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## Circuit Systems with

MATLAB and PSpice
Book September 2007
DOI: 10.1002/9780470822418.ch10

CITATION

441

2 authors, including:
Won Y Yang
Chung-Ang University
21 PUBLICATIONS 398 CITATIONS
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## Available from: Won Y Yang

Retrieved on: 10 September 2016

## Circuit Systems with

MATLAB and PSpice
Won Y. Yang and Seung C. Lee
Chung-Ang University, South Korea

BICENTENNIAL

9 I CE NTE

NNIAL

Contents
Preface

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## 1 Basic Concepts on Electric Circuits

1.1 Symbols and Units
1.2 Network Variables
1.2.1 Voltage and Current
1.2.2 Electric Power and Energy
1.2.3 Reference Polarity and Direction of Voltage/Current
1.2.4 Passive Sign Convention
1.3 Circuit Elements
1.3.1 Passive Elements
1.3.2 Active Elements
1.3.3 Operational Amplifier
1.3.4 Transistor
1.4 Kirchhoff's Laws
1.4.1 Nodes, Branches, and Meshes/Loops
1.4.2 Kirchhoff's Current Law (KCL)
1.4.3 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law (KVL)
1.4.4 The Number of KCL/KVL Equations
1.5 Equivalent Transformation of Sources
1.5.1 Combination of Several Sources
1.5.2 Voltage-Current Source Transformation
1.5.3 Examples of Source Transformation
1.6 Series and Parallel Connections
Problems

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2 Resistor Circuits
2.1 Combination of Resistors
2.1.1 Series Combination of Resistors
2.1.2 Parallel Combination of Resistors
2.2 Voltage/Current Divider
2.2.1 Voltage Divider
2.2.2 Current Divider
2.3 A-Y(II-T) Transformation
2.3.1 A-Y(II-T) Conversion Formula
2.3.2 Y-A(T-n) Conversion Formula
2.4 Node Analysis
2.4.1 Circuits Having No Dependent Sources

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Contents

## 2.4.2 Circuits Having Dependent Sources

2.5 Mesh (Loop) Analysis
2.5.1 Circuits Having No Dependent Sources
2.5.2 Circuits Having Dependent Sources
2.6 Comparison of Node Analysis and Mesh Analysis
2.7 Thevenin/Norton Equivalent Circuits
2.8 Superposition Principle and Linearity
2.9 OP Amp Circuits with Resistors
2.9.1 Inverting OP Amp Circuit
2.9.2 Noninverting OP Amp Circuit
2.9.3 Voltage Follower
2.9.4 More Exact Analysis of OP Amp Circuits
2.9.5 OP Amp Circuits with Positive Feedback
2.10 Transistor Circuits
2.12 Load Line Analysis of Nonlinear Resistor Circuits
2.13 More Examples of Resistor Circuits
Problems
First-Order Circuits
3.1 Characteristics of Inductors and Capacitors
3.1.1 Inductor
3.1.2 Capacitor
3.2 Series-Parallel Combination of Inductors/Capacitors
3.2.1 Series-Parallel Combination of Inductors
3.2.2 Series-Parallel Combination of Capacitors
3.3 Circuit Analysis Using the Laplace Transform
3.3.1 The Laplace Transform for a First-Order Differential Equation
3.3.2 Transformed Equivalent Circuits for R, L, and C
3.4 Analysis of First-Order Circuits
3.4.1 DC-Excited RL Circuits
3.4.2 DC-Excited RC Circuits
3.4.3 Time-Constant and Natural Responses of First-Order Circuits
3.4.4 Sequential Switching
3.4.5 AC-Excited First-Order Circuits
3.5 Analysis of First-Order OP Amp Circuits
3.5.1 First-Order OP Amp Circuits with Negative Feedback
3.5.2 First-Order OP Amp Circuits with Positive Feedback
3.6 LRL Circuits and CRC Circuits
3.6.1 An LRL Circuit
3.6.2 A CRC Circuit
3.6.3 Conservation of Flux Linkage and Charge
3.6.4 A Measure Against Violation of the Continuity Rule on
the Inductor Current
3.7 Simulation Using PSpice and MATLAB
3.7.1 An RC Circuit with Sequential Switching
3.7.2 An AC-Excited RL Circuit
3.8 Application and Design of First-Order Circuits
Problems

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Contents

ix

4 Second-Order Circuits
4.1 The Laplace Transform For Second-Order Differential Equations
4.1.1 Overdamped Case with Two Distinct Real Charactenstic Roots
4.1.2 Critically Damped Case with Double Real Charactenstic Roots
4.1.3 Underdamped Case with Two Distinct Complex
Characteristic Roots
4.1.4 Stability of a System and Location of its Characteristic Roots
4.2 Analysis of Second-Order Circuits
4.2.1 A Series RLC Circuit
4.2.2 A Parallel RLC Circuit
4.2.3 Two-Mesh/Node Circuit
4.2.4 Circuits Having Dependent Sources
4.2.5 Thevenin Equivalent Circuit
4.3 Second-Order OPAmp Circuits
4.4 Analogy and Duality
4.4.1 Analogy
4.4.2 Duality
4.5 Transfer Function, Impulse Response, and Convolution
4.5.1 Linear Systems
4.5.2 Time-Invariant Systems
4.5.3 The Pulse Response of a Linear Time-Invariant System
4.5.4 The Input-Output Relationship of a Linear
Time-Invariant System
4.6 The Steady-State Response to a Sinusoidal Input
4.7 An Example of MATLAB Analysis and PSpice Simulation
Problems

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## 5 Magnetically Coupled Circuits

5.1 Self-Inductance
5.2 Mutual Inductance
5.3 Relative Polarity of Induced Voltages and Dot Convention
5.3.1 Dot Convention and Sign of Mutual Inductance Terms
5.3.2 Measurement of the Relative Winding Direction
5.3.3 Measurement of Mutual Inductance
5.3.4 Energy in Magnetically Coupled Coils
5.4 Equivalent Models of Magnetically Coupled Coils
5.4.1 T-Equivalent Circuit
5.4.2 II-Equivalent Circuit
5.5 Ideal Transformer
5.6 Linear Transformer
5.7 Autotransformers
Problems

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6 AC Circuits
6.1 Sinusoidal Sources
6.2 Phasor and AC Analysis
6.3 AC Impedance of Passive Elements
6.3.1 Resistor
6.3.2 Inductor
6.3.3 Capacitor

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Contents

## 6.4 AC Circuit Examples

6.5 Instantaneous, Active, Reactive, and Complex Power
6.6 Power Factor
6.7 Maximum Power Transfer - Impedance Matching
6.9 Design and Simulation for Maximum Power Transfer
Problems

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7 Three-Phase AC Circuits
7.1 Balanced Three-Phase Voltages
7.2 Power of Balanced Three-Phase Loads
7.3 Measurement of Three-Phase Power
7.4 Three-Phase Power System
7.5 Electric Shock and Grounding
Problems

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## 8 Frequency Selective Circuit - Filter

8.1 Lowpass Filter (LPF)
8.1.1 Series LR Circuit
8.1.2 Series RC Circuit
8.2 Highpass Filter (HPF)
8.2.1 Series CR Circuit
8.2.2 Series RL Circuit
8.3 Bandpass Filter (BPF)
8.3.1 Series RLC Circuit and Series Resonance
8.3.2 Parallel RLC Circuit and Parallel Resonance
8.4 Bandstop Filter (BSF)
8.4.1 Series RLC Circuit
8.4.2 Parallel RLC Circuit
8.5 Active Filter
8.5.1 First-Order Active Filter
8.5.2 Second-Order Active LPF/HPF
8.5.3 Second-Order Active BPF
8.5.4 Second-Order Active BSF
8.6 Analog Filter Design
Problems

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## 9 Circuits Analysis Using Fourier Series

9.1 Fourier Series
9.2 Computation of Fourier Coefficients Using Symmetry
9.3 Circuit Analysis Using Fourier Series
9.4 Fourier Series and Laplace Transform
9.5 RMS Value and Power of a Nonsinusoidal Periodic Signal
9.5.1 RMS Value and Distortion Factor of a Nonsinusoidal
Periodic Signal
9.5.2 Power and Power Factor of a Nonsinusoidal
Periodic Signal
Problems

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Contents

xi

10 Two-Port Networks
10.1 Definitions of Two-Port Parameters
10.2 Relationships Among Two-Port Parameters
10.2.1 The z-Parameters and a-Parameters
10.2.2 The a-Parameters and /i-Parameters
10.2.3 The z-Parameters and /j-Parameters
10.3 Reciprocity of a Two-Port Network
10.4 Interconnection of Two-Port Networks
10.4.1 Series Connection and z-Parameters
10.4.2 Parallel (Shunt) Connection and y-Parameters
10.4.3 Series-Parallel (Shunt) Connection and ^-Parameters
10.4.4 Parallel (Shunt)-Series Connection and g-Parameters
10.4.6 Curse of the Port Condition (Current Requirement)
10.5.1 Input Impedance
10.5.2 Voltage Gain
10.5.3 Current Gain
10.5.4 (Thevenin) Equivalent Impedance Seen from the Output
10.5.5 (Thevenin) Equivalent Source Seen from the Output
10.5.6 The Parameters of an Overall Two-Port Network
10.6 Feedback Amplifiers as Two-Port Networks
10.6.1 Series-Parallel (Shunt) Feedback Amplifier
10.6.2 Series-Series Feedback Amplifier
10.6.3 Parallel-Parallel Feedback Amplifier
10.6.4 Parallel (Shunt)-Series Feedback Amplifier
10.6.5 General Feedback Structure
10.7 Circuit Models with Given Parameters
10.7.1 Circuit Model with Given z-Parameters
10.7.2 Circuit Model with Given y-Parameters
10.7.3 Circuit Model with Given h and g-Parameters
10.7.4 Circuit Model with Given a and ^-Parameters
Problems

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Appendices
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix
Appendix

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A: Laplace Transform
B: Matrix Operations with MATLAB
C: Complex Number Operations with MATLAB
D: Nonlinear/Differential Equations with MATLAB
E: Symbolic Computations with MATLAB
F: Useful Formulas (Reference [K-2])
G: The Standard Values of Resistors, Capacitors, and Inductors
H: OrCAD/PSpice (References [K-l] and [R-2])
I: MATLAB Introduction (Reference [K-2])
J: Solutions to Problems

References

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Index

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