
o
o

exposure by inhalation
exposure by skin and eye contact
ingestion

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For some substances or preparations, special means should be available at the workplace to provide specific
and immediate treatment. This should be mentioned under this heading. For example, workplaces handling
hydrogen sulphide should have protective equipment in case of an emergency. Equipment for first aid
treatment should be available and there should be training in its use.

5. Firefighting
The information provided here can be used to plan appropriate fire and emergency procedures.
Indicate suitable extinguishing media, as well as incompatible extinguishing media that must not be used. For
example in fires of organic solvents, such as toluene, foam, carbon dioxide or dry chemical, but not water,
should be used.
Mention special exposure hazards caused by the substance or preparation, such as combustion products or
released gases. The need for firefighters' special protective equipment should be specified, if necessary.

6. Spillage, accidental release


Describe here the relevant personal precautions based on the properties of the substance or the preparation.
Precautions include the removal of ignition sources, control of dust, and prevention of skin or eye contact.
Environmental precautions, such as keeping run-off away from drains, and the possible need to alert the
neighbourhood, should be included. Methods for clean-up, such as spraying of gases/fumes with water,
dilution or use of absorbent material (sand, acid binder, sawdust...), should be placed here.
Consider the need for indications such as `never use', `neutralize with ...'.

7. Handling and storage


(See also section on Transport and Storage)
Consider precautions to ensure safe handling and to advise the reader on technical measures, such as local
and general ventilation, measures to prevent aerosol and dust formation, procedures or equipment which are
prohibited or recommended, and, if possible, give a brief description of such procedures and/or equipment as
electrical grounding of containers for flammable liquids.
Consider also the conditions for safe storage, such as incompatible materials, storage temperature and
humidity limit/range, light, inert gas and others. Pay attention to special electrical equipment and prevention of
static electricity, and specific design for storage rooms or vessels.
Give advice if needed on quantity limits for storage (compare with the list of chemicals with the potential to
cause major hazards and the threshold quantities suggested there). In particular, indicate any special
requirements such as the type of material to be used for the packing/container.

8. Exposure controls/personal protection


Exposure control means here the full range of precautionary measures to be taken during the use of
dangerous, classified substances and preparations needed in order to minimize worker exposure.
Engineering measures should always precede personal protection. Information about system design, such as
the need to enclose the process, which completes that already given under item 7, should be included here.
Information on recommended monitoring procedures (with the reference indicated) should also be provided
here.

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Where personal protection is needed, specify the type of equipment that provides adequate and suitable
protection:

for respiratory protection specify adequate masks and the filter type
for eye protection specify the type of protective equipment, such as safety glasses, safety goggles,
face shield
for hand protection specify the type and material of gloves to be worn when handling the substance or
preparation. An example of the importance of choosing the right material is that polyvinyl alcohol
(PVA) provides good protection against toluene diisocyanate but offers poor resistance to
trichloroethylene.
for skin protection specify the type and quality of equipment required, such as an apron, boots or full
protective suit. Indicate also the specific hygiene measures, such as eating or smoking prohibition
during handling, or washing methods.

9. Physical and chemical properties


The following information is important regarding the description of the properties of the substance or
preparation. Add this whenever applicable.
Appearance:
-indicate physical state (solid, liquid, gas), and colour.
Odour:
-if odour is perceptible, give a brief description
pH:
-to provide an indication of acidic or alkaline (basic) properties, give the pH of the
substance or preparation as supplied or that of an aqueous solution (in the latter case
indicate the concentration).
pH is expressed on a scale from 0 to 14, which can be divided into the following
ranges:

pH 0-2 Strongly acidic


pH 3-5 Weakly acidic
pH 6-8 Neutral
pH 9-10 Weakly basic
pH 12-14 Strongly basic

Substances or preparations with pH values 0-2 or 11.5-14 may be classified as


corrosive.
Boiling point/boiling -specify here the temperature at which the material changes from liquid to gas. If it
range:
decomposes without boiling, the temperature at which it decomposes may be given with
the abbreviation `dec.'.
Melting point/melting -indicate the temperature at which the solid material changes to a liquid
range:
Flash point:
-the lowest temperature at which a liquid or solid produces enough vapour to form a
flammable air-vapour mixture near its surface so that it can be ignited by a spark or
flame at atmospheric pressure.
Flammability:
-describes the ability of the material to ignite and burn readily. A liquid or solid with a
flash point above 21C but less than 55C is flammable.
Highly flammable relates to substances or preparations with a flash point above 0C
but below 21C, as well as to solids spontaneously flammable in air or which may
readily ignite after brief contact with source of ignition and which continue to burn after
removal of the source of ignition.

Autoflammability:

Extremely flammable relates to liquids which have a flash point below 0C and a
boiling point below 35C, and to flammable gases when liquified.
-some materials have the feature of igniting in air in the absence of a spark or flame.

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The auto-ignition temperature can be found in the literature.
Explosive properties: -specify, if appropriate, the concentrations for the lower and upper explosion limits. This
is usually in volume percentage of air, for example, for xylene 1.1-7.0%, and for
benzene 1.2-8.0%.
Oxidizing properties: -substances and preparations which can generate and maintain heat producing
chemical reaction with other materials, especially burning flammable material.
Vapour pressure:
-describes the tendency of a material to form a vapour. It is used e.g. for estimating the
inhalation or fire hazards. Vapour pressure is expressed usually at the temperature of
20C.
Relative density:
-the density of the substance or preparation compared to the density of water (= 1). This
figure indicates whether the substance floats in water or sinks (when the relative density
is more than 1).
Solubility:
-indicate here the solubility in water. If the solubility is not accurately known describe
with words such as: poor, moderate, miscible,...
Partition coefficient: - the ratio of the solubility of a substance or preparation in n-octanol to that in water.
Other data:
provide here data relevant for safety aspects, such as vapour density, evaporation rate,
conductivity, viscosity, etc.

10. Stability and reactivity


State the stability of the substance or preparation and the possibility of hazardous reactions occurring under
certain conditions. List the conditions which should be avoided, such as high or low temperatures, pressure,
light and shock effects, which may cause a dangerous reaction and if possible include a brief description of
these.
List also the materials which may cause a dangerous reaction if they come into contact with the substance or
preparation concerned, such as water, air, acids, bases, oxidizing agents, etc.
List materials which may be produced in dangerous quantities upon decomposition.
Indicate specifically the need for the presence of stabilizers or the possibility of a hazardous heat-producing
reaction. Specify also the safety significance, if relevant, of a change in the physical appearance, e.g., colour.
Also state the hazardous decomposition products, if any, formed upon contact with water, and the possibility
of degradation to unstable products.

11. Toxicological information


This section deals with the need for concise but complete and comprehensible description of the various
health effects which may arise.
Use data on health effects based on both experiences and conclusions from scientific studies and on
validated existing data sheets.
Include information on the possible routes of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, skin and eye contact), and
describe the symptoms related to the physical, chemical and toxicological properties.
Include known immediate and delayed effects and also chronic effects from both short- and long-term
exposure. These include allergy or cancer, potential mutagenic and reproductive health hazards, and narcotic
effects.
Refer, if relevant, to the information under heading `2. Composition/information on ingredients' and to specific
health effects of certain components in the preparation.

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12. Ecological information


This section contains an assessment of the possible effects, behaviour and environmental fate of the
substance or preparation.
Describe the most important features that may have an impact on the environment:

mobility
persistence and degradability
bioaccumulative potential
aquatic toxicity and other data, such as behaviour of the substance or preparation in sewage works.

Pay special attention to the properties of substances classified as being dangerous to the environment and
which are present in the preparation, such as aerosols that contain halogenated hydrocarbons hazardous to
the ozone layer.

13. Disposal considerations


Provide descriptions of safe methods of disposal of surplus or waste resulting from foreseeable use. The
dangers involved in their disposal should also be considered.
Indicate appropriate methods of disposal, e.g., incineration, recycling, landfill, both for the substance or
preparation and for any contaminated packing.
Refer to the provisions related to waste. It is useful to remind the user that national or regional provisions may
be in force.

14. Transport information


Indicate any special precautions with which the user might need to comply if the substance or preparation is
transported within or outside his premises.
Refer to additional information provided by the United Nations Recommendations on Transport of Dangerous
Goods and other international agreements on the transport and packing requirements of dangerous goods.
Mention the UN transport hazard class and packing group when appropriate.

15. Regulatory information


Local recommendations and national laws can be referred to under this section.

16. Other information


Indicate any other information which may be of importance for safety and health such as training advice,
recommended uses and restrictions and sources of key data used to compile the data sheet in question.
Give the date when the data sheet was issued, if this is not stated elsewhere.

QUESTIONS WHEN READING A CHEMICAL SAFETY CARD

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IDENTIFICATION

Do you have the right card for the chemical with which you are working or will be working?
Do you have an up-to-date card?

POTENTIAL HAZARDS

Can this chemical explode?


Is this chemical unstable? If so, under which conditions?
Can this material react with other chemicals? If so, which ones? Is there a possibility of mixing during
storage?
Can this chemical harm your health? Do you know the symptoms which may warn you of
overexposure?

PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Does your worksite need engineering controls?


Does this material require special handling precautions?
Do you need protective equipment?
Do you need to be careful when mixing this chemical with any other chemicals?
Does this material require special storage conditions?

EMERGENCY MEASURES

Do you know what to do in case of a fire or explosion?


Do you know the fire extinguishing method for this chemical?
Do you know the first aid measures needed in case of an overexposure?
Do you know what to do in case of a spill or leak?
Do you know where the emergency response equipment is and how to use it?

BIBLIOGRAPHY
CALLAGHAN J.M., DUMSCHAT C.J. and WHITING R.F., The Material Safety Data Sheet, A Basic Guide for
Users, Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, Hamilton 1987
CIS, Finnish National Board of Labour Protection, Machine Translated Finnish Chemical Safety Information
Sheets
91/155/EEC Commission Directive of 5 March 1991 defining and laying down the detailed arrangements for
the system of specific information relating to dangerous preparations in implementation of Article 10 of
Directive 88/379/EEC
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Code of Practice on Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work, Geneva
1992
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Convention No. 170 Concerning Safety in the Use of Chemicals at
Work, Geneva 1990
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Recommendation No. 177 Concerning Safety in the Use of Chemicals
at Work, Geneva 1990
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Vol I - III, Geneva
1983

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IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety and CEC, Commission of the European Communities,
International Chemical Safety Cards, 1988-1993
LEPPNEN M., RASA P.-L., Basic Safety Training Package on OSH, CIS 1992
National Board of Labour Protection, Finland, Dangerous Chemicals Classification, Warning Labelling,
Material Safety Data Sheets, 1991

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SECTION 5. TRANSPORT AND STORAGE


1. What happens during the transport of chemicals
Large amounts of chemicals and other products which can cause hazards to human health and harm to the
environment are used at places of work.
Industrial production takes place, and raw materials are located, all over the world. Transport is necessaary
for products to reach consumers. The transport and storage of dangerous chemicals and goods has
increased with technical development and production development.
An accident occuring during the transport of dangerous goods can lead to catastrophic consequences: laws
and recommendations have been established to protect the society and the environment. But they can not be
effective if you, whether you are an employer, worker, transporter or inspecting authority, do not share the
responsibility and follow existing recommendations and guidelines of transport and storage, in order to avoid
unnecessary risks.
The hazardous properties of products or chemicals should be clearly stated so that people of all stages of
the transport chain are aware of them. This information should always follow the goods so that people can
recognize the risks, avoid accidental mishandling and have the right kind of the personal protection at their
disposal in case of leakage.
Dangerous goods can be transported without causing unnecessary hazards if handled properly and with care.

1.1 What are dangerous goods?


Dangerous goods can be explosive, flammable, toxic, radioactive, corrosive or harmful in some other way to
humans, animals or the environment. The environment includes other goods in transport, the transport
vehicle, buildings, soil, roads, air, waterways and nature in general.
The empty containers and packages of dangerous goods can present the same hazards as the chemical
substance or product they contained and should also be regarded as dangerous goods.

50 per cent of transported goods are dangerous


United Nations statistics show that half of all goods transported belong to the category of dangerous goods.
Petroleum products transported by tankers form a large proportion of all transported goods, but road and
railway transport is also significant.
For example, 85% of chlorine, which is one of the very dangerous chemicals, is transported by rail.
Large amounts of other highly dangerous goods, such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid, sulphuric dioxide,
nitric acid, phenol and methanol are transported regularly.

Small drains make a river


Major accidents cause extensive damage but that is not all. We forget easily that small amounts of oil,
gasoline, battery acids and refrigerator fluids are released to environment daily. Even small but frequent
wastes from ships, households, cars or agriculture increase the load to the environment. For example one

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litre of oil can, under unfavorable circumstances, spoil 100 000 litres of drinking water. A spill of hydraulic fluid
from a truck can lead to environmental damages.
Recommendations and instructions for the handling, storage and transport of dangerous goods must be clear
and unambiguous to avoid harmful or dangerous circumstances.
Transport of dangerous goods does not pose under normal conditions a greater danger than any other
transported goods if the responsible persons in the transport chain respect the existing recommendations and
laws and are beware of the type of the hazards of the cargo.
Picture 19
Picture 20

1.2 Dangerous situations


There is always a risk of spillage during the transport of hazardous goods. When incompatible substances
mix with each other there is a possibility of a chemical reaction, which can produce enough heat to cause fire
or explosion and can release dangerous gases. For example, toxic nitrous oxides are formed when
ammonium nitrate (in fertilizers) decomposes in a fire. Another example is the toxic gases which fume off
when a spillage of concentrated sulphuric acid is absorbed in sawdust.
Spillages are possible in the following situations:

goods are not properly packaged


handling (loading, unloading, etc.) is done without reference to the contents, (perhaps because of
missing or incomplete labelling)
fire; either when the load or the vehicle is burning
collision or capsize
defected tightness or incomplete closing of valves and connections

A risk of an accident is present when


vehicles carrying dangerous goods are left to stand unattended
the vehicle or container runs loose because it is not properly connected or secured
the load starts to move during transport
spillage are not quickly washed away from the vehicles or containers
spillage are not properly cleaned
Special conditions can increase the risks
A chemical substance or preparation may be hazardous in itself when it comes into contact with other
chemicals including air, water or humidity. For example, when calcium carbide (used in the production of
acetylene and pyrotechnics) comes to contact with water, it releases the extremely flammable gas acetylene
(used in welding flame) and creates an explosion hazard.
Careful handling is also important because the magnitude of the involved risk is not always obvious. One kilo
of a certain chemical poses a hazard, but it is not necessarily true that ten kilos creates a ten fold hazard. The
danger could be the same as for one kilo or it could be higher.
The pressure within sealed packages rises in the heat (sunshine), and can lead to uncontrollable reactions.
Changes in temperatures may affect both the qualities of a cargo and its packing material.
The recommendations on package sizes as well as the load size should be respected.

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Common hazards in handling of chemicals are

risk of explosion
fire and smoke
chemical health hazards: immediate or delayed poisoning, burns, allergies
damage to the environment

Many companies allow uncontrolled access by diesel engines believing that they cannot ignite gas or vapour.
This is incorrect:
Four tons of hot, flammable hydrocarbon leaked out of the a plant while maintenance work was in process. A
diesel engine was on in the area. The flammable vapour was sucked into the air inlet and the engine started
to race. The driver tried to stop the engine by stopping the the fuel supply (usual way of stopping a diesel
engine) but without success as burning material was coming in through the the air inlet. Finally there was a
flash-back and the flammable liquid was ignited to a fire.
Another frequent incident is this type:
a tank trailer tipped up because of the rear compartments were emptied first. If it is not possible to keep trailer
connected to the truck,s driving unit the front comparments should be filled last and emptied first as the
normal support cannot alone prevent the trailer from tipping.
Picture 21
Picture 22
Picture 23
Picture 24
Picture 25

2. Classes of dangerous goods


The United Nations has published a book collecting the work of the Committee of Experts: Recommendations
on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. These recommendations aim to present a basic, practical scheme of
provisions that will allow national and international regulations governing various modes of transport to
develop within it in a certain uniformity. The aim is to enable effective and successive transport and to ensure
the safety of people, property, and the environment.
In these recommendations the goods are given an identification number and are divided into the following
classes describing the inherent hazards:
1. EXPLOSIVES
1. Substances and articles which have a mass explosion hazard
2. Substances and articles which have a projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
3. Substances and articles which have a fire hazard and either a minor blast hazard or a minor
projection hazard but not a mass explosion hazard
4. Substances and articles which present no significant hazard
5. Very insensitive substances which have a mass explosion hazard
6. Extremely insensitive articles which do not have a mass explosion hazard
2. GASES
1. Flammable gases
2. Non-flammable, non-toxic gases
3. Toxic gases
3. FLAMMABLE LIQUIDS
4. FLAMMABLE SOLIDS
1. Flammable solids
2. Substances liable to spontaneous combustion
3. Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases

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5. OXIDIZING SUBSTANCES; ORGANIC PEROXIDES
1. Oxidizing substances
2. Organic peroxides
6. POISONOUS (=TOXIC) SUBSTANCES
1. Toxic substances
2. Infectious substances
7. RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL
8. CORROSIVE SUBSTANCES
9. MISCELLANEOUS DANGEROUS SUBSTANCES
The properties of the chemical substance or product have an effect on the choice of the packing material.
Recommendations on the material, as well as the sizes, of packages are based on testing and experience.
Dangerous goods of classes 3, 4, 5.1, 6.1, 8, and 9 have been divided for packing purposes into three groups
according to the degree of danger they present:
great danger - Packing Group I
medium danger - Packing Group II
minor danger - Packing Group III
The packing group related to a special substance, together with advice on packing methods, is listed in `UN
Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods' and in many national provisions.
To deal with goods having multiple risks a `subsidiary risk' classification is used together with the principal
hazard classification.
Substances and articles belonging to classes 1, 2, 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 5.2, 6.2 and 7 often have more than one
hazardous property and are subject to further restrictions.
These goods may be

explosive
liable to spontaneous ignition or combustion
liberate flammable gases on contact with water
contain infectious microorganisms that are known or reasonably believed to cause disease in animals
or humans
radioactive
compressed, condensed or pressurized dissolved gases, or organic peroxides

Examples of hazard classes:


Substance or article
UN Number Name and description

Class

3017

6.1

1396
1005
1789
1011

Organophosphorus pesticides, liquid, flammable, flash-point


not less than 23C (Demeton, Fenthion, Parathion)
Aluminium powder, uncoated
Ammonia, solution with water, with more than 50% ammonia
Hydrochloric acid, solution
Butane

4.3
2.3
8
2.1

Hazards
Subsidiary
risk
3

2.1 Class 1. Explosives


This class contains articles, preparations, and substances such as ammunition, TNT, dynamite, nitrourea,
fireworks.

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Risks involved
A transport accident involves acute risk of explosion. The pressure wave can be devastating, and flying
splinters may cause great damage.
The heat of the blast can result in a fire.
Some substances in this class have toxic properties, e.g. nitroglycerin (in dynamite) is also classified as toxic
and can penetrate through the skin.
Transport of Class 1 articles or substances are subject to many restrictions, including quantity and
temperature limits. They may also be incompatible with other goods. For example, dynamite should not go
with detonators.
Picture 26
Picture 27

2.2 Class 2. Gases


This class contains
compressed gases
liquefied gases
refrigerated liquefied gases
compressed gases, which, when packed for transport, are dissolved into a solvent.
The term "compressed" refers to gases under pressure but not in a liquid state. Gases are usually stored in
cylinders. When the valve is opened or broken, gas alone is released. The pressure of the cylinder depends
on the type of gas it contains. The cylinders should always be kept within the approved temperature range to
avoid a risk of overpressure causing an explosion hazard. Nitrogen (Class 2.2), hydrogen (2.1), oxygen (2.2
and 5.1) and helium (2.2) are compressed gases.
Condensed gases are in a liquid state at relative low pressure. The contents are released as liquids which
quickly evaporate forming gas clouds.
The size of the cloud can be considerable; for example, 1 litre of liquified petroleum gas (LPG) forms up to
250 litres of gas. LPG, (propane, butane or a mixture of them, `cooking gas')(Class 2.1); propene (2.1); vinyl
chloride (2.1); freons; carbon dioxide (2.2); chlorine (2.3 and 5.1); ammonia (2.3 and 8) are commonly used
gases in industry and are transported as condensed gases.
Some condensed gases are stored at very low temperatures. They are transported in well- isolated containers
called dewars. These must have a loosely covered opening to avoid dangerous overpressure. They pose
special hazards due to their low temperature. For example, splashes of liquified nitrogen can cause frostbite
and the gas cloud is an asphyxiant.
In a train accident several tank wagons filled with liquified propane turned over spilling their contents. The
propane started to evaporate cooling the surroundings to -43oC, which is the boiling temperature of propane.
Several persons in the spill area were frozen to death. With good luck and tight security the highly flammable
propane gas did not explode.
An example of a dissolved gas is acetylene (Class 2.1). Acetylene cylinders are filled with inert very porous,
non-combustible material which is wetted with acetylene.
Aerosols and small receptacles which contain flammable propellant gases belong to this class.

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Risks involved
Substances in Class 2 are assigned to one of three categories based on the primary hazard of the gas.

2.2.1 Class 2.1. Flammable gases


This category includes those gases that at normal pressure and temperature, as a mixture of 13% or less with
air, can ignite from a source of fire such as a spark.

2.2.2 Class 2.2. Non-flammable, non-toxic gases


Included in this category are gases which might replace oxygen and are asphyxiant (nitrogen, carbon
dioxide), or which are oxidizing and may contribute to the combustion of other materials more than air does
(pure oxygen is an example).

2.2.3 Class 2.3. Toxic gases


Gases which are known to be poisonous or corrosive enough to pose a health hazard belong to this category
(carbon monoxide, ethylene oxide, hydrogen sulphide, sulphur dioxide and ammonia). Containers with toxic
gases should never be loaded or stored together with food or feedstuffs.
Acidic gases can react with alkaline gases to produce heat and smoke, which may create a fire risk.
Some gases have more than one dangerous property. They can be both flammable and toxic (methyl ether)
or corrosive and toxic (hydrogen chloride, phosgene, chlorine).

2.3 Class 3. Flammable liquids


A flammable liquid has the ability to give of, at normal temperatures, vapours which are flammable (e.g.,
benzene, kerosene, toluene, propanol and various organic solvents used in pesticides). This class also
covers mixtures of liquids, as well as liquids containing solids in solution or suspension (paints, varnishes,
lacquers, etc.). Petroleum products and crude oil also belong to Class 3.
Risks involved
Flammable liquids pose a risk of fire and explosion, and may lead to expensive environmental clean- up
operations (accidents at sea to oil tankers).
The flammability of a liquid depends on several characteristic properties.
Flash-point describes the lowest temperature at which a liquid gives off sufficient amount of flammable gas to
form a mixture with air which will ignite when a flame or spark is present. If the flash-point is tested to be not
more than 60.5C, the substance belongs to Class 3.
Many flammable liquids can be charged with static electricity, for example, as result of flowing in a pipe. This
makes them both combustible and able to create a spark. Containers should have an earth connection in
situations such as refilling the cisterns at petrol stations.
Some flammable liquids have more than one dangerous property. Carbon disulphide is both flammable and
toxic, and formaldehyde solutions can be both flammable and corrosive.

2.4 Class 4.1. Flammable solids

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This class consists of solids which are readily combustible, those which may cause or contribute to fire
through friction, and self-reactive substances. Sulphur, red phosphorus and nitrocellulose films are common
hazardous substances in this class. Examples of self-reactive compounds are azocarbamides, benzene
sulphohydrazine and diazonium salts. Sawdust, hay and paper are not spontaneously flammable but are in
this class because of incompatibility requirements in loading procedures.
Picture 28
Picture 29
Picture 30

Risks involved
When flammable solids are handled there is a possibility of large amounts of dust being released in the air.
These mixtures of dust and air can lead to a dust explosion.
Many flammable solids give off hazardous fumes when they are burned. For example, the fumes of burning
sulphur or red phosphorous are toxic and corrosive.
The decomposition of self-reactive substances can be initiated by heat, contact with catalytic impurities
(acids, bases, heavy metal compounds), friction or impact. Decomposition may result in the emission of toxic
gases and vapours. In order to ensure safety during transport, a self-reactive substance may be desensitized
using a diluting agent compatible with the substance.

2.5 Class 4.2. Substances liable to spontaneous combustion


Linseed oil (used in paints), copra, oily cotton waste, carbon and white phosphorus are examples of
substances which can ignite spontaneously when in contact with air.
Risks involved
These substances are liable to act as a source of ignition for other goods and storage structures.
For example, there is a danger of fire if linseed oil spillages are wiped away with rags which then are left to
dry in the air. The rags can stay inactive for days before they actually ignite.

2.6 Class 4.3. Substances which in contact with water emit flammable gases
Carbides are among the substances in Class 4.3. An extremely flammable gas, acetylene, is produced by
adding water to calcium carbide. When sodium comes into contact with water it gives off hydrogen gas. The
reaction is violent and produces enough heat to ignite hydrogen. Hydrogen burns explosively with such a hot
flame that metallic material can start to burn.
Aluminium and magnesium powders, zinc dust and some metal hydrides are in this class.
Risks involved
In addition to the dangers of fire and explosion, goods belonging to this class can react with moisture on
human skin and cause burns.

2.7 Class 5.1. Oxidizing substances


In this class are substances such as chlorates, chlorites, nitrates, nitrites, chromic acid and concentrated
hydrogen peroxide solution.

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Risks involved
These goods should be carefully handled and protected from heat or friction. An oxidizing substance has
oxygen bound into its structure. This is liberated by heating and can react with other materials or enhance fire.
Many substances in this class are sensitive to impurities. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide solution begins to
decompose if a few rust flakes happen to fall into the container. The reaction starts slowly but accelerates with
time. It gives off oxygen which corrodes metallic materials. This can be devastating in transport by rail.
The decomposition of oxidizing goods can also involve liberation of toxic or corrosive gases, such as nitrogen
oxides, which can be recognized from their deep brown to yellow brown colour.

2.7.1 Class 5.2. Organic peroxides


This class covers peroxides of organic compounds. They should never be transported or stored with
combustible goods. Special recommendations and provisions apply to some of the peroxides because of their
high reactivity. In addition to the hazards of explosive decomposition and fire, they are sensitive to impact or
friction. Many peroxides are toxic and some of them can provoke allergic response or damage the eyes.

2.8 Class 6.1. Toxic substances


Substances in this class are liable either to cause death or serious injury, or to be harmful when swallowed or
inhaled or by skin contact. Toxic substances can be gases, solids or liquids. Toxic gases are listed into the
Class 2.3.
Examples of substances in this class are cyanides, arsenic compounds, mercury and lead compounds,
nicotine, toluidines, chloroform, aniline and organotin compounds.
In order to compare the various risks involved, LD50 (lethal dose to 50%) and LC50 (lethal concentration to
50%) are used to appraise toxic properties. LD50 means the dose, at which half of the animals exposed (in
test laboratory) to the poison die, and LC50 means the concentration which kills 50% of the tested animals
after being exposed to the substance, usually by inhalation.
There are agreed limits for the levels of toxicity measured in animal tests, with reference to the route of
exposure.
The packing group depends on the amount of the chemical and on the different degrees of health hazard that
the chemical poses.
Detailed advice about materials and ways of packing can be found in the United Nations Recommendations
on the Transport of Dangerous Goods and in national regulations.

2.9 Class 8. Corrosive substances


The corrosive substances class is a large one. It can be subdivided into acids, bases and other materials.
Examples of acids include hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and acetic anhydride. Sodium hydroxide,
potassium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium metasilicate are bases or alkalis. Other corrosive
substances include antimony pentachloride (textile impregnation), titanium tetrachloride, aluminium chloride
and hypochlorites.
The health hazard varies from corrosive to irritating depending on the type and concentration of the active
substance.

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The corrosiveness of the substace is determined by its pH which measures the level of acidity or alkalinity.
The following scale shows how the substance can be classified as corrosive or irritant:
pH
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

very alkaline (caustic soda)

neutral (water)

very acidic (nitric acid)

The pH value can often be found on the label or in the documents following the substance.
Some countries require that solutions must be classified, because of the corrosive effects, when the pH value
is less than 1.5 or greater than 11.5.
The pH of some common substances in dilute water solutions is given below:
Concentration
1%
1%
1%
1%

Substance
Hydrochloric acid
Acetic acid
Sodium hydroxide(caustic
soda)
Ammonia

Smell
sharp
typical

pH
~0.6
~2.8

Effect on skin
Slight feeling
None

none

~13.4

Strong

sharp

~11.4

Irritating

Acids and alkalis are normally transported at very high concentrations, e.g. 90-95% sulphuric acid, 65% nitric
acid, 30% hydrochloric acid, 50% sodium hydroxide and 50% phosphoric acid. At these concentrations the pH
value is not important, the substances are simply very corrosive.
Risks involved
These substances can attack and corrode many materials, for example, clothe, paper and several metals.
Decomposition often produces heat and gases, and in some cases extremely flammable hydrogen gas. The
choose of a packing material and loading should carefully planned, because it can be some time before the
consequences of corrosive effects are visible.
Accidental mixing of different corrosive materials can in some cases lead to violent reactions, which may give
off large amounts of gases.
In the case of strong alkalis ther is a latent period before a burning feeling on the skin is experienced. By then
the damage is already done. Skin contact with strong acids produces an immediate feeling. Both types of
corrosive substances can cause serious skin damages.
Corrosive material in the eyes requires a very rapid and long rinse with water (for at least 15 minutes) and
medical attention.

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Corrosive substances can also present other hazards. For example, benzyl chloride is both toxic and
corrosive, and cyclohexylamine is both corrosive and flammable.

2.10 Class 9. Miscellaneous dangerous substances


These are substances and articles which during transport present a danger not covered by other classes.
For example magnetic materials can be classified in this category (magnetism may affect the navigation
systems of aeroplanes).
PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) are placed in Class 9 because they may damage the environment.
Dry ice (solid carbon dioxide) can evaporate, producing asphyxiant fumes, and displace oxygen in the air in
confined places such as cargo holds in ships and storage cellars.
Asbestos can damage the lungs. The effect on health is not immediate; the damage appears after many
years. Therefore asbestos is not placed in Class 6.1 but in Class 9.
Concentrated formaldehyde solutions are flammable, but if they are diluted with water the flash- point
becomes higher than 60.5C, which is the limit of flammables. The remaining hazards are still present, such
as the allergic reactions caused by formaldehyde.

3. Transport and storage of dangerous goods


Whenever dangerous goods are to be for transported certain measures should be taken to ensure that the
potential risks are adequately communicated to all who may come into contact with the goods in the course of
the transport. This can be accomplished through marking and labelling of packages to indicate the hazards of
the consignment, through including relevant information in the transport documents, and by placing placards
on the transport units: containers and vehicles.

3.1. Labels, marking, documents


Each package should be marked with the appropriate shipping name, hazard class and UN number, followed
by packing group reference (when available), e.g.:
ALLYL ALCOHOL 6.1 UN 1098 I
Labelling is based on the classification of dangerous goods into the 9 classes described above.
Detailed instructions on how dangerous goods should be classified and packed are given in international
agreements and national provisions.
Labels should be placed on containers and vehicles so that they are clearly visible.
During the transport of dangerous general goods, the appropriate warning labels should be on every single
package.
Only one danger class label should normally be fixed on a package. However, if the substance or article
presents more than one significant risk, such as fire and poisoning, the package should bear labels indicating
important subsidiary risks.
For example:

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

Primary

Subsidiary

Primary

Methanol

Subsidiary
Dibenzoyl peroxide

Special labels indicating the transport conditions are:

Keep dry

This way up

Fragile

The documentation for the transport of dangerous goods should contain:


a) Transport document containing

The appropriate shipping name


The Class and, when assigned, the category in this class of the goods
The UN number and, where assigned, packing group for the substance
The total quantity of dangerous goods covered by document (by volume, mass, or net explosive
content, as appropriate)
The name and address of the consignor and the consignee

In addition:
Other elements of information deemed necessary by national authorities, such as flash point.
If dangerous waste is transported for disposal, the proper shipping name should be preceded by the
word "WASTE"
b) Declaration or certificate that the consignment offered can be accepted for transport, and that the goods
are properly packed, marked and labelled.
Picture 31
Picture 32
Picture 33
Picture 34
Picture 35

3.2. Vehicle requirements


Transport by road may take place as bulk materials, or in containers and tanks.
The detailed technical requirements for different transport methods are usually given in national regulations.
The transporter should check that the following documents are attached:

Transport document (letter of consignment)

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Declaration that the packing and labelling is properly done.
Transport emergency card (instructions in writing in case of accident or emergency that may occur
during transport)
Driver's training certificate
Certificate of approval given by technical inspection for the tank and vehicle
Labels and placards for the vehicle
Packing certificate of the container

Every transport unit carrying dangerous goods should be equipped with:


fire-fighting appliances (chosen according to the type of load)
tool kit for emergency repairs to the vehicle
at least one scotch (mechanical brake) of a size suitable for the weight of the vehicle and the size of
the tyre
two amber lights independent of the electrical system of the vehicle
placards, according to the transported goods
protective equipment (for personal protection, absorbing material for spills, etc.)

3.3. Incompatible dangerous goods


Detailed instructions pertaining to classified dangerous goods may also restrict the transport of specific goods
together in the same vehicle, or the minimum distances between two such packages may be given.
Those loading the goods have to rely on the information found on packages and transport documents.
Opening of the transport containers or the packages during the transport or intermediate storage is not
permitted.
Once the labelling is properly completed, loading personnel can use the attached key symbols to judge how
to construct the load according to regulations and in a safe way.

3.4. Limited quantities


Dangerous goods require special treatment, equipment, extra vehicle crews and supervision when stored,
handled, parked, and at places of loading and unloading.
Detailed instructions in international and national provisions specify quantity limits for certain dangerous
substances. These maximum package quantities can be transported in one transport unit, and not all of the
above-mentioned special precautions need to be applied.
Such limits are given in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. They are adapted
and more detailed in the European Agreement Concerning the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR).

4. Organizing safety
Safety measures should be considered from the request for transport up to the delivery at the end- point,
including the cleaning of the vehicle afterwards.
All levels of personnel involved should be well informed and these people should share the responsibility.
Safety measures should include organizational, personnel and engineering aspects, and co-operation
between operational staff during the transport should be emphasized.

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Collaboration between the employer and employees is essential. Collaboration with authorities, such as
responsible community and health care institutions and Labour Inspectorate is equally important in order to
exchange information and plan for emergencies.
Picture 36
Picture 37
Picture 38
Picture 39
Picture 40

4.1. Organizing safety communication


Proper communication within the transport chain is the basis for all other safety measures.
Safety activities are targeted to:

point out practical problems concerning either the workplace as a whole or individual tasks;
create a forum to discuss these problems and to try to find solutions that improve the health of
workers and reduce loss of materials;
find out the risks of the work and the effects of these risks and to suggest a solution to minimize
them.
establish a priority list of improvements, with respect to time and resources;
ensure that the suggested practical solutions are properly implemented and the results are improving
the situation;
promote good housekeeping in the working environment.

This should involve all parties in the workplace. The task could be given to a committee including
representatives of different parts of the transport company.
The committee could consider emergency planning and safety education. Ideas from both workers and the
employer should be encouraged and discussed.

4.2. Organizing safety measures


Transport order, booking
When accepting a transport order, one should already at that point find out whether the batch contains
dangerous goods.
If the batch does or is suspected to contain dangerous goods, the consignor should be reminded of the need
to label the goods according to regulations and to prepare documents which include instructions in the local
language in case of emergency or spillage.
Some companies have developed checklists of different aspects of information, which the consignor can use
to describe the load in order to facilitate the communication between different stages of the transport chain.
If the cargo is transported in a tank-container or as bulk transport, a special check should be made that the
vehicle is properly equipped, that proper placards are chosen, that the vehicle and its pipes and connections
are empty and clean, and that the protective equipment is intended for those hazards the transported goods
can cause (such as provision of the right type of filter for the driver's gas mask).
Loading

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Before leaving the loading place all documents should be checked. Always remove old documents from the
vehicle to avoid any misunderstanding in case of an emergency. See that the documents are completed. If
passing through customs, check that the emergency instructions are written in the appropriate languages.
The packages and containers should not be broken, and the actual amount should be the same as stated in
the documents. Dangerous goods should always be well attached to avoid load movements during transport
and they should be loaded away from food and animal feedstuffs. Attach the placard to the vehicle.
Remember grounding to avoid static electricity, and personal protective equipment when loading dangerous
goods in/from tank-containers.
A sketch of the load showing where the dangerous goods are situated could save time in unloading.
Unloading and re-transport
A check should be made that the documents are always attached to the goods. To avoid unnecessary risks an
intermediate storage should be planned, according to the class to which the goods belong, to avoid contacts
between incompatible chemicals. A checklist for re-transport helps the workers in the storage area and
enhances safety.
Some dangerous goods must be under surveillance at all times, such as explosives, organic peroxides and
toluene sulphonic acid. Some other dangerous goods need limited surveillance while parked in a restricted
area or isolated place if the amount exceeds specified quantities.
Delivery
You should check that loaded dangerous goods have not moved and that the packages/containers are not
leaking. If there is a spillage follow cleaning instructions described in the attached documents.
Dangerous goods can be delivered only to the authorized persons and should not be left without surveillance.
Check that the name(s) of the goods and the amounts correspond to those in documents. In the case of
liquids being transported in a tank-container, check that connections and pipes are not leaking. Supervise the
unloading to avoid an overflow.
Do not forget to give the documents to the receiver of the cargo and remember to remove the placards when
they are no longer needed.

4.3. Responsibilities
It is the responsibility of the consignor to see that
goods are classified according to national and international regulations
the limitations on the transport of certain goods are respected
the goods are properly packed and marked
the appropriate documents are attached to the goods
The responsibilities of the transporter are
to equip the vehicle to meet national and international regulations
to see that the workers and drivers are trained to transport dangerous goods
to plan the transport, e.g., to select routes avoiding dense residential areas, and to arrange
supervision during parking.
The driver of a vehicle is responsible for
having necessary documents for the load at hand
accepting only undamaged, marked or labelled packages and containers

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


checking that he is well informed about the transport details
following the instructionsgiven, such as the use of personal protective equipment, and not
undertaking certain tasks alone.

Specimen labels
Annex 1. Common rules that apply to all types of transport of dangerous goods
Annex 2. Quantity limits
Annex 3. Goods requiring supervision
Annex 4. Labels and document for transport of dangerous goods
Annex 5. Hazard identification numbers on placards

Picture 41
Picture 42
Picture 43
Picture 44
Picture 45

BIBLIOGRAPHY
The training module is based on the Swedish education material:
ARBETARSKYDDSNMNDEN, Transport av farligt gods, Sjuhradsbygdens Tryckeri AB, Boras 1985, ISBN
91-574-1346-0
ARBETARSKYDDSNMNDEN, Handbok fr vgtransport av farligt gods, Stockholm 1993
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Vol I - III, Geneva
1983
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety and CEC, Commission of the European Communities,
International Chemical Safety Cards
Kletz, T.A., What Went Wrong? Case Histories of Process Plant Disasters, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston
1988
UNITED NATIONS, Transport of Dangerous Goods, 8th Ed., New York 1993
UNITED NATIONS, European Agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road
(ADR) and protocol of signature, New York 1992

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 1.
COMMON RULES THAT APPLY TO TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS GOODS
Read the transport document(s) before loading in order to master the loading and to know what to do in case
of an accident or spill
Do not leave the vehicle containing dangerous goods unattended
Loading and unloading of some dangerous goods in public places requires the presence of or notice to
authorities (police, customs)
Do not take passenger(s)
No smoking during loading operations, or close to a vehicle that is waiting to be unloaded, or inside the
vehicle
Never use open flames of any kind in the area where there are dangerous or unknown goods Do not keep
engines running when they are not needed for loading (pumping, lifting...)
See that the goods, the names and the amount are the same in reality as in the enclosed documents
See that dangerous goods do not come into contact with food and feedstuff
See that the labels are placed on the dangerous goods and on the vehicle
Separate dangerous goods from other goods that are transported and place them properly (make a sketch
where they are located in the vehicle)
See that the load can not move during the transport (well fixed, no oil on floor that would make it slippery) See
that there is available the necessary equipment to conduct (un)loading and transport safely (e.g. grounding
cables, personal protection equipment)
Do not accept for transport damaged dangerous goods or leaking packages or containers
Drivers have no right to open packages or containers with dangerous goods

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 2
If following QUANTITY LIMITS for dangerous goods that are packed and distributed for sale through retail
agencies for consumption for personal care or household use are not exceeded, in this case no transport
documents, proper shipping names or UN numbers are required to be attached during the transport.
List of values for quantity limits for personal care and household use: (from UN Recommendation on the
transport of dangerous goods)

Class

Packing group

State

Maximum quantity per inner


packaging
2
Gas
120 ml* (in metal or plastic
2
Gas
packaging)
3
II
Liquid
120 ml (in glass packaging)
3
III
Liquid
1 litre (metal), 500 ml (glass or
4.1
II
Solid
plastic)
4.1
III
Solid
5 litres
4.3
II
Liquid or solid
500 g
4.3
III
Liquid or solid
3 kg
5.1
II
Liquid or solid
500 g
5.1
III
Liquid or solid
1 kg
5.2*
II
Solid
500 g
5.2*
II
Liquid
1 kg
5.2*
II
Solid
100 g
5.2*
II
Liquid
25 ml
6.1
II
Solid
500 g
6.1
II
Liquid
125 ml
6.1
III
Solid
500 g
6.1
III
Liquid
100 ml
8
II
Solid
3 kg
8
II
Liquid
1 litre
8
III
Solid
1 kg
8
III
Liquid
500 ml*
9.#
II
Solid
2 kg
9.#
II
Liquid
1 litre
9.#
III
Solid
3 kg
9.#
III
Liquid
1 litre
5 kg
5 litres
* special provisions according to the type of substance, the package material and size.
# excluding aerosols (UN No. 1950), asbestos (UN No. 2212, 2590), polychlorinated biphenyls (UN No.
2315), polyhalogenated biphenyls and polyhalogenated terphenyls (UN No. 3151, 3152).

Example: Quantity limitations for class 9


UN Number
1941
2071

Proper shipping name


Dibromodifluoromethane
Ammonium nitrate fertilizers

Maximum quantity per inner packaging


5 litre
5 kg

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 3.
GOODS REQUIRING SUPERVISION
Compiled from the European Agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road
(ADR).
The lists of goods and substances in different classes presented below are not comprehensive.
Transport units carrying dangerous goods in quantities above the values indicated should be supervised or,
alternatively, may be parked unsupervised in an isolated location in the open at a secure depot or factory
premises.
Class
1. Explosives:
2. Gases:
Toxic or
corrosive:

Goods

Weight
Nature of
requiring surveillance
surveillance
over 50 kg all the time
1000 kg
limited
1000 kg
limited

All explosive loads


Boron trifluoride and fluorine
Ammonia, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, hydrogen bromide,
hydrogen chloride, methyl bromide, nitrogen oxides, phosgene,
sulphur dioxide, tungsten hexafluoride
Toxic and
Arsine, dichlorosilane, dimethylamine, dimethylsilane, ethylamine, 1000 kg
flammable:
hydrogen selenide, hydrogen sulphide, methylamine, methyl
chloride, methyl mercaptan
Chemically
Cyanogen, cyanogen chloride, ethylene oxide, hydrogen iodide
1000 kg
unstable, toxic: (anhydrous), methyl vinyl ether, trifluorochloroethylene (R113), vinyl
bromide
Ethyl chloride
10 000 kg
Chemically
1,2-butadiene, 1,3-butadiene, vinyl chloride
10 000 kg
unstable:
DeeplyArgon, carbon dioxide, helium, nitrous oxide (N2O), oxygen
1000 kg
refrigerated
(cryogenic)
liquified:
DeeplyEthane, ethylene, natural gas
10 000 kg
refrigerated
(cryogenic)
liquified,
flammable:
3. Flammable
liquids:
Flash point
Acetaldehyde, vinylidene chloride, methyl isopropyl ether, methyl 10 000 kg
below 21C,
formate, isopentane, ethyl ether, isoprene, propylene oxide, normal
not toxic:
pentane, petroleum ether, benzene, cyclohexane,
ethylbenzene(techn.), hexanes, octanes, toluene, propylene
dichloride, isopropanol, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, ethyl acetate,
methyl acetate, vinyl acetate, ethyl acrylate, methyl methacrylate,
propyl mercaptan, thiophene, solutions containing nitrocellulose
20%-55%,
solutions of 1%-5% nitroglycerine
5000 kg
Flash point
Acrylonitrile, acetonitrile, ethyleneimine, methyl isocyanate,
5000 kg
below 21C,
allylamine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, pyridine, chloroprene, allyl
toxic:
chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, acrolein, methanol, carbon disulphide,
ethyl mercaptan, some pesticides

limited
limited
limited
limited
limited

Limited

limited

limited
limited

Page 180 of 236

Class
Flash point
below 21C,
corrosive

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Weight
Nature of
requiring surveillance
surveillance
Some chlorosilanes, isopropylamine, n-propylamine, aqueous
10 000 kg
limited
solutions (having a boiling point less than 35C) of dimethylamine
and of ethylamine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, sodium methylate, acetyl
chloride
Goods

4.1 Flammable
solids:
Explosive
substances in
the nonexplosive state
Self-reactive
substances
Self-reactive
substance
Self-reactive
substances
4.2
Substances
liable to
spontaneous
combustion:
4.3
Substances
which in
contact with
water emit
flammable
gases:
5.1 Oxidizing
substances:

Musk xylene (UN No 2959)


only UN No 2951, 2954, 2970, 2971, 2972, 2973, 3033, 3034,
3040, 3041, 3042, 3043
Azonium zinc chlorides (UN No 3035-3039)

1000 kg

limited

100 kg
1000 kg

limited
limited

100 kg

limited

Valeronitriles (UN No 2953 and 2955)

all the time

Pyrophoric organic or inorganic solid n.o.s. (UN No 2846),


10 000 kg
pyrophoric organic or inorganic liquid n.o.s. (UN No 2845), white or
yellow phosphorus, calcium (pyrophoric), dry metal catalyst,
titanium trichloride (pyrophoric), aluminium borohydride,
diethylzinc, magnesium diphenyl, metal alkyls n.o.s., metal alkyl
halides n.o.s., metal alkyl hydrides n.o.s.
Ethyldichlorosilane, trichlorosilane, methyl magnesium bromide in 10 000 kg
ethyl ether, alkalimetal amalgams, potassium sodium alloys,
sodium, zinc powder, calcium hydride, aluminium hydride, lithium
nitride, sodium phosphide, magnesium phosphide, and their empty
packagings

limited

Aqueous solutions with more than 60% hydrogen peroxide


(stabilized), perchloric acid, bromine pentafluoride, bromine
trifluoride, iodine pentafluoride, potassium peroxide, sodium
peroxide, oxidizing solid or liquid, toxic or corrosive n.o.s.

10 000 kg

limited

UN No 3111 and 3112 type B


UN No 3101 and 3102 type B, UN No 3113 and 3114 type C
UN No 3103 and 3104 type C UN No 3115 and 3116 type D
UN No 3105 and 3106 type D, 3117 and 3118 type E

500 kg
1000 kg
2000 kg
5000 kg

all the time


limited
limited
limited

limited

5.2 Organic
peroxides:

6.1 Toxic
substances:
Highly toxic,
flash point
below 21C
Highly toxic,
flash point
21C or more
Highly toxic, in
contact with
water or acids
emit toxic
gases

Hydrocyanic acid (completely absorbed by an inert porous


1000 kg
substance or in the liquid state), solution of hydrocyanic acid which
meet the given criteria, iron pentacarbonyl, nickel tetracarbonyl
Acetone cyanohydrin, allyl alcohol, dimethyl sulphate, chloropicrin, 1000 kg
thiophenol

limited

Solid cyanides or complex cyanides and their solutions, aluminium 1000 kg


phosphide, magnesium phosphide

limited

limited

Page 181 of 236

Class
Highly toxic
Highly toxic,
used as
pesticides,
rodenticides
Toxic, flash
point 21C or
more

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Weight
Nature of
requiring surveillance
surveillance
Liquid arsenical compounds, arsenic trichloride, selenates,
1000 kg
limited
selenites, osmium tetroxide, tetraethyl lead, tetramethyl lead
Demphion, Demeton, Demeton-O, Dimefox, Disulfoton, EPN,
1000 kg
limited
Ethopropos, Fenamiphos, Fensulfothion, Fonofos, Mephosfolan,
Mevinphos, Oxydisulfoton, Paraoxon, Parathion, Phorate,
Pyraoxon, TEPP, Trebufos, Thionazin, Endrin, Isobenzan,
Cycloheximide, Aldicarb, Promurit, Strychnine, Brodifacoum,
Chlorophacinone, ANTU, Norbormide
Aniline, benzonitrile, N,N-dimethylaniline, chloronitrobenzenes,
5000 kg
limited
dinitroanilines, dinitrotoluenes, nitrobenzene, phenylhydrazine,
toluidines, xylidines, aldol, phenol, benzoquinone, cresols, diethyl
sulphate, xylenols, ethyl bromide, chloroform, chloral, carbon
tetrachloride, trichlorobutene, cyclohexyl isocyanate, phenyl
isocyanate, 2,4-toluylene di-isocyanate, 3,4-dichlorophenyl
isocyanate, tosyl isocyanate, thioglycol, triethyl phosphine,
triethylene phophoramide, benzoyl cyanide
Sodium azide, zinc phosphide
5000 kg
limited
Goods

Toxic, in
contact with
water or acids,
emit toxic
gases
Toxic
Dibutyl tin chloride, arsenic trichloride, arsenic pentoxide, various 5000 kg
arsenites, mercuric acetate, mercuric chloride, mercury nitrates,
selenium disulphide, selenium dioxide, vanadates
Toxic, used as Chlorfenvinphos, Chlormephos, Demeton-S-methyl, Dialifos,
5000 kg
pesticides,
Dichlorvos, Dicrotophos, Dioxathion, Endothion, Ethion, Mecarbam,
rodenticides
Methamidophos, Methidathion, Monocrotophos, Oxydemetonmethyl, Parathion-methyl, Phospholan, Phosphamidon, Propaphos,
Schradan, Sulfotep, Triamiphos, Trichloronat, Aldrin, Dieldrin,
Endosulfan, Heptachlor, Isodrin, Pentachlorophenol, Dinoseb,
Dinoterb, DNOC, Aminocarb, Carbofuran, Dimetilan, Formetanate,
Isolan, Mercaptodimethur, Methomyl, Mexacarbate, Oxamyl, PMA,
Chloro-methoxyethyl mercury, Coumaphos, Coumatetralyl,
Paraquat
7. Radioactive
substances:
8. Corrosive
Bromine
1000 kg
substances:
Highly
Chromosulphuric acid, sulphur trioxide, oleum, red fuming nitric
10 000 kg
corrosive
acid, mixtures of sulphuric acid with more than 30% of nitric acid,
aqueous solutions (60-85%) of hydrofluoric acid, selenic acid,
chlorosulphonic acid, chromyl chloride, disulphur dichloride,
sulphuryl chloride, thionyl chloride, sulphur dichloride, boron
bromide, trifluoracetic acid, aqueous solutions (more than 64%) of
hydrazine, allyl chloroformate, benzyl chloroformate
9.
5000 kg
Miscellaneous:
Substances
Crocidolite, amosite
which, on
inhalation as
fine dust, may
endanger
health
Substances
PCB, PTB and their mixtures (over 50 mg/kg)

limited
limited

all the time


limited
limited

limited

Page 182 of 236

Class

Goods

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Weight
Nature of
requiring surveillance
surveillance

and
apparatures
which in event
of fire may
form dioxins

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 4
LABELS AND DOCUMENT FOR TRANSPORT OF DANGEROUS CHEMICALS
recommended by the United Nations

Page 184 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

DANGEROUS GOODS TRANSPORT DOCUMENT

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

ANNEX 5
HAZARD IDENTIFICATION NUMBER PLACARD
The following identification system is in use for placards in Europe (ADR) for road transport. The background
of the placard is orange. The border, horizontal line, and figures are black. Identification numbers are shown
in such a way, that the upper number is indicating the danger and the lower number identifies the substances
with the UN-number given in the UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods.

HAZARD IDENTIFICATION NUMBER


The hazard identification number consists of two or three figures indicating the following hazards:
2 Emission of gas due to pressure or chemical reaction
3 Flammability of liquids (vapours) and gases or self-heating liquid
4 Flammability of solids or self-heating solid
5 Oxidizing (fire-intensifying) effect
6 Toxicity
7 Radioactivity
8 Corrosivity
9 Risk of spontaneous violent reaction
Doubling of a figure indicates an intensification of that particular hazard. Where the hazard associated with a
substance can be adequately indicated by a single figure, this is followed by a zero.
If a hazard identification number is prefixed by letter 'X', this indicates that the substance will react
dangerously with water.
The hazard identification number combinations have following meanings:
20
inert gas
22
refrigerated gas
223 refrigerated flammable gas
225 refrigerated oxidizing (fire-intensifying) gas
23
flammable gas
236 flammable gas, toxic
239 flammable gas, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction
25
oxidizing (fire-intensifying) gas
26
toxic gas
265 toxic gas, oxidizing (fire-intensifying)
266 highly toxic gas
268 toxic gas, corrosive
286 corrosive gas, toxic
30
flammable liquid or self-heating liquid
323 flammable liquid which reacts with water emitting flammable gases
X323 flammable liquid which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases
33
highly flammable liquid (flash point below 21C)

Page 186 of 236

333
X333
336
338
X338
339
36
362
X362
38
382
X382
39
40
423
X423
44
446
46
462
48
482
50
539
55
556
558
559
56
568
58
59
60
63
638
639
66
663
68
69
70
72
723
73
74
75
76
78
80
X80
83

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


pyrophoric liquid
pyrophoric liquid which reacts dangerously with water
highly flammable liquid, toxic
highly flammable liquid, corrosive
highly flammable liquid, corrosive, which reacts dangerously with water
highly flammable liquid, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction
self-heating liquid, toxic
flammable liquid, toxic
flammable liquid, toxic, which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases
self-heating liquid, corrosive
flammable liquid, corrosive, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases
flammable liquid, corrosive, which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases
flammable liquid, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction
flammable self-heating solid
solid, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases
flammable solid, which reacts dangerously with water emitting flammable gases
flammable solid, in molten state, at elevated temperature
flammable solid, toxic, in molten state, at elevated temperature
flammable or self-heating solid, toxic
toxic solid, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases
flammable or self-heating solid, corrosive
corrosive solid, which reacts with water emitting flammable gases
oxidizing (fire-intensifying) substance
flammable organic peroxide
strongly oxidizing substance
strongly oxidizing substance, toxic
strongly oxidizing substance, corrosive
strongly oxidizing substance, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction
oxidizing substance, toxic
oxidizing substance, toxic, corrosive
oxidizing substance, corrosive
oxidizing substance which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction
toxic or harmful substance
toxic or harmful substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C)
toxic or harmful substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C), corrosive
toxic or harmful substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C), which can spontaneously
lead to violent reaction
highly toxic substance
highly toxic substance (flash point not above 55C)
toxic or harmful substance, corrosive
toxic or harmful substance, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction
radioactive material
radioactive gas
radioactive gas, flammable
radioactive liquid, flammable (flash point not above 55C)
radioactive solid, flammable
radioactive material, oxidizing
radioactive material, toxic
radioactive material, corrosive
corrosive or slightly corrosive substance
corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, which reacts dangerously with water
corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C)

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C), , which
reacts dangerously with water
839 corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C), which can
spontaneously lead to violent reaction
X839 corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C), which can
spontaneously lead to violent reaction and which reacts dangerously with water
85
corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, oxidizing (fire-intensifying)
856 corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, oxidizing (fire-intensifying) and toxic
86
corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, toxic
88
highly corrosive substance
X88 highly corrosive substance, which reacts dangerously with water
883 highly corrosive substance, flammable (flash point between 21C and 55C)
885 highly corrosive substance, oxidizing (fire-intensifying)
886 highly corrosive substance, toxic
X886 highly corrosive substance, toxic, which reacts dangerously with water
89
corrosive or slightly corrosive substance, which can spontaneously lead to violent reaction
90
miscellaneous dangerous substance
X83

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

SECTION 6. SOLVENTS
Exposure to solvents and other organic liquids is one of the most common chemical health risk at places of
work. Most of the organic solvents are combustible, often highly volatile and extremely flammable and they
should always be handled with care. Some solvents produce vapours which are heavier than air. These may
move on the floor or ground to a distant ignition source, such as a spark from welding or caused by static
electricity. The vapours may also explode from smoking. Vapours of solvents can also accumulate in confined
places and stay there for a long time, presenting risks for health and property.
Solvents enter the body by inhalation, by swallowing and through the skin. The effect depends on several
factors, such as

how easily the solvent evaporates at the ambient temperature?


what are the characteristics of that solvent; is it water soluble or able to dissolve fats?
what is the concentration of the solvent in the air at the place of work?
what type of work is involved, light or heavy? (Panting increases the amount inhaled.)
how long does the exposure last?

Solvents, their vapours and mists have various effects on human health. Many of them have a narcotic effect,
causing fatigue, dizziness and intoxication. High doses may lead to unconsciousness and death.
Exposure to large doses of solvents may slow down reaction- time and affect rational judgement. This may
increase the risk of accidents both at work and outside, such as in the traffic on the way back home.
Solvents irritate the eyes and the respiratory tract.
Solvents clean and defat not only metal plates in industrial processes but also the skin. This is a very
common cause of skin disorders and dermatitis. Some solvents penetrate the skin and enter the blood
circulation.
Solvents may damage the liver, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, bone marrow and the nervous system.
The solvents which pose the most serious risk to health should be substituted by less hazardous ones. If this
is not possible with regard to the workprocess, at least the conditions during handling should be adjusted so
that there is no risk of skin contact and that the concentration of vapour in the air is kept low. This may be
achieved, for example, by using a closed process. Amongst the most hazardous solvents are benzene,
carbon disulphide and carbon tetrachloride.
Solvents are excreted in urine and sweat or they may be exhaled.
Workplace controls and practices
Good work practices and training can help to reduce hazardous exposures. For most of the hazardous
solvents it is possible to find a substitute with the same characteristics but less drastic effects on health.
Ventilation is important and it should be considered carefully when using solvents.
Equipment (fire extinguishers, absorbant material, etc.) should be considered and provided for situations such
as spillage or emergency.
Personal protective equipment such as aprons, gloves and masks with filters should be available where
needed, and they should be used according to the recommendations. Storage of this equipment should be in
a clean place away from possible contact with solvent vapours.

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Picture 46
Picture 47

BENZENE
Benzene is a colourless, flammable liquid with a pleasant odour. It is used as a solvent in many areas of
industries, such as rubber and shoe manufacturing, and in the production of other important substances such
as styrene, phenol and cyclohexane. It is essential in the manufacture of detergents, pesticides, solvents and
paint removers. It is present in fuels such as in gasoline up to the level of 5%.
The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) in the workplace air over an 8- hour working day (as recommended in many
countries) is 10 ppm (or 32 mg/m3). Some countries recommend even lower levels. The odour threshold is 12
ppm. The odour serves only as a warning of exposure. If you are handling benzene without smelling it, this
does not mean that there is no exposure.
Health effects
Benzene enters the body through inhalation and it may pass through the skin. Exposure to low concentrations
of benzene vapour or to the liquid which has penetrated the skin may cause dizziness, lightheadedness,
headache, loss of appetite and stomach upset. Exposure can also irritate the nose and throat. High
exposures to benzene may cause irregularities in the heart beat which can lead to death.
Repeated exposure can damage the bone marrow, which is the blood-forming organ, causing a condition
called aplastic anaemia. This may also lead to death.
Long-term health effects may follow when exposure to benzene has lasted for a long period of time; several
months or years. Benzene is a cancer-causing substance: a carcinogen. There is sufficient evidence that
benzene causes leukaemia in exposed workers. Many scientists say that there is no safe level of exposure to
a carcinogen.
Benzene may cause birth defects in animals. Until further testing has been done it should be handled very
carefully as a possible agent causing birth defects in humans as well.
In several countries there are severe restrictions for using and selling benzene.
Workplace controls and practices
As a solvent benzene can be substituted with a variety of less hazardous ones. Toluene is a similar solvent
to benzene. It has the general adverse effects of solvents but it has been shown neither to cause cancer nor
to damage the bone marrow. White spirit is often used as a substitute for more dangerous solvents. Less
volatile solvents, such as xylene and mesitylene, have the same type of characteristics as toluene. Gasoline
should never be used as a substitute. It may contain benzene, tetraethyl lead or other hazardous substances.
Engineering control is the most effective way of reducing exposure where substitution is not possible.
Operations with benzene can be enclosed and/or exhaust ventilation can be provided at the site of chemical
release. Isolation of operations can also reduce exposure.
Personal protective equipment, for example, breathing protection, is sometimes necessary although less
effective. However, recommendations are only guidelines and may not apply to every situation.
Benzene is filtered with a mask and filter type A (for organic solvents with boiling point over 65 C). Improper
use of the respirator is dangerous. The best choice would be a helmet with fresh air supply and a face piece
operating with positive pressure, blowing clean air from inside the helmet or hood outward. Not all types of
gloves can resist the strong solvent power of benzene. Viton or PVA gloves are recommended although even
they have limited resistance to benzene.

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


When clothing is contaminated it should be changed promptly to avoid intake through the skin.
Eating, smoking or drinking should not be allowed where benzene (or other hazardous solvents) are handled.
Handling and storage
Benzene vapour is heavier than air and may move along the floor to a distant ignition source. Smoking and
open flames are prohibited where benzene is handled, used or stored. It should be stored in tightly closed
containers in a cool well- ventilated area away from heat.
Metal containers need to be grounded to avoid ignition from sparks caused by static electricity. Attention
should be paid to electrical equipment, this should be explosion-proof. Benzene reacts violently with oxidizing
agents, such as permanganates, nitrates, peroxides, chlorates and perchlorates.
If benzene is accidentally spilled, the following steps should be taken:

Restrict persons from the area of spill unless they wear protective equipment.
Remove all ignition sources.
Ventilate the area of spill or leak.
Absorb the liquid in inert material, such as vermiculite, dry sand, earth and deposit in sealed
containers.
Do not wash benzene into the sewage system. It may cause an explosion. Benzene is a hazardous
waste.

Large spills should be cleaned by experts from the fire department.


Classification and labelling
Benzene is classified as toxic and highly flammable in the EU. Labels on bottles or containers should carry
symbols corresponding to `highly flammable' and `toxic', to indicate the risks. Risk (R) and safety advice (S)
phrases are:
R45
May cause cancer.
R11
Highly flammable.
R48/23/24/25 Toxic: danger of serious damage to health by prolonged exposure through
inhalation, in contact with skin and if swallowed.
S53
Avoid exposure - obtain special instructions before use.
S45
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately
(show the label where possible).
During transport the containers must have UN number 1114 for identification and the symbol of hazard class,
which for benzene is Class 3 (flammable liquids).

ANNEX: CHOOSE GLOVES OF RECOMMENDED MATERIAL

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARBETARSKYDDSNMNDEN, Kemiska hlsorisker, Gummessons Tryckeri, Falkping, Sweden, 1990
The Dutch Institute for the Working Environment and The Dutch Chemical Industry Association, Chemical
Safety Sheets 93/94, Alphen aan den Rijn, 1993
Guidance Note EH 40/90, Health and Safety Executive Occupational Exposure Limits, UK January 1990

Page 191 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


ILO, International Labour Organisation, Code of Practice: Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work, Geneva
1992
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Vol I -III, Geneva
1983
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety and CEC, Commission of the European Communities,
International Chemical Safety Cards, Benzene ICSC 0015
NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH, Hazardous Substance fact Sheet No 0197, Benzene
Proctor N.H., Hughes J.P. and Fischman M.L., Chemical Hazards of the Workplace, R.R, Sec. Ed., Donnelly
& Sons Co.,Inc., 1988
TUC, Trade Union Congress, Hazards at Work, TUC Guide to health and safety, Macdermott and Chant Ltd.,
London, 1988
UNITED NATIONS, Consolidated List of Products Whose Consumption and/or Sale Have Been Banned,
Withdrawn, Severely Restricted, or not Approved by Governments, New York 1991
UNITED NATIONS Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods, 8th Ed., New York 1993

Page 192 of 236

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

SECTION 7. METALS
Approximately 35 metals are of major concern in regard to occupational exposure. Two thirds of them can
cause health hazards if not properly handled and may result in well-defined toxic effects in humans. Some
metals are not poisonous in small amounts and may, on the contrary, be necessary for good health. On the
other hands, some metals, even in small doses, may cause both immediate and chronic poisoning. Damage
may involve disturbances of the blood composition or nervous system, or injury to the liver or kidneys. Longterm exposure to certain metal compounds may cause cancer. Allergic reactions may result from repeated
long term contact with some metals and metal compounds.
Mercury, lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, manganese, arsenic, antimony, zinc, copper, cobalt, vanadium
and beryllium are used in industry and are known to cause adverse health effects both as the metal and as
metallic compounds.
As a rule, acute poisoning results from inhalation of dust, fume or vapour dispersed in the workplace air.
Intake of some metals and their compounds is also possible through the skin.
Mercury is absorbed into the body through the inhalation of fumes. Mercury compounds may also pass
through the skin. Mercury causes damage to the nervous system. In the environment, mercury is converted to
an organic compound, methylmercury, which accumulates, for example, in fish and passes through the food
chain to humans. This compound is known to affect unborn babies. Mercury compounds are present in
chlorine production and mining and are used, for example, in tanner's mordant, pickling baths and pesticides.
Cadmium is a component of some solder metals and baths used for electroplating. It is used in Ni-Cd
batteries. PVC plastics may contain cadmium stearate as a heat stabilizer. Many pigments contain cadmium
compounds, often to make yellow or red colours.
The human body lacks the ability to expel this metal from its system. Practically all the cadmium taken in
during the lifetime is stored in the kidneys, which gradually results inreduced kidney function.
Cadmium and its compounds are environmental and marine pollutants. Many countries have banned or
severely restricted certain uses of cadmium compounds.
Nickel is used in the production of a wide range of alloys, including stainless steel. Nickel is a sensitizing
material; nickel allergy is fairly common where nickel or its compounds are worked with, for example, when
plating with nickel. Some nickel compounds also cause cancer.
Chromium, especially in salt and as chromic acid, is widely used in different types of industry. Chromium is
part of stainless steel and several other alloys, it is used in electroplating various metal parts, from electrical
equipment to car parts. Chromium compounds are used in dyeing of textiles and they can be present in small
amounts in concrete. Chromium compounds may cause cancer and are sensitizing.
Manganese is a component of many alloys, and is also used in making steel. Dust and smoke from mines
and smelting plants contain this metal and its compounds. It is also a component of welding electrodes which
likewise releases dust and fumes. Manganese exposure weakens the defense system of the body against
infections and may seriously damage the nervous system.
Zinc and copper are often components of the fumes causing `metal fever'.

LEAD
Properties

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Lead is a bluish grey, heavy metal. It is very soft and very resistant to corrosion. Lead pipes used as drains
from the baths during the times of ancient Roman emperors are still in service. The melting point for lead is
fairly low for a metal: 3270 C, and it starts to evaporate above 500 C. These temperatures are reached in
welding, grinding or soldering, which are the working methods applied to metals.
Lead is the most widely used metal after iron. About 2.5 million tons of lead are produced yearly in the world.
Most of this lead goes into battery production and most of the remainder is used in cable covering, plumbing,
ammunition and in the manufacture of alkyllead compounds, used as fuel additives.
Lead scrap handling is common and lead is extensively recycled, for example, from batteries. Lead is a
component of galvanizing materials and of many alloys such as solder, brass and bearing metals. The metal
is a good noise and sound absorber, and it is used as radiation shields around X-ray equipment.
Lead compounds have been widely used as pigments in paints, although recently their use has been
drastically curtailed to reduce the health hazards. Most commonly it is found in lead paint for protecting metal
surfaces.
The polyvinyl plastic industry uses lead compounds as stabilizers, and the ceramic industry uses lead oxides
and silicates in porcelain and enamelled tiles. Lead oxide is used to produce crystal glass and lead arsenate
is a pesticide.
Environmental concern over the adverse effects of lead has resulted in programmes to reduce or eliminate
lead from fuel.
Lead compounds are marine pollutants.
Lead compounds may be divided in two chemical categories:

inorganic; such as lead nitrate, lead oxide and lead sulphate


organic; such as lead acetate, tetraethyl lead and trialkyl lead compounds

Care must be exercised when handling lead or its compounds as they are cumulative poisons. This means
that exposure to lead and its compounds causes a 'lead burden'. The normal lead burden is the amount of
lead derived from the environment (air, water, soil) mainly through food. Working conditions may add to the
total lead burden.
The Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for lead compounds, such as lead acetate, lead arsenate, lead carbonate
and lead phosphate, is 0.15 mg/m3. The TLV is 0.05 for lead chromate and tetraethyl lead. For total dust, lead
metal and most of its inorganic compounds, the TLV is 0.1 mg/m 3 in some countries.
In the EU countries lead compounds are classified either as harmful: Xn, or toxic: T.
Health effects of lead
Lead can be absorbed into the body through the respiratory tract or from the stomach. Some lead compounds
penetrate the skin, such as tetraethyl lead, which is used in fuel as an antiknock agent. About one third of
inhaled lead fumes is absorbed. One tenth of ingested lead is absorbed.
Once lead has entered the human body it causes adverse effects. It combines with red blood cells causing
anaemia. Lead also settles in bones taking the place of calcium. It can be found in the liver and kidneys.
Lead affects the nervous system, including the brain.
Lead may pass through the placenta from mother to the unborn baby and it is found in milk if the mother has
been exposed.

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Children are especially sensitive to lead.
Lead is excreted only very slowly. The kidneys are the main route but sweat, nails and hair also play a part in
eliminating lead from the body.
Inhalation of dust, vapour, or smoke containing lead or inorganic lead compounds results to lead poisoning.
Early signs of poisoning are stomachache, loss of appetite, fatigue and sleeplessness. If the exposure
continues, the lead starts to accumulate because of the very slow excretion. Other symptoms may appear:
headaches, memory failures, changes in the blood, muscle and joint pain. The nervous system may be
affected, resulting in the following various problems: shaky hands, muscular weakness and, at the worst,
paralysis, which often begins in the muscles of forearms and hands.
Organic lead compounds have higher acute toxicity than inorganic lead, and they may penetrate the skin as
well as enter the body through inhalation.
Prevention of occupational exposure
Lead is in most cases present in the air of the workplace as dust or fumes. Preventive engineering solutions
are related to the formation, moving and collecting of the dusts and fumes. In some cases substitution is
possible, for example, in the pottery industry certain lead compounds may be replacedwith lead polysilicates.
In many countries lead-containing paints are banned or restricted for certain uses.
Not only does a Code of Practice guide the use of lead and its compounds in industry and society; laws have
been enacted in many countries to protect the worker, since lead poisoning used to be one of the most
common occupational diseases.
These laws may set limits to the exposure and require monitoring of the level of lead concentration in the air
of the workplace and medical surveillance of exposed persons. It may be a requirement to keep records of
results in order to be able to assess preventive methods and exposure to lead. The frequency of monitoring
and medical check-ups vary depending on the exposure. The medical surveillance should continue from
before the lead exposure begins until after the exposure to lead ceases. Duties for preventive action have
been defined for both workers and for employers.
To maintain an adequate hygienic level, the following basic measures should be considered:

no smoking, eating or drinking in polluted areas


there should be a separated area where workers can eat and drink without risking contamination by
lead
in very hot workplaces where workers are encouraged to drink they should be provided with drinking
facilities not contaminated by lead present in the place of work
workers should be provided with appropriate protective clothing which should remain within the facility
working clothing and street clothes need a separate storage
adequate washing facilities should be provided and used.

Worker and/or their representatives should have access to the results of lead-in-air measurements and the
statistical results of medical findings.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
ARBETARSKYDDSNMNDEN, Kemiska hlsorisker, Gummessons Tryckeri, Falkping, Sweden, 1990
BAKAR CHE MAN A. and GOLD D., Safety and Health in the use of Chemicals at Work: A training manual,
ILO, Geneva, 1993

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


ILO, International Labour Organisation, Code of Practice: Safety in the Use of Chemicals at Work, Geneva
1993
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Safety and Health in the use of Agrochemicals: A Guide, Geneva,
1991
TUC, Trade Union Congress, Hazards at Work, TUC Guide to health and safety, Macdermott and Chant Ltd.,
London, 1988
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria Series, No.3 Lead,
Geneva 1977
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, and CEC, Commission of the European Communities,
International Chemical Safety Cards, ICSC#0052
82/605/EEC Council Directive of 28 July 1982 on the protection of workers from the risks related to the
exposure to the metallic lead and its ionic compounds at work

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY

SECTION 8. MAJOR HAZARD CHEMICALS


There have been several instances of major industrial disasters related to the use of chemicals. Although they
are individual accidents, different in the way in which they happened and the chemicals that were involved,
they have one common feature: they were uncontrolled, involving fires, explosions or the release of toxic
substances that either resulted in the death and injury of large numbers of people inside and outside of the
factory or caused extensive damage to the property and the environment.
Accidents involving major hazards could start with

leakage of a flammable substance, mixing of the substance with air, formation of a flammable vapour
cloud and drifting of the cloud to a source of ignition leading to a fire or an explosion.
leakage of toxic substances, formation of a toxic vapour cloud and drifting of the cloud.

These clouds would directly affect the site as well as possibly the surrounding populated areas. In the case of
flammable substances the greatest danger arises from sudden massive escape of volatile liquids or gases. If
the cloud were ignited, the effects of combustion would depend on many factors, such as wind speed and the
extent to which the cloud was diluted. The area affected would generally be limited to a few hundred metres
from the site.
Much larger areas can be dangerously affected in a sudden release or by very large quantities of toxic
materials. In favorable conditions such a cloud can still contain lethal concentrations of toxic chemicals
several kilometers from the accident site. The extent of casualty depends on the number of people in the path
of the cloud and on the efficiency of emergency arrangements, for example, evacuation before the cloud
reaches the populated areas.
The effect can also migrate into other factories situated nearby and containing flammable, reactive or toxic
chemicals, escalating the disaster. This is sometimes referred to as the `domino effect'.
Not only does the cloud itself pose a health hazard, but the fires cause depletion of oxygen and fumes
generated by the fire may contain toxic gases.
Chlorine and ammonia are the toxic chemicals most commonly used in quantities large enough to pose a
major hazard. Both have a history of major accidents. There are also other chemicals which, although used in
smaller quantities should, be handled with particular care because of their higher toxicity.
An industrial accident classified as a `major hazard' leads to tighter control, more specific than that applied in
the normal factory operations. This is in order to protect both workers and outside people, to avoid economical
losses to the factory and damage to the environment.
The first step in a systematic approach is to identify the installations susceptible to a `major hazard'. For this
purpose, EU in Europe has a Directive which has been in use since 1984. The Directive sets certain criteria
based on the toxic, flammable and explosive properties of the chemicals. For the selection of specific
industrial activities which involve a `major hazard' risk, a list of substances with limit amounts is provided. The
list contains 180 toxic substances whith the limits varying from 1 kg for extremely toxic substances to 50 000
tons for highly flammable liquids. (See the list in the section: `Identification, Classification and Labelling of
Chemicals', Annex 7.)
Criteria for Major Hazard Installation
1. Very Toxic (Category 1 and 2) and Toxic substances (Category 3)
Substances classified to hazard categories below according to their acute toxicity.

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BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


Classification can also be done by determining the acute toxicity in animals, expressed in LD50 or in LC50
values and using the following limits

Substances which correspond to the first line of the table below


Substances which correspond to the second and third line and which, owing to their physical and
chemical properties, are potential candidates for a major hazard similar to that caused by substances
filling the criteria of the first line in the table.

Category LD50 absorbed orally in rat LD50 dermal absorption


(mg/kg bodyweight)
in rat or rabbit (mg/kg
bodyweight)
1
<5
<10
2
5-25
10-50
3
25 - 200
50 - 400

LC50 absorbed by
inhalation in rat
(mg/litre per 4 hours)
<0.10
0.1 - 0.5
0.5 - 2

2. Flammable substances

Gases which form flammable mixtures with air


Highly or extremely flammable liquids with flash points lower than 21 C
Flammable liquids with flash points lower than 55 C

3. Substances which may explode when in contact with a source of ignition or which are more sensitive to
shock and friction than dinitrobenzene.
The industrial activities creating the risk of a major hazard may not be restricted to defined sectors.
Experience has shown that such installations are most commonly associated with the following activities:

petrochemical works and refineries


chemical works and chemical production plants
LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) storage and terminals
stores and distribution centres of chemicals
large fertilizer stores
factories handling explosives
works in which chlorine is used in bulk quantities

To set priorities a shortened list of Major Hazard Chemicals is provided to be used as a guide. Priorities can
also be set within the factory to identify the most hazardous areas in the production activities.
Below is a list of priority chemicals used in identifying major hazard installations.
Name of the substance
General flammable substances
Flammable gases
Highly flammable liquids
Specific flammable substances
Hydrogen
Ethylene oxide
Specific explosives
Ammonium nitrate
Nitroglycerine
Trinitrotoluene
Specific toxic substances
Acrylonitrile

Quantity

EC list number

200 t
50 000 t

124
125

50 t
50 t

24
25

2500 t
10 t
50 t

146 b
132
145

200 t

18

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Ammonia
Chlorine
Sulphur dioxide
Hydrogen sulphide
Hydrogen cyanide
Carbon disulphide
Hydrogen fluoride
Hydrogen chloride
Sulphur trioxide
Specific very toxic substances
Methyl isocyanate
Phosgene

500 t
25 t
250 t
50 t
20 t
200 t
50 t
250 t
100 t

22
16
148
17
19
20
94
149
180

150 kg
750 kg

36
15

CHLORINE
Cases
Chlorine poisoning in Sri Lanka
A case of chlorine poisoning in a 37-year-old mechanical supervisor at a water purification plant in Sri
Lanka is described. Manipulating the main cylinder valve, he was exposed to chlorine fumes for a few
seconds as he was running in and out to stop the gas flow. He started to have an intense feeling of
suffocation and tightness of chest, coughing, intolerable irritation of eyes and mouth, headache and
stomach problems. He still had symptoms 27 days after the incident.
Transport accident
A massive chlorine release as a result of a tank leak in a car carrying chlorine took place in Norway. A
total of 85 people, from 6 months to 82 years of age were hospitalized, and out of those 3 died.
approximately 7-8 tons of chlorine gas formed a 10 km long cloud which covered the valley.
Facts about chlorine
It is a greenish-yellow gas with a pungent odour. Chlorine is heavier than air and the cloud formed tends to
spread along the ground. It can fill cellars or flow into subway tunnels as it did in an accident in New York
leading to the hospitalization of 208 persons.
Chlorine is chemically very active. Dry chlorine at ambient temperatures reacts directly with many materials
including metals. Dry chlorine does not attack steel and it is supplied commercially in steel containers in liquid
form under pressure.
As liquid chlorine evaporats, at boiling point (-340 C), one volume unit of liquid forms 457 volume units of
gas.
Traces of moisture in chlorine lead to rapid corrosion of steel, copper and nickel. Chlorine react vigorously
with organic compounds including mineral oils and greases. Mixtures of chlorine and hydrogen gases are
explosive.
Chlorine dissolves in water at a rate of 6.5 g of chlorine to one litre of water at ambient temperature. The
solution is acidic and corrosive, and it has oxidizing, bleaching and germicidal properties. The water solution
in a process should be kept above a temperature of 9.60 C in order to avoid blockages as a result of
formation of solid chlorine hydrate.
The reactivity of chlorine strongly limits the choice of materials used in construction when planning an
installation. A system constructed of steel must itself be dry before allowing chlorine to enter in it. Titanium is a
satisfactory construction material at temperatures well below 1000 C provided that the moisture level is kept
high. Titanium is resistant only to wet chlorine, and consideration should be given to a possible fault where dry

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chlorine could come into contact with the titanium. Other materials which are resistant to the attack of both
wet and dry chlorine gas at ambient temperatures include glass stoneware, porcelain and some plastics.
Where chlorine is part of the product, such as chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, it may be liberated in a fire or
when in contact with incompatible chemicals giving off hazardous gases and fumes.
The recommended exposure limit, Threshold Limit Value (TLV), for chlorine is 1 part per million (ppm), a
concentration which is at the limit of odour detection. The Short Term Exposure Limit (STEL) is 3 ppm.
Chlorine is a respiratory irritant. Exposure to chlorine at levels of around 15 ppm leads to irritation of the
mucous membranes of the eyes and nose, and especially of the throat and lungs. Liquid chlorine causes frost
burns and is corrosive to human tissue.
The gas becomes fatal at concentrations of 100-150 ppm with an exposure duration of 5-10 minutes.
The accidental instantaneous release of 10 tons of chlorine may result in a maximum concentration of
140 ppm at a distance of 2 kilometres downwind from the source and 15 ppm at a distance of 5
kilometres (under normal non-inversion weather conditions).
A chlorine vessel of 1 ton releasing liquid at full flow through an open valve will be empty in about 10 minutes,
and a cylinder in far less time.
Effects of chlorine gas concentrations on people (1 ppm = 3 mg/m 3)
Concentration
(ppm)
3-6

Time

Effect

10
10-20
100-150
300-400
1000

1 min
30 min
5-10 min
30 min
A few breaths

Causes burning feeling which can be tolerated, if not other ill effects,
for up to 1 hour
Coughing
Dangerous-immediate irritation of nose, throat and eyes
More vulnerable persons might die
Predicted average lethal concentration for active, healthy people
Likely to be fatal

Gas filters are effective against chlorine only at low concentrations. Filter type B can be used for
concentrations below 0.1 % by volume. If the colour of chlorine gas is visible the concentration exceeds the
recommended exposure limit mentioned above (TLV).

The EU classification for chlorine is toxic, T, with risk phrases:


R23
Toxic by inhalation.
R36/37/38
Irritating to eyes, respiratory system and skin.
and safety phrases:
S1/2
Keep locked up and out of reach of children.
S7/9
Keep container tightly closed and in a well-ventilated place.
S45
In case of accident or if you feel unwell, seek medical advice immediately
(show the label where possible).

Where is chlorine used?

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Chlorine is widely used in making many everyday products. It is used for purifying drinking-water world wide
and for wastewater treatment. It is also extensively used in paper and pulp production, dyestuffs, the textile
industry and in petroleum production. It is found in medicines, antiseptics, insecticides, foodstuffs, solvents,
paints, plastics and many other consumer products. Most of the chlorine produced is used in the manufacture
of chlorinated compounds in sanitation, pulp bleaching and textile processing, and in the pesticide industry.
Transport of chlorine
During transportation, chlorine has an UN identification number 1017. It is placed in Class 2.3 with subsidiary
danger classification of Class 5.1 and 8. Containers and cylinders should have the corresponding symbols
and the transporting vehicle should have visible placards.
Where chlorine is used in large quantities, it is subject to several notification requirements, standards, advice,
restrictions, operational codes and maintenance procedures because of the potential risks involved in its
storage and handling. The advice should used to develop emergency plans and routine maintenance
checklists, taking into account the special features of the specific installation.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
CLAYTON G.D. and CLAYTON F.E., ed., Patty's Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, 3rd Revised Ed., John
Wiley & Sons Inc., USA 1978
82/501/EEC Council Directive of 24 June 1982 on the major accident hazards of certain industrial activities
87/216/EEC Council Directive of 19 March 1987 amending Directive 82/501/EEC on the major-accident
hazards of certain industrial activities
East African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Supplement 2/ 1989, Institute of Occupational
Health, Finland 1989
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Encyclopedia of Occupational Health and Safety, Vol I -III, Geneva
1983
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Major Hazard Control, A Practical Manual, 2nd Ed., Geneva 1990
ILO, International Labour Organisation, Prevention of Major Industrial accidents, Code of Practice, Geneva
1991
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 21, Chlorine and
Hydrogen Chloride, WHO, Geneva 1982
IPCS, International Programme on Chemical Safety and CEC, Commission of the European Communities,
International Chemical Safety Cards, Chlorine ICSC#126
UNITED NATIONS, Transport of Dangerous Goods, 8th Ed., New York 1993

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GLOSSARY OF TERMS ON CHEMICAL SAFETY


FOR USE IN IPCS PUBLICATIONS
The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) is a joint venture of the United Nations Environment
Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization. The main objective of
the IPCS is to carry out and disseminate evaluations of the effects of chemicals on human health and the
quality of the environment. Supporting activities include the development of epidemiological, experimental
laboratory, and risk-assessment methods that could produce internationally comparable results, and the
development of manpower in the field of toxicology. Other activities carried out by IPCS include the
development of know- how for coping with chemical accidents, coordination of laboratory testing and
epidemiological studies, and promotion of research on the mechanisms of the biological action of

chemicals.

INTRODUCTION
The language of chemical safety is drawn from many sources. These include medicine, toxicology,
pharmacology, epidemiology, ecotoxicology and environmental pollution. Its terminology has developed in an
unstructured manner with proliferation into multiple terms, some with overlapping, alternative, or even
ambiguous meanings. This situation is a source of confusion to both authors and readers of publications on
chemical safety and a cause of difficulty in translation into other languages.
To facilitate international communication and comprehension, economy should be exercised in the use of
terms and definitions already formulated by various scientific bodies. However, this glossary is not, on the one
hand, an exhaustive compilation nor, on the other, a definitive list of approved terms. It is intended to be a
guide of terms widely used and adequately defined.
Grateful acknowledgement is made to the experts in the scientific bodies which form the sources for the terms
and definitions. In particular the work of the International Epidemiological Association in sponsoring a
Dictionary of Epidemiology, ably edited by Dr John M. Last, deserves credit for providing a sound international
basis for terminology in this field of science. The glossary has drawn heavily on this publication.
Language and terminology are not static. Comments and suggestions for additions and improvements would
be welcomed by the International Programme on Chemical Safety. These should be sent to:
The
International
Division
World
1211
Switzerland

Programme
of
Health
Geneva

Manager
on
Environmental

Chemical

Safety
Health

Organization
27

NOTE
Users of the Glossary should note that the terms in the Glossary are defined primarily for use in the
Environmental Health Criteria of the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) and in other IPCS
publications, such as those resulting from the activity of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Meeting on Food
Additives (JECFA) and the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). The terms may be used
differently by other bodies and in other publications.
abiotic: This is a term used to describe anything which is characterized by the absence of life or incompatible
with life. In toxicology and ecotoxicology it refers to physical (e.g. heat, sunlight) or chemical processes (e.g.
hydrolysis) that are capable of modifying chemical structures.

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abiotic transformation: Any process in which a chemical in the environment is modified by non-biological
mechanisms (see also biotransformation) (WHO, 1979).
absorbed dose (in toxicology): The amount of a chemical absorbed into the body or into organs and tissues
of interest (WHO, 1978a).
absorbed dose (in radiation): The energy imparted to matter in a suitably small element of volume by
ionizing radiation divided by the mass of that element of volume (ISO, 1972). The SI unit for absorbed dose is
joule per kilogram (J kgW-1) and its special name is gray (Gy) (ISO, 1972).
absorption (in colloid and surface chemistry): A process whereby, when two phases are brought into
contact, a given component is transferred from one phase to the other (after IUPAC, 1972). Experimental
differentiation of absorption and adsorption (q.v.) may be difficult, and sometimes the two processes occur
simultaneously; in such cases the term ``sorption'' is used (WHO, 1979).
absorption (in radiation): A phenomenon in which radiation transfers to matter which it traverses some or all
of its energy (ISO, 1972).
acceptable daily intake: This is an estimate of the amount of substance in the food that can be ingested
daily over a lifetime by humans without appreciable health risk. The concept of the ADI has been developed
principally by WHO and FAO and is relevant to chemicals such as additives to foodstuffs, residues of
pesticides and veterinary drugs in foods. ADIs are derived from laboratory toxicity data, and from human
experiences of such chemicals when this is available, and incorporate the safety factor.
acceptable daily intake for man (ADI) (food additives): The acceptable daily intake (ADI) for man,
expressed on a body weight basis (mg/kg body weight) is the amount of a food additive that can be taken
daily in the diet, even over a lifetime, without risk. It is allocated only to substances for which the available
data include either the results of adequate short-term and long-term toxicological investigations, or
satisfactory information on the biochemistry and metabolic fate of the compound, or both (Vettorazzi, 1980).
acceptable daily intake (pesticide residues): The acceptable daily intake of a chemical is the daily intake
which, during an entire life time, appears to be without appreciable risk to the health of the consumer on the
basis of all the known facts at the time when a toxicological assessment is carried out. It is expressed in
milligrams of the chemical per kilogram of body weight (Vettorazzi, 1980).
acceptable daily intake not specified: An ADI without an explicit indication of the upper limit of intake may
be assigned to substances of very low toxicity, especially those that are food constituents or that may be
considered as foods or normal metabolites in man. This expression was adopted as a more suitable
expression than ``ADI not limited'', which was previously used. An additive having an ``ADI not specified''
must meet the criteria of good manufacturing practices. For example, it should have proved technological
efficacy and be used at the minimum level of technological efficacy, it should not conceal inferior food quality
or adulteration, and it should not create a nutritional imbalance. The above expression means that, on the
basis of available data (chemical, biochemical, and toxicological), the total daily intake of the substance
arising from its use or uses at levels necessary to achieve the desired effect and from its acceptable
background in food, does not represent a hazard to health. For this reason, and for reasons stated in the
individual evaluations, the establishment of an acceptable daily intake expressed in mg/kg body weight is not
deemed necessary (Vettorazzi, 1980).
no acceptable daily intake allocated: This expression is applicable to substances for which the available
information is not sufficient to establish their safety or when the specifications for identity and purity are not
adequate. The fact that an ADI for an additive was not established should not be interpreted as casting doubt
on its safety nor should it be considered for its withdrawal for use (Vettorazzi, 1980).
acceptable daily intake not specified (pesticide residues): An ADI without an explicit indication of the
upper limit of intake may be assigned to substances of very low toxicity, especially those that are food
constituents or that may be considered as foods or normal metabolites in man. This expression was adopted

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as a more suitable expression than ``ADI not limited'' which was previously used. An additive having an ``ADI
not specified'' must meet the criteria of good manufacturing practices, for example, it should have proved
technological efficacy and be used at the minimum level of technological efficacy, it should not conceal inferior
food quality or adulteration, and it should not create a nutritional imbalance. The above expression means
that, on the basis of available data (chemical, biochemical, and toxicological), the total daily intake of the
substance arising from its use or uses at levels necessary to achieve the desired effect and from its
acceptable background in food, does not represent a hazard to health. For this reason, and for reasons stated
in the individual evaluations, the establishment of an acceptable daily intake expressed in mg/kg body weight
is not deemed necessary (Vettorazzi, 1980).
acceptable level of treatment: Acceptable daily intakes are usually expressed as milligrams of the
substance in question per kilogram of body weight. There are, however, certain food additives that are more
appropriately limited in terms of levels of treatment applied (Vettorazzi, 1980).
acceptable residue: Acceptable residues in human food that have been established for antibiotics found in
foods (Vettorazzi, 1980).
acceptable risk: This concept relates to the probability of suffering disease or injury that will be tolerated by
an individual, group or society. Acceptability of risk depends on the scientific data, social, economic and
political factors, and on the perceived benefits arising from the a chemical or process.
accumulation: Successive additions of a substance to a target organism, or organ, or to part of the
environment, resulting in an increasing quantity or concentration of the substance in the organism, organ, or
environment.
accuracy: (i) The closeness of agreement between the ``true'' value and the measured values (ISO, 1981);
(ii) the degree to which a measurement, or an estimate based on measurements, represents the true value of
the attribute that is being measured (Last, 1988).
acid rain: The deposition of acids (sulphuric and nitric) in rain. An environmental problem resulting from
certain industrial activities and the burning of petroleum based fuels (trafic exhaust gases).
action level: (i) The level of a pollutant at which specified emergency countermeasures, such as the seizure
and destruction of contaminated materials, evacuation of the local population or closing down the sources of
pollution, are to be taken (UN, 1972); (ii) the level at which some kind of preventive action (not necessarily of
an emergency nature) is to be taken; (iii) a level of exposure of workers to airborne harmful substances in
workrooms to be determined by the competent authority; it is distinctly below the exposure limit and
consequently such exposures below the action level do not usually necessitate application of all the
preventive measures, especially of a medical nature, foreseen for exposures exceeding the action level. This
level may lie between a third and a half of the exposure limit (ILO, 1977).
acute effects: Effects that occur rapidly following exposure and are of short duration (WHO, 1979).
acute toxicity: The adverse effects occurring within a short time of administration of a single dose or multiple
doses given within 24 hours (Hagan, 1959).
acute toxicity test: An experimental animal study in which the adverse effects occur in a short time (from l-7
days) following the administration of a single or multiple doses of a chemical. The most frequently used acute
toxicity test involves determination of the median lethal dose (LD50) of the compound. The LD50 has been
defined as ``a statistically derived expression of a single administered dose of a material that can be expected
to kill 50% of the animals'' (WHO, 1978a).
additive effect: An additive effect is the overall consequence which is the result of two chemicals acting
together and which is the simple sum of the effects of the chemicals acting independently. See also
antagonistic effect, synergistic effect.

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adsorption: A process whereby one or more components of an interfacial layer between two bulk phases are
either enriched or depleted (IUPAC, 1972).
adverse effect: This is abnormal, undesirable or harmful effect to an organism, indicated by some result such
as mortality, altered food consumption, altered body and organ weights,altered enzyme levels or visible
(pathological) change. An effect may be classed as adverse effect if it causes functional or anatomical
damage, causes irreversible changes or increases the susceptibility of the organism to other chemical or
biological stress. A non-adverse effect will usually be reversed when exposure to the chemical ceases.
aerodynamic diameter of a particle: The diameter of a spherical particle of unit density that has the same
settling velocity in air as the particle in question (IAEA, 1978).
aerosol: This is a very broad term applied to any suspension of solid or liquid particles in a gas. They are fine
enough in the particle size (0.001 to 100 micrometers) to remain dispersed for a period of the time.
air pollution: The presence of substances in the atmosphere resulting either from human activity or natural
processes, present in sufficient concentration, for a sufficient time and under circumstances such as to
interfere with the comfort, health, or welfare of persons or the environment (ISO, 1980).
allergen: This descriptor may be used to any substance which produces an allergic reaction.
allergy: A broad term applied to disease symptoms following exposure to a previously encountered substance
(allergen), often one which would otherwise be classified as harmless. Essentially it is a malfunction of the
immune system. See sensitization.
analytic study: A hypothesis-testing method of investigating the association between a given disease or
health state or other dependent variable and possible causative factors. In an analytic study, individuals in the
study population may be classified according to absence or presence (or future development) of specific
disease and according to ``attributes'' that may influence disease occurrence. Attributes may include age,
race, sex, other disease(s), genetic, biochemical, and physiological characteristics, economic status,
occupation, residence, and various aspects of the environment or personal behaviour. Three types of analytic
study are cross-sectional (prevalence), cohort (prospective), and case control (retrospective) (Last, 1983).
antagonistic effect: This is the consequence of one chemical (or a group of chemicals) interacting: the
situation in which the combined effect of two or more chemicals is less than the simple sum of their
independent effects. In bioassay, the term may be used to refer to the situation when a specified response is
produced by exposure to either of two factors but not by exposure to both together (Last, 1983).
antibody: A protein produced in body in response, and specific for, a foreign substance or antigen.
antigen: The descriptor applied to any substance that produces a specific immune response and is
regognised as foreign by the immune system when it enters the tissue of an animal or human.
asbestosis: The damage to the the lungs caused specifically by exposure to, and inhalation of, asbestos
fibres.
assay: The quantitative or quantitative evaluation of a hazardous substance; the results of such an evaluation
(Last, 1988).
atrophy: The process which is observed during the wasting of a tissue or an organ.
benign: This adjective is applied to any growth which does not invade surrounding tissue. See malignant,
tumour.

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bias: Deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Any trend in the
collection, analysis, interpretation, publication, or review of data that can lead to conclusions that are
systematically different from the truth. Among the ways in which deviation from the truth can occur, are the
following:
1. Systematic (one-sided) variation of measurements from the true values (synonym: wsystematic
error).
2. Variation of statistical summary measures (means, rates, measures of association, etc.) from their
true values as a result of systematic variation of measurements, other flaws in data collection, or
flaws in study design or analysis.
3. Deviation of inferences from the truth as a result of flaws in study design, data collection, or the
analysis or interpretation of results.
4. A tendency of procedures (in study design, data collection, analysis, interpretation, review or
publication) to yield results or conclusions that depart from the truth.
5. Prejudice leading to the conscious or unconscious selection of study procedures that depart from
the truth in a particular direction, or to one-sidedness in the interpretation of results.
(from Last, 1988).
bioavailability (synonym:biological availability, physiological availability): The extent to which a chemical
substance to which the body is exposed (by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or skin contact) reaches the
systemic circulation, and the rate at which this occurs. It is recognized that the bioavailability (for
gastrointestinal absorption) of, for example, both essential and non-essential metals, depends on various
factors including the composition of the diet and the type of the chemical compound and its state of
dispersion. For instance, the absorption of lead and cadmium is increased if the food is deficient in calcium or
iron (WHO, 1979).
bioaccumulation: The process by which the amount of a substance in a living organism (or its parts)
increases with time (WHO, 1979).
biochemical mechanism: This is the general term for any chemical reaction or series of reactions, usually
enzyme catalysed, which produces a given physiological effect in a living organism.
bioconcentration: A process leading to a higher concentration of a chemical in the organism relative to its
environment (WHO, 1979).
biological assessment of exposure: Exposure to chemicals may be assessed by the analysis of specimens
taken in the environment (air, water, food, etc.) or of specimens of biological material. Most often, urine and
blood are analyzed, but other materials such as expired air, faeces, saliva, bile, hair, and biopsy or autopsy
material are sometimes analyzed. In these samples, the content of the xenobiotic(s) or its metabolite(s) is
determined and, on this basis, the exposure level (concentration in the air, absorbed amount of the
substance) or the probability of health impairment due to exposure is derived. Biochemical changes in the
components of an organism can also be used for this purpose (e.g., changes in enzyme activity or in the
excretion of metabolic intermediates) if they show a relationship to the exposure (WHO, 1979).
biological assessment of exposure: Mainly used for hygienic evaluation of workplaces (deducing from the
analytical results the level of exposure, sometimes even correlations with the concentration in the air, the
possible absorption by other routes than inhalation, etc.) and for medical prevention or diagnostics (probability
of health impairment at certain values of the exposure test). The definition of biological assessment of
exposure should include only the chemical and haematological analyses already mentioned and should not
be extended to include indicators of general health or sickness, or functional tests (WHO, 1979).

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biological cycle: The process through which a chemical substance passes in the biosphere. It may involve
transport through the various media (air, water, soil), followed by environmental transformation, and carriage
through various ecosystems. Chemical compounds that occur naturally have a natural biological cycle (WHO,
1979).
biological half-life (synonym: biological half-time): The time required for the amount of a particular
substance in a biological system to be reduced to one-half of its value by biological processes when the rate
of removal is approximately exponential (ISO, 1972). For a one-compartment system describing an
exponential biological process, biological half-life = log 2/f where f = elimination or decay constant.
biological monitoring: The periodic examination of biological specimens (in accordance with the definition of
monitoring). It is usually applied to exposure monitoring but can also apply to effect monitoring (WHO, 1979).
biomagnification (or ecological magnification): A sequence of processes in an ecosystem by which higher
concentrations are attained in organisms of higher trophic level, i.e., of higher levels in the food chain
(Dustman & Stickel, 1969).
biomass: The total amount of biotic material, usually expressed per unit surface area or volume of a medium
such as water (WHO, 1979).
biota: Living organisms (WHO, 1979).
biotransformation: A process in which a chemical is modified by a living organism (WHO, 1979).
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand): This is defined as the mass of dissolved oxygen required by a
specific volume of solution of the substance for process of biochemical oxidation under prescribed conditions.
The measurement of BOD indicates the ability of micro-organisms to metabolise an organic substance in the
presence of oxygen and thus indicates the potential for depletion of oxygen by the substance. Refers to
degradation.
cancer: Cancer is a disease which results from the development of a malignant tumour and its spread into
the surrounding tissues. See tumour.
carcinogen: An agent, chemical, physical or biological, that can act on living tissue in such a way as to cause
a malignant neoplasm (WHO, 1980).
carcinogenesis: The induction by chemical, physical, or biological agents, of neoplasms that are usually not
observed, an earlier induction of neoplasms that are usually observed, and/or the induction of more
neoplasms than are usually found although fundamental differences in the mechanisms may be involved
(IARC, 1977).
case control study (synonyms: case comparison study, case history study, case referent study,
retrospective study): A study that starts with the identification of persons with the disease (or other outcome
variable) of interest, and a suitable control (comparison, reference) group of persons without the disease. The
relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing the diseased and nondiseased with
regard to how frequently the attribute is present or, if quantitative, the levels of the attribute, in each of the
groups.
Such a study can be called ``retrospective'' because it starts after the onset of disease and looks back to the
postulated causal factors. Cases and controls in a case control study may be accumulated ``prospectively;''
that is, as each new case is diagnosed it is entered in the study. Nevertheless, such a study may still be called
``retrospective'' because it looks back from the outcome to its causes. The terms ``cases'' and ``controls'' are
sometimes used to describe subjects in a randomized controlled trial but, the term ``case control study''
should not be used to describe such a study (from Last, 1988).

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chemobiokinetics: The process of the uptake of chemical substances by the body, the biotransformation
they undergo, the distribution of the substances and their metabolites in the tissues, and the elimination of the
substances and their metabolites from the body. Both the amounts and the concentrations of the substances
and their metabolites are studied. The term has essentially the same meaning as pharmaco-kinetics, but the
latter term should be restricted to the study of pharmaceutical substances (WHO, 1979).
cholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase inhibitors: These are substances which inhibit the
cholinesterase-enzyme activity and thus enhance and subsequently prevent transmission of nerve impulses
from one nerve cell to another or to a muscle.
chromosomal aberration: Any abnormality of chromosome number or structure may be described as an
aberration.
chromosome: This is a structure in the nucleus of the cell composed of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
andprotein; the chromosome forms the basis of heredity and carries genetic information in DNA in the form of
sequence of nitrogenous bases.
chronic effects: Effects that develop slowly and have a long duration. They are often, but not always,
irreversible. Some irreversible effects may appear a long time after the chemical substance was present in the
sensitive tissue. For such delayed or late effects, the latent period (or the ``time to occurrence'' of an
observable effect) may be very long, particularly if the level of exposure is low (WHO, 1979).
chronic toxicity test: A study in which animals are observed during the whole life span (or the major part of
the life span) and in which exposure to the test material takes place over the whole observation time or a
substantial part thereof. The term ``long-term toxicity study'' is sometimes used as a synonym for ``chronic
toxicity study'' and sometimes to signify a study that falls in between subacute (short- term toxicity studies)
and chronic toxicity studies (WHO, 1978a).
ceiling value (CV): The maximum permissible airborne concentration of a potentially toxic substance and is a
concentration that should never be exceeded in the breathing zone.
clastogen: A clastogen is any substance which causes chromosomal breaks.
cluster sampling: (i) A method of sampling in which the population is divided into aggregates (or clusters) of
items bound together in a certain manner. A sample of these clusters is taken at random and all the items
which constitute them are included in the sample (ISO, 1977); (ii) a sampling method in which each unit
selected is a group of persons (all persons in a city block, a family, etc.) rather than an individual (Last, 1988).
COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand): The amount of oxygen required to oxidize the substance chemically.
Refers to degradation.
cohort study (synonyms: concurrent, follow-up, incidence, longitudinal, prospective study): The
method of epidemiologic study in which subsets of a defined population can be identified who are, have been,
or in the future may be exposed or not exposed, or exposed in different degrees, to a factor or factors
hypothesized to influence the probability of occurrence of a given disease or other outcome. The alternative
terms for a cohort study, i.e., follow-up, longitudinal, and prospective study, describe an essential feature of
the method, which is observation of the population for a sufficient number of person-years to generate reliable
incidence or mortality rates in the population subsets. This generally implies study of a large population, study
for a prolonged period (years), or both (Last, 1988).
compartments: The body is composed of a large number of organs, tissues, cells, and fluids, any one of
which could be referred to as a compartment. In chemobiokinetics, a compartment often refers collectively to
the organs, tissues, cells, and fluids for which the rates of uptake and subsequent distribution and elimination
are sufficiently similar to preclude kinetic resolution (WHO, 1979).

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concentration: A general term referring to the quantity of a material or substance contained in unit quantity of
a given medium. When the term concentration is used without further qualification, it now means amount of
substance concentration (WHO, 1979).
conditional acceptable daily intake: A conditional acceptable daily intake is one that is established for a
pesticide in order to limit its use to those situations where no satisfactory substitutes are avail- able. This
definition will be the subject of further discussion. The allocation of conditional ADIs for intentional food
additives has been superseded (Vettorazzi, 1980).
confounding:
1. A situation in which the effects of two processes are not separated. The distortion of the apparent
effect of an exposure on risk brought about by the association with other factors that can influence the
outcome.
2. A relationship between the effects of two or more causal factors as observed in a set of data, such
that it is not logically possible to separate the contribution that any single causal factor has made an
effect.
3. A situation in which a measure of the effect of an exposure on risk is distorted because of the
association of exposure with other factor(s) that influence the outcome under study.
(Last, 1988).
confounding variable (synonym: confounder): A variable that can cause or prevent the outcome of interest,
is not an intermediate variable, and is not associated with the factor under investigation. Such a variable must
be controlled in order to obtain an undistorted estimate of the effect of the study factor on risk (Last, 1988).
conjunctiva: The term applied to the mucous membrane that covers the eyeball and undersurface of the
eyelids.
contaminant: In some contexts (e.g., in relation to gas cleaning equipment), used as a synonym for pollutant
(ISO, 1979).
control limit: A regulatory value applied to the airborne concentration in the workplace of a potentially toxic
substance which is judged to be "reasonably practicable" for the whole spectrum of work activities and which
must not normally be exceeded.
controls matched: Controls (persons) who are selected so that they are similar to the study group, or cases,
in specific characteristics. Some commonly used matching variables are age, sex, race and socio-economic
status (Last, 1988).
corrosive of tissue: The descriptor applied to any substance which destroys tissues on direct contact.
count mean diameter: The mean of the diameters of all particles in the population (IAEA, 1978).
count median diameter: The diameter in the population above which there are as many particles with larger
diameter as there are particles with smaller diameters (IAEA, 1978).
criteria: Validated sets of data used as a basis for judgement (WHO, 1979).
critical concentration for a cell: The concentration at which undesirable (or adverse) functional changes,
reversible or irreversible, occur in the cell (Task Group on Metal Toxicity, 1976).

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critical effect: The first adverse effect that appears when the critical concentration in the critical organ is
reached in an individual (or the adverse effect that occurs as a result of the lowest dose in the critical organ)
(WHO, 1979).
critical group: That part of the target population most in need of protection (WHO, 1979).
critical organ (critical tissue)(in toxicology): The particular organ that first attains the critical concentration
(of metal) under specified circumstances of exposure and for a given population (Task Group on Metal
Toxicology, 1976).
critical organ(in radiation biology): The organ whose damage (by radiation) results in the greatest injury to
the individual (or his descendants). The injury may result from inherent radiosensitivity or indispensability of
the organ, or from high dose, or from a combination of all three (ICRP, 1965).
critical organ concentration (critical tissue concentration): The mean concentration in the organ (tissue)
at the time the most sensitive type of cell reaches the critical concentration (Task Group on Metal Toxicity,
1976).
critical period: A period during the development of a human, animal, or vegetable body, which is of particular
importance in the life cycle if the normal full development of some anatomical, physiological, metabolic, or
psychological structure or function is to be attained (WHO, 1972).
cross-sectional study (synonyms:disease frequency survey, prevalence study): A study that examines
the relationship between diseases (or other health-related characteristics) and other variables of interest as
they exist in a defined population at one particular time. The presence or absence of disease and the
presence or absence of the other variables (or, if they are quantitative, their level) are determined in each
member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. The relationship between
a variable and the disease can be examined (1) in terms of the prevalence of disease in different population
subgroups defined according to the presence or absence (or level) of the variables (2) in terms of the
presence or absence (or level) of the variables in the diseased versus the nondiseased. Note that disease
prevalence rather than incidence is normally recorded in a cross-sectional study. The temporal sequence of
cause and effect cannot necessarily be determined in a cross-sectional study. See also morbidity survey
(Last, 1988).
crude death rate: See death rate.
cumulative effect (functional accumulation): Occurs when repeated doses of a toxic substance or harmful
radiation summate to give an enhanced effect (WHO, 1979).
cumulative incidence, cumulative incidence rate: The number or proportion of a group of people who
experience the onset of a health related event during a specified time interval; this interval is generally the
same for all members of the group, but, as in lifetime incidence, it may vary from person to person without
reference to age (Last, 1988).
cumulative incidence ratio: The ratio of the cumulative incidence rate in the exposed to the cumulative
incidence rate in the unexposed (Last, 1983).
cyanosis: The pathological condition where there is an excessive concentration of reduced haemoglobin in
the blood. This results in blue appearance of the skin, especially on the face and extremities, indicating the
lack of sufficient oxygen in arterial blood.
cytotoxic: The adjective applied to anything that is harmful to the cell structure and function and ultimately
causing cell death.

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death rate: An estimate of the proportion of a population that dies during a specified period. The numerator is
the number of persons dying during the period; the denominator is the size of the population, usually
estimated as the mid-year population. The death rate in a population is generally calculated by the formula
Number of deaths
during a specified period
-------------------------------- x 10n
Number of persons at risk
of dying during the period
This rate is an estimate of the person-time death rate, i.e., the death rate per 10 n person-years. If the rate is
low, it is also a good estimate of the cumulative death rate. This rate is also called the crude death rate (Last,
1988).
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA): is the constituent of the chromosomes which stores the hereditary information
in the form of a sequence nitrogenous bases. Much of this information is related to the synthesis of proteins.
deposition: The process by which a certain amount of a substance arrives at a particular site (e.g., the
deposition of particles on the ciliated epithelium of the bronchial airways) (WHO, 1979).
dermatitis: Inflammation of the skin.
detoxify: Reduce the toxicity of a substance either (1) by making it less harmful or (2) by treating patients
suffering from poisoning in such away as to reduce the probability and/or severity of harmful effects.
discharge (or effluent or emission) standard or release limit: The maximum acceptable release of a
pollutant from a given source to a specified medium under specified circumstances (WHO, 1979).
distribution: This is a general term for the dispersal of a applied substance and its derivatives throughout an
organism or environmental system.
dose: The amount of a chemical administered to an organism (WHO, 1978).
dose rate(in radiation protection): The quantity of energy absorbed per unit of time (WHO, 1979).
dose exposure-response relationship: The relationship between administered dose or exposure and the
biological change in organisms. It may be expressed as the severity of an effect in one organism (or part of an
organism) or as the proportion of a population exposed to a chemical that shows a specific reaction (WHO,
1979).
duplicate portion sampling method (duplicate diet study): This method is frequently used for the same
purposes as the total diet study technique. It implies that test persons consume their ordinary diet, but that, for
each meal, they prepare a duplicate portion of all food as prepared, served, and consumed (WHO, 1979).
ecotoxicology: The effects of chemical agents on the environment, including, in addition to effects on man,
adverse events that take place in the general ecosystem. It is not necessarily related primarily to human
health (WHO, 1979).
effect: A biological change in an organism, organ, or tissue (WHO, 1979).
effective half-life: (i) The time required for the amount of a radionuclide in a biological system to be reduced
to half its original value. The T effect is related to the biological half-life (Tb) and the physical half-life (T)
by:
Tb x T
T eff. = -------------------------------

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Tb + T
The clearance curve in a biological system may well be complex and not a simple exponential function. In this
case the simple relationship given above is not valid (Wagner, 1968). (ii) The time required for the amount of a
particular radionuclide in a system to be reduced to half its value as a consequence of both radioactive decay
and other processes such as biological elimination and burnup when the rate of removal is approximately
exponential (ISO, 1972).
elimination (in metabolism): The expelling of a substance or other material from the body (or a defined part
thereof), usually by a process of extrusion or exclusion but sometimes through metabolic transformation
(WHO, 1979).
embryo: This term is applied to the earliest stages of development of a plant or an animal. The embryo is
generally contained in another structure: the seed, egg or uterus.
embryotoxicity: The potential of a substance to induce adverse effects in progeny in the first period of
pregnancy between conception and the fetal stage (UNEP/IRPTC, 1982).
emission: The giving off of environmental pollutants from various sources (WHO, 1979).
emission or exposure control: The technical and administrative procedures applied for the reduction or
elimination of emissions from the source or of exposure to the target (WHO, 1988).
emission standard: This regulatory value is a quantitative limit on the emission or discharge of a potentially
toxic substance from a source. See limit values.
enterohepatic circulation: Intestinal reabsorption of material that has been excreted through the bile and
transferred back to the liver, making it available for biliary excretion again (WHO, 1979).
environment: The aggregate, at a given moment, of all external conditions and influences to which a system
is subjected (ISO, 1975). The term ``system'' covers all living organisms, including human beings.
environmental health (synonyms: environmental medicine, environmental hygiene): The health aspects
of the human environment, including technical and administrative measures for improving the human
environment from a health point of view (WHO, 1979).
environmental quality standard (EQS): This regulatory value defines the maximum concentration of a
potentially toxic substance which can be allowed in an environmental compartment, usually air or water, over
a defined period. Synonym: ambient standard. See limit values.
environmental sanitation: Traditionally used to indicate activities concerned with the improvement of the
basic environmental conditions affecting health, i.e., water supply, human and animal waste disposal,
protection of food from biological contamination, and housing conditions, all of which are concerned with the
quality of the human environment (WHO, 1979).
environmental transformation: Once emitted into the environment, a chemical substance may be
transported in the biosphere and undergo various types of chemical changes (WHO, 1979).
enzymes: Proteins which act as highly selective catalyst. This permits reactions in living cells to take place
rapidly under physiological conditions. Enzymes are also used in the industry, for example as additives in the
detergents.
epidemiology: The study of the distribution and determinants of health-related states or events in
populations, and the application of this study to control of health problems (from Last, 1988).

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equivalent diameter (of a particle): The diameter of a spherical particle of the same density that, relative to
a given phenomenon or property, would behave as the particle under investigation (ISO, 1979).
erythema: In medicine, this term is applied to redness of the skin due to blood vessel distension.
excretion: The discharge or elimination of an absorbed or endogenous substance, or of a waste product, via
some tissue of the body and its appearance in urine, faeces, or other products normally leaving the body.
Excretion of chemical compounds from the body occurs mainly through the kidney and the gut. For volatile
compounds, however, elimination by exhalation may be important. Excretion via perspiration and through hair
and nails may also be of importance under special circumstances. Excretion via the gastrointestinal tract may
take place by various routes such as the bile, the shedding of intestinal cells, and transport through the
intestinal mucosa (WHO, 1979).
excretion rate: The amount or proportion of a substance that is excreted per unit time. It should be noted that
according to this definition excretion does not include the passing of a substance through the intestine without
absorption. When discussing the total amount of a substance in faeces (including the unabsorbed part), it is
preferable to speak about faecal content of substance (Task Group on Metal Accumulation, 1973).
exposed group (in epidemiology): A group whose members have been exposed to a supposed cause of a
disease or health state of interest, or possess a characteristic that is a determinant of the health outcome of
interest. The abbreviated term ``the exposed'' is sometimes used.
exposed or non-exposed: Qualitative terms defining the existence of or lack of a hazard in the environment
of individuals (WHO, 1988).
exposure: The amount of an environmental agent that has reached the individual (external dose) or has been
absorbed into the individual (internal dose, absorbed dose) (WHO, 1979).
exposure assessment: The quantification of the amount of exposure to a hazard for an individual or group
(WHO, 1979).
exposure control: see emission or exposure control.
exposure limit: A general term implying the level of exposure that should not be exceeded (WHO, 1979).
extraneous residue limit: An extraneous residue limit is, for a particular commodity, the maximum
toxicologically acceptable concentration of a residue unavoidably arising from sources other than the use of a
pesticide directly or indirectly for the production of that commodity (WHO, 1976).
extrapolation: The calculation, based on quantitative observations in exposed test species, of predicted
dose-effect and dose-response relationships for a chemical in humans and other environmental biota (WHO,
1979).
fetus (foetus): In medicine, this term is applied to the young of mammals when fully developed in the womb.
In humans, this stage is reached after about 3 months of pregnancy. Prior to this, the developing mammal is
in embryo stage.
follow-up study (synonym: cohort study): A study in which individuals or populations, selected on the basis
of whether they have been exposed to risk, received a specified preventive or therapeutic procedure, or
possess a certain characteristic, are followed to assess the outcome of exposure, the procedure, or effect of
the characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease (from Last, 1988).
food additive: Any non-nutritive substances added intentionally to food, generally in small quantities, to
improve its appearance, flavour, texture or storage properties, with the exception of sub- stances which are
added to food exclusively for their nutritive properties, but including animal feed adjuncts which may result in

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residues in human food and components of packaging materials which may find their way into human food,
and other contaminants (Vettorazzi, 1980).
food chain: The sequence of transfer of matter and energy in the form of food from organism to organism in
ascending or descending trophic levels (WHO, 1979).
food web: A network of food chains (WHO, 1979).
fungicide: A chemical used to kill fungi. See pesticide.
gavage: Dose given by intragastric intubation (WHO, 1979).
gene: This is the part of the DNA molecule in chromosomes which carries the information defining the
sequence of amino-acids in a specific polypeptide chain.
good agricultural practice in the use of pesticides: Good agricultural practice in the use of pesticide is the
officially recommended or authorized usage of pesticides under practical conditions at any stage of
production, storage, transport, distribution, and processing of food and other agricultural commodities, bearing
in mind the variations in requirements within and between regions and taking into account the minimum
quantities necessary to achieve adequate control, the pesticide being applied in such a manner as to leave
residues that are the smallest amounts practicable and that are toxicologically acceptable (WHO, 1976).
graded effect: An effect that can usually be measured on a graded scale of intensity or severity and its
magnitude related directly to the dose (WHO, 1978a).
guideline level: A guideline level is the maximum concentration of a pesticide residue that might occur after
the officially recommended or authorized use of a pesticide for which no acceptable daily intake or temporary
acceptable daily intake is established and that need not to be exceeded if good practices are followed. It is
expressed in milligrams for the residue per kilogram of food (WHO, 1976).
guides to air quality: Sets of concentrations and exposure times that are associated with specific effects of
varying degrees of air pollution on man, animals, vegetation, and on the environment in general (WHO, 1979).
guides to environmental quality: Sets of levels and exposure times that are associated with the specific
effects of varying levels of environmental factors on man, animals, vegetation, and the environment in general
(WHO, 1979).
guinea pig maximization test: This is a skin test for screening possible contact allergens. It is concidered to
be a useful model for predicting moderate and strong sensitizers in humans.
hazard: A source of danger: a qualitative term expressing the potential that an environmental agent can harm
health (WHO, 1988).
hazard identification: The identification of the substance of concern, its adverse effects, target populations,
and conditions of exposure (WHO, 1988).
health: A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or
infirmity (WHO, 1978b).
healthy worker effect: A phenomenon observed initially in studies of occupational diseases: workers usually
exhibit lower overall death rates than the general population, due to the fact that the severely ill and disabled
are ordinarily excluded from employment. Death rates in the general population may be inappropriate for
comparison if this effect is not taken into account (Last, 1983).
hepatotoxic: The adjective applied to anything which is harmful to the liver.

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herbicide: The descriptor applied to a chemical used to kill plants. See pesticide.
hypersensitivity: See allergy.
human ecology: The interrelations between man and his physical, biological, socio-economic, and cultural
environment, including the interrelations between himself and other individuals or groups of other species,
and the interrelationship between himself and his entire environment. Because of the broad approach, human
ecology studies are almost always multidisciplinary (WHO, 1988).
idiosyncrasy: The increased individual sensitivity of an organism to the effect of certain substances
(UNEP/IRPTC, 1982).
immune response: The immune response is a general reaction of the body to substances that are foreign or
treated as foreign. It may take various forms: antibody production,cell-mediated immunity, immunological
tolerance, or allergy.
incidence: The number of instances of illness commencing, or of persons falling ill, during a given period in a
specific population. Incidence is usually expressed as a rate, the denominator being the average number of
persons in the specified population during a defined period or the estimated number of persons at the midpoint of that period. The basic distinction betweenincidenceandprevalenceis that whereas incidence refers
only to new cases, prevalence refers to all cases, irrespective of whether they are new or old. When the terms
incidence and prevalence are used, it should be stated clearly whether the data represent the numbers of
instances of the disease recorded or the numbers of persons ill (WHO, 1966).
incidence rate: The rate at which new events occur in a population. The numerator is the number of new
events that occur in a defined period; the denominator is the population at risk of experiencing the event
during this period, sometimes expressed as person-time. The incidence rate most often used in public health
practice is calculated by the formula
Number of new events in a specified period
--------------------------------------------x10n
Number of persons exposed to risk
during the period
In a dynamic population, the denominator is the average size of the population, often the estimated population
at the mid-period. If the period is a year, this is the annual incidence rate. This rate is an estimate of the
person-time incidence rate, i.e., the rate per 10 n person-years. If the rate is low, as with many chronic
diseases, it is also a good estimate of the cumulative incidence rate. In follow-up studies with no censoring,
the incidence rate is calculated by dividing the number of new cases in a specified period by the initial size of
the cohort of persons being followed; this is equivalent to the cumulative incidence rate during the period. If
the number of new cases during a specified period is divided by the sum of the person-time units at risk for all
persons during the period, the result is the person-time incidence rate (Last, 1988).
insecticide: A chemical used to kill insects. See pesticides.
intake: The amount of a substance or material that is taken into the body, regardless of whether or not it is
absorbed. The daily intake may be expressed as the amount taken in by a particular exposure route, e.g.,
ingestion or inhalation. The daily intake from food is the total amount of a given substance taken in during one
day through the consumption of food. The daily intake by inhalation is calculated by multiplying the
concentration of the substance (or agent) in air by the total amount of air inhaled during one day (24 hours).
The total daily intake is the sum of the daily intake by an individual from food, drinking-water, and inhaled air
(WHO, 1979).
interpretation of data: The evaluation of all the facts available from a given investigation or study with a view
to their significance for health (IRPTC, 1982).

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intervention study: An epidemiologic investigation designed to test a hypothesized cause-effect relationship
by modifying a supposed causal factor in a population (Last, 1988).
intestinal reabsorption: Absorption further down the intestinal tract of material that has been absorbed
before and subsequently excreted into the intestinal tract, usually through the bile (WHO, 1979).
intravenous: Into or inside the vein
in vitro: A term applied to any study carried out in isolation from the living organism in an experimental
system (`in a test tube').
in vivo: The term used in contrast with `in vitro' describing any study carried out within the living organism.
irritant: Applied to any substance causing inflammation following immediate, prolonged or repeated contact
with skin or mucous membranes.
latent period (synonym: latency): Delay between exposure to a disease-causing agent and the appearance
of manifestations of the disease. After exposure to ionizing radiation, for instance, there is a latent period of
five years, on average, before development of leukemia, and more than 20 years before development of
certain other malignant conditions. The term ``latent period'' is often used as synonym with ``induction period'',
that is, the period between exposure to a disease-causing agent and the appearance of manifestations of the
disease. It has also been defined as the period from disease initiation to disease detection (Last, 1988).
LC50: This abbreviation is used for the exposure concentration of a toxic substance lethal to 50% of a test
population. See median lethal concentration.
LD50: This abbreviation is used for the dose of a toxic substance lethal to 50% of a test population. See
median lethal dose.
limit of detection: (i) The smallest amount, or lowest concentration, of a given substance that a given
procedure will detect (WHO, 1980); (ii) for a pesticide residue it is the lowest concentration that can be
qualitatively detected in a specified commodity (WHO, 1976).
limit of determination (pesticide residue): The limit of determination of a method of analysis is the lowest
concentration of a pesticide residue that can be quantitatively measured in the specified commodity with an
acceptable degree of certainty (WHO, 1976).
lower explosive limit (LEL): The lower limit of flammability of a gas or vapour at normal ambient
temperatures expressed as percentage of the gas or vapour in air by volume. This limit is assumed constant
for temperatures up to 130oC.
mainstream smoke (tobacco smoking): The smoke that is inhaled.
malignant: Adjective describing cells in a cancerous growth. See tumour.
mass mean diameter: The diameter of a particle with a mass equal to the mean mass of all the particles in
the population (IAEA, 1978).
mass median diameter: The diameter of a particle with the median mass (IAEA, 1978).
maximum allowable concentration (MAC): Exposure concentration not to be exceeded under any
circumstances.
maximum residue limit: The maximum concentration of a pesticide residue resulting from the use of a
pesticide according to good agricultural practice directly or indirectly for the production and/or protection of the

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commodity for which the limit is recommended. The maximum residue limit should be legally recognized. It is
expressed in milligrams of the residue per kilogram of the commodity (WHO, 1976).
mean life (synonym: mean time, turnover time): The average lifetime of an atomic or nuclear system in a
specified state. For an exponentially decaying system, it is the average time for the number of atoms or nuclei
in a specified state to decrease by a factor of e (ISO, 1972).
median lethal concentration: Statistically derived concentration of a chemical in water solution that can be
expected to cause death in 50% of given population of organism under defined set of experimental conditions.
median lethal dose: Statistically derived single dose of a chemical that can be expected to cause death in
50% of given population of organism under defined set of experimental conditions (for example oral
administration, rat).
mesothelioma: Malignant spreading tumour in mesothelium of pleura, pericardium or peritoneum arising as a
result of the presence of asbestos fibres, after exposure to asbestos.
metabolic activation: Biotransformation of relatively inert chemicals to biologically reactive metabolites
(compounds). See biotransformation.
metabolic half-life (synonym:metabolic half-time): The time required for one half of the quantity of the
compound in the body to be metabolically transformed into a modified chemical compound (WHO, 1979).
metabolic model: An analysis and theoretical reconstruction of the way in which the body deals with a
specific substance, showing the proportion of the intake that is absorbed, the proportion that is stored and in
what tissues, the proportion and rate of breakdown in the body and the subsequent fate of the metabolic
products, and the proportion of the substance and the rate at which it is eliminated by different organs (WHO,
1979).
metabolic transformation (synonym: biotransformation): The chemical transformation of substances that
takes place within an organism (WHO, 1979).
metabolism: In general, the sum total of all physical and chemical processes that take place within an
organism; in a narrower sense, the physical and chemical changes that take place in a given chemical substance within an organism. It includes the uptake and distribution within the body of chemical compounds, the
changes (biotransformations) undergone by such substances, and the elimination of the compounds and of
their metabolites (WHO, 1979).
metabolite: A substance resulting from chemical transformation in an organism (WHO, 1979).
methaemoglobin/methaemoglobinaemia: In some poisonings, haemoglobin (the substance in the red blood
cells to which the oxygen is fixed) may be transformed to methaemoglobin. Methaemoglobin lacks the ability
of binding the oxygen, concequently lack of oxygen occures in the organism. When a certain amount of
haemoglobi has been transformed to methaemoglobin, mucous memranes and skin become bluish and
discolored.
model: A formalized expression of a theory or the causal situation which is regarded as having generated
observed data. In statistical analyses the model is generally expressed in symbols, that is to say in a
mathematical form, but diagrammatic models are also found (Kendall & Buckland, 1982).
molluscicide: A chemical used to kill molluscs.
monitoring (for health, environmental, and associated technical purposes): The repetitive and continued
observation, measurement, and evaluation of health and/or environmental or technical data for defined
purposes, according to prearranged schedules in space and time, and using comparable methods for sensing
and data collection (WHO, 1980).

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morbidity: Any departure, subjective or objective, from a state of physiological or psychological well-being. In
this sense, sickness, illness, and morbid condition are similarly defined and synonymous (Last, 1988).
The WHO Expert Committee on Health Statistics noted in its Sixth report (1959) that morbidity could be
measured in terms of three units: (i) persons who were ill; (ii) the illnesses (periods or spells of illnesses) that
these persons experienced; and (iii) the duration (days, weeks, etc.) of these illnesses (Last, 1988).
morbidity survey: A method for the estimation of the prevalence and/or incidence of disease or diseases in a
population. A morbidity survey is usually designed simply to ascertain the facts as to disease distribution, and
not to test a hypothesis (Last, 1988).
mortality rate: See death rate.
multigeneration study: Toxicity test in which at least 3 generations of the test organism are exposed to the
substance being assessed. Exposure is usually continuous.
multiple (or multiphasic) screening: This procedure has evolved by combining single screening tests, and
is the logical corollary of mass screening. Where much time and effort has been spent by a population in
attending for a single test (e.g., mass radiography), it is natural to consider the economy of offering other tests
at the same time. Multiple (or multiphasic) screening implies the administration of a number of tests, in
combination, to large groups of people (Wilson & Jungner, 1968).
multistage cluster sampling: Cluster sampling with more than two stages, each sampling being made on
aggregates (or clusters) in which the clusters already obtained by the preceding sampling have been divided
(ISO, 1977).
multistage sampling: A type of sampling in which the sample is selected by stages, the sampling units at
each stage being subsampled from the larger units chosen at the previous state (ISO, 1977).
mutagenicity: The property of a physical, chemical, or biological agent to induce mutations in living tissue
(WHO, 1979).
mutagen: An agent that induces mutation (WHO, 1979).
mutation: Any heritable change in genetic material. This may be a chemical transformation of an individual
gene (a gene or point mutation), which alters its function. On the other hand, this change may involve a
rearrangement, or a gain or loss of part of a chromosome, which may be microscopically visible. This is
designated a chromosomal mutation (WHO, 1979).
natural occurrence: The occurrence in nature of a compound, when there are no man-made sources of the
compound. The contamination of nature by some compounds may be so widespread that it is virtually
impossible at the present time to get access to biota with a natural level and only ``normal'' levels can be
measured, i.e., the levels that are usually prevalent at places where there is no obvious local contamination
(WHO, 1979).
necrosis: Mass death of areas of tissues surrounded by otherwise healthy tissue.
nematicide: A chemical used to kill nematodes.
neoplasm: Any formation of tissue assiciated with disease such as tumour. See malignant, tumour.
no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOEL): The greatest concentration or amount of a chemical, found by
experiment or observation, that causes no detectable adverse alteration of morphology, functional capacity,
growth, development, or life span of the target (WHO, 1979).

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nutritional table method: A method of evaluating the dietary intake of a large number of people. The
accuracy of the method largely depends on the accuracy with which records of the food consumption can be
established and the accuracy of the nutritional tables specifying the concentration of various nutrients,
vitamins, and essential and non-essential substances including pesticide residues. For each record of
quantity of food consumed during a certain time period, the daily intake of the substance in question is
calculated by multiplying the substance concentration in the food item (as obtained from the nutritional table)
by the quantity of food consumed and dividing by the time of observation (WHO, 1979).
objective environment: The actual physical, chemical, and social environment as described by objective
measurements, such as noise levels in decibels and concentrations of air pollutants (WHO, 1979).
occupational environment: The environment at a work place (WHO, 1979).
occupational hygiene: The applied science concerned with recognition, evaluation and control of chemical,
physical or biological factors arising from the workplace and which may affect the well-being of those at work
or in the community.
occurrence (synonym:frequency): In epidemiology, a general term describing the frequency of a disease or
other attribute or event in a population without distinguishing between incidence and prevalence (Last, 1988).
ocular: The adjective applying to anything pertaining to the eye.
odds: The ratio of the probability of occurrence of an event to that of non-occurrence, or the ratio of the
probability that something is so, to the probability that it is not so (from Last, 1983).
odds ratio (synonym:cross-product ratio, relative odds): The ratio of two odds. The term ``odds'' is defined
differently according to the situation under discussion. Consider the following notation for the distribution of a
binary exposure and a disease in a population or a sample.

Disease
No disease

Exposed
a
c

Unexposed
b
d

The odds ratio (cross-product ratio) is ad/bc.


The exposure-odds ratio for a set of case control data is the ratio of the odds in favour of exposure
among the cases (a/b) to the odds in favour of exposure among non-cases (c/d). This reduces to
ad/bc. With incident cases, unbiased subject selection, and a ``rare'' disease (say, under 2%
cumulative incidence rate over the study period), ad/bc is an approximate estimate of the risk ratio.
With incident cases, unbiased subject selection, and density sampling of controls, ad/bc is an
estimate of the ratio of the person-time incidence rates (forces of morbidity) in the exposed and
unexposed (no rarity assumption is required for this).
The disease-odds (rate-odds) ratio for a cohort or cross-section is the ratio of the odds in favour of
disease among the exposed (a/c) to the odds in favour of disease among the unexposed (b/d). This
reduces to ad/bc and hence is equal to the exposure-odds ratio for the P> abiotic: This
The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross- sectionally, as, for example, an
odds ratio derived from studies of prevalent (rather than incident) cases.
The risk-odds ratio is the ratio of the odds in favour of getting disease, if exposed, to the odds in
favour of getting disease if not exposed. The odds ratio derived from a cohort study is an estimate of
this (Last, 1983).

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oxidizing: This adjective applied to a chemical is a substance which gives off oxygen to another substance.
Oxidizing chamicals may increase ans sustain fires. For example, chemicals belonging to following groups
may act as oxidizers: bromates, chlorates, chromates, dichromates, iodates, nitrates, oxides, perborate,
perbromates, perchlorates, periodates, permanganates and peroxodes.
partition coefficient: The constant ratio that is found when a heterogenous system of two phases is in
equilibrium; the ratio of the concentrations of the same molecular species (substance) in two phases (usually
water and octanol) is constant at given temperature and pressure.
persistence: When applied to a chemical this has a meaning of ability to remain unchanged in the
environment.
pesticides: This is a descriptor applied to chemicals used to kill pests and minimize their impact in
agriculture, health and other human interests. Pesticides are often classified according to the organisms
which they are used to control, for example as fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, molluscicides,
nematicides, rodenticides, etc.
pesticide residue: A pesticide residue is any substance or mixture of substances in food for man or animals
resulting from the use of a pesticide and includes any specified derivatives, such as degradation and
conversion products, metabolites, reaction products, and impurities that are considered to be of toxicological
significance (WHO, 1976).
pH: A mean to express and to compare the acidity and alkalinity of a solution. It is expressed in a scale from 0
to 14. The solution of pH 7 is neutral; if the pH is lower than 7 the solution is acidic; if the pH is higher than 7
the solution is alkaline (basic).
point source: A single source, usually in a defined location (WHO, 1979).
pollutant: Any undesirable solid, liquid, or gaseous matter in a gaseous, liquid, or solid medium (ISO, 1977).
For the meaning of ``undesirable'' in air pollution contexts, see pollution. A primary pollutant is a pollutant
emitted into the atmosphere from an identifiable source. A secondary pollutant is a pollutant formed by
chemical reaction in the atmosphere (WHO, 1980).
pollution: The introduction of pollutants into a solid, liquid, or gaseous medium, the presence of pollutants in
a solid, liquid, or gaseous medium, or any undesirable modification of the composition of a solid, liquid, or
gaseous medium (ISO, 1979). For air pollution, an undesirable modification is one that has injurious or
deleterious effects.
population (general usage): The total number of persons inhabiting a country, town, or other area. A
population may also be defined by some other characteristic (such as biological, legal, social, or economic)
than living in a particular area, e.g., the male population, the gainfully occupied population.
population (statistics): The totality of items under consideration. Every clearly defined part of a population is
called a ``subpopulation''. In the case of a random variable, the probability distribution is considered as
defining the population of that variable (ISO, 1977). The term Population Segment is sometimes used as a
synonym for subpopulation.
population at risk: The number of people who can develop the adverse health effect under study and who
are potentially exposed to the risk factor of interest. For example, all people in a population who have not
developed immunity to an infectious disease are at risk of developing the disease, if they are exposed.
Similarly, people already having chronic disease are excluded from the population at risk in studies of the
incidence of the disease (WHO, 1979).
population critical concentration (PCC): The concentration of a chemical in the critical organ (toxicology) at
which a specified percentage of the exposed population has reached their individual critical organ

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concentrations. The percentage indicated by PCC-10 for 10%, PCC- 50 for 50% etc. (similar to the use of the
term LC50) (Kjellstrm et al., 1984).
potential daily intake: The potential daily intake of a pesticide is the theoretical intake calculated on the basis
of the maximum residue limits and/or extraneous residue limits and the per caput consumption of the relevant
food commodities per day. The same concept applies to food additive intakes (Vettorazzi, 1980).
potentiation: The joint action of two or more chemicals on an organism is more than additive (WHO, 1978a).
ppb: parts per billion
ppm: parts per million
precision: The closeness of agreement between the results obtained by applying the experimental procedure
several times under prescribed conditions (ISO, 1977).
prevalence: The number of instances of a given disease or other condition in a given population at a
designated time; sometimes used to mean prevalence rate. When used without qualification, the term usually
refers to the situation at a specified point in time (point prevalence).
prevalence, annual(an occasionally used index): The total number of persons with the disease or
attribute at any time during a year. It includes cases of the disease arising before but extending into or
through the year as well as those having their inception during the year.
prevalence, lifetime: The total number of persons known to have had the disease or attribute for at
least part of their life.
prevalence, period: The total number of persons known to have had the disease or attribute at any
time during a specified period.
prevalence, point: The number of persons with a disease or an attribute at a specified point in time
(Last, 1988).
prevalence rate (ratio): The total number of individuals who have an attribute or disease at a
particular time (or during a particular period) divided by the population at risk of having the attribute or
disease at this point in time or midway through the period. A problem may arise with calculating
period prevalence rates because of the difficulty of defining the most appropriate denominator (Last,
1988).
primary pollutant: See pollutant.
primary protection standard: An accepted maximum level of a pollutant (or its indicator) in the target, or
some part thereof, or an accepted maximum intake of a pollutant or nuisance into the target under specified
circumstances (UN, 1972).
proportionate mortality rate, ratio (PMR): Number of deaths from a given cause in a specified time period,
per 100 or 1000 total deaths in the same time period. Can give rise to misleading conclusions if used to
compare mortality experience of populations with different distributions of causes of death (Last, 1988).
public health impact assessment: Application of risk assessment procedures to a specific target population.
The size of the populations needs to be known. The end product is a quantitative statement about the number
of people affected in the specific target populations (WHO, 1988).
prospective cohort study: See cohort study.

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quantal effect: An effect that can be expressed only as ``occurring'' or ``not occurring'' (Finney, 1971). Typical
examples of quantal effects are death or occurrence of a tumour.
radioactive half-life: (i) For a single radioactive decay process, the time required for the activity to decrease
to half its value by that process (ISO, 1972); (ii) the time taken for the activity of an amount of radioactive
nuclide to fall to half its initial value (ICRU, 1980).
rate: A measure of the frequency of a phenomenon. An expression of the frequency with which an event
occurs in a defined population (from Last, 1988).
rate difference (RD): The absolute difference between two rates, for example, the difference in incidence rate
between a population group exposed to a causal factor and a population group not exposed to the factor:
RD = Ie - Iu
where Ie= incidence rate among exposed, and I u = incidence rate among unexposed. In comparisons of
exposed and unexposed groups, the term excess rate may be used as a synonym for rate difference (Last,
1988).
rate ratio (RR): The ratio of two rates. The term is used in epidemiologic research with a precise meaning,
i.e., the ratio of the rate in the exposed population to the rate in the unexposed population:
Ie
RR = ------------------Iu
where Ie is the incidence rate among exposed and Iu is the incidence rate among unexposed (Last, 1988).
reference population: The standard against which a population that is being studied can be compared (Last,
1988).
relative risk: (i) The ratio of the risk of disease or death among the exposed to the risk among the
unexposed; this usage is synonymous with risk ratio; (ii) alternatively, the ratio of the cumulative incidence
rate in the exposed to the cumulative incidence rate in the unexposed, i.e., the cumulative incidence ratio, and
(iii) the term ``relative risk'' has also been used synonymously with ``odds ratio'' and, in some biostatistical
articles, has been used for the ratio of forces of morbidity. The use of the term ``relative risk'' for several
different quantities arises from the fact that for ``rare'' diseases (e.g., most cancers) all the quantities
approximate one another. For common occurrences (e.g., neonatal mortality in infants under 1500g birth
weight), the approximations do not hold (Last, 1988).
renal elimination: Excretion of a substance through the kidneys
replicate sampling: The act of taking several samples concurrently under comparable conditions (WHO,
1979).
replication: During the course of an experiment or survey, replication is the determination of a value more
than once, so as to obtain a better estimation of the variation. Replication should be distinguished from
repetition by the fact that replication of an experiment denotes repeated determinations carried out, as far as
possible, at one place and one period of time. The successive determinations, including the first, are called
replicates (ISO, 1977).
reproductive effects: The adverse effects of a chemical on any aspects of reproduction in an organism
(WHO, 1979).

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response: The proportion of an exposed population with an effect or the proportion of a group of individuals
that demonstrate a defined effect in a given time (e.g., death) (WHO, 1979).
retention: The amount of substance that is left of the deposited amount after a certain time. If the retention
follows a course in relation to time that is a first-order process, it may be described in terms of biological halflife (WHO, 1979).
retrospective study: A research design which is used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about
exposure to the putative causal factor(s) are derived from data relating to characteristics of the persons under
study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study
have the disease or other outcome condition of interest, and their characteristics and past experiences are
compared with those of other, unaffected persons. Persons who differ in the severity of the disease may also
be compared (from Last, 1983).
risk: The probability that an event will occur, e.g., that an individual will become ill or die within a stated period
of time or age. Also, a nontechnical term encompassing a variety of measures of the probability of a
(generally) unfavourable outcome (Last, 1988). Risk should not be confused with the term "hazard". Risk is
most correctly applied to predicted or actual frequency of occurrence of an adverse effect of a chemical or
other hazard.
risk assessment: A combination of hazard identification, quantification of risk resulting from a specific use or
occurrence of a chemical, taking into account the possible harmful effects on individual people or society of
using the chemical in the amount and manner proposed and all the possible routes of exposure.
Quantification ideally requires the establishment of dose-effect and dose-response relationships in likely
target individuals and populations. Compare "risk evaluation".
risk assessment management process: A global term for the whole activity from hazard identification to risk
management (WHO, 1988).
risk characterization: The outcome of hazards identification and risk estimation applied to a specific use or
occurrence of an environmental health hazard (e.g., a chemical compound). The assessment requires
quantitative data on the human exposure in the specific situation. The end product is a quantitative statement
about the proportion of affected people in a target population (WHO, 1988).
risk estimation: The quantification of dose-effect and dose-response relationships for a given environmental
agent, showing the probability and nature of the health effects of exposure to the agent (WHO, 1988).
risk evaluation: Risk evaluation involves the establishment of qualitative or quantitative relationship between
risks and benefits, involving the complex process of determining the significance of identified hazards and
estimated risks to those organisms or people concerned with or affected by them.
risk management: The managerial, decision-making and control process to deal with those environmental
agents for which risk evaluation has indicated that the risk is too high (WHO, 1988).
risk marker (synonym: risk indicator): An attribute that is associated with an increased probability of
occurrence of a disease or other specified outcome and that can be used as an indicator of this increased
risk. Not necessarily a causal factor (Last, 1988).
risk monitoring: The process of following up decisions and actions within risk management in order to check
whether the aims of reduced exposure and risk are achieved (WHO, 1988).
rodenticide: A chemical used to kill rodents (rats).
safety (of a drug or other chemical substance for human health): The extent to which a chemical
substance may be used in the amounts necessary for intended purposes with a minimum risk of adverse
health effects (WHO, 1979).

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safety factors (in food additives and contaminants): A factor applied to the no-observed-effect level to
derive acceptable daily intake (ADI) (the no-observed-effect level is divided by the safety factor to calculate
the ADI). The value of the safety factor depends on the nature of the toxic effect, the size and type of
population to be protected, and the quality of the toxicological information available (WHO, 1987).
sample: One or more items taken from a population and intended to provide information on the population,
and possibly to serve as a basis for a decision on the population or on the process which had produced it
(ISO, 1977).
sampling: The procedure used to constitute a sample (ISO, 1977).
sampling error: Part of the total estimation error of a parameter due to the random nature of the sample
(ISO, 1977).
screening: The presumptive identification of unrecognized disease or defect by the application of tests,
examinations, or other procedures which can be applied rapidly. A screening test is not intended to be
diagnostic. Persons with positive or suspicious findings must be referred to their physicians for diagnosis and
necessary treatment.
Screening is an initial examination only, and positive responders require a second, diagnostic examination.
The initiative for screening usually comes from the investigator or the person or agency providing care rather
than from a patient with a complaint. Screening is usually concerned with chronic illness and aims to detect
disease not yet under medical care (from Last, 1988).
secondary pollutant: See pollutant.
sediment: Material that occurs on the bottom of a water stream and is the result of sedimentation of
suspended matter (WHO, 1979).
sedimentation: The effect of gravitational forces resulting in the separation of particles from the fluid in which
they are suspended (ISO, 1979)
sensitivity (in chemical analysis): For a simple procedure, the slope of the analytical calibration curve, i.e.,
the differential of the measure (x) with respect to concentration (c) (i.e., dx/dc). The greater the value of this
derivative, the greater the sensitivity. Sensitivity should not be confused with limit of detection (IUPAC, 1976).
sensitivity and specificity (of a screening test): Sensitivity is the proportion of truly diseased persons in the
screened population who are identified as diseased by the screening test. Sensitivity is a measure of the
probability of correctly diagnosing a case, or the probability that any given case will be identified by the test
(synonym: true positive rate).
Specificity is the proportion of truly nondiseased persons who are so identified by the screening test. It is a
measure of the probability of correctly identifying a nondiseased person with a screening test (synonym: true
negative rate). The relationships are shown in the following fourfold table, in which the letters a, b, c, and d
represent the quantities specified below the table.
Screening test results

True status
Diseased
Not diseased
Positive
a
b
Negative
c
d
Total
a+c
b+d
a.
Diseased
individuals
detected
by
the
test
b.
Nondiseased
individuals
positive
by
the
test
c. Diseased individuals not detectable by the test
d. Nondiseased individuals negative by the test (true negatives)

Total
a+b
c+d
a+b+c+d
(true
positives)
(false
positives)
(false negatives)

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a
Sensitivity =------a+c

d
Specificity= -------b+d
a

Predictive value (positive test result) = -----a+b


d
Predictive value (negative test result) = -----c+d
(Last, 1988).
sensitization: This term is applied to the exposure to a substance (allergen) which provokes a response in
the immune system such that disease symptoms will ensue on subsequent encounters with the same
substance. See hypersensitivity, immune system.
short term exposure limit (STEL): According to American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists,
this is the time-weighted average (TWA) airborne concentration to which workers may be exposed for periods
up to 15 minutes, which no more than 4 such excursions per day and at least 60 minutes between them. See
time-weighted average.
sidestream smoke: The smoke that is given off from the cigarette (pipe, cigar) between puffs and is not
directly inhaled by the smoker.
silicosis: Damage to the lungs caused by exposure to materials containing crystalline silicon dioxide which is
found in three different forms: quatrz, tridymite and cristobalite.
specificity (in chemical analysis): The degree to which a given analytical procedure detects a specified
component but not other components that may be present in the sample (WHO, 1979).
standardization: A set of techniques used to remove as far as possible the effects of differences in age or
other confounding variables, when comparing two or more populations. The common method uses weighted
averaging of rates specific for age, sex, or some other potential confounding variable(s) according to some
specified distribution of these variables. There are two main methods, as follows:
Direct method: The specific rates in a study population are averaged, using as weights the
distribution of a specified standard population. The directly standardized rate represents what the
crude rate would have been in the study population if that population had the same distribution as the
standard population with respect to the variable(s) for which the adjustment or standardization was
carried out.
Indirect method: This is used to compare study populations for which the specific rates are either
statistically unstable or unknown. The specific rates in the standard population are averaged, using as
weights the distribution of the study population. The ratio of the crude rate for the study population to
the weighted average so obtained is the standardized mortality (or morbidity) ratio, or SMR. The
indirectly standardized rate itself is the product of the SMR and the crude rate for the standard
population (Last, 1988).
standardized mortality (morbidity) ratio (SMR): The ratio of the number of events observed in the study
group or population to the number of deaths expected if the study population had the same specific rates as
the standard population, multiplied by 100 (Last, 1988).
stochastic effect: Effect for which the probability of occurrence depends on the absorbed dose. Hereditary
effects and cancer induced by radiation are considered to be stochastic effects (ICRP, 1977). The term

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``stochastic'' indicates that the occurrence of effects so named would be random. This means that, even for
an individual, there is no threshold of dose below which the effect will not appear, but the chance of
experiencing the effect increases with increasing dose (WHO, 1979).
stratification: The process of or result of separating a sample into several subsamples according to specified
criteria such as age groups, socioeconomic status, etc. The effect of confounding variables may be controlled
by stratifying the analysis of results. For example, lung cancer is known to be associated with smoking. To
examine the possible association between urban atmospheric pollution and lung cancer, controlling for
smoking, the population may be divided into strata according to smoking status. The association between air
pollution and cancer can then be appraised separately within each stratum. Stratification is used not only to
control for confounding effects but also as a way of detecting modifying effects. In this example, stratification
makes it possible to examine the effect of smoking on the association between atmospheric pollution and lung
cancer (Last, 1988).
stratified sampling: Of a population which can be divided into different subpopulations (called strata),
sampling carried out in such a way that specific proportions of the sample are drawn from the different strata
(ISO, 1977).
subacute toxicity test: An animal experiment serving to study the effects produced by the test material when
administered in repeated doses (or continuously in food, drinking water) over a period of up to about 90 days
(WHO, 1979).
subjective environment (synonym:perceived environment): The environment as it is perceived by persons
living in it, e.g., eye irritation caused by air pollution, or pleasure arising from good housing conditions (WHO,
1979).
surfactant: The descriptor for any substance that lowers the surface tension.
surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny, generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and
frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy. Its main purpose is to detect changes in trend or
distribution in order to initiate investigative or control measures (Last, 1988).
synergistic effect: A synergistic effect is any effect of two chemicals acting together which is greater than a
simple sum of their effects when acting alone.
systemic toxicity: This term is applied when a substance affects a system in the organism other than and
often distant from the site of application or exposure.
systems analysis: The analysis of an existing or proposed system in order to find optimal solutions for
achieving the objectives of the system. The method owes much to the development of computer logic, and
computerized methods of data control are used in the systems analysis when necessary (WHO, 1979).
target (biological): Any organism, organ, tissue, or cell that is subject to the action of a pollutant or other
chemical, physical, or biological agent (WHO, 1979).
target (of environmental pollution): A human being or any organism, organ, tissue, cell, resource, or any
constituent of the environment, living or not, that is subject to the activity of a pollutant or other chemical or
physical activity or other agent (WHO, 1979).
target organ(s): Organ(s) in which the toxic injury manifests itself in terms of dysfunction or overt disease
(WHO, 1979).
target population: (i) The collection of individuals, items, measurements, etc., about which we want to make
inferences. The term is sometimes used to indicate the population from which a sample is drawn and
sometimes to denote any ``reference'' population about which inferences are required; (ii) The group of
persons for whom an intervention is planned (Last, 1988).

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temporary acceptable daily intake: Used when data are sufficient to conclude that use of the substance is
safe over the relatively short period of time required to generate and evaluate further safety data, but are
insufficient to conclude that use of the substance is safe over a lifetime. A higher-than-normal safety factor is
used when establishing a temporary ADI and an expiration date is established by which time appropriate data
to resolve the safety issue should be available (WHO, 1987).
temporary maximum residue limit: A temporary maximum residue limit is a maximum residue limit
established for a specified, limited period when (i) only a temporary or conditional acceptable daily intake has
been established for the pesticide concerned, or (ii) although an acceptable daily intake has been established,
the residue data are inadequate for firm maximum residue recommendations (WHO, 1976).
teratogen: This is the descriptor applied to any substance that can cause non-heritable birth defects.
teratogenicity: The property (or potential) to produce structural malformations or defects in an embryo or
fetus (WHO, 1987).
threshold limit value (TLV): This is a quideline value defined by the by the American Conference of
Government Industrial Hygienists to establish the airborne concentration of a potentially toxic substance to
which it is believed that healthy working adults may be exposed safely through a 40 hour working week and a
full working life. This concentration is measured as a time-weighted average concentration. They are
developed only as a quidelines to assist in the control of health hazards and are not developed for use as
legal standards.
time-weighted average (TWA) exposure: This is a regulatory value defining the concentration of a
substance to which a person is exposed in ambient air divided by the total time of observation. For
occupational exposure a working shift of eight hours is commonly used as the averaging time.
tolerance: Tolerance is the ability to experience exposure to potentially harmful amounts of a substance
without showing an adverse effect. An adaptive state characterized by diminished responses to the same
dose of a chemical (WHO, 1979).
total diet study: A total diet study is a study designed to establish the pattern of pesticide residue intake by a
person consuming a defined diet (WHO, 1979).
total diet studies: Studies undertaken to show the range and amount of various foodstuffs in the typical diet
or to estimate the total amount of a specific substance (e.g., pesticide residue, vitamin, or food contaminant)
in a typical diet (WHO, 1979).
toxicity: The toxicity of a substance is the capacity to cause injury to a living organism (WHO, 1978a). A
highly toxic substance will cause damage to an organism if administered in very small amounts and a
substance of low toxicity will not produce an effect unless the amount is very large. However, toxicity cannot
be defined in quantitative terms without reference to the quantity of substance administered or absorbed, the
way in which this quantity is administered (e.g., inhalation, ingestion, injection) and distributed in time (e.g.,
single or repeated doses), the type and severity of injury, and the time needed to produce the injury (WHO,
1979).
acute toxicity: Adverse effects occurring within a short time of administration of a single dose of a
chemical, or immediately following short or continuous exposure, or multiple doses over 24 hours or
less.
subacute toxicity: Adverse effects occurring as a result of repeated daily dosing of a chemical, or
exposure of the chemical, for part of an organism's lifespan (usually not exceeding 10%). With
experimental animals, the period of exposure may range from a few days to 6 months.
chronic toxicity: Adverse effects occurring as a result of repeated dosing with a chemical on a daily
basis, or exposure of the chemical, for large part of an organism's lifespan (usually more than 50%).

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With experimental animals, this usually means a period of exposure of more than 3 months. Chronic
exposure studies over 2 years using rats or mice are used to assess the carcinogenic potential of
chemicals.
toxicokinetics: A term with the same meaning as chemobiokinetics for substances not used as drugs (WHO,
1979).
toxicometry: A combination of investigation methods and techniques for making a quantitative assessment of
toxicity and hazards of poisons (UNEP/IRPTC, 1982).
trophic level: The amount of energy, in terms of food, that an organism needs. Organisms capable of utilizing
inorganic chemicals, e.g., plants, or food of low energy content are said to be on a low trophic level whereas,
for example, predator species needing food of high energy content are said to be on a high trophic level. The
trophic level, thus, indicates the level of the organism in the food chain (WHO, 1979).
tumour: (neoplasm): This term describes any growth of tissue forming an abnormal mass. Cells of a benign
tumour will not spread and will not cause cancer. Cells of a malignant tumour can spread through the body
and cause cancer.
units of measurement: The base units of the SI system are: metre (m), kilogram (kg), second (s), ampere
(A), kelvin (K), candela (cd), and mole (mol) (BIPM, 1979).
uptake (synonym: absorption): The entry of a chemical substance into the body, into a cell, or into the body
fluids by passage through a membrane or by other means (WHO, 1979).
validity, measurement: An expression of the degree to which a measurement measures what it purports to
measure.
Several varieties are distinguished, including construct validity, content validity, and criterion validity
(concurrent and predictive validity).
construct validity: The extent to which the measurement corresponds to theoretical concepts
(constructs) concerning the phenomenon under study. For example, if on theoretical grounds, the
phenomenon should change with age, a measurement with construct validity would reflect such a
change.
content validity: The extent to which the measurement incorporates the domain of the phenomenon
under study. For example, a measurement of functional health status should embrace activities of
daily living, occupational, family, and social functioning, etc.
criterion validity: The extent to which the measurement correlates with an external criterion of the
phenomenon under study. Two aspects of criterion validity can be distinguished.
(1) Concurrent validity. The measurement and the criterion refer to the same point in time. An
example would be a visual inspection of a wound for evidence of infection validated against
bacteriological examination of a specimen taken at the same time.
(2) Predictive validity. The measurement's validity is expressed in terms of its ability to predict the
criterion. An example would be an academic aptitude test that was validated against subsequent
academic performance (Last, 1988).
validity, study: The degree to which the inference drawn from a study, especially generalizations extending
beyond the study sample, are warranted when account is taken of the study methods, the representatives of
the study sample, and the nature of the population from which it is drawn. Two varieties of study validity are
distinguished:

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(1) Internal validity: The index and comparison groups are selected and compared in such a manner
that the observed differences between them on the dependent variables under study may, apart from
sampling error, be attributed only to the hypothesized effect under investigation.
(2) External validity (generalizability): A study is externally valid or generalizable if it can produce
unbiased inferences regarding a target population (beyond the subjects in the study). This aspect of
validity is only meaningful with regard to a specified external target population. For example, the
results of a study conducted using only white male subjects might or might not be generalizable to all
human males (the target population consisting of all human males). It is not generalizable to females
(the target population consisting of all people). The evaluation of generalizability usually involves
much more subject-matter judgment than internal validity (Last, 1988).
Xenobiotic: A xenobiotic is a chemical which is not natural component of the organism exposed to it.
Synonyms: drug, foreign substance or compound.

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REFERENCES
BIPM (1977) Le systme international d'units(SI) Svres, Bureau international des Poids et Mesures.
BISHOP, C.A. (1957) EJC policy statement on air pollution and its control. Chem. eng. Process, 53(11): 146170.
DUSTMAN, E.H. & STICKEL, L.F. (1969) The occurrence and significance of pesticide residue in wild
animals. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 160: 162-170.
FINNEY, D.G. (1971) Probit Analysis, 3rd ed., London, Cambridge University Press.
HAGAN, J.M. (1959) Acute toxicity. Q. J. Assoc. Food Drug Off., 22: 17-25.
IAEA (1978) Particle size analysis in estimating the significance of airborne contamination, Vienna,
International Atomic Energy Agency (Technical Report Series No. 179).
IARC (1977) IARC monograph programme on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans,
Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer (Technical Report No. 77/002).
ICRP (1965) Principles of environmental monitoring related to the handling of radioactive materials. Report of
Committee IV of the International Commission on Radiological Protection, Oxford, Pergamon Press.
ICRP (1977) Radiation protection. Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological
Protection, Oxford, Pergamon Press (Annals of the IPRP, Publication No. 26).
ICRU (1980) Radiation quantities and units, Washington, DC, International Commission on Radiation Units
and Measurements (ICRU Report No. 33).
ILO (1977) Code of practice on occupational exposure to airborne substances harmful to health, Geneva,
International Labour Office (MELE/1977/V).
ISO (1972) Nuclear energy glossary, Geneva, International Organization for Standardization (ISO, 921).
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2041).
ISO (1977) Statistics - Vocabulary and symbols, Geneva, International Organization for Standardization (ISO,
3534).
ISO (1979) Cleaning equipment for air or other gases - Vocabulary, Geneva, International Organization for
Standardization (ISO, 3649).
ISO (1980) Air quality: General Aspects - Vocabulary, Geneva, International Organization for Standardization
(ISO, 3649).
ISO (1981) Terms and definitions used in connection with reference materials, Geneva, International
Organization for Standardization (ISO Guide 30).
IUPAC (1972) Manual of symbols and terminology for physicochemical quantities and units. Appendix:
Definitions, terminology and symbols in colloid and surface chemistry.Pure appl. Chem., 31: 577-638.

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IUPAC (1976) Nomenclature, symbols, units and their usage in spectrochemical analysis: II. Data
interpretation. Pure appl. Chem., 45: 99-103.
KJELLSTROM, T., ELINDER, C.G., & FRIBERG, L. (1984) Conceptual problems in establishing the critical
concentration of cadmium in human kidney cortex. Environ. Res.,33: 284-295.
LAST, J.M. (1988) A dictionary of epidemiology: A handbook sponsored by the International Epidemiological
Association, 2nd ed., New York, Oxford, Toronto, Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford University Press.
TASK GROUP ON METAL ACCUMULATION (1973) Accumulation of toxic metals with special reference to
their absorption, excretion and biological half-time. Environ. Physiol. Biochem.,3: 65-107.
TASK GROUP ON METAL TOXICITY (1976) In: Nordberg, G.F., ed. Effect and dose-response relationships of
toxic metals, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science Publishers, pp. 1-111.
UN (1972) Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm, 5-16 June,
1972, New York, United Nations (A/CONF.48/14/Rev.1).
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Moscow, Centre of International Projects, GKNT, 68 pp.
VETTORAZZI, G., ed. (1980) Handbook of international food regulatory toxicology - Vol. 1: Evaluations, New
York, Spectrum Publications Inc.
WAGNER, H.J., ed. (1986) Principles of nuclear medicine, Philadelphia, W.B. Saunders.
WHO (1966) Expert Committee on Health Statistics. Prevalence and incidence. Bull. World Health Organ., 35:
783-784.
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Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity of Chemicals), 19 pp.
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Party of Experts on Pesticide Residues and the WHO Expert Committee on Pesticide Residues), 45 pp.
WHO (1978a) Environmental Health Criteria 6: Principles and methods for evaluating the toxicity of
chemicals, Part I, Geneva, World Health Organization, 272 pp.
WHO (1978b) Primary health care. Report of the International WHO/UNICEF Conference on Primary Health
Care, Alma Ata, USSR, 6-12 September 1978, Geneva, World Health Organization.
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Working Group, 24-25 March, 1988, Geneva, World Health Organization (Annex 3).

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ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS


ACGIH
ADR
A.IC50
ANSI
ASTM
AVP
AVP(L)
APV
CAS
CC
CCOHS
CEC
CEFIC
CEPA
CFR
CIS
CMA
CMEA
CSDS
CSIN
CT
D.EC50
D.LD50
DI.LC50
DIN
EC
ECE
ECETOC
ECOSOC
EEC
EFTA
EINECS
EPA
EU
FAO
F.LC50
GESAMP
GI.LC50
HCS
I.LC50
IAEA
IARC
IATA
ICAO
ICCA
ICEF
ICFTU

American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists


European Agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road
Algae. Inhibitory concentration for 50% of population
American National Standards Institute
American Society for the Testing of Materials
Absolute vapour pressure
Absolute vapour pressure, in liquid state
Absolute pressure in vessel
Chemical Abstract Service (identity registry numbers for chemicals)
Closed cup test (flammability)
Canadian centre for Occupational Health and Safety
Commission of the European Communities
Conseil Europen des Fdrations de l'Industrie Chimique (European Chemical Industry
Council)
Canadian Environment Protection Act
Code of Federal Regulations (USA)
International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre/Centre international
d'informations sur la scurit et la sant au travail
Chemical Manufacturers Association (USA)
Council of Mutual Economic Association
Chemical Safety Data Sheet
Chemical Substances Information Network (US EPA)
Critical temperature
Daphnia. Effective dose 50%
Dermal Lethal Dose for 50% of population
Lethal concentration for 50% of population (Inhalation dust, mist, fumes)
Deutsche Institut fr Normung (Germany)
European Communities
UN Economic Commission for Europe (Geneva)
European Chemical Industry, Ecology and Toxicology Centre
UN Economic and Social Council
European Economic Community (see EU)
European Free Trade Association
European Inventory of Existing Commercial Substances
US Environmental Protection Agency
European Union (1994, new name of the European Economic Community)
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Fish Lethal Concentration for 50% of population
Group of Experts for the Scientific Assessment of Marine Pollution
Lethal concentration for 50% of population (Inhalation gases)
OSHA Hazard Communication Standard
Lethal Concentration (Inhalation)
International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna)
International Agency for Research on Cancer (Lyon, France)
International Air Transport Association
International Civil Aviation Organisation (Montreal)
International Council of Chemical Associations
International Chemical and Energy Workers Federation
International Council of Free Trade Unions

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ICSC
ILO
IMDG
IMO
IPCS
IRPTC
ISO
IUPAC
LC50
LD50
MARPOL
MSDS
NBS
NIOSH
NTP
NTP
O.LD
OECD
OEL
OSHA
RTECS
SOLAS 74
STEL
TDG
TLV
TSCA
TWA
UN/CETDG
UN No
UNRTDG
UNEP
UNESCO
VI.LC50
VP
WHMIS
WHO

BASICS OF CHEMICAL SAFETY


International Chemical Safety Card (IPCS)
International Labour Organisation
Intermodal transport of dangerous goods
International Maritime Organization
International Programme on Chemical Safety
International Registry of Potentially Toxic Chemicals
International Organization for Standardization
International Union of Pure and Applied Chemicals
Lethal Concentration for 50% of population
Lethal Dose for 50% of population
International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (73/78)
Material Safety Data Sheet
US National Bureau of Standards
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), USA
US National Toxicology Program
Normal temperature and pressure
Oral Lethal Dose
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development; has published `Guidelines for
Testing of Chemicals' which contain recommended testing methods for determing chemical
and physical properties and toxic and environmental effects of chemicals.
Occupational Exposure Limit
US Occupational Safety and Health Administration
Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances. An important database publihed in the
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Cincinnati, USA
International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea
Short Term Exposure Limit
Transport of Dangerous Goods
Threshold limit value (ACGIH)
Toxic Substances Control Act (USA)
Time weighted average (ACGIH)
UN Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
An identification number for chemicals listed in UN Recommendations on the Transport of
Dangerous Goods
UN Recommendations on the Transport of Dangerous Goods
United Nations Environment Programme
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
Lethal concentration for 50% of population (Inhalation vapours)
Vapour pressure
Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (Canada)
World Health Organisation

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