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THE UTILITY OF FACEBOOK WITH VIEW OF REVENUE

OPTIMIZATION FOR SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES IN PAKISTAN

BILAL MUNEER (13102)


JUNAID SHAH (17650)

In partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of BBA

Department of Management Sciences


Iqra University, Islamabad Campus
2014

ABSTRACT:

The advent of social media has not only helped a very smooth propagation of the motives of the
brand that it aims at conveying itself to its consumer audience but also helps to gain and retain
upon their consumer base. It has been a major factor in shaping up and conducting sales in
majority of small & medium scale businesses. Many budding entrepreneurial initiatives within
Pakistan now recognize social media as a platform which can help them build a solid foundation
for representation as well as conduct of their businesses and nurture strong growth without
staking much. Similarly, for established brands within Pakistan, social media has become a
major source of expression and branding for their concerned audience. Their behavior on the
platform as large scale organizations is what excites, inspires or de-motivates, helps educate &
learn and subsequently may either help them thrive at gaining their overall business objectives or
break their repute among consumers.
Social media is dominantly becoming a routine fixture among consumers from all walks of life,
not just within Pakistan but the world as a whole. Social media tools have helped brands translate
their aims, image and motives at a daily basis. It has bought consumers closer to their brands
with the impact of a click. Marketing, especially promotion work within that arena, using this
non-conventional tool in Pakistan that is steadily gaining a strong prominent place within all
corners of the business arena of this region, has continuously shaped towards more convenience
for business use to help brands operate better and subsequently growing to becoming more
competitive than ever. However, the utilization of social media by organizations is not merely
aimed at promoting brand image in a more lively and consistent manner but also has become a
key influence towards conducting or closing sales, especially for medium and small scaled
businesses.Not only in Pakistan but on the worldwide arena too, Business managers that are
using or beginning to use social media for the benefit of their businesses, sometimes find the use
of social media for businesses as a passing fad or feel that social media tools are not relevant for
their business or find it difficult to see the value of social media for business purposes. This
research paper is aimed at expressing clarity over optimization in use of Facebook in Pakistan for
small scale businesses with the view that optimum revenue generation is among the prime
ambitions of any for-profit business, regardless of its magnitude.

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DECLERATION FORM:

We, Bilal Muneer and Junaid Shah, hereby declare that the thesis titled the utility of Facebook
with view of maximum revenue optimization for small scale businesses in Pakistan is submitted
by us in fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of BBA-(H). This thesis represents
research carried out at Iqra University Islamabad Campus and aims encouraging discussion and
comment. The observations and viewpoints expressed are the sole responsibility of the authors. It
does not necessarily represent the position if Iqra University Islamabad Campus or its faculty.
We also understand that if evidence of plagiarism is found in our thesis at any stage, even after
award of a degree, the work maybe cancelled and the degree revoked.

Student full name:


1) Bilal Muneer (Registration # 13102)
2) Junaid Shah (Registration # 17650)

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DEDICATION:

We would like to thank Allah, for making providing us the opportunity to learn and be educated
to a very good quality. We would like dedicate this thesis to our respective parents (and siblings)
who have been a great source of inspiration throughout our respective lives and they have
provided us with utmost support in every manner, enabling us be what we are today. We would
also like to dedicate this thesis to our honorable teachers who not only helped us learn and be
educated but also were very loving and supportive throughout.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

After acknowledging the blessings of Allah in helping us in our efforts, we would like to thank
all of the other helping hands who were with us in making of this report a possibility.
We would like to thank our supervisor Dr.Zeeshan Bhatti, for his consistence, advice and support
given during the writing up of this thesis. His patience and constant feedback have been
inspiration in finalizing. We would also like to thank the present and the past head of department
of the management sciences department of Iqra University Islamabad campus, for giving us the
opportunity to carry this knowledge-full study. We would also like to acknowledge the research
coordinators for facilitating us during the process.
Without their encouragement and support, this study would have been a cropper.

Student full name:


1) Bilal Muneer (Registration # 13102)
2) Junaid Shah (Registration # 17650)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ABSTRACT .. II
DECLERATION FORM . III
DEDICATION . IV
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT V

CHAPTERS
1. INRODUCTION
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Problem Identification ... 3
1.3 Problem Statement . 6
1.4 Rationale of study .. 7
1.5 Objective of study.. 9

2. LITERATURE& RESEARCH REVIEW AND THE CONCEPTUAL


FRAMEWORK OF THE RESEARCH
2.1 Empirical literature .. 10
2.1.1 Social Media and its cline in Pakistan ... 10
2.1.2 Modern day social media landscape ... 13
2.1.3 Expert reviews and scholarly opinion on Facebook based businesses ... 21
2.1.4 Business tools for business managers on Facebook ... 29
2.1.5 Local businesses on Facebook 35
2.2Research Design ... 45

3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Fundamentals of this research paper 46
3.2 Population and sample . 47
3.3 Reliability and validity . 48
3.4 Research and data collection procedure... 48
3.5 Data analysis technique 49

4. RESEARCH REVIEW
4.1 Results and discussion . 50
4.2 Our orientation . 55
5. CONCLUSIVE ANALYSIS
5.1 Prominent reflective analysis ... 56
5.2 Conclusion ... 62
5.3 Limitations of the study ... 63
5.4 Future research . 64
References .... 65
Interview Questionnaire ... 67

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background:
Social media is essentially, a tool for communication on the internet (Kaplan and Heinlein,
2010). It is a platform that allows users to exhibit expression via video, text, graphic, etc.
Social media is accelerating at a very swift pace in terms of its usage. There are
approximately 7 billion people on earth and earlier this year and The Next Web
incorporated, confirmed in January this year that Facebook alone has 1.2 billion registered
users. Online social media services have become a regular part of the lives of masses around
the globe.
Big business players in the global arena are making use of their muscle on the social media
platform to engage with the consumer audience in a much more effective manner, in turn,
allowing them to gain better results with reference to their business aims.
As Pakistan grows towards urbanization and internet connectivity grows, masses within the
nation, even in the underdeveloped regions, are growing towards usage along with a good
deal of familiarization as well as regular usage of the tool.
The increase of internet usage by business owners and entrepreneurs among urban cities to
evolve their business models around social media for prominence is an indicator of the
standing of social media within the local arena. The fact that social media merely came into
prominent existence only a few years back highlights the growth & acceptance rate of it.

The inquisitive nature of business owners, especially within Pakistan, that choose to make
use of social media, is naturally directed towards making more concrete judgments that can
lead to more direct and measurable business benefit.
Business owners as well as managers naturally require assurance that is backed up with
concrete logic and facts with regards to the phenomenon that phrases such as Facebook me
are not just a trending tad of the time. Pakistan is the 6th largest nation in the world with
regards to the population that it has. Facebook has been around for more than a decade now
and 1/7th of the people on earth use it every day. Their concern in effect as business owners,
stands directed towards ensuring a more reliable and more dependable solution towards
social media usage, one that can not only amplify their business gains but also preferably
help them track down the cause & effect of social media marketing to assure them of their
faith on social media for the benefit of their business.
In similar light, brands that look towards efficient and productive sources of promotion to
communicate and express themselves in a more useful tone. This is precisely why they have
arrived at recognition of the opportunity that social media presents to them, even in an arena
like Pakistan. More so, all organizations throughout the globe, which identify themselves as
brands, have serious presence on Facebook, the biggest social media platform in the world.
In addition to that, Social media and in specific, Facebook is also now categorized by experts
as one of the most cost effective sources of marketing & promotion in the world in terms of
return on investment. Brands in Pakistan, regardless of their scale or category, weather
serving business to business (B2B) or business to consumer (B2C), are now working on their
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branding with regards to their social media presence and the trend is growing at a healthy rate
throughout the country. So brands, enterprises and organizations of just about every scale,
recognize now that one of the most important business aspects within any business, i.e.
marketing, is something that can be achieved in a highly effective and efficient manner via
appropriate utilization of social media and in specific, Facebook.
1.2 Problem Identification:
Within any business, the aspect of return on investment (RIO) is a major figure of concern.
Knowing that marketing is a key factor towards driving sales and subsequently triggering
profitability, it is especially out of capacity of small and medium scale businesses to expand
upon spending towards marketing. Given that, we must take into account that Pakistan has
approximately 20 million people that account as internet users, which is about 1/10 of the
countrys population along with an e-commerce industry being a $25 million market as it
stands, presenting with very strong and vast growth opportunity (Percentage of individuals
using the internet, 2013).Pakistan Software Houses Association for IT for IT & ITES
(P@SHA) indicates that the humongous amount of daily time spent by an average Facebook
user ranges from 20 to 45 minutes to things varying from learning and linking to their
favorite brands or see which are those that are trending new (P@SHA, 2013). It can be safely
said that Facebook is a vibrant arena for consumers even within Pakistan. Facebook is a
platform with a stronghold among Pakistani consumers of all kinds along with a very
impressive growth rate in terms of its consumer usage (i.e. content created and shared along
with user reactivity) too.
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As much as the branding, small and medium scale organizations or business groups within
the urban front of Pakistan utilize social media for all major marketing domains, including
their consumer audience research, the conduct and optimization of sales along with customer
service and relations. Other than that, word of mouth within any business setting in any
business environment plays a major role in making or breaking an industry, let alone a single
business entity. Similarly, the electronic word of mouth (eWoM), which is the phenomenon
that translates as the flow of a message circulates past individuals from different corners on
the globe via the internet, also plays an equally important impact upon business performance.
At the core of it, Social media marketing is supposed to bring your concerned consumer
audience to your website, which is your point of sale (Trattner, C and Kappe.F, 2013). For
small and medium scale businesses, Social media is not only one the most cost effective tools
to their respective business but is also among one of the rare tools that offer diverse ways to
put forth with the a strong presence within their concerned market along with carrying out an
expression towards their consumer audience as well as their competitors, something that
budding or established entrepreneurs within Pakistan today are rapidly recognizing this
factor.
In addition to that, many brands have seen themselves strive with not entirely being able to
make appropriate use of social media to tap into their concerned audience and create an
enthralling presence.

Within

Pakistans

$25

million

online

market,

Sialkot,

Karachi,

Faisalabad,

Islamabad/Rawalpindi, Gujranwala and Lahore constitute for a little more than 83.3% of the
nations broadband users according to the Universal Service Fund (USF, 2013) and the
online business consumer market from within these cities marks approximately 80% of the
revenue base for e-commerce within Pakistan. On similar lines, Launchpad Interactive, a
digital solutions based company in Islamabad, points out that Pakistans current Facebook
user base of approximately a little above 10 million is growing at a rate of 3% a year for now
but the growth rate would accelerate to a high degree in the near times (Branding Bees,
2012).With that in view, some brands have done well and benefited with the existence of
social media yet most. Others within the business community glaringly realize the
importance of social media presence (especially on Facebook) and are learning to make
appropriate use of the platform and to gain substantial benefits through it. Brands, no matter
how young or old, can educate the masses with regards to their products/service and get them
to adopt things/notions that they aim at. Not doing so puts these brands at a serious
disadvantage.
The inspection of matters such as profitability, brand popularity, brand influence and brand
recognition, altogether critical factors that may be labeled as social media propagation
factors towards the success or failure of a business of any magnitude, is a vital standpoint
especially with the advent of social media to the business scenario of Pakistan. Investigation
upon growth of business benefits and profitability, more so influenced by propagation efforts
at Facebook at the end of small as well as medium scale businesses is what this thesis paper
primarily revolves around.
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In other words, it is a figuration of how Facebook can help small and medium scale
entrepreneurship initiatives to help them grow and find sustainability towards their business
direction in Pakistan.
We naturally recognize that in Pakistan, more probably than any other place in the world,
small scale businesses find it hard to go with a proper strength marketing strategy due to
financial constraints that presents themselves to small scale businesses and this is where
Facebook, a brilliant tool of expression and communication, falls in as a critical solution.
Thenceforth, the manners in which propagation of business ambitions, especially for profit
gains, through social media for small scale businesses and entrepreneurial structures within
infancy or at a matured stage, is the prime phenomenon that this research paper looks to
bring useful additions to.
1.3 Problem Statement:
In light of the previous section that established the nature of the domain of our concern, this
thesis is aimed at addressing the following research question:
For small and medium scale businesses or entrepreneurial ventures/initiatives within
Pakistan, what would be best generic ways towards profit maximization by the utility of
Facebook with the prospective of marketing?
The rationale of study would be a highlight of the core logic and reason base regarding the
problem statement mentioned above, around which our research would revolve around.
Following the rationale of study, would be the objective of study section which is directed
to bring forth pointers that lead towards answering our research question.
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1.4 Rationale of study:


According to a report on the media of Pakistan in 2013 by the BBC, internet ranks as the
lowest in terms of media consumption among the public of Pakistan. However, the growth
in internet usage and increase in the number of unique internet users has been the highest
when compared to other media platforms such as television and radio. Furthermore, in the
amount of spending on advertisement with reference to the media type, internet ranks as the
only platform along with print media which have a significant rise in the spending on
advertisement on them, with all others (i.e. television, radio, outdoor & brand activation)
having a fall in advertisement spending upon them. Facebook is the most used and evidently
popular platform within the Pakistani internet using audience (Huma Yusuf & Emrys
Schoemaker, 2013).
Entrepreneurship driven models of economic growth require budding business ventures and
maturing enterprises to grow upon with as much of cost-effective and impact making support
within their eco-system as possible. While marketing is one of the key drivers towards
driving sales and fundamentally a core factor to the life or death of any business, especially
small scale ventures, Facebook is an invaluable channel within the Pakistan business arena
especially when considering the urban regions of Pakistan where the most powerful of the
consumer audience in the entire nation resides. With over 10 million users, among which
70% are aged 25 of under, along with a aggressive growth in Facebook users within the
nation, Facebook is an ideal platform for businesses to utilize for sustainable growth,
especially for small scale businesses.
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Within Pakistans business environment, although social media has established itself as an
undoubtedly strong and integral part of business of any kind or magnitude, most particularly
within urban regions as 74% of Pakistans internet users constitute from urban regions, yet a
commonly noticeable problem at the end of the business owners and managers is clarity
regarding the orientation in terms of optimal use of Facebook towards maximum business
growth and subsequent profitability. There is a strong sense of alienation that prevails among
business owners/managers, as the aim of this thesis is to bring forth possible generic
directives via utility of Facebook that can be of utmost benefits specifically with reference to
profitability among small scale businesses within Pakistan.
Social media is also sometimes categorized as a guerilla marketing platform, bringing
forward the fact that brand promotion, propagation, advocacy and influence are some of the
many important factors that social media covers, with little subsequent monetary
expenditure. Given the eco-system of Pakistan, where the economy of the nation can boost
tremendously via a channelized entrepreneurial outburst, however holding undeniable factors
such as the number of opportunities might be few and far between, where there might be very
few supporting factors and deteriorating elements account as numerous, in turn making it
difficult to perform one of the fundamentals dimensions within any business, which is
marketing. Thus, within the circumstances and the nature of the tool along with the
inclination of the audience towards it, Facebook and its use plays a crucial part for
entrepreneurs and small scale businesses among others, which exactly what this report is
aimed to bring an effectively useful introspection towards.
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1.5 Objective of study:

There are several objectives of this study and they are as following -

I. What literature says on Facebook work aimed towards profit generation via
Facebook
II. How Facebook's architecture works toward business based working on the
network itself.
III. How Pakistan based businesses are generally going about with reference to their
work on Facebook.
IV. Most effective applicable business tools for businesses on Facebook based
business work within Pakistan.
V. Best viable global practices in motion with reference to businesses on Facebook
for Pakistan based business managers.

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THE CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK OF
THE RESEARCH
2.1 Empirical Literature:
2.1.1 Social media and its cline in Pakistan
At the core of it, Social media marketing is supposed to bring your concerned consumer
audience to your web-portal, website or domain within the web space that you want to
designate your point of sale or a final step follow-up to it in case your business point of
sale does not exist on the World Wide Web at all.
Marketing attempts and methods have increasingly become much more than being overly
oriented towards strength towards promotion and fossilization of presence. Organizations
now, regardless of their magnitude of existence, have excessively moved towards
association with their consumer base in a more consistent manner with ambition to
become a regular part of the very life style of their consumer audience. Thus whatever the
point Social media is one tool that allows individuals to exhibit themselves via video,
graphic or text and in several vibrant ways even within each one of these. Social media is
essentially, a tool for communication on the internet (ITB Berlin, 2014).

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11

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Even within Pakistan, The strength of social media and in specific, Facebook, is clearly an
undeniable factor, especially among the urban regions. We must note that Pakistan has
approximately 20 million people that account as internet users, which is about 1/10 of the
countrys population along with an e-commerce industry being a $25 million market as it
stands, presenting with very strong and vast growth opportunity (Percentage of individuals
using the internet, June 2013).
2.1.2 Modern day social media landscape
Social Media marketing is a massive tool that can bring profitability to an organization if
used in the appropriate manner. The most popular and widely used social media tools
include Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn and YouTube. Although Facebook stands as the most
used social media network site (as well as one of the most visited site globally) yet
research on social media marketing has indicated that marketers would be making
YouTube their top priority for marketing in 2012, consequently investing more in video
making and relevant material. Marketers identify social media marketing as a vital tool
that helps them to attain business exposure and gaining popularity for their company
among the consumer market.
Research also indicates that on a comparative basis that sole proprietors or small business
owners (especially those with 2 or more employees working for them) find social media
more useful than corporate organizations and brands that overwhelm the consumer
market. In addition to that, marketers also regard increase in sales, growth in the number
of loyal consumers, easy insights on marketing methods used by competitors, growth in
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business partnerships and a glaring decrease in expenses that are directly linked to
marketing activities as major benefits of social media marketing (Micheal A.Stelzner,
2012).
Furthermore, if marketers succeed in bringing a large number of people to the internet
page or the relevant social media page of their product and/or service then that
consequently boosts their rankings on the internet, making them more easily available to
consumers, meaning that consumers do not have to labor to search their product and/or
service.
By putting down the name of the company or the particular service and/or product name,
the consumer gets a list which is topped by the name which is most visited. This means
that the consumer would be offered to view the best available offerings in the market on
their screen by typing down on Google, resultantly Google lists the best available options
in a descending order to the consumer (Philipa Coalin, Kitty Rahilly, Ingrid Richardson,
Amand Third, 2011).
Social Media also helps marketers to study the consumer market with complete detail in
an easier fashion. Social Media marketing allows marketers to know the pattern of
behavior, likes, dislikes, affections, preferences and habits without even letting the
consumer know if they are under observation. Experts in social media marketing claim
that they can aid marketers to easily target and track down the actions of a given
consumer. Social Media marketing naturally helps marketers build a bond between their
customers and the organization/brand.
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Marketers that belonging from medium and large organizations agreed to the fact that social
media marketing does not help to reduce their marketing expenses by an ample margin,
however all small business owners clearly indicated that by using social media marketing
they have cut their marketing costs to a significant deal. Small businesses connect to large
consumer audience without experiencing any expenses for large advertisements at all.
Usage of spontaneous methods like blogging to establish communication with the consumer
audience is very manageable and easy for small scale business owners. They can easily
attract visitors to their website by using social and business networking sites, resultantly
boosting their rank on top search engines such as Google. They can easily establish their
credibility in the consumer market by active participation in relevant forums. They can also
easily use user profile data along with other information on specific sets of social media
network users, which is readily available on the internet to target those consumers in a much
more appropriate manner (Wesley Shu & Hao Chuang, 2011).
Benefits that both the small businesses as well as the large businesses can yield from the
appropriate use of social media networking includes partial evaluation on advertisement
needs, feedback on business prioritization and the level of engagement of the consumer
market into the organizations offerings. Since not much is at stake in monetary terms when
it comes down to the use of social media networking for business purposes so organizations
and business owners can effectively use social media to practically experiment their thoughts
as well as their ideas and receive a proper feedback on that from the consumer market.
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Marketers regard Facebook and Twitter as the most useful tools for social media marketing.
In specific, small business owners and self-employed people prefer to use LinkedIn and blogs
above all other social media tools, whereas YouTube is the favorite tool for marketers from
larger businesses.
At the business end, social media marketing allows in similar fashion, marketers can now
address business meetings and talk to their clients over the internet by using one of the
several diverse social media networking tools (such as Skype). Physical presence at business
meetings is not a compulsion any more.
The most widely regarded use of social media networking is for entertainment purposes.
People connect with their loved ones, stream online for video and audio content, share art,
opinions and a lot more. Experts strongly believe that it is merely because of the
entertainment factor alone that social media websites progress in gaining a rapid and
frequent number of members. It is because of entertainment that social media networking is
popular and actively used among people from just about all age groups.
From a business prospective, there are several companies that are a business media brand and
for them, it is crucial to make use of the social media in the best possible fashion. They not
only market but rather depend on social media networking to generate their revenues and
profits. Thus this qualifies as a type of business that is largely dependent upon the use of
social media services by the general public.

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A 2012 survey conducted on social networking services (SNS) by the Nielson foundation
concluded that the Australian population is the most prolific user of the social media and
among them, the ones that use social media the most are people that are from the age of 17
to 29. They recognized that social media acts as tool for easy and convenient communication
between people. Teenagers and people in their twenties like to know what their friends are
upto, what is happening around and they share their experiences, thoughts and imagination
on the go, which effectively brings the use of social media via mobile phones more frequent.
Social media essentially aids to improve literacy and helps to provide education. People
(especially the young) learn how to create, find and communicate things on the internet as
well as get educated about media literacy as they become more familiar with social media by
its use. Social media websites like Myspace help users develop technical skill because they
require users to learn code to a certain extent in order to let them create and change their
profiles. So as a major benefit, Social media educates the youth on creating videos, creating
written content, creating images, creating animations, etc.
Furthermore, The subsequent tangible relevance with reference to the ration of internet usage
and the trend of the internet users, especially the manner in which consumer care and
consumer reactions towards online social media promotion work, an important part of
marketing and any business of any size, is elaborated within the following info graphics that
are from the Nielsens 2012 report on The state of media: The social media report (2012)

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Taking education into account, Social media rectifies physical boundaries and allows people
to acquire the education that they desire. Many colleges and universities, even within
Pakistan, now hamper their students to co-ordinate with teachers and class mates over social
media now because it is more convenient. Notes, project work, assignments and class
activities are now conducted over social media networking. Universities and colleges have
now increasingly developed their own portals and networks that are made available for their
faculty as well as students so that they as institutes can function in a more proficient manner.
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These social media networking practices also act as an innovative tool for teachers to take a
different approach towards their style of teaching in order to be more effective and it acts a
interactive tool for students, motivating and engaging them towards their education.
Similarly, people within urban and some of the rural regions are excessively coming to digest
the concept that they do not need to be in the class room for a lecture, instead they use Skype
(or an alternative social media tool) to conduct/attend their lecture. People in Pakistan are
coming to realize the utility of social media, presence within a certain physical space is not
necessary now and students can attend a lecture and teachers can effectively deliver one by
using social media networking services. In addition to that, most universities in the world
now offer degrees and courses that can be taught to people by using social media networking.
A person from anywhere in Pakistan can attain a degree from an American institute by social
media networking. In the same manner, the growing trend of event management that have
taken the urban areas by storm is something that directly relates to this because
institutes/entities can now hold events that they host and conduct in an entirely reengineering better way by using social media networking, adding to the betterment of events
held in business terms as well as non-business terms. Although this is a relatively new
practice but it has a gained significant amount of popularity among the public and even
though not all events can be held over the social media, yet it has become a widely used tool
for most of the educational events and seminars these days.

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2.1.3 Expert reviews and scholarly opinion on Facebook based businesses:


Growth within any business is without a prime ambition and a globally accepted measure
of business growth is increase of profitability. Within the spectrum of marketing, there
exist several important aspects such as branding, sales, consumer relations, etc, that
contribute to profitability. Altogether, there are several ways to measure growth of
business that comes solely via utility of Facebook.
The following paragraphs reflects upon some of the most fundamental practices, keys
and/or techniques that bring to light generic keys that stand as standard towards evaluation
of business performance on Facebook (Chris Treadaway and Mari Smith, p. 61).
There are two major channels to the conduct of business on Facebook, the following
diagram explains that:

ON PAGE

OFF PAGE

Content creation, posting and update speed.


Length, comprehensiveness and time of
publishing content.
Type of content (pictures, graphics, text or
video, etc.)
Alignment and consistency of the content.
Behavior and speed of reactivity on page
towards audience.
Audience engagement activates.

Connection of the page to all other call-toaction work online and offline.
Advertise on Facebook, using Facebooks paid
advertisement methods.
Promote your page on other relevant Facebook
and non-Facebook online platforms in
alignment of your prime audience listings, via
blogging and organic methods.
Utilize Facebook based online tools to optimize
sales. via Facebook page presence.

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It is important to understand how Facebook works at the backend, how the brain of this
social media network works and Facebook mechanisms dictate that the content which is
shared by Facebook page owners and/or managers means almost everything with
reference to the growth of the page as well as the business associated or represented by the
post. How Facebook selects what to show in news feed to people that are following a
particular page, is shaped up by algorithms that dictate the Facebook search engines.
Majority of the algorithms function in a certain way to bring about the best of the content
to the users home page news feed and the manner in which these algorithms within
Facebook function to do so can be understood by the following formula:
How Facebook selects what to show in news feed to people:I x P x C x T x R
Here, I refers to the interest index that measures the degree to which posts fulfill user
interest based on comparison with other online spots where users go to find such material
information or data on Facebook. Then P, within the mentioned formula means post and it
compares the performance of the post put up with other similar posts generated at the same
time. Furthermore, C means creator; it takes into account the performance of past posts
among users by the creator of the post. T means type of posts, i.e. if it is a video, a status or
a picture, etc. R means originality and recency of the post in context to the nature of the
news post made. The formula basically provides with a clear notion on how to go about with
reference to the development of content as it plays a vital role in just about everything done
on Facebook (Chris Lake, 2014).

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A similar notion on the growth of business at Facebook can be calculated by simply


multiplying the number of likes with the number of shares to measure the strength of
spread from time to time. Algorithms within the architecture of Facebook dictate the
display and flow of content as well as the degree of aid that Facebook itself provides with
to its users, altogether making it worthwhile for business owners/manager while also
making it an excellent & very unique user-experience for Facebooks audience. These
algorithms take 100,000 elements into account when choosing what to display on the
home news feed of every user. EdgeRank, is one of the most important of algorithms and
its attributes help characterize the overall notion of the way news feeds choose and pick
content to display on users news feed. The reason to being given this algorithm the name
of EdgeRank is because every piece of content essentially counts as an edge within the
Facebook architecture. What is meant by that is that every motion, either changing a
picture, changing relationship status, sharing a post, posting a review on a page,
tagging into a certain location or merely liking anything within Facebook, whatever it is,
it counts as a legitimate edge, thenceforth the name of the algorithm being EdgeRank.
EdgeRank is an algorithm that is especially one of the most important ones when taking
marketing prospective on things for business owners or managers. It takes into
consideration three very important elements. The algorithm itself is elaborated as:

Here,

refers to user affinity,

refers to how the content is weighted and

time based decay parameter.


23

is a

, i.e. user affinity, refers to the amount of interaction that one tends to have with other
existing entities on Facebook, be it profiles, fan pages, groups, commenting, stalking class
mates, event pages or people that arent in your friends list or the page(s) that you are
managing. So basically it is every single motion of yours and the direction of your motion
establishes your affinity route. Once your inclination pattern is visible and your affinity
towards something or some motion becomes relevant, then the EdgeRank begins to shape
up your news feeds accordingly.
, i.e. the content weight, is fundamentally a formula that defines which piece of
content is important, regardless of your inclination towards it. Although the content
weight component is a very flexible component of the EdgeRank Algorithm, however, it
is understood that the quality, originality, comprehensiveness and usefulness of the
content being presented towards the intended audience, are factors what differentiate in
ranking of one content being rated higher than other in comparative terms. Normally, the
three highest ranked content are understood to be Videos, Photos and Links.
, i.e. the time based decay parameter, is focused on the obvious exposure of the
content. It is based on the fact that more of the exposure through your immediate channels,
the more would be the effective probability of that particular content post is towards
retaining its place within news feeds of users that can see the content. One crucial element
standing within this condition would be the time at which the content is shared or when
the edge, as so to speak, is made, is to be rated better if more of the concerned audience
is using Facebook.
24

Oracles report in March, 2014, named Measuring Social Media ROI in the Enterprise:
Myths and Facts, leads a comprehensive study on establishing ROI in linkage to
marketing efforts that are exerted within the online arena, especially Facebook. In light of
that research, The following table acts as a summarized guide towards helping establish
ROI on Facebook (Oracle, 2014):

25

These efforts that are categorized within the table above from the research put forth by
Oracle, summarizes the dissection of efforts, which may be exerted on Facebook with
intent of marketing, with their corresponding affected business end to help monitor
subsequent ROI sectors. Within Facebook regimes, several may be exerted within
marketing regimes on Facebook. Calculation of these ROI measurements would usually
not lead to immediate tangible evidence of the return as it is important to recognize that
some of these functional areas of focus with orientation towards marketing lead to
outcomes that gain concrete tangibility after a considerably longer time period. However,
it is very important to note that recording of measurement of every minute resulting detail
that corresponds to your work effort with regards to the marketing channel opted for
action, is vital for accuracy of ROI. Demarcations and modularity of each marketing
channel within the marketing strategy set out for is not only helpful for operational
compliances but also useful in measurement of success of each sector within the strategy
along with accurate ROI measurement.
It is useful fundamental to set up key performance indicators with regards to content, to
measure the degree of success or failure to achieve aims that may be to:
a) Help tap into audience at Facebook to convert them into your consumers/subscribers.
b) To build or improve your (brand) image.
c) To impart information to masses.
d) Engage the current consumer base to aid maximize sales.

26

With that in view, there exist generic KPIs oriented towards monitoring work with
reference to any of the single of the above mentioned agendas or a mixture of a few
between them as base aims dictating flow of the nature of work done for business on
Facebook. These KPIs can be summarized as:
1) Content amplification: The number of shares on each post
2) Reach on each post/content shared: The size of direct audience
3) Content appreciation: The number of Likes per post
4) Sentiment: On any of your content shared, The nature of comment from any individual
in the audience, evaluated as positive or negative.
5) Interaction index: The number of replies or comments per post.
(Danny Oosterveer, 2011)
On similar lines, the core of just about every, if not all, marketing strategies that revolve or
partially focus around profit increments, especially on Facebook, is fundamentally based
on the principle of consistent increase and amplification of propagation with regards to the
concerned audience on Facebook.
This is simple notion is also regarded by experts as the generic consumer path-topurchase on Facebook. It underlines comprehension of the basic phenomenon that exists
as concrete within the architecture of majority marketing strategies that are concerned
with profit maximization via sales and/or popularity on Facebook. The generic consumer
path-to-purchase on Facebook is also elaborated within the diagram below:
27

As per the diagram above, we see that advocacy and awareness are the prim drivers
towards sales. These two elements are also sometimes summed up as consumer
engagement that is driven by content creation and other motions towards promotion on
Facebook. These two elements fall in as base grounds to almost all marketing work on
Facebook and trigger to dictate the effectiveness of the generic consumer path-topurchase on Facebook.

28

2.1.4 BusinessTools for Business Managerson Facebook

Tool
Buffer

Agora Pulse

Page Barometer for


Facebook

Pagemodo

EdgeRank Checker

Utility / Usefulness/ Purpose


Scheduling and sharing posts on
Twitter, Facebook, Linkedin and
Google + and analyze whats
working where.
The tool allows you to keep a
simultaneous check and manage
on every activity linked to your
page, most importantly the
customer relationship management
on your Facebook page and the
ability to properly conduct & monitor
any campaigns with utmost detail
(including quizzes, voting, contests,
etc) that you might conduct on your
Facebook page.
It helps bring forth all meaningful
insights regarding your Facebook
page such as how is your page
doing in comparison to potential
competition, negative feedback,
engagement, etc.
This tool helps design custom
Facebook graphic templates and
visual posts in a very simplified
manner; it also helps schedule
posts and gather content you might
require to make a post.
It is a Facebook specific tool and it
provides statistics regarding your
page, such as when was the
concerned audience online the
most and other key metrics. They
are aimed at triggering news feed
success, thus more activity on your
page.

29

Link and cost of the tool


https://bufferapp.com/
- The tool is an entirely
paid service.

http://www.agorapulse.co
m/
- It has a free trial and
usage after that is charged
for.

http://barometer.agorapuls
e.com/
- Free of cost.
https://www.pagemodo.co
m/
- Some of the features are
entirely free, yet some are
billed for.
https://www.socialbakers.c
om/edgerankchecker/
- It has a free trial and
usage after that is charged
for.

Tool

Wolfram Alpha

Utility / Usefulness/ Purpose


This tool is acts as a knowledge
base to provide you with insight on
the audience that concerns you. It
would help provide with post
statistics, word frequency, post
distribution, post lengths, etc. along
with other key elements that may
include network map, age and
gender splits, friend locations and
local times and so on.

Link and cost of the tool

http://www.wolframalpha.c
om/facebook/
- Free of cost

http://www.shortstack.com
Short Stack

Its a tool that helps you build your


custom brand campaigns, schedule
them and then monitor then

Likealyzer

This Facebook tool is basically


aimed at page strategy
effectiveness as it provides with an
aggregate conclusive input on
where you need to improve on your
page and how.

Conversation Score

Postplanner

Fan Page Karma

The tool allow you to gather a


complete summary over just about
every effective aspect of your page.
This particular Facebook tool
promises that it can realistically
triple your Facebook audience
engagement by taking away only
ten minutes of your everyday time
and it has overwhelmingly positive
reviews about it.
This analytics tool provides with
insights of your page with a full
report that covers up all aspects
that concern your page to help your
review your overall performance
and help you improve your social
media presence.

30

- Some of the features are


entirely free, yet some are
billed for.
http://likealyzer.com/
- Free of cost
http://cscore.recommend.l
y/
- Free of cost
http://www.postplanner.co
m/
- Some of the features are
entirely free, yet some are
billed for.

http://www.fanpagekarma.
com/
- Free of cost

Since most of social media networking is essentially about sharing and people are often
connected to one another by quite simply the things they find interesting so the use of social
media networking allows people to be more creative in everything that they do and it also
helps them to know themselves better to a massive degree.
It also binds people together and gives them a sense of unity as well as belonging to a certain
group or community, thus adding to the togetherness of a society or a group of people. It
also helps people to know more about the world they live in by interacting with people from
different backgrounds, ethnicity, culture, religion and nationalities. As a major benefit, it
allows the elderly to remain in regular contact with the young much more frequently
subsequently making social media networking a catalyst towards minimizing generation gap.
It also magnifies expressions. People are able to showcase their talent and work to the whole
world through social media networking. A song put on YouTube can go viral over the
internet in just a matter of hours. Social media networking is very sensitive with respect to
these issues. Using the right methods and proper means of doing so, a person can clearly and
quickly find out if his/her idea or work is good enough by looking at the reaction of the
public. This also boosts and gives a great encouragement for people to move towards
entrepreneurship because social media networking provides people with a great deal of
comfort and ease about the way they would be conducting their business (Xiaoyan Hu,
2011).

31

Through social media networking protests are organized, parties are planned for, debates are
arranged, meals are tabled, and tournaments are organized. Moreover people can easily plan
and coordinate events together though social media networking.
In relation to that, social media has crucial role in political participation and civic
engagement of the public. The revolution in Egypt in 2011 had been massively influenced by
social media networking. The great uprising of the general public and initiatives as well as
resolutions among them was floated through to one another via social media networking. It
helped the nation to regroup and take their rights from the corrupt Egyptian government then.
Social media networking allowed people to gain awareness in what was happening and
regarding what they should do. It also helped them to group together and act as united force
against the government. Modern day politicians, media personalities, world class athletes,
artists, doctors, scientists, business owners, e.t.c. have their very own verified Facebook
accounts.
Since the youth is largely labeled as the biggest user of social media networking, so large
organizations are now regularly using social media networking to involve the youth and
make them participate for the organizations benefit. Companies are now more direct and
deliberate about this more than ever. They see social media networking as a medium that can
unlock ways for their business to earn profits by engaging and exploiting the active nature of
anticipation from the youth. More often than not, social media networking allows people to
share ideas, allowing consumers to define their needs in a very clear way and allowing
businesses organizations to become more customers driven (Mikolaj Jan Piskorski, 2013).
32

Social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace are altering day to day and transforming
them into new ways to increase their members and get the attention of many businesses and
brands. These social networking sites give abilities that where people join mainly for making
professional contacting. Such sites include LinkedIn, Plaxo and Xing. Several reports and
studies claim that these sites are struggling at large to build a strong business model that
gives legal value i.e. profit making from their membership.
For some of them, the core purpose of these social sites is strictly business and long term
studies indicate that they do not commercially seem to force their hidden purpose. For
instance, out of the entire lot, LinkedIn creates most of its revenue by selling different
information of members to different companies, recruitment firms willing to pay steep pay to
find potential employees.
So at the core of their business structure, they are basically selling members and the more
then number of members they would have, the more the amount of information they would
hold, consequently the more profits they would yield.
Whatever the core business model is, if a social media networking website succeeds in
bringing a large number of people to their website or a specific page of their website, then
that attracts a big number of other organizations to place their adverts at the page or website
which is frequently and largely visited. On websites that host a large number of visitors,
these adverts are expensive to place. Thus adverts on a page act as a strong and genuine
source of revenue for page owners.

33

These sites are booming as businesses because those who lost their jobs are moving towards
attaining membership among such sites and build social their capital, thus building upon the
principle of expected collective or economic benefits derived from the preferential treatment
and cooperation between individuals and groups. Many corporations and major brands use
more money on social networking sites, just to market themselves with the help of fang page
they create on these sites.
Coca-Cola discovered when Facebook fan page with soaring membership was created by two
customers who did not work for the company. Coke decided to approach the Facebook
pages creators and struck a deal to co-create the page. The Coca-Cola page on Facebook
now has more than three million fans. The company uses that page not only to directly
communicate with the customers but in doing so also enables the brand to know what 3
million people from different parts of the world that love Coca-Cola feel about the brand
itself. It contributes to a great deal of market behavior study and research that Coca-Cola
does. However, several big corporations and governments are beginning to discipline and
dismiss employees upon the usage of social networking sites at the office. This is because
they believe that employees usually switch onto social media networking sites for citing and
time wasting but with the passage of time companies have come to realize that usage of
social media networking can actually boost productivity and increase profits values. It is all
about the way in which the social media networking tools are utilized. To a certain degree,
companies now support employees with activities on social media sites. Business
organizations are now looking into methods through which they can yield benefits by the
usage of social media networking at their employees end.
34

2.1.5Local businesses on Facebook:


The owner and co-founder of the American burger and drinks food outlet Zombie Burger,
Paul Rottenberg, conclusively remarks that their social media strength that is based upon
their 8000 Twitter followers along with their Instagram content and 8000 Facebook reviews
from their 50,000 likes there, is an undeniable presence that has played a key role in
making their brand a subtle norm within locals. They have sold over a million burgers now
within the past 3 years. With regards to their social media efforts, Paul Rottenberg says
It was a combination of work and natural interest, good sensibility about what will work on
social. I believe once you get up into the high numbers, it becomes exponential.
Brand

Scale and Age


of Brand

Motion and Content on


Facebook

Medium scale Reviews: 8000


organization

Use of images within

Revenue

Social Media Staff

Have sold over

There is no involvement

a million

within their social media

3 years old

Facebook posts: Yes, about 50

burgers within

work

Likes: 49,357

to 60% of the times

3 years.

entity.

from

any

outside

Is each of their Facebook post


shared by users:Yes, almost

NAME:
Zombie Burger
and Drinks
- Have
physical
outlets

The social media planning


and activity for them is

each one of them.


Check-ins: 95000

managed

Use of Hash tags: Yes

executive chef and their

Speed of response to

general manager.

consumer questions:2-80
minutes
Association of every post with
products within the business
catalogue: Yes, around 40% to
50% of the times.

35

by

their

chief

Zombie burger and drinks did spend a lot on outdoor advertisement upon their launch,
however, post-launch advertisement and promotion after about 6 months of the establishment
of their outlet was and is, largely based upon social media and Facebook in particular.
Within Pakistan, there are several notable brands that are entirely online based, managing
to set up viable sustenance to their business models with massive support from social media
to their venture life architecture, witha majority of these being e-commerce sites.
Pakistan Software Houses Association for IT & ITES, i.e. P@SHA, put forth a research
paper summarizing internet based activities within Pakistan up until 2013. The research
indicated that the re-call rate of advertisement or promotion rate on Facebook is as high as on
television.
Using the research report by the P@SHA group and similar indicators with regards to web
based businesses, a comprehensive comparison and contrast of some of the most revered
Pakistan based e-commerce businesses that have no physical outlets to their name at all could
be performed to bring forward an introspection with reference to the fundamentals of these
Pakistan based online businesses and it can be tracked how Facebook continues to play its
role in their growth. A summary of some, in light of comparison from such indicators and by
analysis of their Facebook pages themselves, is as following:

36

Brand

Age of
Brand
- 2.5 years
old
Likes:
11,83,222

Motion and Content on


Facebook
Average Facebook Statuses per

Social Media Staff

Sell over

They

day:

a 1000

professionals

3-6

products

social media team that works

each day.

under the SEO department

Use of images within Facebook


posts: Yes, about 70 to 90% of the

NAME:

Revenue

have
and

seasoned
a

proper

within their offices in Karachi.

times
Their Facebook post shared by

The activity participation from

users: Not every post by Daraz.pk

their social media team within

on Facebook is shared by their

the product development phase

- Have no

fans but from time to time, a few

of the company is taken very

physical

of posts are somehow shared

seriously.

Daraz.pk

outlets
whatsoever.

among their Facebook fan base.


Average number of posts by
audience: 4-12 every day.
Use of Hash tags by Daraz.pk:

Rocket-Internet,

the

parent

company, sometimes provides


expertise and aid with regards
to their Facebook marketing

Very little
Speed of response to consumer
questions: 2-30 minutes
Association of every post with
products within the business
catalogue: Yes, around 80% to
95% of the times.

37

work.

Brand

Age of
Brand
- 8 years
old.
Likes:94,766

Motion and Content on


Facebook
Average Facebook Statuses

They

per day:

themselves to

designated staff for

1-2

be the top most their

Use of images within

Yes, about 60 to 80% of the


times
Their Facebook posts
shared by users: Very
rarely.
Average number of posts

- They have a physical


outlet in Karachi,

Social Media Staff

They claim

Facebook posts on average:

NAME: Home Shopping

Revenue

by audience: 1-4everyday.
Use of Hash tags by

Islamabad, Peshawar,

Homeshopping.pk: Almost

Lahore and Rawalpindi.

never at all.
Average speed of response
to consumers:2 minutes to a
day.
Association of every post
with products within the
business catalogue: Yes,
around 80% to 95% of the
time.

38

have

online

online retail

promotion work and

brand in

in specific, a small

Pakistan, with

social media team,

an average

for Facebook based

15000 daily

promotion

visits to their

consumers.

online portal
and a thousand
orders each
day.
They provide
delivery in
more than 40
cities within
Pakistan.

and

Brand

Age of
Brand

Motion and Content on


Facebook

- 2.5 years Average Facebook Statuses


old
Likes:
19,83,543

They

per day:

products

several online promotion

3-12

each day,

fronts

with an

comprehensive

Use of images within

Yes, about 80 to 95% of the


times
Their Facebook post
shared by users: Very
Average number of posts by

outlets whatsoever.

audience: 2-14everyday.
Use of Hash tags by
Kaymu.pk: Almost never at
all.
Average speed of response
to consumer questions: 2-80
minutes
Association of every post
with products within the
business catalogue: Yes,
around 80% to 95% of the
times.

39

outsourced

and

on

have

social

approximate media team of their own


1.2 million
rupee of
daily
revenue.

rarely.

- Have no physical

Social Media Staff

Sell 1000

Facebook posts on average:

NAME: Kaymy.pk

Revenue

as well.

Brand

Age of
Brand
- 4 years
old
Likes:

NAME: Shophive

161,443

Motion and Content on


Facebook
Average Facebook
Statuses per day:
1-7
Use of images within
Facebook posts on

90% of the times

whatsoever.

Social Media Staff

Approximately Shophive

have

$28,000/month outsourced a bit of its


online promotion work,

average: Yes, about 60 to

- Have no physical outlets

Revenue

Their Facebook post


shared by users: Almost

however they have an


extremely active social
media team of their
own
highly

and

they

are

proficient

at

response to customer

never.
Average number of posts
by audience: None.
Use of Hash tags by
Kaymu.pk: Almost never at
all.
Average speed of response
to consumer questions: 290 minutes
Association of every post
with products within the
business catalogue: Yes,
around 80% to 95% of the
times.

40

queries on Facebook.

Brand

Age of
Brand

Motion and
Content on
Facebook

- 4 years Average Facebook


old
Likes:

NAME: Symbios

601,336

Symbios do have

Statuses per day:

around 30,000

their own dedicated

4-8

customers

social media team

reaching their

that looks after their

portal on an

work on Facebook

Use of images
within Facebook

Yes, about 85 to

whatsoever.

Social Media Staff

They get

posts on average:

- Have no physical outlets

Revenue

95% of the times


Their Facebook
post shared by
users: Yes.
Average number of
posts by audience:
About once or twice
a day.
Use of Hash tags by
Symbios.pk: Almost
never at all.
Average speed of
response to
consumer
questions:2-150
minutes
Association of
every post with
products within the
business catalogue:
Yes, around 80% to
95% of the times.

41

everyday basis, but they also have


with

reached

out

for

approximately

support

300

external entities at

transactions

their

each day.

promotion front.

from

online

Brand

Age of
Brand
- 4months
old
Likes:17,958

Motion and
Content on
Facebook

Revenue

Social Media Staff

They make

Zarsaya is a team of 5

per day:

an average

people altogether

2-9

profit of Rs

andtheydo have a

60,000-

dedicated person on

90,000 a

their team particularly

month.

for online marketing

Facebook Statuses

Use of images
within Facebook
posts on average:
Yes, about 90 to
95% of the times

NAME: Zarsaya

- Have no physical outlets


whatsoever.

Their Facebook

work that covers online


promotion and graphic

post shared by

work.

users: Almost

They focus on the

never.

photo-shoot of their

Average number
of posts by
audience:0-1.
Use of Hash tags
by Zarsaya:
Almost never at all.
Speed of response
to consumer

products along withits


presentation at their
Facebook page. They
claim that they put
particular focus on
making their photoshoot theme based.

questions:

They look to pick out

2minutes to 20

small platforms to that

hours.

relate to the field of their

Association of

business.

every post with


products within

They have done paid

the business

Facebook

catalogue: Yes,

advertisements too and

around 95% of the

claimed that it was of

time.

massive help to them .

42

Brand

Age of Brand

- 3 months
old
Likes:465

NAME: AskMen

Motion and
Content on
Facebook
Facebook Statuses

AskMen is

per day:

started of and

managed by two

0-7

their revenue

people entirely and

figures are

have not yet

around Rs.

entirely come to

25,000-30,000

realize the

month.

appropriate utility

Use of images
within Facebook

Yes, about 90% of

outlets whatsoever.

Social Media Staff

They have just

posts on average:

- Have no physical

Revenue

the time.
Their Facebook
post shared by

and effective
capacity of social

users: Almost never.

media, let alone

Average number of

Facebook. They

posts by

have been keen on

audience:0.

not spamming and

Use of Hash tags by

having a composed

AskMen:

brand personality,

Never.

yet they are

Speed of response
to consumer
questions: They
reply back within
the same day.
Association of
every post with
products within the
business catalogue:
Yes, around 90% of
the time.

43

unaware of any
marketing tools or
methods that can be
of help to them on
Facebook.

Brand

Age of
Brand
- 2years old
Likes:113,026

Motion and Content


on Facebook
Facebook Statuses

Manriqen is run by

per day:

average revenue of 3

a two people and

0-7

Lakhs per month.

they focus heavily

Facebook posts on
average: Yes, about
90% of the time.
Their Facebook post
shared by users:
Yes, sometimes.

- Have no physical
outlets whatsoever.

Social Media Staff

They generate an

Use of images within

NAME: Manriqen

Revenue

Average number of

on consumer
engagement via
their activity on
page. Their focus is
upon perfect
representation of
their catalogue via

posts by audience:5-

visuals and they do

16 a month.

hold contests,

Use of Hash tags by

discount deadlines

Manrqen:

and other such

Never.

engaging acts.

Speed of response to
consumer questions:
They reply back
within the 5 hours at
maximum.
Association of every
post with products
within the business

Manriqen are
aware of gaining
audience through
organic ways and
do spend a
dedicated amount
of their budget on

catalogue: Yes,

paid Facebook

around 90% of the

advertisements,

time.

something that they


claim it has helped
them a great deal.

44

2.2 Research Design:


Fundamentally, within this research paper, business propagation via Facebook was our area
of concern. Meaningful understanding of the literature helped shape up the questions during
interviews, all of which naturally went in line with the snow-ball technique. There were a
few prominent stance angles were explored to bring forth possible resolve feasible for
practical application to bring benefit for entrepreneurs and medium scale organizations in
Pakistan via virtue of conduct at their respective end.
The snowball sampling technique is one of the fluently used sampling methods utilized
within social network estimate studies. The technique allows building up on the sample, no
matter what the scale of it but the interviews are respondent-driven and allow exploration
within any and every domain related to the subject in question along with the respondents
answers. The technique is focused around study circulating around a small group and
nomination of sample group members for interview is usually done via asking for reference
from existing or fundamental members.

45

CHAPTER 3
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Fundamentals of this research paper:


The prime motion of this research investigated into problems that entrepreneurs as well as
mature small and medium scale enterprises face within Pakistan. Thus, the immediate focal
audience with regards to the utility of this research paper includes entrepreneurs and budding
small scale business ventures along with mature medium scale enterprises/organizations.
However, the scope of this research paper is not only limited to that section of the audience
and it would also find applicable resolve among other domains of business and literature as
well.
It is important to point out that Qualitative as well as Quantitative methods, both aim to aid
comprehensive conclusion via case study along with simplification for understanding
purposes, especially when it comes to higher degree complexities.
A fundamental final point standing to all research is normally to gather characteristics
surrounding an aspect and compile a subsequent aggregate of that information to form data
for analysis with for research based purposes. Thus, qualitative research stands out in
different alignment with regards to scientific research.
With that in prospect, five prominent aspect angles were explored to bring forth possible
resolve feasible for practical application to bring benefit for entrepreneurs and medium scale
organizations in Pakistan via virtue of conduct at their respective end. The succeeding
resolve indicates to more familiarization for business managers/owners with social media
46

tools and application at the end of the business managers. It also points at the fact that social
media alone, if utilized to optimum capacity, can fetch enormous benefit and its
combination with SEO efforts can be of a massively fossilizing positive impact. All analysis
have to be backed up with logic and evidence to make sustainable sensibility. Assessment of
the orientation of local business conduct with regards to Facebook was partially
comprehended through observation of motion online and otherwise via surrounding reviews
found online. Interviews were conducted to find if the extract from the online findings are
similar or not aligned to what was assessed otherwise.
Furthermore, the research based questioning was done in a flexible question & answer
atmosphere, using variety of ways other than the conventional routine of handing out
questionnaires.

3.2 Population and Sample:


The advent of absorbing all directly concerning aspects from within all corners of the
potential research group does not constitute for the best and most viable resolve. This is
something that the snowball based chain referral sampling reflects towards and the technique
being a globally recognized method of research practice makes the application of the
technique a sound channel. The entire process is backed up with literature based research and
relevance of the chosen respondents is naturally a key criteria. The number of interviews in
light of snow ball sampling method as proposed by Guest. G (2006), were of 7, with all
selection based on pilot interviews done with from total number of 46 people.

47

3.2 Validity and Reliability:


Traditional dictations go onto establish a flow of ensuring validity with regards to
quantitative analysis. In contrast to that, qualitative research does not comply with similar
validation. Verification of validity of the research being qualitative in nature is directed with
credibility defensibility, trustworthiness and reliability (Kirk & Miller, 1986). This in turn
refers to validity among matters of the factual nature of the research literature, proof of
audio/video recordings of the interviews, interpretation of concepts and expression of
situations appropriately being understood and subsequently being comprehended with utmost
possible accuracy and lastly the alignment of conceptual as well as theoretical research
development with the entire data.

3.3 Data Collection Procedure:


Interviewees were selected upon establishing that they fulfilled the criteria of relevance and
meaningfulness with regards to the aligning nature of the research. The said criteria primarily
took into stance the working capacity of the business in focus to be online along with the
scale of the business and the monthly profit generated by the business itself to be a total
amount of Rs. 30,000. Facebook browsing of local pages, online reviews and investigation
from related sources offline helped screen and reach the final interviewees. The interviews
were all held face-to-face and lasted a an average time of 25 minutes, with a minimum time
of being 20 minutes and a maximum interview time reaching an hour and ten minutes. The
interviews were noted on paper and recorded during conduct for post-interview analysis.

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3.4 Data Analysis Techniques:


In light of the snowball technique, the analysis were done using creation of indexes to mark
inclination of the global orientation as well as the local group interviewed and accessed via
their online activity & reviews otherwise. The comparison of index based characteristics
within our domains of focus, namely, literature based directions to Facebook based use for
business practices, global Facebook business practices, local Facebook businesses practices,
Facebooks own methods towards business practices and best recognized tools for Facebook
based businesses throughout the world, is how conclusive work was comprehended. Data and
information was marked, assessed and then analyzed, then altogether put into comparative
notions. The resulting notion was again assessed and put to contrast against applicability
within local arena, taking the current situation, barriers and possible applicability within the
harshest possible environmental architecture, hence subsequently leading to the main
conclusion.

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CHAPTER 4
RESEARCH REVIEW

4.1 Results and Discussion:


During interviews, two web hosting companies were taken on board, both based in Pakistan.
Eight local small scale brands that were picked out with the snowball technique standing in
principle for the selection, all three were entirely Facebook based. The selected brands were
making a minimum monthly profit Rs. 80,000. There were other Pakistani brands that were
making more than a million rupees in profit every month and were completely online based
along with the behavior of a handful of US based organizations that were doing well largely
due to their activity on Facebook.
Interviews of all respondents were conduct in separation from one another. The respondents
expressed alignment at some fronts and had different opinion from one another on other
matters. For convenient explanation, let the respondents be labeled as Respondent 1,
Respondent 2, Respondent 3, Respondent 4, Respondent 5, Respondent 6, Respondent 7 and
Respondent 8. The key understanding of social medias role, let alone Facebook, in business
is something that is neglected by the masses and this holds true for several business managers
in majority. On similar lines, Respondent 4 says:
Not many people are even familiar with how good can Facebook help their
businesses be. It is all just like how a normal business is run. Facebook is
just like any other presence making outlet, just like a physical outlet. It runs

50

similarly. Pakistan based people, especially managers will take about 2 to 3


years to really catch onto the optimization capacity that Facebook has in
store for businesses.
On similar lines, Respondent 1 comments:
Although I do not count myself as one who knows Facebook based
business working to its best but I do realize that Facebook is probably the
most important aspect to many of the businesses these days, even within
Pakistan.
An insight of the current orientation within the local arena was given a glance of reflection
within that particular quote. The business management audience that is aware with somewhat
of an appropriate use and the potential optimized benefit that Facebook based working offers
was also glaringly visible within interview based assessments. Respondent 3 comments:
I maintain a physical outlet in probably one of the best available spots
within the capital of Pakistan. I definitely do affiliate my business with
representation on Facebook and the interesting bit is that I dont manage to
even get nearly towards striking profits through my physical outlet but my
Facebook page, with really no effort put to it, helps me get orders from
abroad to good amounts and that has gotten me more monetary return than
my actual physical outlet so far. So for me, spending on rent at one of the
best places to have a physical outlet has not fetched as much of good as my
brands Facebook page so far.

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Im still optimistic about my physical outlet though but Facebook has


definitely gotten more attention and Im not actually working on ways to
improve my page.
So correspondence with benefits of appropriate utility of Facebook rightly reflected there.
However, it is an established factor that there is a wide variety of channels and manners to
exert for business propagation at Facebook. These methods and practices are what truly
define lines of focus of work for business propagation via Facebook. In some aspects, a right
combination with offline activities would be best, others might require adding a blend of
SEO and/or software tools that could be online or offline. Respondent 1 rightfully comments.
Assessment and understanding of the rightful applicable channel to follow for optimum
benefits is vital. Respondent 1 reflects on that very phenomenon by commenting:
From what I have experienced so far, Facebook based business work flows
well when images from exhibitions and other offlline work is posted on
Facebook. I believe a lot in the power of what a graphic based projection
can do. You look at billboards and they exist all over the world and that tells
you that it is sensible to believe in this. My business does not have any
physical outlet, its only being done via Facebook and Im moving to setting
up a website now. I lead a 4 member team within which I have a one
dedicated person that manages my marketing on Facebook. It started out
with bleak and disappointing outcomes but within weeks everything was in a
good flow and things have kept improving ever since.
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It is important to understand that inclination of the consumer audience within Pakistan plays
an undeniable role in shaping up any business motion, especially in within the context of
marketing. Respondents within this research have had an established track record of business
conduct on Facebook, a factor supported by their profit yields through mare conduct on
Facebook. Interestingly, there is variation and difference within practice of business conduct
at Facebook among these business owners and manager, even with operation within similar
environment and consumer audience. Respondent 4 comments:
Facebook itself has a lot of supportive infrastructure to key aspects of
business based fundamental working motion on the network. Many
entrepreneurs and managers arent even aware if such a thing is even there.
For instance, I lay huge emphasis on Facebook based advertisement and
engagement methods. Ive been constantly spending two thirds of my
revenue budget on promotion work and marketing. Ive actually spent
around 1.5 million rupees on Facebook based advertisement over the past 3
years and it has paid of brilliantly but more than that, its not just about
paying Facebook to advertise your brand, its a lot more about how you use
the advertisement within Facebooks set of rules, how you want Facebook to
be going about your business. It is all very defined and it really is very
helpful. Other than that, your engagement methods play a very important
role in our business promotion and growth.

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The brands ethical alignment was also something that was a major area of concern to many
of the respondents. It speaks volumes of the personality of the brand among other factors that
altogether sum up brand personality. According to Respondent 2:

My brand is entirely based on Facebook, with very little offline


correspondence. My consumer base isnt gigantic but it works well for me. I
do look to grow and off course grow at a rapid rate when it comes to having
audience on your page but I would never ever spam or ask people to share
my page. The way in which you carry your brand is what its identity is and
I would never risk that by indulging into anything that might hurt my brand
identity, no matter what the benefits offered are. Brand identity is very
important. So I rely on my work via my page and it has consistently panned
out well thank God.
This was a summarized comprehension of the interviews and the general conclusiveness of
the research. It was all put to aggregate analysis before comparison with the literature that
reflects upon profit maximization via direct utility of Facebook. In addition to that, in light of
the popularity of use and reviews accumulating to the extent of impact that come from utility
were two factors taken into account to bring forward the best available tools with regards to
business optimization with the view of profit generation via use of Facebook.

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4.2 Research Orientation:


The research within this thesis paper compounds a generalized prospective with regards to
behavior as well as motion of business on Facebook from local groups and compares it with
what literature has to offer on similar lines along with an added take on how it is being done
elsewhere in the world.
The combination of analysis on how social media efforts are to be directed for profit
maximization among businesses with a combination of perspectives from literature, local &
foreign businesses and how Facebook mechanisms work at the back-end with reference to
our area of focus. Collaboration of input from these perspectives that carry different nature
within their background, is to assure the authenticity of applicable conclusive solution
towards the problem that this research paper revolves around.

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CHAPTER 5
CONCLUSIVE ANALYSIS
5.1Prominent Reflective Analysis:
The assessment of these elements led us to draw clear conclusions on the current situation of
the use of Facebook regarding business optimization by business owners/managers. The
current crop of business managers do realize Facebook as something of key importance to
their business structure, however, it is evident that they do not realize how to go about it in
terms of maximizing profit.
Cost that link with marketing and promotional activities fall as a natural concern to
entrepreneurial initiatives and with regards to that, the most efficient tools in terms of best
majority reviews as well as optimum effectiveness with regards to marketing on Facebook
were subsequently proposed within this research paper. Local entrepreneurs and medium
scale businesses within Pakistan do not exercise keen interest or practice with regards to any
such tools and only a small majority seems to recognize the appropriate utility and usage of
such tools. All other methods and details that relate to the solution which this research paper
aims to address are also gathered with cost effectiveness being a key concern.
The lack of awareness as towards setting up agendas and basic understanding of how to set
up a road map as towards achieving that goal is a commonality towards within Pakistan's
business arena. The majority does not realize the areas of utility that Facebook can serve
them into, let alone the degree of benefit in profitability that can fall into the business as to
aid subsequent increase in business propagation. Several Pakistani ventures that are entirely

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online based, fail to recognize Facebook as something that can influence their business and
profitability. However, it is important to highlight those budding entrepreneurs which have
come forth with online business ventures, have particularly arrived at reaping great benefits
through using Facebook. Although largely they do not follow awareness with regards to tools
or methods that can help them amplify profitability yet it is their way of conduct and
simplistic regimes within their campaigns on Facebook that deliver them benefit. It must also
be highlighted here that there is a unanimous majority within small, medium and large scale
businesses that find Facebook adverts to be highly useful in comparison to other promotion
efforts. Entrepreneurial ventures recognize a direct positive impact on profit margins with
use of Facebook adverts. Mechanisms within Facebook adverts with reference to setting
adverts up, vary from the nature of the business to the nature of each campaign or the target
audience which a business aims at. A minority of entrepreneurs recognize that to a
reasonable degree, the majority treats Facebook as an added supplement to their brand image.
An introspection into fashion brands, especially at the launch-pad and initial post launch-pad
phase that accounts for about a 4-8 months after the initiation of an entrepreneurial venture,
reveals that fashion brands from within the local arena manage to trigger a seemingly good
combination between marketing on Facebook and profit maximization. Entrepreneurs that
belong to this business field within Pakistan quickly grasp onto the utility of Facebook based
marketing and offer several approaches as to how they go about their marketing work on
Facebook for profit generation & maximization. Their practices differ slightly from one
another nevertheless common grounds maintain within the flow due to the overall similar
alignment of their target audience.
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Small scale entrepreneurs from the fashion industry that do not hold any physical outlet of
their own and rely on Facebook to maintain he presence of their brand, find that conduct of
physical exhibitions along with occupation in terms of presence of their brand within
prominent platforms offline and the association of this act on their Facebook page is of key
importance. They also emphasize drastically on the presentation of their catalog and the
manner in which they go about with reference to the competitions of prize-based-competition
schemes along with other similar acts on their Facebook page. With this regard, graphic work
for expression of their brand on Facebook is something that plays a role of great importance
and image based posting on their Facebook page is something commonly stressed upon by
these entrepreneurs. It is important to mention here that image based postings on Facebook
are continually an undeniable orientation among large scale fashion brands in Pakistan as
well. The rate at which the posts are made on Facebook and the quality of the posts in terms
of originality of the post within the content as well as the effectiveness in terms of utility is a
factor that small & medium scale entrepreneurs somewhat understand as a directive point for
their

businesses

growth

on

Facebook.

Most interestingly, these entrepreneurs have managed to strike attention of the global
audience towards their respective brands via Facebook which is something that has
broadened their scale of operations as well as increased the magnitude of revenue that they
were yielding. One business owner pointed out that although they recently started their brand
and also have opened up a physical outlet about 3 months back to represent their brand, yet
the outlet does not gather as many sales as their Facebook page, which has orders from local
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and foreign audience coming into their page inbox.


However, most do not intend to associate themselves with similar online platforms or focus
on promotion at Facebook via non-traditional tools/methods. They do not recognize any
focus on Facebook optimization via blogging on similar platforms within Facebook due sheer
unawareness of this conduct along with the effective benefit that comes in return. When
asked if they would indulge into such a notion, they responded by saying that this would or
probably might hurt the alignment of their brand image, something that is of prime
importance to them as budding entrepreneurs within the fashion industry.
Nevertheless, these entrepreneurs manage to get through decent revenue within a brief time
approximation after the initiation of their business via utter reliance on Facebook. Although
this is a positive indicator yet as the urban regions see an increasing growth among
entrepreneurial ventures and Facebook being an obvious platform for these business
initiations, it is crucial for present entrepreneurs to enhance upon their knowledge and
capacity with regards to the usage of Facebook for business growth as well as subsequent
profit amplification purposes.
Observation regarding majority web hosting companies within Pakistan, based on their
Facebook-on-page conduct as well as their overall motion on the internet, indicates that they
are more oriented towards working on search engine optimization along with other online
promotional methods and Facebook or other social media platforms are not of prime concern
to them with reference to their general marketing direction.

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Facebook being social media network with mass majority of 'consumer' presence,
thenceforth, here the difference in the target audience between fashion brands and web
hosting companies being business-to-consumer and business-to-business respectively, is a
critical factor shaping up the orientation of marketing efforts on Facebook from these and
other industries. In similar context, it is safe to say that the architecture of the business in
focus and the orientation of the natural point-of-sale in light of that business architecture, is
one of the most decisive element towards filtering out if Facebook is or is not an effectively
impact making platform for use towards consequent business benefit.
In contrast to local web-hosting companies, Pakistan based e-commerce ventures do attend to
Facebook as a key fundamental within their marketing and overall business philosophy.
Among the urban regions, it is a clear notion that Facebook appears as a natural flow for the
consumer audience to screen and order from Pakistan based e-commerce sites or portals. Ecommerce based businesses are the one's that indicate to organically flow well with social
media. In fact, within Pakistan, online ventures that pertain to buying and selling have
massive revenue generation on a daily basis. The effective track of online act with regards to
these e-commerce ventures also goes onto to indicate that they are fairly aware and make use
of effective tools, techniques, methods and ways that are inclined towards yielding maximum
benefit out Facebook usage. These e-commerce brands also display adaption as well as
aggressive transcendence in relation to the overall changing online business arena within
Pakistan and the world in general.

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Food spots and restaurants within urban regions of Pakistan have displayed that they are now
increasingly moving towards arriving upon optimized engagement techniques by having
Facebook as a key pillar within their marketing efforts. Major food spots within urban
regions, regardless of their nature being either multinational or locally based, are now
moving towards branding and engaging their audience in a more vibrant manner by using
Facebook. This includes discounts on "check-in" at Facebook, give-away competitions,
activity based giveaways, voting or question-poll based prize competitions, etc. These food
brands understand that the more the influx engaged, the more the profitability and therefore,
more the business benefit. They have engaged into effective Facebook utility but like the
fashion industry, small and medium scale food brands that are locally based within the urban
regions do not recognize the extent of effective use or maintain knowledge with regards to
advanced practices on Facebook for the benefit of their business.
Similarly, Event management companies in Pakistan are mildly active on Facebook but have
gone on towards exceeding usage for expression of their presence. They are in active notion
on Facebook with the basic flow of use within the network. This is one factor that has
magnified their revenue growth as their presence rises to prominence with the use of
Facebook. This marks strength towards realization regarding the importance of Facebook
based marketing efforts at the end of the numbered event management companies within
Pakistan.
As the trend towards Facebook usage grows in Pakistan, business owners and managers are
now prominently making use and efforts towards measuring and exerting efforts on
Facebook for business benefit.
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5.2 Conclusion:
The thesis paper combines five important factors that are aggregate of modern social media
environment, especially keeping Pakistan's scenario with regards to the situation. These
elements are as following:
a) What literature says on Facebook work aimed towards profit generation via Facebook
b) How Facebook's architecture works toward business based working on the network
itself.
c) How Pakistan based businesses are generally going about with reference to their work
on Facebook.
d) Best business tools for businesses on Facebook based business work.
e) Some of the best global practices in motion with reference to businesses on Facebook.
The motion of businesses within Pakistan with regards to usage of Facebook for profit
maximization and business progression, are two elements that we focused on and termed as
"business propagation". The circumstances within Pakistan present with a positive inclination
as towards Facebook usage for business propagation.

Small and medium scale businesses are most definitely making optimum use of Facebook to
yield business benefits; however, the potential degree to which business owners/managers
manage to strike benefits can be amplified to a humongous degree. This unfulfilled potential
is subject appropriate familiarization of business tools for Facebook as well as practices to
refine output towards such orientation. Present success of budding entrepreneurs comes from
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practices established through consistent usage with combination of fundamental branding and
promotion work.
The growing infrastructure of online businesses in Pakistan along with the rapid increase in
internet usage has lead Facebook to stand at an undeniable stand point within business
owners/managers and consumers. It is evident that with appropriate knowledge base with
reference to the mechanics of function of Facebook and literature based education as well as
concrete practices towards business benefits via Facebook conduct has paid of entrepreneurs
along with enterprises that carried keen attention towards such aspects.
It must be understood that influential Facebook practices coming from outside of Pakistan
can help local businesses as well but modification into practices from abroad must be
modified in light of the environmental scenario within Pakistan. It is also important to note
that effective use of Facebook in combination with traditional search engine optimization
practices pays of better than mare optimum utility of Facebook with ambitions of business
benefit and profit maximization purposes.

5.3 Limitations of the study:


A clear non-availability of data and resources to verify accounts of online usage and any sort
of verification of business matrices with regards to online businesses within Pakistan was
evident. Effective width of population size was a priority for this research paper but
constraints with respect to time and assessment of the correct statistical as well as analytical
directions being grossly ineffective, lead to application of the snowball technique.

63

5.4 Further Research:


There was a clear lack of acceptance found among local business management when it came
to exploring more or affiliating with different practices with regards to Facebook for business
based benefits. Marely Facebook based successful businesses were truly numbered and
within them, they realize the importance of exploring more ways and tools to do better on
Facebook to improve their business propagation. The average urban business management
does however recognize Facebook as an essential part of their business and within that
segment, inclination to utilize Facebook for more benefit is visible.
Therefore, among numerous directions that could follow from with this research, accuracy in
terms of tangibility of economic matrices for business propagation via Facebook, a natural
succeeding line to this research would be to bring concrete resolve to the area of focus and to
allocate fitting application for the overall business management audience if structured
logically but due to its very nature, it can be perused if said research limitation factors can
be addressed.
On a wider supplementing spectrum, seminars on social media usage along with news
coverage on social media and highlighting social media on other promotional platforms has a
more visible impact on change of orientation among business management for social media
usage. Educational institute do play their part but promotional platforms succeed in terms of
the depth and spread of impact resolve determination for more diversified social media usage
with the view of business benefit.

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References:
- Andreas Kaplan and Micheal Haenlein (2010), Users of the world unite! The challenges
and opportunities of social media, p.61, Business horizon.
- Percentage of individuals using the internet 2000-2012, International Telecommunications
Union at Geneva, June 2013.
- P@SHA Internet Study, 2013.
- Trattner, C., Kappe, F. (2013). Social Stream Marketing on Faceboook: A Case Study.
International journal of Social and Humanistic computing.
- Universal Service Fund, 2013, The Online Business Consumer Market.
- Branding Bees, 2012, Social Media in Pakistan.
- Huma Yusuf and Emrys Schoemaker (2013), Policy Briefing # 9, The Media of Pakistan.
- Micheal A.Stelzner (2012), How marketers are using social media to grow their business,
2012 Social Media Marketing Industry Report.
- Philipa Coalin, Kitty Rahilly, Ingrid Richardson, Amand Third (2011), Benefits of Social
Media.
- Wesley Shu and Hao Chuang (2011), Internet Research, The received benefits of six degree
separation social media networks.
- Nielsens 2012 report, The state of media: The social media report (2012).
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- Danny Oosterveer, 2011, Influencing & measuring word of mouth on Twitter.


- ITB Berlin, 2014, Calculating Online Value Possibilities and Requirements.
- Chris Treadaway and Mari Smith, p. 61, Facebook Marketing An hour a day.
- Measuring Social Media ROI in the Enterprise: Myths and Facts by Oracle, 2014
- Chris Lake, March 2014, Introducing the Periodic Table of Content Marketing.
- Xiaoyan Hu, 2011, Social Media Business Model Analysis Case Tencent, Facebook and
Myspace.
- Mikolaj Jan Piskorski, 2013, Social Strategies That Work.
- Guest, G. (2006). How Many Interviews Are Enough?: An Experiment with Data
Saturation and Variability. Field Methods, 18(1), 5982. doi:10.1177/1525822X05279903

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Interview Questionnaire:
INTERVIEW

THE UTILITY FACEBOOK WITH VIEW OF REVENUE OPTIMIZATION


FOR SMALL SCALE BUSINESSES IN PAKISTAN
We are a group of final year BBA-H (Management Sciences) students at Iqra University. The
purpose of this interview is to share your current ideas and views regarding businesses on
Facebook.All data obtained from these interviews will be used only for study and
nonprofit/noncommercial purposes. Your responses would be highly appreciable and helpful. All
information will be treated with confidentiality and data will be deleted after one year from the
system.
We know I am taking your precious time, but with the help of your academic knowledge,
learning and experience I would be able to draw better results start with a little bit introduction of
University Business Incubator.
FOCUS
Business
growth and
profit
maximization
via Facebook
usage

MEANING
RATIONALE/PURPOSE
SCOPE
We are exploring into To come forth will all possible
Benefit for budding
all ways and methods
directives that can lead to
entrepreneurs within Pakistan,
that are linked to
benefit of small scale business
to effectively help them get
benefiting any
ventures and business initiatives
across difficulties in
business within
of such scale.
establishing business ventures
Pakistan through
in Pakistan, with more insight
working on
towards profit maximization. In
Facebook.
turn, helping contribute
Pakistans economy.

You are also welcome to make a query/suggestions related to the subject and give better
feedback and mail to bilallivesinpak@gmail.com
NAME
BUSINESS
FACEBOOK PAGE

By,
Bilal Muneer (Registration # 13102)
Junaid Shah (Registration # 17650)
Students of BBA-H,
MGT Sci. Dept,
Iqra University Islamabad Campus (IUIC).
67