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MOMOYO KAIJIMA

JUNZO KURODA
YOSHIHARU TSUKAMOTO

MAD E. . I

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CONTENTS
~

iX

oo1 r.)( 1t:. 1 /

<1)

. "- .:f 3- J

16 ifi ~ r.o t

INTRODUCTION

018 ;t11'1/l--.:f3-(1)1)i;t
METHOD

040

.)( 11'. 1 /. 1- _ .:f 3 _:


jj 11'7' ;;.,
MADE IN TOKYO:
GUIDE BOOK

22 1.lJ71~-~

47

sand apartment house

23 li!i!~J~17Jv

49

::J-~

021 .)( 11' 1 /. 1-- .:f 3- ~


:Jt.:t.Q10(1).:f-?-l'
10 KEY WORDS

warehouse cour t

Iv7~'h 7H-I)-- :J~

retaining wall apartments

t ruck to we r

27

electric passage

I\1QI1TI~-~
highway de p artment store

4 :.-*7 'h:l

28 GST'~:1v ;~ 7~

182 ii!!

(B)
MAP

3o

1 84

* / . . ? ::h ~ t

<1)

t-t g

TALK WITH
TAKASHI HOMMA

'~7-/::J:h7-t:7Jv
pa c h i nk o c athedral
i! ;~ 7~1::Jv

188

~Q.
HISTORY

11 *~!ii::Jv
~~-7onH-7

35

PROFILE

190

BIBLIOGRAPHY

13

H~!ffi!l!!

18

Jlli\;f "'(1) ~7

40

J...:hT'tt~

43

diving tower

distr i bution comp le x

:.-'1' -:.--< ;...:,3;...


chassis apartments

44

air -co n building

TTT ( v:::f -f71'~ )


TTT (lego office)

45 ~/*W/IIIU

billboard apartment house

shrine building

tokyo dispersal centre

62

tunnel sh r ine

46

? /:,3;..- llJ~

apartment mounta1n temple

~;t!ffitl!!i::Jv

cool room estate

63

~;J~it ~1-l5c
pet architecture

001

64 11'.1.</:.-3;...
dam housing

65 :l'l'/7:.-:..;... ?->.:t-Jv
a1rpo rt Junction

66

vehic ular village

~)Jt::J;...:t~.-- .;/ 7~

21 ~Ui::Jv

61 TRC ( J[Jli))fti!i!/9- )

ce nt ipe de housing

41 tn.bt::v ;~:J

~ :if li!! L-- -Jvi::J v

sp r outing building

apar t ment station

42 11'11::/'1?'7-

20 lt'i!f<;... :.-3;...

60

ventilator obelisk

39 (RO)*-.L.

~J7H-~
ho r se apartment house

19 ~fti::Jv

vegetable town

pr olife rat ing water slides

ca r to wer

17

:J l" J...

37 ltl!i~7111'-I::Jv

nama -con apart ment house

16 :h-?'7-

farnlly restaurant triplets

tw i n de luxe se werag e gardens

38

7J>>.v~ 35?.ill'l

59 ~?'7;...

36 '/1/ 'f*fill~

golf taxi building

15 ~::J /J7H-~

58

ra i l museum

bu s housing

14 :::fJt-7?'7:.--t::Jv

v-Jv>.~ -

;t-~7'1~-~

auto department store

shopping wall / mall

park on park

189 Ill

57

34 i(fif.Siilt

embassies bu ildin g

12

green parking

amey oko fly i ng temple

expressway patrol bu il ding

:h--f71'~

car parking office

graveyard tunnel

karaoke hotel

10 '!Ull~,~~o-Jvi::Jv

55

56 "/ )-/H-"r /'1

33 J7 ;LIJI~<fl~

~!f~$ Yasuhiro Kuno

li* El311l Yoshiharu Tsukamoto


1) :tJ

67

~;f--;Jj'IJ.:J:J

Marika Neustupny

nmp 2000
( Web si te English version )

.1'1 ,Iii, i;'t it

Momoyo Kaijima

*')

.!lEEil!ll=

~ ~ :1

Junzo Kuroda

~--ti graveyard
70 shooting

Christo ph Char!

l!!lltli1J
correspondents

li* EEI!l Yoshiharu Tsukamoto


'**~!H~T Yumiko Haruki

32

<P '-

33

Jj\)11 - }._

Kazuto Ogawa
Masaomi Yonezu

:tlim!"'l'lil Tomio

Ogiwara

Yoko Taguch i

Go Nakatani

~/...'11'/i!/~ Tom Vinc ent

34

*5! jE E2

ji )$: T Junko Tachibana

35

.U M:

~$iili:l!l Naoki Ab e

36

UJ D EE ~ T

jJiJt~rul Jlro lio

37

:SJII*.m

Daisuke Tanigawa

ll

)!f }._ Hlroto Sakai

38

32' *t'l't:

Takanorl Kasal

~!fl!iil!'f Et suko Sano

39

Jj\ JII. jj]

Takas hi Ogawa

40

Jj\!f Ell ll11

Tamaki Onoda

41

iilill18 - rul

43

*li!G'II'f

nmp 98
( W eb site Japanese versi on )

.I'! .I~ it

Momoyo Kaij ima

,!l Ell i1!1J

Junzo Kuroda

~ !f ~ Akira Yasuno

iii* ii!

Shun Takag i

:t)(~'l'lil Tom lo Ogiwara

carwash terrace

7') ~ ~ 7 :,'I' Jv Jv

Ell D IIIJ'f

'**~~T Yumiko Haruki

69 ilt- 7-7~

v ~-Jv / ~1~/ les Sa>urs Papin

!.li.l!.lf~ Rie Shiomi

li* EEI!II Yoshlharu Tsukamoto

heli-warehouse

li.l!.lf~ Ale Shiomi

28

~;f--':1?/ ~'

68 -"')

jf i! Hirom ichi Yanagi

~*~jC'f Yuklko Arak i

31

Shun Takagi

sports bridge

sportsman zoo

*f*l~$ Yasushi Ouchi

=- Marika Neustupny li* El31111 Yoshiharu Tsukamoto

~ !f ~ Aklra Yasuno

i!i* 1i!

~~~- Akio YasUmori

Shun Takagi

*') ~ ~ :1 =-

< IJ :h

32 &ilU3

i!Jilijj

Junzo Kuro da

royal golf apartments

supply wat er cou rt s

se x bu i lding

9 :h7-f?-*7-Jv

r*::J-~
se wag e courts

31 J:*::J -~

neon building

54 01'\"Jv:::fJv7</ :.-3;...

super car sc hool

roller co aster building

6 *-t/I::Jv

~-H- :h-~7-Jv

Mom oyo Kaijima

<

d is persal terminal

U Tsutom u Fuji oka

.1'1 .I~ it

.!lEEil!ll=

iii* ji!

~))ft1/:$1-"f-I/:J

Momoyo Kaijima

~ EB~.=. Junzo Kuroda

~!f~ J1;; Yasuhiro Kuno

residential farm

53

double layer petrol stat ion

29

'1 1 h:J/\ <j~


bridge home

52 ~!Utl.ll

interchange court

ci ne -b r idg e

5 :li;~ ~::J-~?-1::-Jv

1/:$1-::J-~

::z.-v1Jv 7 J>7 ~ 1 J

50 1!111&</:.-3;...
51

' 96 Architecture
of the Year

.1'1 J,i;'t it
2001

ghost ra il factory

taxi building
~7 ;~ 7:$1'7-

TEAM MADE tN TOKYO

crane shelves

bath tour building

26

7-J.. . ;<1'f:1'/ . ~ - '\'3 -

48 71.---/t.:t.t

delivery spiral

25 ?7:.--t::Jv

~)l.lfn~lll

vampire park

~.1.'11'/i!/~ Tom Vincent

ji

if. T

Junko Tachibana

~$ill!! Naoki Abe

iJiJt;xaJI Jiro

ll

lio

)!f }._ Hiroto Sakai

~!fl!iil!'f Elsuko Sano

~ Takeshi Goshima

Yumiko Yamaguchi

Shlnichiro Urahashi

Yuko Oonari

44

JIIJ:iE~ Masamichi Kawakami

45

~:SJII

46

~llijj*lJI Daiju Nagaoka

50

<P :S~L)._ Rhenin Nakatani

Go Hasegwa

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when returning from Europe. Roads and trainlines run over


buildings, expressways wind themselves over rivers, cars can
drive up ramps to the rooftop of a 6 storey building, the huge
volume of a golf practice net billows over a tiny residential
district. Most major cities of Europe are still using buildings
from previous centuries, and are not modernised in terms of
renewing actual building stock. By comparison, almost all
buildings in Tokyo have been built within the last 30 or 40
years, utilising contemporary technologies. These
technologies have formed a background to the appearance of
compositions

and

functional

combinations, unthinkable in the traditional European city.


What is it about this city of Tokyo, which can allow such
unthinkable productions? How have we managed to arrive at
such a different place to European modernity despite being
equipped with the same building technology?
But one week later, these sorts of questions disappear from
my mind, together with the feeling that something is wrong.

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Changi ng our Surroundings into Resources

I'm often surprised when returning to Tokyo, especially,

spatial

?' i! ;... :9-~ll~ "F ~

1991 ~.

-:JlL' ~:i:i!ttJ<t.t~ . -t?:i;.t-T, $tl:~r.:toit~~~~

The Appearan ce and


Disappearance of Shamelessness

shameless

~~~~ftc ~~ ~ -r ~ s ~~ ~ -~ ~~c. ~ ~ ~

UJ*~~ ~ ..,n ~~ HIt i!i ~* i! ~ :g~ ~~ !Sti

If we return to our everyday architectural life, architectural


magazines and university textbooks are filled with famous
works-east and west , old and new. Specialists, such as
practitioners and critics find their criteria by looking at
overseas examples and Japanese classics. This is correct and
necessary, but the values woven by this situation judge this
city as consumed by disgusting buildings. But, If our
footsteps are actually embedded in such a pitiful urban
landscape, the idea of usingfamous architecture as a criteria
base seems to be just an attempt to express good taste .
Photographic books amplify a desire for an architectu re
which simply can't be found in our surroundings. In such a
situation, then suddenly archi tectural design holds no
interest anymore; the future appears depressing. If we can 't
try to turn 'disgusting' buildings into resources, then there is
no reason to particularly stay in Tokyo. Surely we can start to
think about how to take advantage of them , rather than
trying to run away. Shamelessness can become useful. So
let 's start by considering that these shameless buildings are
not collapsibl e into the concept of 'chaos', but are in fact an
intricate reporting of the concrete urban situation.

Survey Beginnings

Da-me Architecture

In 1991, we discovered a narrow spaghetti shop wrenched

The buildings we were attracted to were ones giving a priority

mto the space under a baseba ll batting centre hanging from

to stubborn honesty in response to their surroundi ngs and

a steep incline. Neither spaghetti shop nor batting centre are

programmatic requirements , without insisting on

unusual in Tokyo , but the packaging of the two together

architectural aesthetic and form . We decided to call them

cannot be explained rationally. Despite an apparent

'Da-me Architecture' (no-good architecture), with all our love

co nvenience in their unity, there is no necessity to hit

and disdain. Most of them are anonymous bu il dings, not

baseballs towards the opposite hotel , sweat , and then eat at

beautiful , and not accepted in architectural culture to date.

a spaghetti shop. In addition , it is difficult to judge whether

In fact, they are the sort of building which has been regarded

th1s combination is a kind of amusement machine, or a

as exactly what architecture should not become. But In

strange <Jrchitecture. This building simultaneously invited a

terms of observing the reality of Tokyo through building form.

feel1ng of suspiBion that it was pure nonsense , and

they seem to us to be better than anything designed by

expectation in its joyful and willful energy. But we also felt

architects. We thought that although these buildings are not

how 'very Tokyo' are those buildings which accompany this

explained by the city of Tokyo, they do explain what Tokyo is.

ambiguous feeling. Having been struck by how interest ing

So, by collecting and al igning them , the nature of Tokyo's

they are, we set out to photograph them , just as though we

urban space might become apparent. At that time there was

were visiting a foreign city for the first time . This is the

a best selling guide book of Tokyo full of architect designed

beginning of ' Made in Tokyo'. a survey of nameless and

works, but it did not show the bare Tokyo which we felt. It

strange buildings of this city.

could n't answer the question of what kind of potentials are


in this place we are standing in? What can it mean to think
about and design architecture which must stand beside dame architecture?

009

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Flatness
The starting hypothesis for the survey is that in any city, the
situation and value system of that city should be directly
reflected through unique buildings. In the case of Tokyo, we
suspect that da-me architecture contains hints to think
about the ci ty and architecture. However, the definition of
da -me arc hitecture was not necessar ily clear from the
beginning. We debated at length over each example as we
collected them. During these debates, we took care to not
think about the ci ty as a conceptual model. In the 1980s
there was a background of chaos affirming theory and
Tokyology, and the spatial expression of architectural works
displayed confusing urban landscape as a metaphor. We
strongly wanted to get away from the attitude that the city
can be summarised by metaphorical expression . Then again,
from the very start, we avoided considering examples which
can be read as stereo-typ ical images such as stylistic
ecclecticism and contrast between pre- and super- modern .

stuck with were based more on particularity in the way they


related directly to use . By treat ing the relation between
elements as the major issue , we tried to see the object
without pre-conditioned meanings and categories. We tried
t o look at everyth ing flatly, by el iminating the divisions
between high and low cultures, beauty and ugliness, good
and bad . We thought that such a way of seeing is called for
by the urban space of Tokyo , which is a gigantic
agglomeration of an endless variety of physical structures.
If we describe this agglomeration simply as confused or
chaotic, or understand it with a predetermined story, then
probably our own experience of Tokyo's atmosphere wi ll
disperse. Anyway, there are too many exceptions to be able
to convincingly deduce each building's composition from the

importance attached to modesty and wistfulness . We


decided to try to not work with nostalgia . The examples we

010

the selection of building types as material for th inking about


architecture. From Aida Rossi 's 'Architecture of the City', we

observational quality.

thought about the interdependent relationship between

The format we chose was that of a guidebook. Tokyo is a

architecture and the ci ty . From Colin Rowe and Robert

g1ant maze-like city without physical navigational aids such

Slutzky's 'Transparency: Literal and Phenomenal ', we learnt

as axes or urban boundary. Perhaps because of this, there

about how space evolves out of the overlapping of various

are mnumerable guidebooks on every facet of life in this city.

design criteria. From Robert Venturi, Denise Scott Brown and

Tokyo has already been ed i ted to suit every possible

Robert lzenour's 'Learning From Las Vegas' we real ised the

Objective . Even if they form a kind of software after the fact,

power of placing ' bad architecture' wi th in the li ne of

1n term s of organising the way the city is used, guidebooks

architectural history. From Rem Koolhaas's ' Del irious New

can become a tool for urban plann ing. However, a guidebook

York ', we delighted i n the idea that the whole of the

doesn't need a conclusion, clear beginn ing or order. This

contemporary ci,ty is made up of a series of accidents, in

seems suitable for Tokyo, where the scene is of never ending

accordance with inevitable changes to the overall urban

constru ction and destruction .

urban structure. So if we try to collapse da-me architecture

plan . From Wajiro Kon 's 'Kogengaku Nyumon ' (Introduction


to Cultural Studies) , we gained a love of observing the city

into a typology, we will lose the interesting mongrel nature of

Urban Theory by Architects

the differing elements. Our flatness means something more


specific.

Muc h was learnt from architectural and urban theories from

th i ngs start to hold mean i ng , sketc h by sketch . From

ou r predecessors. From Bernard Rudofsky's 'Architecture

Terunobu Fujimori et al 's, ' Institute of Street Observation' we

With out Architects', we looked at the response between

discovered the joy of actually walking in the street and

Although we agreed with the Institute of Street Observation 's


emphasis on pleasure, we felt uncomfortable wi th the

the result often can't be grasped. Therefore it is important to


devel op a method of representation which doesn ' t lose

Guidebook
The result of the observation also depends on the method of
representation. If the method doesn't su it the observation ,

before us, and an understand ing where even the most subtle

architecture and the environment in vernacular build ings.

finding fragments - allowing the swelling of imaginations and

From Nikolaus Pevsner's 'A History of Build ing Types', we

the speaking of small urban histories. We were encouraged

considered how he picked up arbitrariness and criticism in

to think that each of these theories had been born out of

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over-definition towards generic ' bu ilding' . The build ings of

name su c h coherent environments of adjacency

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discussing part ic ular cities and architectures. They have


concrete origins in a specific place, and yet in the end they
lead towards an abstract level, which can open new
architectural and urban awareness. What kind of awareness
will be opened up by the buildings made in Tokyo?

From <Architecture> towards < Bu ildi ng>


The bui ldings of Made in Tokyo are not beautifu l. They are
not perfect examples of architectural planning. They are not
A-grade cultural bu ilding types , such as l i brar ies and
museums. They are 8-grade bu ilding types, such as car
parking, batting centres, or hybrid containers and include
both architectural and civil engineering works. They are not
'pieces' designed by famous architects. What is nonetheless
respectable about these buildings is that they don 't have a
speck of fat. What is important right now is constructed in a
practical manner by the possible elements of that place.
They don 't respond to cultural context and history. Their
highly econom ically efficient answers are gu ided by
minimum effort. In Tokyo, such direct answers are expected.
They are not imbued with the scent of culture ; th ey are
simply physical 'building'.

Moreover, Tokyo is really such a contradictory place, because


it is in fact these buildings which most clearly reflect it's
quality of urban space, whereas the translation of issues of
place through history and design seems like a fabrication This is Tokyo.
Where cultural interest is lol'{, interest in practical issues is
high. Whether civil engineering structures, rooftops, walls or
gaps between buildings, utilise whatever is at hand. What is
important is the discovery of how to establish a second role
to each environmental element. With this doubling up, it
becomes possible to re-use spatial by-products. The material
is not given, but is discovered through our own proposition of
how to use it. It might be termed 'affordance' of the urban
environment. Further to this, cross categorical hybrids such
as expressway-department stores can arise. In this example,
the department store depends on the expressway for its
structure. On the other hand, the expressway depends on the
department store for its val idity in such a busy commercial
area . So ne i ther can ex ist on their own - they are
interdependent.
Suc h existence seems anti-aesthetic, ant i-h istor ic, antiplann ing, ant i-classification. It releases the architecture of

01 2

Made in Tokyo are not necessarily after such ends, but they

'Environmental Units'.

simply arrive at this position through their desperate

Furthermore, the external envelope does not act to divide

response to the here and now. This is what is so refreshmg


about them.

ubl ic and private, as in the traditionally understood idea of


:facade. We are in a fluid situation, where rigid distinctions
such as between shallowness and depth or front and back,

Adjacency and ' Environmental Unit'

are eas i ly overturned by a shift in the setting of the

Our interest is in the diverse methods of mak ing and using

ecological un it.

coherent environments within the city, together with the

The magnificent Arch itec ture of Ar chi tects retains

urban ecologies seen there. This incl udes the unexpected

dist i nctions between categories, rationalises physical

.
crea t ed bY cross categorical hybrids,
adjacency of function

structure, pushes preconceived use onto that structure, and

the co-existence of unrelated functions in a single structure,

tries to be self-contained . Th is is even though there are so

the join t utilisation of several di ffer ing and adjac ent

.
ways to define environmental unities. It IS a
many diverse

buildi ngs and structures, or the packaging of an unusual

method that Modernism has passed down to us, and the

urban ecology in a single building.

. . 0 fl'ts ways is becoming stronger and stronger.


. . Yet,
preCISIOn

In Tokyo's urban density, there are examples of a coherency

everyday life is made up of traversing various buildings.

which cross over categorical or physical building boundanes.

Living space is constituted by connections between vanous

It is something which differs from the architecture of self-

adjacent environmental con ditions, rather than by any smgle

standing completeness. Rather, any particular building of

building. Can 't we draw out the potential of th is Situation

th is kind can perform several roles with in multiple urban

and project that into the future ? If we can , it may be

sets. They cannot be specifically cl assified as architecture,

possible to coun ter the typical Japanese Modernist public

or as civil engineering, city or landscape . We decided to

facilities which are cut off from their surroundings and


013

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public fa ci l itie s ca n be dispersed into the city whilst


interlapping wi th the adjacent environment. Spaces for living
can penetrate into various urban situations and thereby set
up new relations amongst them. The possibilities for urban
dwelling expand.

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We can fmd an overlappi ng of 3 orders which set up the


'Environmental Unit'. They are based on ca tegory, structure
and use. If we take again the example of the hybrid between
expressway and department store, the traffic above and the
shopping below are simply sharing the same stru cture, but
belong to different categories and have no use rela tion. In
other words, it is only stru ctura l order which unites th is
example. Maybe it is not that the example is impossible to
evaluate within the existing cul tural value system, or the
norm for architecture, Rather, the sense of unity is full of
dubiousness which is the essential reason that this example
is da-me architecture. We can say that when any of the 3
orders are operating, they are 'on', whereas when they do not
014

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1 iiO)-:) < 111;1: 7i- t: /{ y ?

ll~O)n:IJ~;::O)wml:l!t~t-<~'<lli0),

;<-(f'-f/ ~

'1' 3

7- -1'

iJT:::f')

?t.;: ,;~ ;.,~~t.;:~~~.lt-0)~-t.;:tl.tlO)~t-:J

l: t-<.7' ~1'~-l: l-t ~A~?1%~Q/:8o:lM~~t.;:

Q f;:::IJ~t- :IJ !1HH.:"5o:lil~~ii~l;tM;;J:~t.;:~' f

fig. I: Made in Tokyo Cha rt


3? 0)n;~

7o:l:t;J;a;:IJ<, r ~it! A 11 2 t.: "?f.: J c ~I"? f.:ll3 ~1:l.lln {) J:

Category

Three Orders

miOO.tO)AII l

l~ ii
Structure

~9!

Typical Examples

( Morality )

<~t:ll~c~Pn{) . WI!Jf~O)~"(<f:t:..-~~{)~U

"!

99 IU;)
(ft
Magnif icent Ar chitecture

- - - [ ON

A ~ 71;1: -~ IJ [;;IJf.j:~1 . [;;I)>[; l: ;::;I)>:IJ< ;t 71:t.;: -? t t

- - ~-N---- - -~-~~-- - ~:; ~~i;d~~~~~

J: ~~t.;:~ li, A~ 70)/{ IJ I - ~3;., IHIIiJil~I:Jfl ~{) .

OFF

............. ;
29 A - H- iJ- A? - Iv
super car school

ON

07 . 1~7-/:::Jil7-f'71t..

.....

...:
ON - {
__... ..-

ON

llll
Ar chitecture

-.......

_... --

Env~r o nmental

......

pachinko cat hedral

!lilt.~= > ~

Unit

(HI)O)rott )

OFF-[
OFF

the very ex istence of da-me architecture. We can recognise


that the examples of Made in Tokyo almost always comprise
some aspect of being 'off'. The only vacan t endpoint to the

might be filled by the continuous street facades of Paris. By

I::IJ<T.' SQ .

fj!.IIJC:IJ<~'t. ftl.IJ&IJ. ().. q:IJ<~, {)I:~ > ?;::/:1.

-raQ . t;::-rO)u~u . J~aO)Jii'Jii~M~{)fi40)

ON

Chart that includes an aspect of 'off', is the position which

On/ Off

t.i:tsm-r t i l l <f> ,L, t t- f.:

mo:ll*lmiJ:IJ ~ t;:: 1: Q l l l ~ t- -r h {);:: t l;t a: t.: OJ~f

Q;::t:IJ<.

to form such an important role in the recognition and indeed

~..

~ii'JO)I 7 ~ :..- AIU -? 8~cl-kB T.'ii ~~-~~Q

~13~{)/n .~~~fllli~o:l/ ~.~oo~t.i:'E5~

system starts to incorporate all the value poles which seem

~'{) PIt<.'

tt~-~~-~ ~Q;::c-r,;::O)tsmo:la~? "( s*O)

O)r.,O) ~~:a:~:fftl

take effect they are 'off ' (fig. l :Made in Tokyo Chart) This

[; t

1: ~'? e* t.i:ts m~J<$: 1 ffi'f-1: ~{)0) 1;1:1!1\~t.i: ;::1:

VI:;J:I:;J:IJO)!l~ < ~~q;t jJi~ {);::

~~o:l~~fiAo:l<P~t;::;::?U~~

-t:o:l~ /- . t:~7'i/?' ~17o:l A ~/ B~ . -~WI!Jf

~-~13~{):t:..- / :t7o:l~h~P~W-:l(~t:IJ~A~

Jli'Ji(O)~ "(TIIIilil

t P ;I) "?l ~ ~ Q. '-' t. t

p(tQ:t71~ A-~f:1;1lt~J~Jii'Ji(O)iiJ~1il$ t.: {)


7
O)T.'Q o f ''-''

:tH t: :f y ? l;t.

l;tt.i:~>[;, 10~ll11:1;t ~ (h ~{):IJ> t[;tlt.;:~ ' . [;;1)[;,

;I)>~ fj_q IH.tlo:lil!~I: M tl Q 'f.:IJf :IJ> IJ 1: t.;: {) c ~

[; Tl;l: [.; ii'Jt~ lll/lfiill: ~ {)O)T.'a Qo f? ~~?I!!~ 1: ~

l:llll~M~ / !1, t.i:t:t~h~t>f.:-?? . ;::O)m:!0)-'f!IJI!Jf

;:: 0)

t.i: uttl:x-tlit~ Q

~~~:t/ / :t7o:l~HU.~M~~~t.i:t:o:lfr~o:l?'~

packaged into a single box. We can place attention on the


issue of how usage (software) can set up a network , where

0)

i2!1: . ;:: 0) 3 -:JO);'fi;l)f~"( l :t ;., 1: t.;: "?l ~I{) O):IJf, *'f-

-c:~F

OFF
{

contrast, the magnificent buildings of Architects are 'on',

06.'t-:t/t:/t..
neon building
03.1\1'JI1TI~-~

highway department store

10 . !UI!;!;H~D-It..i::O/t..

ON

expressway patrol building

OFF

shooting graveyard

OFF-[

'on', 'on' . Often, the Parisian streetscape and the Modern

( Pari s streetscape )

70.t<IIUUI

city are held to be in opposition, but the abundant examples


of Made in Tokyo show that they are not necessarily bipolar.
They simply exist within a score of on and off.
Anyway, surely too much 'on' can' t be good for our mental
landscape. If we switch all 3 orders 'on ', there is only one
possibility for achieving satisfying architecture, but if we
allow any or all aspects to be 'off', th en suddenly the
possibilities for variation explode to 8 (2 to the power of 3).
This establishes a huge release for those who are designers.
When we say that we can sense the pulse of Tokyo in the
'da-me architecture' which includes some aspect of being
'off', it means that even though the urban space of this city

appears to be chaoti c, in exchange, it con ta ins a quality of

From Inside the City

freedom for production. the landscape of Tokyo is a random

This guidebook which captures the living cond ition of Tokyo,

layering of different buildings corresponding with multiple

may seem to be old in 10 years time. But it is impossible to

social purporses . We hope in our design work to clearly

attempt to take on the whole of the megalopolis of Tokyo.

represent possibilities for the urban future by being

Yet from the scale of a building, inside the city, it must be

consistent with the princ iple findings of our research. The

possible to see owners, users and passers-by. It is possible to

observations can only ga in a certain clarity once they have

find environmental units with buildings at the centre, Wlthm

been studied through design and vice versa . Such interactive

th is never ending city. This can become a bodily grasping of

feedback between observation and design is one efficient

our understand i ng of urban reality. We think that our

method through which to contribute to the city through the

architectual adventure can only start from here.

scale of architecture (fig.2 : On I Off table).


015

No .

-B~

name

h7':1'J- Category

:J
2

v? ~ IJ 'J ? lti}'- :l;,.

I\1"Jz17'1t
:lz ., ~:J -;.. :9-1::' ILo
~

:t /I::' )j..

h5:t7>l<7'1Lo

10

tus;w; 1t~ o -11,. t:: 11,.

II
12

*~llli::'ILo
I{

14
16

18

~iX!:J:.-:tt-- , ?;..

19

lillfl::' )j..

20

25

26
27
28
29

30
31

32
33

34
35

36

distribution co mple x
air - con build ing

ll;i!-7;....~3 ;....

b i llboard apartment house

1'f!UI::'1Lo

22

23
24

horse apartment house

shrine building

~'Pit-~

sand apartment house

li:il!;<.lt151Lo

delivery spiral

itii ':J 7'-I::'JLo

bath tour build i ng

:9?;,-I::'ILo

tax i bu i lding

~5 > ?:9?

tru ck tower

1/:9-:J

i nter c hange court

GS 7' ;,. :1v > ?;..

;<.-lt-n-;<.?-11,.

"*:J-~

double layer petrol stat ion

super car scho ol


sewage courts

J:*:J-~

supply water courts

lli3

graveyard tunnel

]';l~~if>~

ameyoko flying temple

illi/6.W

shopping wall/mall

v-JLo~;,.- :l J>J..

rail museum

':1 1 / l'*IIHi'i
51:-1::' )j..

1w1n deluxe sewerage gardens

37

Jttjj(;<.

proliferating water slides

38

Ill\ :t -"' 'J;..?

ventilator obelisk

39

fRG');j<-1..

apartment station

40

J..h'i'tt'i'i

centipede hous ing

41

!1ltb*l::''-' >:l
:11::'/'/:9?-

diving tower

42
43

veh1cular village

~.,.-:,...-v;..,~3/

ch assis apartments

44

TTT ( v:1:t7 1'A)

TTT (I ego off ice)

45

~/~ILol'I'U

tunnel shrine

46

y;_,:,...3:.,...LlJ~

apartment mountain temp le

47

P.!llfn~IIJ

vampire park

48

?v-:.-t~t.f

cra ne shelves

- V 1 )1,. 7 7' ?

ghost rail facto ry

49

50

l!li.tv/;,3;.-

retaining wall apartments

51

7 1J J :lii"JA
'i'ilii!Mll

bridge' home

52
53

~)lff1/:9-'f- z/:l

dispersal terminal

I) -

res idential farm

54

0 11" )j.. :1 )j.. 7 .,. :.- "3 :.-

royal golf apartments

55

7l- ::t 71'A

car parking off ice

56

'/1)-/lt-"t/'/

green parking

57

::t-~T'It-1-

auto department store

58

77'~vA35?.5A

family restaurant triplets

59

Wllt:9?:.-

vegetable town

60

~'ll'~v-JLoi::'JLo

sprouting building

61

TRC ( JlJ:1:illAi!/:9- )

tokyo dispersal centre

62

~;.fiffilii!I::'JLo

coolroom estate

63

'< J I-il~1~

pet architecture 00 l

64

~b.Y/:,...3/

dam hou sing

65

:/to/? ~3

66
67

A;r.-;Jv/X-

sportsman zoo

68

"'J:t:S

he I i-wa rehouse

69
70

ili; .7'5A

ca rwa sh terrace

AHR.ll

shooting graveyard

lill2 . :t:.- / :t7!!!

/~- ~

,r,- ';! :f 1)

fig.2 , On /Off table

'J

:l

-j-

)L,

airport junction

sports bridge

0 ( Jjf.-Jjfjj( )

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0
0

1'. ~~

0
0

0
0

0 ( ~~~illlll )

0
0( Jjf. -Jttjj( )

0
0

0 ( Jjf. - Jifli[) '2

0
0
0

0
0
0

car tower

0 ( ~~~illlll ) ' I

nama -co n apartment house

h-:9?

bus housing

/.llJ>If-~

21

karaoke hotel
expressway patrol building

0
0
0

golf taxi bu i ld i ng

~:J/J>It

17

pachinko cathedral
sex building

park on park

;<.iffi Jill

:1 )j.. 7 :9 ? " -1::' )j..

15

roller coaster building

~~'n Use

0
0
0

ci ne- bridge

embassies building

lt-?onlf-?

13

electric pas sage

neon building

lt'f-/:J;IJ7'1"51Lo
1! 'J ? ;<.1::' )j..

lit il Structure

highway department store

"~-;f i) J:l

warehouse court

0
0
0

0
0

0 ( ~~~illlll )

0 ( ~~~illlll )

O( lll-.ttt!il )

0
0

0( Jjf.-Jttjj( )
0( Jjf.-.ttl!l )

( ~~~llll>l )

O( Jjf.-.ttt!l )

0
0

( ~~~illlll )

0
0

O =ON ' I generative relat ions hip '2 monoproliferating

e =OFF

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!llti!.\\l.~'ita.::~il: . cl:tJ<~.!F-<nlh~~~t.::

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:<c:J:IJtJ< Jill i JtJ~n. .

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METHOD

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~~?ac~~<;;. . wml*l!nlh~t.t~.:;i!R-r

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ll~~~!~a -r.::ct~lh<~- ~ I::A . vc:<f

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-r.::ci:J: ~< . ~~fH6li!ltl:JT{>~~HIIll~~m~ .

Guidebook Format
examples and discovering their commonalities. It is a kind of
This collection is a project researching the city of Tokyo. At
the same time, it

IS

a guidebook to understand an aspect of

Tokyo urban space. In particular, it can become a unique


navigation tool for foreign visitors , and so we have
endeavoured to make it bi-lingual . The buildings gathered
here are not ordered by any storyline. By using the endless
format of the guidebook, we thought to present Tokyo as an
expanding field .

urban curation. As a result, we realised that what we were


looking for was buildings with a sense of 'oftness' . The extent
of our study expanded into the greater urban area of Tokyo.
Anyway, by constantly moving, we could gain a sl ight
distance from the burying containment of the everyday city.
Observation was not focussed on the building itself, but was
with a slight 'zoom back'. We tried to view the full panorama
- the bui lding and the surrounding environment together - to

Research Method
We made an initial list of buildings which had stood out in
our everyday life. We flicked through the city on the back of

as rail , ferry, bicycle. And we discussed the question of 'what

fixing the selection criteria involved connecting convincing

018

explained by notes. We tried to limit blur in observational


criteria by organising the format of explanation. Careful

hand, our activities are regulated by physical structures such

drawing helped us to see the object of our study with love.

as arch itecture and civil engineering. Several inexplicable

Maps: In order to show the scale and shape in contrast with

activity adjacencies can also be seen in the same building.

the surroundings, we inserted the site plans in maps. Of

Through such a particular process of looking, our eyes can be

course, they also funct ion as guidebook maps.

trained to pick out certain figures from the ground of Tokyo.

Nicknames: We gave nicknames to each discovered example,

A summary of our approach might be to say that we 'zoom

to immediately explain where the interest in the building is,

back' looking for 'cross-categories' and 'urban ecologies'.

and to express our fondness. It is also a signature, training

Material Data

architecture to the urban curator.

Photos: We took photos to make a quick and immediate

Text: Each example has a number. Basically, the buildings

see another facility. For the moment, we forgot the


categorica l divisions between architecture, civil engineering,
geography, and sought to see things as simple, physical
unities.

these buildings with no author to become pieces of

record of our initial thoughts and discoveries.

with earlier numbers are the ones discovered earlier. Of

Drawings: But photos cannot contain all of our observations.

course, because it is a guidebook, we also need addresses.

observation. It is possible, amongst that flow, to find small

So we made drawings to figure out the actual ity of each

We recorded the functions included in each , to explain how

eddies. Usually, built structures must hold a certai n

example. Each was drawn in single line isonometric, and the

they are being used. These records show unforseen building

technological completion. But to use it, or live in it, is not

elements and internal structure and related environment are

types with unexpected combinations of function. The

trunk routes, as well as various other modes of transport such

is Made in Tokyo?' The list became thicker. The process of

necessarily related to such completeness. Any single activity


can stand astride several structures at once. But on the other

Flows of people , infrastructure is the object of our

019

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deta iled comments help to clarify how the example works
within a series of urban episodes.
Made in Tokyo Map: A virtual ukiyoe map of Tokyo composed
of all 70 Made in Tokyo examples.

effect of the buildings by throwing them back into the city on


the bodies of people. The exhibition also travelled to Zurich,
and we made a Swiss version of the !-shirts. The examples
increased to 50, in making the Japanese version of a home

Medium

page (1998). At this time , we animated micro-urban-

Fixing observation in conjunction with both love and hate

ecologies. When we were invited to take part in 'Expo on

emotions is in effect changing observation into a power. The

Line' of the Venice Biennale, we prepared the English

survey work of Made in Tokyo has given rise to several

version of the home page ( 1999). Now Made in Tokyo has


become a book.

differing products each time it appears in differing media.


First, it was snap photos while going for walks (1991), and

Increasing the contents and changing the medium builds up

then it took shape as a survey as part of the exhibition

a way of looking at the urban environment. Such work in

'Architecture of the Year 1996', where it appeared as 30

progress seems very suitable for studying the city of Tokyo.

examples expressed through a catalogue and !-shirts. The !-

The guidebook format allows the possibility of this kind of

shirts had photos on the front, drawings on the shoulder.


take away guidebook sheet as a price tag, and we made an
original Made in Tokyo brand tag. We aimed to multiply the
020

lack of finality. The survey will continue. Made in Tokyo is


still swelling to this very day.

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CROS S-CATEGORY
26 June in 1976, there wa s a highly publ icised fighting
match between Muhammad Ali and Anton io lnoki took place.
I was very keen to discover whether boxing or pro-wrestling
would be stronger, but the result was a draw, and the actual
fight was not even interesting as lnoki just made low kicks

from the mat to Ali's legs. However, thi s kind of crosscategory match breaks through the sel f-referentia l structure
of Modern fighting sports. Instead of each type becom ing
more and more clearly defined through comparison with each
of the others, it tries to return to the essence of fighting.
Modern city planning is of course not the same as fight ing
sports, but it also evidences separations and speci alisations.
The strongest separations are between architecture and civil
engineering, or between architectural and urban plann ing,
022

and these can be seen throughout bureaucra cies and the

buildmgs of Made in Tokyo.

Examples of cross between retain ing wall and arch itecture,

academy. There are many problems stemm ing from th is

Examples of cross between infrastru cture and architecture'

34. shopping wall/mall

situation , but the most immediate is the fact that a single

2. electric passage

50. retaining wall apartments

location cannot be thought through in its totality. There are

3. highway department store

64. dam housing

countless instances of the env ironment i n fact being

29. super ca r school

Even in the landscape of Tokyo. which is so often claimed to

aggravated by being fed with uncoordinat ed ideas from

68. heli-warehouse

be 'chaotic'' a certain environmental coord ination made up

differing fields, let alone monetary wastage. So it wou ld be

Examp les of cro ss betw; en commerc ial structure and

of categorica l crosses between architecture, ci vil engineering

good if we could create and mainta in our own environment

architecture,

and geograp hy, Can be found . There is a clear logic in the

by losing the strict def i nit ion of suc h categories as

5 . roller coast er bui lding

way that differing activities are brought together by physical

architecture, civil engineering, urban planning, as well as

6 . neon building

conven ience such as scale and ad jacency. We can see that

advertising, agri culture and geography. Th is is the cross-

20. billboard apartment house

part of Tokyo's dynam ism is ordered through physical terms

category match of urban production . If the categories can be

Examp les of c ross between co nstru cted ground and

rather than the categorisat io n of contents . We st art to

c ros s- bred , the too ls for organ i si ng a c oord i nated

architecture,

recogn ise the unexpected interdependence of activities by

environment can suddenly increase man ifold . This kind of

32 . graveyard tunnel

looking at Tokyo in th is kind of posi tive way - as a cross-

cross-categorical hybridisation is already condensed into the

45. tunnel shrine

category match of urban production.


023

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AUTOMATIC SCALING
makes possible new urban relations.
Because of inflationary land prices, there is a 'void phobia' in
Tokyo, which instils a reaction of 'what a waste! ' when we
see any unused space. Everywhere, the desire to find and fill
gaps can be seen. What occurs in these openings is not
usually related to the function of the host facility, but rather
answers to a super-rationalism where the filling is matched
to the gap simply according to size and proportion. let's call
the idea of the chance meeting of differing objects, purely
given by measurements, 'automatic scaling'. At this point is
born the kind of building with unexpected practicality of

2. electric passage
5. roller coaster building

13. bus housing

60. sprouting building


Examples of auto-breadth:

20. billboard apartment house


29. super car school
Examples of auto-length:
39. apartment station

adjacency and connection, boldly ignoring and jumping


beyond the history and social mode of the city. The
knowledge, invention and imagination summoned in fully
utilising these spaces to the extent of stubborn honesty,

024

maxi mum util ity from these void spaces.

Examples of auto-width:

In other words, there is a prescription for 'void phobia'. We


just need to find anything of the right size, and try to till the
available space. The insight of the urban observer is tested in
their sense and efficiency in working out how to gain

only be utilised by cats, are the result. With the high price of
land in Tokyo, eventually these spaces become desirable tor

PET SIZE

use. Maybe the vending machine is a kind of saviour in this

The ci ty of Tokyo displays a whole range of sizes, but as a

situation. In particular, the very thin or very low proportions

spec1fic characteristic, items around the size of a vending

which can sometimes be seen are probably because of this

machine can be pointed out. In Japan , vending machines are

tendency towards filling all gaps. Other types such as the

so abundant , but they are not nearly so visible in other

karaoke box, car parking machines and signboards have also

countries. This difference may be due to the extent of public

developed a unique size so as to be able to slip into these

security in various cities, but it is also due to the nature of

spare spaces . These items are a bit too small to be

the sense of scale which exists in each location. For

. d as architecture but a bit bigger than furniture.


recogmse

example, the urban code of Tokyo stipulates that neighbours

They are the kind of size which can exist in the corner of a

must accept any new building work if it retains SOOmm

room, Or ,n the corner of the city, turning the urban

distance from the boundary. Of course everyone's site is too

environment into a ' superinterior'. The items' constant

small , and so they try to build to the maximum possible

suppleness to fit their surroundings makes them like the pets

extent. Tiny slivers of space between buildings, which can

of the city. So we can say that smallness= pet size .

025

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Examples of spatial dice and mix:

8. sex building
9. karaoke hotel

11. embassies building


44.

(lege office)

52. residential farm


63. pet architecture 001
Smallness is a size which allows a freedom in urban action .
If we consciously consider the abounding pet sized objects of
Tokyo as an interface between the city and the human body,
then our urban environment can become more and more
comfortable.

Tokyo, then driving along the expressways would be highly


recommended . Because the expressways were constructed in
a hurry to be in time for the Tokyo Olympics, they are mainly
sited over public land, parks , the palace moat and rivers.
They allow views of a raw Tokyo like a roller coaster plugged
i nto the city . It is possible to glimpse parts of the
mechan isms which support the huge logistics of transporting
people and large numbers of physical objects. What Le
Corbusier looked at with the planning for Algiers and
Marinetti proposed in his Futurist work. becomes actually
constructed here, and linked to make an extensive network.
In Japan, the 20 or so years between 1966 and 1988 saw

LOGISTICAL URBANITY
If we wanted to show a visitor from another coun try the real
026

the number of cars increase by 6.25 !1mes, but the length of

system connectmg organs for the city. For Tokyo, which is on

transportation systems . The organ which is abruptly

theory of separating cars and pedestrians is completely

connected to the artery and the pump which pushes oxygen

Impractical. By necessity, cars have entered into the realms

to that artery is exposed and pulsating in the urban

of people. Previously, the criteria for comfort was seen as

.
1 as a single entity. The architectural design of
env1ronmen

separati on of the traffic space of cars and trains, and human

this revealed figure is also exciting. The development of the

space. But now a mixture between them occurs, which has

logistics network has affected a huge change, and is one of

become accepted as a new norm . The contemporary principle

the defining elements which has shaped the form of the city.

IS about being able to clearly imagine how to connect to any

Several of the build ings of Made in Tokyo reflect this kind of

particular location, and have easy access to the goal.

change and beautifully condense the dynamism of this city.

Probably, the people of Tokyo have accepted the mixture of

Examples of buildings united with the expressway

traffic space and human space, almost as a version of an

13, highway department store.

'urban regulation'.

Examples of the integration of architectural floor plate and

road only increased by 1.12 times. Transport infrastructure


which allows physical distributions is like the blood vessel

order to allow the execution of the highly developed goods

the brink of sclerosis, it is apparent that Radburn's planning

roadway:
In this way, traffic space has intruded into architecture in

16. car tower


027

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23 . delivery spiral

each forming just one part of the circulation system and only

~II

information '. Accordi ng to James Gibson , 'affordance' is the

27. interchange court

25 . taxi bu ilding

nature of the environ ment as defined by its relation to livi ng

66. sports bridge


Exam ples of caged-in skies and seas:

7 on H-7 J l;t,

~*iic~?fl m (J)F'JJii ~~J !~ t.,l: t.,

18. distribution complex


together making up what we can call a logistical urbanity.

26. truck tower

All roads lead to logistical urbanity.' So, now please delve

bemgs. Contemporary urban sports are also based on the

59. vegetable town

into the logistical urbanity and experience it tor yourself!

discovery of various values and mean ings furn ished in the

14. golf taxi building

environment through the movement of the body. By finding

42. diving tower

residual spaces inside the closely packed urban field , and

54. royal golf apartments

using human action to turn those surfaces into sports fields,

67. sportsman zoo

61. tokyo dispersal centre

S PORTIVE

Examples of transit buildings:

Examples of special car parking:

lets imagine a si tuation of being thrown into vario us


environ men ts with a 1 b
smg e oard under our feet. If that
.
happens to be the big wave of the sea th
' en we are surfing. If
that happens to be the slope of a snowy mountain, then we

urban elements are dragged into the sports scene, the more

36. twin deluxe sewerage gardens

12. park on park

are snowboarding. And if that happens to be on the asphalt

that Particular sport goes wild. In their capacity to turn root

Examples of unexpected rooftops:

55. car parking office

of the street , then we have added wheels and are

tops, caged-in sk1es and boxed in geography mto broad

l. warehouse court

skateboarding. The common vehicle of a single board helps

SPQrts fields, the buildings of Made in Tokyo exhibit the kind

3 1. supply water courts

us to observe differing environments and lets us perceive the

of fine Play wh ich should be enshrined .

Probably, many more different types of sparts inspired by the

Examples of boxed in geography:

urban environment will conti nue to emerge in th is city. It

10. expressway patrol building


28. double layer petrol station
65 . airport junction

These ind ividual build ings can never become monuments


The reason is that they are all dispersed throughout Tokyo,
028

real ity of action as 'i ntera c tion w'Jth

env~ronmental

the elements of the city ga in a whole new appearance. The

Examples of 'candy-whip' rooftops:

body and the environment become inextricable , and the more

30. sewage courts

029

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:;fl}-:J:; J 'I",

fk

may not be too far away that we see headlines such as


' Batt ing Centre Player Hits The Big Legue! ', 'Wall -Ten nis
World Cup Finals!', ' BMX vs Skateboard Real Fight! '

most of the expressways have been raised off the ground,


wh ich produces enormous amounts of under- infrastructure
space. The aim of warehou ses is to store as much as

BY-PRODUCT

possible, but they also result in huge surfaces of wall and

Today , Tokyo is completely covered by constru ctions;


bu ildings, expressways, railways;

even though the city has

twi ce been burnt to the ground . Duri ng the pro cess of


modernisation, many physica l construction s were built for
various reasons. But the city's physical constructions do not
entirely serve the equation of aim

people's lives. Mostly,

there has been produced a surplus, over and above the raw
requirement s of the ai m. For example , the ai m of the
expressways is to let cars run as fast as possible , but
because the acquisition of land is very difficult in Tokyo,

030

root

planes. The form and layout of the detached house type

makes gaps between house and house become a mass


production of dead space. This kind of space is like a byproduct. Whilst its density stays minimal , its meaning is
insubstantial , but once it reaches a certain quantity and
density, it starts to make its own impression on the urban

There are two main threads to th inking about th is issue. One

Examples of wall plane utilisation:

rs to try to think of a meth od wh ere by-products do not

6. neon bui lding

ensue. Another is to try to th ink of a method where by-

7. pachinko cathedral

products can be act ively ut ilised . In part icular, when we

B. sex bui lding

consider tha t th e ci ty already abounds with ignored and

Examples of under-infrastructure space utilisation:

und efined surp lus spaces, it seems appropr iate to try to

2 . electric passage

rediscover these as a positive. resource. It becomes important

3 . high way department store

to think of a way to actually use them. The build ings of Made

35. ra il museum

in Tokyo have many good examples of by-product utilisation,

40. centipede housing

and there is much we can learn from them .

Other examples:

space. Urban by-products are not only criminal activity and

Examples of rooftop utilisation :

4 . cine-bridge

rubbish heaps. Contemporary Tokyo's situation is a crazy

15. warehouse court

27. interchange court

m i xture of the ma i n- products and by- product s of

29. super car school

60. sprouting building

modernisat ion . How can we feed back the birth of such

30. sewage courts

These urban by-products ; rooftops, wal l pl anes , under-

unexpected products into the urban planning system?

33. ameyoko flying temple

infrastructure, and the abundant gaps between houses; are

031

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void spaces which generally avoid a pre-defined use being


allocated to them . At the moment, the usual attitude is a
kind of void -phobia which tries to paint over all trace of
such spaces and they are considered only individually so that
the meaning of the ir multiplicity is lost. However, these voids
can become a breathing space within the over-dense urban
environment of Tokyo, and can be recycled into a completely
new use - the equation of by -product = void and its
assemblies can become a tool for a future worm 's eye view
urban planning.

URBAN DWELLING
Within the extreme density of Tokyo , real estate ideals
clean air, lots of greenery, no noise pollution, big rooms,
plentiful sunlight from large south facing windows, - are like

032

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r50.I!iM< / ~3 / j ~l;tJ.I~tJ;;~t:ftc~U-tCI):I::I: lll

a far away dream . Trying to approach such ideals entai ls


huge cost; enormous monetary expense, or being pushed ou t
to extremely distant suburbs. The uncontrollable spread of
this situation is like a virus . Modern architects and ci ty
planners tried to counterattack the effects of this high ly

t;

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also thrown into the same framework of this criteria , then a

51. bridge home

very si mple yet courageous thesis of ' hyper-closeness of

64. dam housing

home and x' takes effect. Like the absolute beauty seen in

Examples of living with given measurements:

overwhelmi ng functionalism of products made in Japan , such

13. bus housing

as th e walkman and cup noodles , the format of urban

40. centipede housing

~~ ~.~~~

dense living environment by taking utopian ideas combining

dwell ings observed in the buiJdings of Made in Tokyo can

Twenty years ago , there was a TV animation series which

the rural and urban , and trying to project them into towers or

guide us toward s new ways of living in the future urban

attracted popularity with the concept 'new type'. The 'new

onto Tokyo Bay. However, amongst contempora ry urba n

environment .

type' meant an evolved human who had adapted to the new

dwellings , there exists an immun ised type , which has

Examples of liv1ng with work:

environment of the space age. Tokyo is not in the space age

adapted to the actuality of the current condition in its own

15. nama-con apartment house


17 horse apartment house

at the moment, but through looking at these contemporary

attempt to overcome the urban disease.


In Tokyo's 23 wards, 68% of employees are working in the

1B.dlstribution complex

serv ice sector. The workers and managers propelled the

speed and intensity of urbanisation , and regard the efficiency

Examples of llvmg with civil engineering:

of production and logistics as a resulting virtue . If dwelling is

50 retaini ng wall apartments

2. sand apartment house

dwellers, living in these build ings and overcoming various


contemporary urban difficulties, I feel I can see the figure of
the 'new type'.

033

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MACHINE AS BU ILDING
The ci ty is our place for living. But if we zoom back, it can
be seen as an organic structure like a machine or a creature
breath ing production and consumption . Although it is an
analogy, if we th ink this way, then the city starts to need
organs for power, transportation , storage , discharge. In the
case of a megalopolis like Tokyo, the load on such organs is

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Examples of d~rect human plug into waterworks:

structure of the machine-as-building has had a scapegoat

37. proli ferating water slides

symbolic value attached to it, wh ich can be replaced with

69. carwash terrace

more positive values, providing a un ique opportunity for

Examples of tn frastructural monuments:

urban proposals.

or instruments have appeared . These are what we have


focused on for Made in Tokyo. According to Le Corbusier,
'the house is a machine for living in' , but according to Made
in Tokyo, the reverse 'machine as building' is also true. In
other words, architecture as an analogy for machinery is

19. air-con building


62. cool room estate

such as power plants, garbage incinerators and sewerage

Examples of urban tool garages:

plants. Generally, they have been regarded as types of

43. chassis apartment

034

~1 ~ 7 5 A~57~~7'~~$t~$ti*!~~/5~1~

now. However, in the latest infrastructure related fac ilities of

possible.

interest in them , they do not seem particularly strange to us

Tokyo, bizarre buildings wh ich are really like large machines

Examples of electric appliances for the city:

industrial building; because of Modern architectural history's

ftl

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enormous, and the organs required to look after them must

most typical examples of these are almost-infrastructures

-ttt~M~.-~~it~l.t~tte~mHI~~~t.lHtt

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also become huge. In reading these organs as built fac ilities,


they can be readily seen in the area around Tokyo bay. The

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44 . m (lege office)

48. crane shelves

38. ventilator obelisk


In a metropolis such as Tokyo, infrastructure related facilities

UR BAN ECOLOGY

are ofte n seen as troublesome , despite the fact that they

Tokyo is an agglomeration of buildings, traffic infrastructure,

serve the populace. They have clear aims, as machines do,

civil engineering. Its landscape is said to lack visual control

and ga 1n obesity in direct relation to the extent of urban

and is popularly thought of as chaotic or as 'white noise'.

expa nsion . In contrast, normal architecture must adjust itself

However, this kind of interpretation is based on mechan istic

to multiple influencing forces, and cannot afford to stand

theory and semiotic systems. So, if we change this premise,

With a si ngle purpose like these facilities. But the banal

a totally different interpretation of the city should be

fabr ic of normal urbanity is actually co-dependent with the

possible. Actually, despite these claims of chaos, Tokyo is

figures of the huge and bizarre infrastructural facilit ies,

interesting in its own way of functioning. It resembles the

Which are merely a reflection of inevitable daily needs. The

unstructured forms of the rainforest, within which there is in


035

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fact many types of creatures co-existing, whilst each
constructing their own world. This is ecology, which
understands the creature itself in relation to its living
environment. If we stop using the metaphors of mechanistics
and semiology and start using the metaphor of ecology, then
i t should be poss i ble to discover laye r upon layer of
meaningful environmental unities, even wi thin the landscape
of Tokyo. This is a complex intertwin ing of people, the flow
of things, elements of the environment and time; something

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see an urban micro-ecosystem, or theatre of urban dwellers.


Then , we can also start to form an image of a city
accumulating from these variable happenings. This stage of
connected act1on is brought into being by util ising every
036

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poss ible element from the surrounding environment. The

bu ilding:

completeness of any building and the categorical division

24. bath

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realise how unfree the limitations set on our activities by the

tour building

control of aesthetics and construction technology are. On the

between architecture and ci vil engineering beco me s

33. ameyoko flying temple

other hand, it is these very same limitations which create the

meaningless.

Examples of the agglomeration of cars and their derivatives:

com ical details of urban dramaturgy. In either case, the

Within the collection of Made in Tokyo, we can see positive

25. tax1

particular understanding of adjacency endlessly produces

examples of micro ecosystems, directly reflecting the valu es,

57. auto department store

interests and social systems of various urban dwellers. They

Examples of adjacencies which inspire unexpected

can be recognised as small urban episodes including jokes,

ecosystems:

humour, pathos.

47 vampire

which can never be obtained by the bird 's eye view. Through
walking around the real ity of everyday life, we can start to

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building

urban delight.

VIRTUAL SITE
park

The difference between convenience stores and other public

52. residential farm

building types such as libraries, museums and train stations

Examples of physically separate buildings un ited by activity:

lO. shootmg graveyard

is that there is an incred i ble number of them spread

7. pachinko cathdral

If we observe the micro eco-systems of the ci ty in th is kind of

throughout the city, that they are made up of a small space

41. vehicular village

way, cross-categorical and innocent utilisation of the bu ilt

of repeated design and that they have establ ished a

46. apartment mountain temple

environment can have plenty of fun , rather than be ing

networking system. This network is supported by logistics

Examples of various amusements packaged into a single

Weighed down by the solemnity of a single build ing. We

systems which control informational and product exch ange


037

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between merchants and their clien ts, which is known as the
POS (Point of Sales) System. In one sense, we can say that it
is the network itself that makes one huge public facility. But
this kind of network as software-architecture is invisible. It is
only ever the parts, each individual shop, which can actually
be experienced. Therefore, in terms of the network's strategy,
there may be an issue of exactly where to locate the outlets,
but there is no problem in terms of site specificity in the
design of each shop. For example, there is essentially no
difference in the layout of merchandise or the arrangement
of the signage within any network. In fact it is the sameness
of the specifications of the shop design that is the important
software for the management of the convenience store.
The existence of such convenience stores brings about the
birth of a building type having no regard for the so-called

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concept of 'place'. They want to be able to melt into in any

18. distribution complex

location, and so the issue of ' place ' is avoided . This is

23. delivery spiral

horrifying from the viewpoint of architecture afte r

24. bath tour building

Modernism , which so strongly believes in the concep t of

53. dispersal terminal

'place ' as the major explanation for design . If 'place' starts to

58. fam ily restaurant triplets

lose its aura, then the concept of 'site' must also change. For
each convenience store shop, there is not only the physical
site, but it is also positioned within a site on a network. If we
think of the physical site as 'real ', we can take the second
type of site as 'virtual '. The way that this kind of virtual site
makes a relation with architectural design is an issue
needing full considera tion. The buildings of Made in Tokyo
include different types of networks with which to start this

The coupling of architecture and the concept of 'place'


Previously acted as a container for 'community'. But the
appearan ce of the 'vi rtual ' site dissolves th is couple,
meaning that we have to work out what will happen to the
ISSues Inherent in that concept of community. Will those
ISsues reappear as another guise of 'community' , or will they

be directly propelled into a new idea of 'society'?

process.
Examples of virtual sites:

038
039