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Chapter-1
1.1 INTRODUCTION
The uncertainty and the rapid fluctuations in the Indian capital market made many
investors at home and foreign wary about the future of their investments. So in
order to lessen this uncertainty in the market, SEBI introduced many new trends by
making changes in the way the capital market functions by introducing online
trading, rolling settlement, dematerialization of shares, etc. This project is only an
attempt to find the effect of these trends on the Indian market. This study is done
with reference of S.S.KANTILAL ISHWARLAL SECURITIES&INVESTORS Pvt. Ltd.
(SSKI), so its scope is limited to SSKI.
Stock exchanges are an integral part of the capital market. It is the perfect type of
market for securities whether of govt. or semi govt. bodies or other bodies as for
share and debentures issued by the joint stock enterprises.
Stock exchanges provide liquidity to the listed companies; they give quotations to
the listed companies and help in trading and raising funds from the market.
An exchange provides ready market for the sale and purchase of securities.
Stock market in India is more than century old and has been functioning effectively
through the medium of recognized stock exchanges. The stock market, which is
integral part of the capital, has a major impact on the functioning of the corporate
sector in particular. Since the capital market is playing, major role in the Indian
economy from the past several years there is an essential need to study the overall
functioning of stock exchange.
But before going to stock exchange we need to understand The Indian Financial
System.

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-21.2 Following diagram gives the structure of Indian financial system:

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

-3FINANCIAL MARKETS:
Financial markets are helpful to provide liquidity in the system and for smooth
functioning of the system. These markets are the centers that provide facilities for
buying and selling of financial claims and services. The financial markets match the
demands of investment with the supply of capital from various sources.
According to functional basis financial markets are classified into two types.
They are:

Money markets (short-term)

Capital markets (long-term)

According to institutional basis again classified in to two types.


They are:

Organized financial market

Non-organized financial market.

The organized market comprises of official market represented by recognized


institutions, bank and government (SEBI) registered/controlled activities and
intermediaries. The unorganized market is composed of indigenous bankers,
moneylenders, individual professional and non-professionals.
MONEY MARKET:
Money market is a place where we can raise short-term capital.
Again the money market is classified in to

Inter bank call money market

Bill market and

Bank loan market Etc.

E.g.; treasury bills, commercial papers, CD's etc.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

-4CAPITAL MARKET:
Capital market is a place where we can raise long-term capital.
Again the capital market is classified in to 2 types and they are

Primary market

Secondary market.

E.g.: Shares, Debentures, and Loans etc.


My emphasis is more on capital market.
PRIMARY MARKET
Primary market is generally referred to the market of new issues or market for
mobilization of resources by the companies and government undertakings, for new
projects as also for expansion, modernization, addition, diversification and up
gradation. Primary market is also referred to as New Issue Market. Primary market
operations include new issues of shares by new and existing companies, further
and right issues to existing shareholders, public offers, and issue of debt
instruments such as debentures, bonds, etc.
The primary market is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Board of India
(SEBI a government regulated authority).
FUNCTIONS:The main services of the primary market are origination, underwriting, and
distribution. Origination deals with the origin of the new issue. Underwriting contract
make the shares predictable and remove the element of uncertainty in the
subscription. Distribution refers to the sale of securities to the investors.
The following are the market intermediaries associated with the market:

Merchant banker/book building lead manager

Registrar and transfer agent

Underwriter/broker to the issue

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-5 Adviser to the issue

Banker to the issue

Depository

Depository participant

INVESTORS PROTECTION IN PRIMARY MARKETS:To ensure healthy growth of primary market, the investing public should be
protected. The term investor protection as a wider meaning in the primary market.
The principal ingredients of investors protection are

Provision of all the relevant information

Provision of accurate information and

Transparent allotment procedures without any bias.

SECONDARY MARKET:The primary market deals with the new issues of securities. Outstanding securities
are traded in the secondary market, which is commonly known as stock market or
stock exchange. The secondary market is a market where scrips are traded. It is a
market place which provides liquidity to the scrips issued in the primary market.
Thus, the growth of secondary market depend on the primary market. More the
number of companies entering the primary market, the greater is the volume of
trade at the secondary market. Trading activities in the secondary market are done
through the recognized stock exchanges which are 23 in number including Over
The Counter Exchange of India, National Stock Exchange of India and
Interconnected Stock Exchange of India.
Secondary market operations involve buying and selling of securities on the stock
exchange through its members. The companies hitting the primary market are
mandatorily required to list their shares on one or more stock exchanges in India
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-6including stock exchanges. Listing of scrips provides liquidity and offers an


opportunity to the investors to buy or sell the scrips.
The following intermediaries in the secondary market:

Broker/member of stock exchange buyers broker and sellers broker

Portfolio Manager

Investment advisor

Share transfer agent

Depository

Depository participants.

1.3 STOCK EXCHANGE


Stock exchanges are the perfect type of market for securities whether of
government and semi-govt bodies or other public bodies as also for shares and
debentures issued by the joint-stock companies. In the stock market, purchases
and sales of shares are affected in conditions of free competition. Government
securities are traded outside the trading ring in the form of over the counter sales or
purchase. The bargains that are struck in the trading ring by the members of the
stock exchanges re at the fairest prices determined by the basic laws of supply and
demand.
DEFINITION OF STOCK EXCHANGE:Stock exchange means any body or individuals whether incorporated or not,
constituted for the purpose of assisting, regulating or controlling the business of
buying, selling or dealing in securities.
The securities include:
Shares, scrip, stocks, bonds, Debentures stock or other marketable securities of a
like nature in or of any incorporated company or other body corporate;
Government securities; and Rights or interest in securities.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

-7HISTORY OF STOCK EXCHANGE:The only stock exchanges operating in the 19th century were those of Mumbai
setup in 1875 and Ahmedabad set up in 1894. These were organized as voluntary
non-profit-marking associations of brokers to regulate and protect their interests.
Before the control on securities under the constitution in 1950, it was a state
subject and the Bombay securities contracts (control) act of 1925 used to regulate
trading in securities. Under this act, the Mumbai stock exchange was recognized in
1927 and ahemedabad in 1937. During the war boom, a number of stock
exchanges were organized. Soon after it became a central subject, central
legislation was proposed and a committee headed by A.D.Gorwala went into the bill
for securities regulation. On the basis of the basis of the committees
recommendations and public discussion, the securities contract (regulation) act
became law in 1956.
FUNCTIONS OF STOCK EXCHANGE:Stock exchanges provide liquidity to the listed companies. By giving quotations to
the listed companies, they help trading and raise funds from the market, savings of
investors flow into public loans and to joint-stock enterprises because of this ready
marketability and unequalled facility for transfer of ownership of stocks, shares and
securities provided by the recognized stock exchanges as a result, over the
hundred and twenty years during which the stock exchanges have existed in this
country and through their medium, the central and state government have raised
crores of rupees by floating public loans; municipal corporations, improvement
trust, local bodies and state finance corporations have obtained from the public
their financial requirements, and industry, trade an commerce- the backbone of the
countrys economy-have secured capital of crores of rupees through the issue of
stocks, shares and debentures for financing their day-to-day activities, organizing
new ventures and completing projects of expansion, diversification and
modernization. By obtaining the listing and trading facilities, public investment is
increased and companies were able to raise more funds. The quoted companies
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-8with wide public interest have enjoyed some benefits and assets valuation has
become easier for tax and other purposes.
VARIOUS STOCK EXCHANGES IN INDIA:At present there are 23 stock exchanges recognized under the securities contracts
(regulation), Act, 1956. Those are
Region

Exchange

City

Northern

Ludhiana Stock Exchange

Ludhiana

Region

Delhi Stock Exchange

Delhi

Jaipur Stock Exchange

Jaipur

U.P. Stock Exchange

Kanpur

Southern

Hyderabad Stock Exchange

Hyderabad

Region

Bangalore Stock Exchange

Bangalore

Mangalore Stock Exchange

Mangalore

Madras Stock Exchange

Chennai

Coimbatore Stock Exchange

Coimbatore

Cochin Stock Exchange

Cochin

Eastern

Calcutta Stock Exchange

Calcutta

Region

Gauhati Stock Exchange

Gauhati

Magadh Stock Exchange


Bhubaneswar Stock Exchange

Patna
Bhubaneswar

Western

Bombay Stock Exchange

Mumbai

Region

National Stock Exchange

Mumbai

OTCEI Stock Exchange

Mumbai

M.P. Stock Exchange

Indore

Pune Stock Exchange

Pune

Vadodara Stock Exchange


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Vadodara

-9Ahmedabad Stock Exchange

Ahmedabad

Saurashtra Stock Exchange

Rajkot

OUT OF THESE MAJOR STOCK EXCHANGES ARE:-

NSE
The Organization
The National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India Limited has genesis in the report of
the High Powered Study Group on Establishment of New Stock Exchanges, which
recommended promotion of a National Stock Exchange by financial institutions
(FIs) to provide access to investors from all across the country on an equal footing.
Based on the recommendations, NSE was promoted by leading Financial
Institutions at the behest of the Government of India and was incorporated in
November 1992 as a tax-paying company unlike other stock

exchanges in the

country.
On its recognition as a stock exchange under the Securities Contracts (Regulation)
Act, 1956 in April 1993, NSE commenced operations in the Wholesale Debt Market
(WDM) segment in June 1994. The Capital Market (Equities) segment commenced
operations in November 1994 and operations in Derivatives segment commenced
in June 2000.
NSE's mission is setting the agenda for change in the securities markets in India.
The NSE was set-up with the main objectives of:

Establishing a nation-wide trading facility for equities, debt instruments and


hybrids,

Ensuring equal access to investors all over the country through an


appropriate communication network,

Providing a fair, efficient and transparent securities market to investors using


electronic trading systems,

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- 10 Enabling shorter settlement cycles and book entry settlements systems, and
Meeting the current international standards of securities markets.

The standards set by NSE in terms of market practices and technology has
become industry benchmarks and is being emulated by other market
participants. NSE is more than a mere market facilitator. It's that force which
is guiding the industry towards new horizons and greater opportunities.

BSE
INTRODUCTION:
The Stock Exchange, Mumbai, popularly known as "BSE" was established in 1875
as "The Native Share and Stock Brokers Association". It is the oldest one in Asia,
even older than the Tokyo Stock Exchange, which was established in 1878. It is a
voluntary non-profit making Association of Persons (AOP) and is currently engaged
in the process of converting itself into demutualised and corporate entity. It has
evolved over the years into its present status as the premier Stock Exchange in the
country. It is the first Stock Exchange in the Country to have obtained permanent
recognition in 1956 from the Govt. of India under the Securities Contracts
(Regulation) Act, 1956.
The Exchange, while providing an efficient and transparent market for trading in
securities, debt and derivatives upholds the interests of the investors and ensures
redresses of their grievances whether against the companies or its own memberbrokers. It also strives to educate and enlighten the investors by conducting
investor education programmers and making available to them necessary
informative inputs.
A Governing Board having 20 directors is the apex body, which decides the policies
and regulates the affairs of the Exchange. The Governing Board consists of nine
elected directors, who are from the broking community (one third of them retire ever
year by rotation), three SEBI nominees, six public representatives and an Executive

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- 11 Director & Chief Executive Officer (CEO) & a Chief Operating Officer (COO).
The Executive Director as the Chief Executive Officer is responsible for the day-today administration of the Exchange and the Chief Operating Officer and other
Heads of Departments assist him.
The Exchange has inserted new Rule No.126 A in its Rules, Byelaws pertaining to
constitution of the Executive Committee of the Exchange. Accordingly, an Executive
Committee, consisting of three elected directors, three SEBI nominees or public
representatives, Executive Director & CEO and Chief Operating Officer has been
constituted. The Committee considers judicial & quasi matters in which the
Governing Board has powers as an Appellate Authority, matters regarding
annulment of transactions, admission, continuance and suspension of memberbrokers, declaration of a member-broker as defaulter, norms, procedures and other
matters relating to arbitration, fees, deposits, margins and other monies payable by
the member-brokers to the Exchange, etc.
REGULATORY FRAME WORK OF STOCK EXCHANGE:
The Securities Contract Regulation Act, 1956 and Securities Exchange Board of
India 1952 provided a comprehensive legal framework. Three tier regulatory
structure comprising

Ministry of finance

The Securities And Exchange Board of India

Governing body

MEMBERS OF STOCK EXCHANGE:The securities contract regulation act 1956 has provided uniform regulation for the
admission of members in the stock exchanges. The qualifications for becoming a
member of a recognized stock exchange are given below:
The minimum age prescribed for the members is 21 years.

He should be an Indian citizen.

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- 12 He should be neither a bankrupt nor compound with the creditors.

He should not be convicted for fraud or dishonesty.

He should not be engaged in any other business connected with a company.

He should not be a defaulter of any other stock exchange.

The minimum required educational is a pass in 12th standard examination.

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE BOARD OF INDIA {SEBI}


The securities and exchange board of India was constituted in 1998 under a
resolution of government of India. It was later made statutory body by the SEBI act
1992.according to this act, the SEBI shall constitute of a chairman and five other
members appointed by the central government.
With the coming into effect of the securities and exchange board of India act, 1992
some of the powers and functions exercised by the central government, in respect
of the regulation of stock exchange were transferred to the SEBI.
OBJECTIVES AND FUNCTIONS OF SEBI

To protect the interest of investors in securities.

Regulating the business in stock exchanges and any other securities market.

Registering and regulating the working of intermediaries associated with


securities market as well as working of mutual funds.

Promoting and regulating self-regulatory organizations.

Prohibiting insider trading in securities.

Regulating substantial acquisition of shares and take over of companies.

Performing such functions and exercising such powers under the provisions
of capital issues (control) act, 1947and the securities to it by the central
government.

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- 13 SEBI GUIDELINES TO SECONDARY MARKETS: (STOCK EXCHANGES):


Board of Directors of Stock Exchange has to be reconstituted so as include nonmembers, public representatives and government representatives to the extent of
50% of total number of members.
Capital adequacy norms have been laid down for the members of various stock
exchanges depending upon their turnover of trade and other factors.
All recognized stock exchanges will have to inform about transactions within 24 hrs.

Types of orders:
Buy and sell orders placed with members of the stock exchange by the investors.
The orders are of different types.

Limit orders: Orders are limited by a fixed price buy Reliance Petroleum at
Rs.50.Here, the orders has clearly indicated the price at which it has to be
bought and the investor is not willing to give more than Rs.50.

Best rate order: Here, the buyer or seller gives the freedom to the broker to
execute the order at the best possible rate quoted on the particular date for
buying. It may be lowest rate for buying and highest rate for selling.

Discretionary order: The investor gives the range of price for purchase and
sale. The broker can use his discretion to buy within the specified limit.
Generally the approximation price is fixed. The order stands as this buy
BRC 100 shares around Rs.40.

Stop loss order: The orders are given to limit the loss due to unfavorable
price movement in the market. A particular limit is given for waiting. If the
price falls below the limit, the broker is authorized to sell the shares to

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- 14 prevent further loss. E.g., Sell ANDHRABANK at Rs.105 stops loss at


Rs.100.
Buying and selling shares: To buy and sell the share the investor has to locate
register broker or sub broker who render prompt and efficient to service to him. The
order to buy or sell specified number of shares of the company of investors choice
are placed with the broker. The order may be of any of the above any mentioned
type. After receiving the order the broker tries to execute the order in his computer
terminal. Once matching order is found, the order is executed. The broker the
delivers the contract note
To the investor it gives the details regarding the name of the company, number of
shares bought, price, brokerage, and the date of delivery of share. In this physical
trading form, once the broker gets the share certificate through the clearing houses
he delivers the share certificate along with transfer deed to the investor. The
investor has to fill the transfer deed and stamp it. The stamp duty is one of the
percentage considerations, the investor should lodge the share certificate and
transfer deed to the register or transfer agent of the company. If it is bought in the
DEMAT form, the broker has to give a matching instruction to his depository
participant to transfer shares bought to the investors account. The investor should
be account holder in any of the depository participant. In the case of sale of shares
on receiving payment from the purchasing broker, the broker effects the payment to
the investor.
Share groups: The listed shares are divided into 3 categories:
Group A shares, B1 shares, B shares. The last 2 groups are referred to cleared
securities or non specified shares. The shares that come under the specified group
can avail the carry forward transaction. In A group, shares are selected on the
basis of equity, market capitalization and public holding. Further it should have
good track record and dividend paying company. It should have good growth
potential too. The trading volumes and the investors base are high in A group
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- 15 shares. Any company when it satisfies these criteria would be shifted from B group
to A group.
In the B1 group actively traded share are included. Carry forward transactions are
not allowed in this group. Settlement takes place through the clearinghouse along
with the A group shares. The settlement cycle and the procedure are identical to
A group security. The rest of the company shares listed from the B group.
Rolling settlement system:
Under rolling settlement system, the settlement takes place n days (usually 1, 2, 3
or 5days) after the trading day. The shares bought and sold are paid in for n days
after the trading day of the particular transaction. Share settlement is likely to be
completed much sooner after the transaction than under the fixed settlement
system.

The rolling settlement system is noted by T+N i.e. the settlement period is n
days after the trading day. A rolling period which offers a large number of
days negates the advantages of the system. Generally longer settlement
periods are shortened gradually.

SEBI made RS compulsory for trading in 10 securities selected on the basis


of the criteria that they were in compulsory demat list and had daily turnover
of about Re.1cr or more. Then it was extended to A stocks in Modified
Carry Forward Scheme, Automated Lending and Borrowing Mechanism
(ALBM) and Borrowing and lending Securities Scheme (BELSS) with effect
from dec 31, 2001.

SEBI has introduced T+5 rolling settlement in equity market from July 2001
and subsequently shortened the cycle to T+3 from April 2002. After the T+3
rolling settlement experience it was further reduced to T+2 to reduce the risk
in the market and to protect the interest of the investors from 1st April 2003.

Activities on T+1: conformation of the institutional trades by the custodian is sent


to the stock exchange by 11.00 am. A provision of an exception window would be

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- 16 available for late confirmation. The time limit and the additional changes for the
exception window are dedicated by the exchange.
The exchanges/clearing house/ clearing corporation would process and download
the obligation files to the brokers terminals late by 1.30 p.m on T+1. Depository
participants accept the instructions for pay in securities by investors in physical
form up to 4p.m and in electronic form up to 6 p.m. the depositories accept from
other DPs till 8p.m for same day processing.
T+2 activities: The depository permits the download of the paying in files of
securities and funds until 10.30 am on T+2 from the brokers pool accounts. The
depository processes the pay in requests and transfers the consolidated pay in files
to clearing House/clearing Corporation by 11.00am/on T+2. The exchange/clearing
house/clearing corporation executes the pay-out of securities and funds latest by
1.30p.m on T+2 to the depositories and clearing banks. In the demat mode net
basis settlement is allowed. The buy and sale positions in the same scrip can be
settled and net quantity has to be settled.

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Chapter-2
2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
Designing of the research is done mainly to solve the problem of getting the various
stages of the research under control. This control factor is very important for the
researcher during any of the research operation. Preparation of the design for the
research forms a very critical stage in the process of carrying out some research
work or a research project.Research Design in general terms can be referred to as
the scheme of work to be done or performed by a researcher during the various
stages of a research project.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY:
The scope of the study analyses us to know how the On-line Trading activities are
carried out in SHAREKHAN.
DATA COLLECTION METHODS: The data collection methods include both the
primary and secondary collection methods.
Primary method: This method includes the data collected from the personal
interaction with authorized members, clerks of the SSKI.
Secondary method: The secondary data collection method includes:

The lecturers delivered by the superintendents of

respective departments.

The brochures and material provided by Share Khan

Securities limited.

The data collected from the magazines of the NSE,

economic times, etc.

Various books relating to the investments, capital markets

and other related topics.


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- 18 -

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:


The study is confined to the past 2-3 years and present system of the trading
procedure in the SSKI and the study is confined to cover all the related issues in
brief. Online-trading procedure only exhaustive analysis, problems of listing,
management of trade, SEBI guidelines relating there to be not covered due to
limited time and to keep the study in manageable limits.
2.2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
NON-PROBABILITY
The non probability respondents have been researched by selecting the persons
who does the stock trading. Those persons who do not trade in stocks have not
been interviewed.
Explorative & Descriptive Research
The research is primarily both exploratory and descriptive in nature. The sources
of information are both primary and secondary. The secondary data has been taken
by referring to various magazines, newspapers and journals online through the help
of the internet to get the figures required for the research purposes. The
Objective of the exploratory research is to gain insights and ideas. The objective
of the descriptive research study is typically concerned with determining the
frequency with which something occurs. A well structured questionnaire was
prepared for the primary research and personal interviews were conducted to
collect the responses of the target population.

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- 19 -

2.3 SAMPLING METHODOLOGY


Sampling Technique:
Initially, a rough draft was prepared a pilot study was done to check to check the
accuracy of the Questionnaire and certain changes were done to prepare the final
questionnaire to make it more judgmental.
Sampling Unit:
The respondents who were asked to fill out the questionnaire in the National
Capital Region are the sampling units. These respondents comprise of the persons
dealing in stock trading. The people have been interviewed in the open market, in
front of the companies, telephonic interviews and through other sources also.
Sample Size:
The sample size was restricted to only 100 respondents.
Sampling Area:
The area of the research was National Capital Region (NCR).
2.4 LIMITATIONS
The various limitations of the study are:

There is lack of awareness among people about investing in stock market.


So the people who are aware of such things were found in specific areas for
survey purposes.

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- 20 Most people are comfortable with traditional system in small towns and like
to trade from their respective brokers, hence not providing a true opinion of
theirs.

Most of the people they are not techno savvy. Though Internet penetration is
growing still it is not at the required level.

Some of the respondents who did not do online trading were able to respond
to only some questions.

The survey was done from telephonic conversation and may not truly express the
opinion of whole country

2.5 Literature Review


ONLINE TRADING INFRASTRUCTURE
The emergence of online exchanges has facilitated faster transactions by providing
online trading portals and brokerage houses ease and flexibility. The Internet
has indeed opened up new opportunities for conducting the business. The
worldwide stock exchanges has made a major shift from the traditional method of
trading and now conduct a bulk of its business online through its brokers and
partners. In the developed countries majorly all the exchange transactions are
conducted online. The trend took off slowly in India and the National Stock Exchange
(NSE) and the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) two of the largest exchanges in India
have been conducting online trade successfully for some time.
WHY ONLINE TRADING ENTERED LATE IN INDIA?
The Indian exchanges and brokering houses have been very slow in moving their
transactions online and the major reason has been the lot government regulations. The
initial delay was due to laying down the specifications for creating Closed User Groups
(CUGs). This issue was resolved between the Department of Telecommunications
(DoT) and the Finance Ministry around 1998 and after that soon came the Online
trading portals like ICICIDirect.com, motilaloswal.com, sharekhan.com and

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- 21 smartjones.com. Connectivity related issue was perhaps the most important


technological factor. Traditionally the cost of leased lines and VSAT links has been
very high and the reliability of the links was very low. To commission the links it took a
long time as one had to make an application and wait for a few weeks for the link to be
up and running. Many other issues like security, backup and recovery procedural
costs also acted as deterrents in the process. Now with the resolution of
regulatory issues India no longer have any pressing connectivity and bandwidth
issues. The entry of private players into the broadband scenario and the
government opening up the telecom sector these issues have become almost nonexistent. Security solutions and services available in the market have matured and it
doesn't cost a pretty packet anymore to put a simple backup solution in place.
Though online trading everyday large volumes of data is being transacted. At BSE the
average daily turnover in 2001-2002 (April-March) was Its 1244.10 crore and the
number of average daily trades was Rs 5.17 lakh
To control Online Trading RBI made regulations making it mandatory for companies to
store at least 7 years of transactional and financial data.
1. Design needs to be always-on, secure; redundant, and have adequate backup and
recovery processes.
2. For such high amounts of critical data it's natural to deploy network-based
storage like NAS or SAN.
3. Security is a viral and integral part of the design architecture. The hardware and

software elements should be built around layered security architecture and should
be held in place with a well-documented security policy.
3.

It's difficult to deploy out-of-the-box applications at exchanges as each has a


unique architecture based on factors like operations flow, trading volumes,
number of members, number of Users and number of locations.

4. NSE has deployed NIBIS (NSEs Internet Based Information System) for real-

time dissemination of trading information over the Internet and NEAT a clientserver-based application to help its operations.
5. BSE has deployed an Online Trading System (BOLT) on a tandem platform

which has a two-tier architecture. It claims to be able to support up to 2 million


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- 22 trades a day.

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- 23 -

Chapter-3
Organisation Profile
3.1 BACKGROUND AND INCEPTION OF THE COMPANY
Origin and Growth

Sharekhan is a retail broking arm of S.S. Kantilla Ishwarlal Investors Services Pvt.
Ltd., An organization with more than 8 decades of trust and credibility in the stock
market. Sharekhan Ltd (Formally SSKI Investors Services Pvt Ltd.) was promoted
by Mr. Shripal. S. Morkharia and Mr. Shreyas. S. Morkhia. It is currently Indias
largest broking house. It is a member of the stock exchange, Mumbai. It is a
depository participant of the NSDL and CDSL. Its business includes stock broking,
depository services, portfolio management and derivatives.
The companys core specialty lies in its
retail distribution with a large network of branches i.e. 510 share shops (retail
shops) in 170 cities in India and sub-brokers/authorized persons. Its strengths lies
in its investment research capabilities. Its research division has several analysts
continuously monitoring global, national and regional political, economic and social
situations so as to assess their impact on the economy in general, the sectors so
as to assess their impact on the economy in general, the sectors and companies
they research which helps them if offering quality research and advice to clients.
The SSKI Group Comprises of Institutional broking and Corporate Finance. The
Institutional broking division caters to domestic and foreign institutional investors,

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- 24 while the Corporate Finance Division focuses on niche areas such as infrastructure,
Telecom and media.
SSKI has been voted as the Top Domestic Brokerage House in the research
category by Euro Money Survey and by Asia Money Survey.
For the derivates segment, to educate the potential investors towards the share
market they provide a study kit named the Derivative Digest. And for potential
investors wanted to start the trading in the share market also provided with the
study kit First Step to investing in the share market, gives them a general
understanding about how the share market operates, and it also gives an idea
regarding the role of share brokers in the Capital Market. These are the wide-raging
services offered by the share khan to its customers and most importantly. Share
Khan is blessed with well-dedicated sales wings, who are looking after the various
needs of the customers in a committed manner and which provide the customers
with tremendous amount of satisfaction and happiness about their investment.

3.2 Nature of the Business Carried


Sharekhan is a broking company. The company offers a complete range of pre
trade, trade and post trade service on the BSE (Bombay Stock Exchange) and the
NSE (National Stock Exchange). Whether the client come in to the companys
conventionally located officers and trade in a dedicated ambience or issue
instructions over the phone, our highly trained team and sophisticated equipment
ensure smooth transactions and prompt service.
Investment Advisory Service
Facilitation Services to retail Investor's, corporate.
Depository Services
Investment options includes
i. Online trading (Includes equity, derivatives)
ii. Commodities trading
iii. Mutual Funds
iv. Portfolio management Services

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 25 Sharekhan Branches are conceptualized to be place where investors can come in


contact with investment opportunities in an atmosphere of convenience and
comfort. Our services are available throughout our network of 510 Share Shops
spanning 170 major towns and cities in the country. Professionals seeks to educate
clients and end their confusion by custom an Investment Plan according to the
needs of clients and is also today a part of companys induction program advising
employees on how to plan their investments
3.3 VISION, MISSION AND BELIEFS
VISION
To be the best retail broking brand in the Indian Equities market.
MISSION
To educate and empower the individual investor to make better investment
decisions through quality advice and superior service.
BELIEFS AND EXPECTATIONS
Sharekhan believe in and promote a culture that:

Stimulates the employees' drive to excel

Nurture their entrepreneurial spirit by providing them exposure to challenging


work opportunities and imparting autonomy to function effectively

Support the employees to deliver by incorporating practices aimed at

Employee development/skill acquisition

Enhancing transparency and trust, being non-discriminative to any


practice/procedure/system

Establishing norms towards enforcing discipline in the organization as


regards work etiquettes

Promotes collaboration and team spirit amongst the employees

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 26 Acknowledges and rewards individual and team contribution through


appropriate rewards, recognition and compensation

Builds a sense of ownership across the organization for adherence to risk


and compliance procedures amongst all employees and channel partners.

3.4 Some of the outlets are


BRANCH

MANAGER

MUMBAI(LOWER PAREL)
BANGALORE-JAYANAGAR
BANGALORE-GANDHI NAGAR
CALICUT
CHENNAI-CHETPET
CHENNAI
COIMBATORE
ERODE
GOA-MAPUSA
GOA-PANAJI
HYDERABAD
JODHPUR
KOLKATA
KOCHI
NAVSARI
NEW DELHI
PALAKKAD
PUNE
RAJKOT
SALEM
SURAT
THRISSUR
VADODARA
VIJAYAWADA
MUMBAI-ANDHERI
MUMBAI-FORT
MUMBAI-GHATKOPAR
MUMBAI-KHAR
MUMBAI-OPERA HOUSE

Mr.SANDEEP JAIN
Mr.CHANNARAJ K.J.
Mr.BASAPPA D.M.
Mr.GOPAKUMAR
Mr.RAJIV PUROHIT
Mr. V.KRISHNAMURTHY
Mr.V.MOHANKRISHNAN
Mr.T.V.N.GIRISHKUMAR
Mr.KAMATH TRIVIKRAM
Mr.PRAVEEN SHAMAIN
Mr.D.HEM KUMAR
Mr.VINOD BHANDARI
Mr.SANJAY VORA
Mr.DINSENA KALLIDIL
Mr.NUTAN PATEL
Mr.HEMENDRA AGARWAL
Mr.V.RAGUNATHAN
Ms. SUJATHA RAMAN
Mr.NARENDRA TANNA
Mr.R M PANDIYAN
Mr.DARSHAN VANIAWALA
Mr.RAMAKRISHNAN T.B.
Mrs.ANAHITA VORA
Mr.SAMEER ASHER
Mr.BHUSHAN SHAH
Mr.MUSTAFA PARDIWALA
Mr.JAYESH SHAH

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- 27 -

GOVERNING BOARD
SHAREHOLDERS

SSKI - 55.5%
(Morakhiafamily)

HSBC 18.5%
INTEL 10.5%
CARLYES 15.5%

3.5 Products and services


Equities
Sharekhan provided the prospect of researched investing to its clients, which was
restricted only to the institutions. Research for the retail investor did not exit prior to
sharekhan. Sharekhan leveraged technology to bring the convenience of trading to
the investors location of preference (residence or office) through computerized

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 28 access. India sharekhan made it possible for clients to view transaction costs and
ledger updates in real time.
Derivatives
The company also facilitates the trading system for trading in secondary market
under future and options segment of NSE and BSE. The equity dealers in the
company will be eager to give insights into the new sets introduction in the Indian
Capital market futures and options.
Mutual fund and IPO online
Mutual fund is an investment company that pools money from shareholders and
invests in a variety of securities, such as stock bonds and money market
instruments.
Initial public offering, the first sale of stock by a company to the public. Companies
offering an IPO are sometimes new, young companies, or sometimes companies
which have been around for many years but finally deciding to go public.
Sharekhans online trading and demat account also facilitates investment in IPOs
and mutual fund. One can place orders by selecting IPO or Mutual fund.
Advisory product
Sharekhan provide Advisory products by which customer can get proper advise for
investing their money in proper way by which they can earn more profit.
Need of advisory products:

wide product range to meet diverse needs of clients

disciplined approach

dedicated product manager backed by research

performance track record

Commodities online

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 29 Commodities are agreements to buy and sell virtually anything except, for some
reason. The primary commodities that are traded are oil, gold and agricultural
products. Commodity derivatives comprise of raw materials and products that can
be traded on special commodity exchanges across the country. Commodities
expands customer investing horizon from investing in a metal company to trading in
the metal itself. Trading in commodity derivative provides unique market
opportunities for a wider section of participants like: investor, hedgers, arbitragers,
traders, manufactures planters, exporters and importers. While trading commodities
through an exchange, there are no transportation charges, no insurance costs, no
storage charges and complete security when customer trade through an exchange.
Customer can trade in commodities at nominal costs and carry the investment in
paper from as customer want. The fundamentals for commodities are quite simple:
price is a function of demand and supply.
Portfolio management
Companys portfolio management service is a product where in an equity
investment portfolio is created to suit the investment objectives of a client. We at
India invest the resources into stocks from different sectors, depending on your
risk-return profile. This service is particularly advisable for investors who cannot
afford to give time or dont have that expertise for day-today management of their
equity portfolio. Sharekhan securities are a registered portfolio manager with SEBI
to manage portfolios on behalf of clients with discretionary and anon discretionary
rights this service is a provision for those who may not have the right time to
manage their stocks investment or require the service of companys highly
specialized professional team.
Insurance
Insurance is a policy from a large Financial Institutional that offers a person,
company, or other entity reimbursement or financial protection against possible
future losses or damages. To ensure maximum reach to customers across India,
we have employed a multi-pronged approach and reach out to customers via our
Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 30 network, direct and affiliate channels. Following the opening of the sector in 19992000, a number of private sector insurance service provides commenced
operations aggressively and helped grow the market.
Fixed deposits
Fixed deposits are loan arrangements where a specific amount of funds is placed
on deposit under the name of the account holder. The money placed on deposit
earns a fixed rate of interest, according to the terms and conditions that govern the
account. The actual amount of the fixed rate can be influenced by such factors at
the type of currency where the deposit is made.
Currency trading

Currency trading means to trade in currency of different countries and price


varies because of supply and demand.

Currency trading is mostly done by large companies or by people who is


import-export business.

In price of currency there is always fluctuation. So it can be dangerous for


people who have import-export business. So they make reverse position or it
is also known as hedging.

Currency trading is not much useful to individual investors.

Sharekhan is providing offline currency trading to interested customers.

Online currency trading is not given because individual investors still not
prefer currency trading.

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- 31 -

DialnTrade:You can now use our DialnTrade back up option. Sharekhan team will help you
place a trade after a security check right over the phone! Your account statement
will get updated with this information automatically. This service is available both in
Hindi and English. You can even use this service to place After-Market Hour
Orders.
FEATURES OF DialnTrade:

Dedicated Toll-Free number for order placements.

Automatic fund transfer with phone banking.

Simple and secure IVR based system for authentication.

No waiting time. Enter your TPIN to be transferred to our telebrokers.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 32 Trusted, professional advice from our telebrokers.

After-hours order placement facility between 8 am & 9:30 am.

Reliable services wherever you are.

SPEED TRADE :Speed Trade is a next-generation online trading product that brings the power of
your brokers terminal to your PC. It provides on a single screen streaming quotes,
online tic-by-tic charts, instant order placement and trade confirmations for equity /
cash market. It is ideal for active traders and jobbers who transact frequently during
trading session to capitalize on intra-day price movements.
Unlike browser based trading applications that require moving from page to page to
execute a single transaction, SPEEDTRADE is a net-based executable application
that provides everything a trader needs on one screen, thereby, reducing the
maximum time required to execute a trade by a huge margin.
what you get with Speed Trade?

Instant order Execution and Confirmation.

Single screen trading terminal (cash and Derivatives).

Real-time streaming quotes, tic-by-tic charts.

Market summary (most traded scrip, highest value).

Hot keys similar to a brokers terminal.

Alerts and reminders.

Back-up facility to place trades on Direct Phone lines

3.6 Area of Operations


Sharekhan is Indias leading online retail broking house. Launched on February 8,
2000 as an online trading portal, sharekhan has today a pan-India presence with
over 1,529 outlets serving 950,000 customers across 450 cities. It also has

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 33 international presence through its branches in the UAE and Oman. Sharekhan
offers services like portfolio management, trade execution in equities, future and
option, commodities and distribution of mutual fund, insurance and structured
products. These services are backed by quality investment advice from an
experienced research team which offers investment and trading ideas based on
fundamental and technical research respectively, market related news, statistical
information on equities, commodities, mutual funds, IPOs and much more.
Sharekhan is a member of the Bombay Stock Exchange, the National Stock
Exchange and the countrys two leading commodity exchanges, the NCDEX and
MCX. Sharekhan is also registered as a depository participant with National
Securities Depository and Central Depository Services. Sharekhan has set
category leadership through pioneering initiatives like Trade Tiger, an Internetbased executable application that emulates a broker terminal besides providing
information and tools relevant to day traders. Its second initiative, First Step, is
targeted at empowering the first-time investors. Sharekhan has also set its global
footprint through the India First initiative, a series of seminars conducted by
sharekhan to help the non-resident Indians participate and benefit from the huge
investment opportunities in India.

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- 34 -

3.7 BOARD OF DIRECTORS

DESIGNATION
CEO
Director of the Company
CTO
EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR
CUSTOMERSERVICE

NAME
MR. TARUN SHAH
MR. SHANKAR VALIVA
MR. KETAN PARIAH
MR. JAIDEEP ARORA
MR. GEETA RAMESH

REPRESENTATIVE (CSR)
SALES AND MARKETING

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

MR. AJAI BATHIjA

- 35 3.8 COMPETITORS INFORMATION


Religare Securities:
Religare is a global financial services group with a presence across Asia, Africa,
Middle East, Europe and the Americas. In India, Religares largest market, the
group offers a wide array of products and services ranging from insurance, asset
management, broking and lending solutions to investment banking and wealth
management. The group has also pioneered the concept of investments in
alternative asset classes such as arts and films .With10,000 plus employees across
multiple geographies, Religare serves over a million clients, including corporates
and institutions, high net worth families and individuals, and retail investors.
Religare Enterprises Limited is part of a family of companies that fall under the
broader Religare brand, which includes other global businesses such as
diagnostics, aviation and travel, wellness retail, and IT products and solutions. A
diversified financial services group Religare Enterprises Limited (REL) offers a
comprehensive suite of customer-focused financial products and services targeted
at retail investors, high net worth individuals and corporate and institutional clients.
Kotak Securities:
Kotak Mahindra is one of India's leading financial conglomerates, offering complete
financial solutions that encompass every sphere of life. From commercial banking,
to stock broking, to mutual funds, to life insurance, to investment banking, the
group caters to the financial needs of individuals and corporates. Kotak Securities
Ltd., a 100 % subsidiary of Kotak Mahindra Bank is one of the oldest and largest
broking firms in the industry. Their offerings include stock broking through the
branch and Internet, Investments in IPO, Mutual funds and Portfolio management
service.
Reliance Securities Ltd:
Reliance Securities Limited is a Reliance Capital company and part of the Reliance
Anil Dhirubhai Ambani Group. Reliance Money is a brand owned by Reliance
Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 36 Capital Limited. Reliance Securities with the permission of Reliance Capital Limited
uses the Reliance Money brand to market its various services. Reliance
Securities endeavours to change the way investors transact in equities markets
and avails services. It provides customers with access to Equity, Derivatives,
Portfolio Management Services, Investment Banking, Mutual Funds and IPOs. It
also offers secured online share trading platform and investment activities in
secure, cost effective and convenient manner. To enable wider participation, it also
provides the convenience of trading offline through variety of means, including Call
& Trade, Branch dealing Desk and its network affiliates.
3.9 Infrastructure Facilities:
Sharekhan investment outlets are designed to be places where retail investors can
come in touch with investment opportunities in an atmosphere of convenience and
comfort. The look and feel of the offices across India projects a consistent branch
image for the company. The features that enable a unique facility for retailing
financial services include among others: Easily visible branches set up in the
commercial spaces of potential investment zones ranging between 750 sft to 1000
sft.

Most branches are located in the ground floor sporting huge glass frontage
promoting easy accessibility and reflecting our attitude of complete
transparency.

The major portion of the branch area dedicated for customer use. The
furniture is in CKD formats to add flexibility in using the branch for investors
purposes.

Connectivity to NSE for trading facilities.

TV and other electronic mediums to facilitate real time update and


dissemination of information to our customers. Each branch comprises of
trained and qualified investment advisors to take care of the needs of

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 37 3.10 Achievements and awards


1. Rated among the top 20 wired companies along with Reliance, HLL, Infosys, etc
by Business Today January 2004 edition.
2. Awarded Top Domestic Brokerage House four times by Euro money and
Asiamoney.3. Pioneers of online trading in India amongst the top
3. Amongst the top 3 Online trading websites from India. Most preferred financial
destination amongst online broking customers.
4. Winners of Best Financial Website award in 2001.
5. Voted by CNBC Awaaz as the Most Preferred Stock broker in India in 2005.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 38 -

3.11 Work Flow Model

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- 39 -

At Sharekhan its believed that, The clients are people, not accounts hence
successful investment management relationship begins with a clear understanding
of each clients specific needs, concerns and long-term objectives. Sharekhan
investment philosophy applies a disciplined approach to building a customized
strategy designed to meet customers individual financial goals and tolerance for
risk.
3.12 FUTURE GROWTH AND PROSPECTUS

2, 00,000 plus retail customers being serviced through centralized call


centers /web solutions.

Branches / Semi branches servicing affluent / aggressive traders through


high skill financial advisor.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 40 250 independent investment managers/ franchisee servicing 50,000 highly


valued clients

New initiatives Portfolio management Services and commodities trading

Sharekhan the financial services plan to launch portfolio management services


(PMS), where managers will create a basket of stocks for each client, based on
individual needs, for amount as low as Rs5 lakhs. such services are popular in
India but, almost all the offerings of large finance companies target high net worth
individual with the ability to invest Rs 1cr and above. Sharekhan, which helps
clients invest in equities, derivatives and commodities, will typically offer such
services for amounts between Rs5 lakhs and Rs75 lakhs; Rs5 lakhs is the smallest
amount the industrys regulator mandates for PMS. Sharekhan will launch its PMS
ion December and will especially target executives and professionals in metros and
smaller towns.
Sharekhan would not take a fee unless the portfolio earns a return higher than 8%.
If the client earns a return of 8-20%, the fee charged will be 10% of the absolute
returns and if the client earns more than 20%, the fee will be 20%. The company:
plans to offer a large-cap investment portfolio (where the stocks invested in will be
those of large-cap companies), blue chip portfolio (blue cip companies) and an
infrastructure portfolio (companies in the infrastructure sector). Sharekhan , which
started operations in April, already has around 250,000 invest or accounts and
3000 outlets by law, while others are optional agreeing to the terms of an insurance
policy.
KEY FEATURES OF ONLINE TRADING WITH SHAREKHAN:

Freedom from paperwork.

Instant credit and money transfer.

Trade from any net enabled PC.

Online orders on the phone.

Timely advice and research reports.

Real-time Portfolio tracking.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 41

After-hour orders.

3.13 TRADING PROCEDURE


OUTCRY SYSTEM
TRADING IN THE STOCK EXCHANGE:
-THE CONVENTION DAY
The broker has to buy or sell securities for which he has received the orders. For
this, the broker or his authorized representatives goes to the stock exchange. This
method is called the open outcry system. Basically the brokers shout while buying
or selling the securities. The floor of the stock exchange is divided into a number of
markets also known as post pit or wing based on particular securities dealt there.
In the post pit or wing, the broker using open outcry method makes an offer or bid
price. For making the necessary bargain, he quotes his purchase or sale price, also
known as offer or bid price. The dealer, to whom the price is quoted, quotes his own
price when the quotation of the dealer suits the broker, he may loose the bargain. If
he is not satisfied with the quote price, he may turn to some other dealer. On the
close of the bargain, the dealer as well as the broker makes a brief not of the
particulars of the deal. Such notes are made on some pad and on it the number of
shares, the price agreed upon, the name of the party, what membership number
etc., are noted.
DISADVANTAGES OF OUTCRY SYSTEM:

It lacks transparency.

The scope of manipulation, speculation and mal practice more.

The time gap between many of the trading operations used to be met quickly
and easily.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 42 Signal were more important in the outcry system any member who could not
interpret the buy/sell signal correctly often landed himself in disastrous
situation.

In audibility was another disadvantage of the outcry system.

Due to the above disadvantages of the outcry system, the SHAREKHAN has shifter
from outcry system to online trading from February 29 1997.
MANUAL TRADING
TRADING PROCEDURE BEFORE INTRODUCTION OF ONLINE TRADING:Trading on stock exchanges is officially done in the trading ring. In the trading ring
the space is provided for specified and non-specified sections, the members and
their authorized assistants have to wear a badge or carry with them on identity card
given by the exchange to enter the trading ring. They carry a sauda book or
confirmation memos, duly authorized by the exchange and carry a pen with them.
The stock exchanges operations are floor level are technical in nature .Nonmembers are not permitted to enter in to stock market. Hence various stages have
to be completed in executing a transaction at a stock exchange .The steps involved
in this method of trading have given below:
CHOICE OF BROKER:The prospective investor who wants to buy shares or the investors, who wants to
sell shares and transact business, have to act through member brokers only. They
can also appoint their bankers for this purpose as per the present regulations.
PLACEMENT OF ORDER:The next step is the placing order for the purchase or sale of securities with a
broker. The order is usually placed by telegram, telephone, letter, fax etc or in
person. To avoid delay, it is placed generally over the phone. The orders may take

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 43 any one of the forms such as At Best Orders, Limit Order, Immediate or Cancel
Order, Limited Discretionary Order, and Open Order, Stop Loss Order.
EXECUTION OF ORDER OR CONTRACT:Orders are executed in the trading ring of the BSE. This works from 11:30 to 2.30
P.M on all working days Monday to Friday, and a special one-hour session on
Saturday. The members or the authorized assistants have to wear a badge given
by the exchange to enter into the trading ring. They carry a suada Block Book or
conformation memos, which are duly authorized by the exchange when the deal is
struck; both broker and jobber make a note in their suada block books. From the
suada book, the contract notes are drawn up and posted to the client. A contract
note is written agreement between the broker and his clients for the transaction
executed.
DRAWING UP AND BILLS:Both sale and purchase bills are prepared along with the contract note and it is
posted on the same day or the next day. This in a purchase transaction, once the
shares are delivered to the client effects payment for the purchases and pays the
stamp fees for transfer, a bill is made out giving the total cost of purchase, including
other expenses incurred by the broker in the price itself. With this, the process
ends.
DEMATERLIZATION:
Dematerialization is the process by which physical certificates of an investor are
converted to an equipment number of securities in electronic from and credited in
the investor account with his DP. In order to dematerialization his certifies an
investor has to first open an account with a DP and then request for the
Dematerialization Request Form, which is DP and submit the same along with the
share certificates. The investor has to ensure that he marks Submitted for
Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 44 Dematerialization on the certificates before the shares are handed over to the DP
for demat. Dematerialization can only be done to those certificates, which are
already registered in your name and belong to the list of securities admitted for
Dematerialization at NSDL.
Most of the active scrips in the market including all the scrips of S&P CNXNIFTY
and BSE SENSEX have already joined NSDL. This list is steadily increasing.
Briefly, the process is as follows: after completion of transfer, the investor gets the
option to dematerialize such shares. Investors willing to exercise this option sends
a Demat request along with the option letter sent by the company to his DP. The
company or its R&T agent would confirm the Demat request on its receipt from the
DP to reduce risk of loss in transit.
Dematerialized shares do not have any distinctive or certificate numbers. These
shares are fungible-which means that 100 shares of a security are the same as any
other 100 shares of the security. Odd lot shares certificates can also be
dematerialized.
Dematerialization normally takes about fifteen to thirty days. To get back
dematerialized securities in the physical form, request DP for Rematerialization of
the same is made.
Rematerialization is the process of converting electronic shares in to physical
shares.
BENEFITS OF DEMAT:Transacting the depository has several advantages like
It reduces the risk of bad deliveries, in turn saving the cost and wastage of time
associated with follow up for rectification. This has lead to reduction in brokerage to
the extent of 0.5% by quite a few brokerage firms.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 45 In case of transfer of electronic shares, you save 0.5% in stamp duty. You avoid
the cost of courier / notarization. The need for further follow-up with your broker for
the
Shares returned for company objection.
You can receive your bonuses and rights issues into your DA as a direct credit,
this eliminating risk of loss in transit.
You can also expect a lower interest charge for loans taken against Demat shares
as compared t internet for loans against physical shares.

There is no lost in transit, thus the overheads of getting a duplicate copy in such
circumstances is reduced.

RBI has increased the limit of loans against dematerialized securities as collateral
to Rs.1 per borrower in case of loans against physical securities.
RBI has also reduced the minimum margin to 25% for loans against
dematerialized securities as against 50% for loans against physical securities.
3.14 ONLINE TRADING
Before getting in to the online trading we should know some things about the
internet, e-commerce and etc.
1. What is Internet?
Internet is a worldwide, self-governed network connecting several other
smaller networks and millions of computers and persons, to mega sources of
information. This technology shrinks vast distances, accelerating the pace of
business reforms and revolutionizing the way companies are managed. It allows

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 46 direct, ubiquitous links to anyone anywhere and anytime to build up interactive


relationships.
A combination of time and space, called the Internet promises to bring
unprecedented changes in our lives and business. Internet or net is an interconnection of computer communication networks spanning the entire globe,
crossing all geographical boundaries. It has re-defined the methods of
communication, work study, education, business, leisure, health, trade, banking,
commerce and what not it is virtually changing every thing and we are living in
dot.com age. Net being an interactive two way medium, through various
websites, enables participation by individuals in business to business and
business to consumer commerce, visit to shopping arcades, games, etc. in
cyber space even the information can be copied, downloaded and
retransmitted.
The use of Internet has grown 2000 percent in last decade and is currently
growing at 10 percent per month. In India, growth of Internet is of recent times.
It is expected to bring changes in every functional area of business activity
including management and financial services. In offers stock trading at a lower
cost. Internet can change the nature and capacity of stock broking business in
India.
2. E-commerce
Electronic commerce is associated with buying and selling over computer
communication networks. It helps conduct traditional commerce through new
way of transferring and processing of information. Information is electronically
transferred from computer to computer in an automated way. E-commerce
refers to the paperless exchange of business information using electronic data
inter change, electronic technologies. It not only automates manual processes
and paper transactions but also helps organization move to a fully electronic
environment and change the way they operated.

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- 47 -

E-TRADING INTERFACE

INVESTOR

STOCK
BROKERS

INVESTORS

SATELLITE
LINK
DEPOSITORY

DEPOSITORY
PARTICIPANT

REGISTAR/COM
PANY

STOCK
EXCHANGE

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

BANK

- 48 PCs and networking attempts to introduce banks of the tools and technologies
required for electronic commerce. The computers are either workstations of
individual office works or serves where large databases and information reside.
Network connects both categories of computers; the various operating systems are
the most basis program within a computer. It manages the resources of the
computer system in a fair and efficient manner.
Now we can enter in to the concept known as online trading.
In the past, investors had no option but to contact their broker to get real time
access to market data. The net brings data to the investor on line and net
broking enables him to trade on a click of mouse. Now information has become
easily accessible to both retail as well as big investor. Once investors learn to
research on line, they will demand more market information.
3.15 EVOLUTION OF BROKING IN INDIA:The evolution of a broking in India can be categorized in three phases
1. Stockbrokers will offer on their sites features such as live portfolio manager,
live quotes, market research and news, etc. to attract more investors.
2. Brokers will offer on line broking and relationship management by providing
and offering analysis and information to investors during broking and nonbroking hours based on their profile and needs, i.e. customized services.
3. Brokers (now e-brokers) will offer value management or services like initial
public offering online, on-line asset allocation, portfolio management,
financial planning, tax planning, insurance services, etc. and enables the
investors to take better and well considered decisions.
The actual definition of Online Trading is as explained below:
Online trading is a service offered on the internet for purchase and sale of
shares. In the real world you place orders on your stockbroker either verbally
(personally or telephonically) or in a written form (fax). In online trading, you will
access a stockbrokers website through your internet enabled PC and place orders
Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 49 through the brokers internet based trading engine. These orders are routed to the
stock exchange without manual intervention an executed thereon in a matter of a
few seconds.
The net is used as a modem of trading in internet trading. Orders are
communicated to the stock exchange through website.
In India:
Internet trading started in India on 1st April 2000 with 79 members seeking
permission for online trading. The SEBI committees on internet based securities
trading services has allowed the net to be used as an Order Routing System (ORS)
through registered stock brokers on behalf of their clients for execution of
transaction. Under the ORS the client enters his requirements (security, quantity,
price buy/sell) on brokers site.
OBJECTIVES:Internet trading is expected to

Increase transparency in the markets,

Enhance market quality through improved liquidity, by increasing quote


continuity and market depth,

Reduce settlement risks due to open trades, by elimination of mismatches,

Provide management information system,

Introduce flexibility in system, so as to handle growing volumes easily and to


support nationwide expansion of market activity.

Besides, through internet trading three fundamental objectives of securities


regulation can be easily achieved, these are:

Investor protection

Creation of a fair and efficient market, and

Reduction of the systematic risks.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 50 Some of the brokers offering net trading include ICICI web trade, investment India,
Geojit securities, etc.
3.16 REQUIREMENTS FOR NET TRADING:

For investors:

1. Installation of a computer with required specification


2. Installation of a mode
3. Telephone connection
4. Registration for on-line trading with broker
5. A bank account
6. Depository account
7. Compliance with SEBI guidelines for net trading
The following should be produce to get a demat account and online trading
account:
As identity, proof &address proof produce the following things:

Voter ID card

Driving license

PAN card

Ration card

Bank pass book

Telephone bill

Other requirements, which are necessary

First page of the bank pass book and last 6 months statement.

Bank managers signature along with banks seal, manager registration code
on photograph.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 51 For stock brokers:


1. Permission from stock exchange for net trading
2. Net worth of Rs. 50 lac
3. Adequate back-up system
4. Secured and reliable software system
5. Adequate, experienced and trained staff
6. Communication of order (trade confirmation to investor by e-mail)
7. Use of authentication technologies
8. Issue of contract notes within 24 hours of the trade execution
9. Setting up a website.
The net is used as a medium of trading in internet trading. Orders are
communicated to the stock exchange through website. Internet trading started in
India on 1st April 2000 with 79 members seeking permission for online trading. The
SEBI committees on internet based securities trading services has allowed the net
to be used as an Order Routing System (ORS) through registered stock brokers on
behalf of their clients for execution of transaction.
Under the Order Routing System the client enters his requirements (security,
quantity, price, and buy/sell) in broker's site. They are checked electronically
against the clients account and routed electronically to the appropriate exchange
for execution by the broker. The client receives a confirmation on execution of the
order. The customer's portfolio and ledger accounts get updated to reflect the
transaction. The user should have the user id and password to enter into the
electronic ring. He should also have demat account and bank account. The system
permits only a registered client to log in using user id and password. Order can be
placed using place order window of the website.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 52 3.17 PROCEDURE FOR NET TRADING:Step 1: Those investors, who are interested in doing the trading over internet
system i.e. NEAT-IXS, should approach the brokers and get them self registered
with the Stock Broker.
Step 2: After registration, the broker will provide to them a Login name, Password
and personal identification number (PIN).
Step 3: Actual placement of an order. An order can then be placed by using the
place order window as under:
(a) First by entering the symbol and series of stock and other parameters like
quantity and price of the scrip on the place order window.
(b) Second, fill in the symbol, series and the default quantity.
Step 4: It is the process of review. Thus, the investor has to review the order
placed by clicking the review option. He may also re-set to clear the values.
Step 5: After the review has been satisfactory, the order has to be sent by clicking
on the send option.
Step 6: the investor will receive an "Order Confirmation" message along with the
order number and the value of the order.
Step 7: In case the order is rejected by the Broker or the Stock Exchange for
certain reasons such as invalid price limit, an appropriate message will appear at
the bottom of the screen. At present, a time lag of about 10 seconds is there in
executing the trade.
Step 8: It is regarding charging payment, for which there are different mode. Some
Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 53 brokers will take some advance payment room the investor and will fix their trading
limits. When the trade is executed, the broker will ask the investor for transfer of
funds by the investor to his account.
Internet trading provides total transparency between a broker and an investor in the
secondary market. In the open outcry system, only the broker knew the actually
transacted price. Screen based trading provides more transparency. With online
trading investors can see themselves the price at which the deal take place.
The time gap has narrowed in every stage of operation. Confirmation and execution
of trade reaches the investor within the least possible time, mostly within 30
seconds. Instant feedback is available about the execution. Some of the websites
also offer;

New and research report

BSE and NSE movements

Stock analysis

Freebies

IPO and mutual fund centers and

Movements of interaction stock exchanges.

STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE IN ONLINE TRADING:Following steps explain the step by step approach to on-line trading:

Log on to the stock broker's website

Register as client/investor

Fill the application form and client broker agreement form on the requisite
value stamp paper

Obtain user ID and pass word

Log on to the broker's site using secure user ID and password

Market watch page will show real time on-line market data

Trade shares directly yourself by entering the symbol or number of the

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 54 security

Brokers server will check your limit in the on-line accountant demat account
for the number of shares and execute the trade

Order is executed instantly (10-30 seconds) and confirmation can be


obtained.

Confirmation is e-mailed to investor by broker

Contract note is printed and mailed in 24 hours

Settlement will take place automatically on the settlement day

Demat account and the bank account will get debited and credited by
electronic means.

3.18 ONLINE TRADING HAS LED TO ADDITIONAL FEATURES SUCH AS:


Limit / stop orders: orders that can be go unfilled, but there is an extra
Charge for this leeway facility since one need to hold a price.
Market orders: orders can be filled at unexpected prices, but this type is
much more risky, since you have to buy stock at the given price.
Cash account: where funds have to be available prior to placing the order.
Margin account: where orders can be placed against stocks, to increase
Purchasing power.
ADVANTAGES OF ONLINE TRADING:

Online trading has made it possible for anyone to have easy and efficient
access to more reports and charts than it was previously possible if one
went to any brokers' office. Thus, we have access to a lot more information
online to self teaches our broker itself.

Online trading has let room for smaller organizations to compete with
multinational organizations since is no longer a legit issue. Being online does

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 55 not identify the size of any particular organization, therefore, this additional
power to the underdogs.

Online trading has allowed companies to locate themselves where they


want, as physical location is not an issue anymore. Companies can establish
themselves according to their gains and losses, for instance where tax
(sales and value added taxes) is best suited to them.

Online trading gives control to individuals and they can exercise it over
accounts thus comprehend what is going on when they trade. It is like going
back to school and re-educating oneself on how to trade online.

Individuals benefit by saving comparatively a lot more when trading online


as the cost per trade is less.

Individuals can invest in a variety of products, unlike earlier when people


bought bonds, mutual funds, and stock for long-term basis and sat on them.
Now they can invest in stocks, stock and index options mutual funds,
individual, government, and even insurance.

Online trading has made it possible for one fid investment options that were
not available on a regular basis like offbeat net stocks eccentric unique
things and trading in global market.

INVESTORS REASONS TO TRADE ONLINE:

They have control over their accounts can make their own decisions and
dont have to give reasons for their actions. They are independent.

They have a reason to participate in the market and learn about it.

It interesting, cheap, easy, fast, and convenient.

A lot of information is online so they can keep up-to-date with what is


happening in the trading world.

It is the interest of the small investors because rates will be available


immediately across the country execution will be immediately across the
country and execution will be immediate.

It will give investors a greater choice and better realization.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 56

The immediate impact will be competition and benefits will accrue to the
investors.

It will lead to brokerage commissions going down and brokers striving to


increase business afloat.

Investors will now go to place, which have better trading conditions and
also members to offer them better facilities.

They have access to numerous tools to invest, and can create their own
portfolio.

HERE ARE THE POSSIBLE DISADVANTAGES:

When network crashes, there will be problems and delays due to a large
influx of rapid online trading criteria.

Individuals are restricted to first-hand financial guidance. This simply means


that the individual is himself / herself alone to.

A tax (sales tax and value added tax) evaluation becomes an issue,
especially when you are trading internationally.

Chances are that one has no idea who one is dealing with on the other end,
so it is advisable to gather all the possible information about the party one is
dealing with. In short, do the home work and be prepared.

Online trading has left individuals open to too much information. This is
harmful since it leaves brokerages wide open to sensitive data.

According to a study conducted by Mary Rowland, careful investor: is online


trading bad for your portfolio, the more one trades the less returns one gets,
meaning that an addicted trader gets, carried away online and begins to
trade for too much which causes losses for him / her.

The study also shows that smart investment is better than fast investment.
Simply put speed should be considered to be a major factor would lead any
online trader to think they know the market.

Individuals think that they are trading with the market directly and know what
they are doing, but the truth is that even through technology has taken over

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 57 the basic rules of trading are the same. It seems that the middleman has
been removed, but that is not so. When the individuals click on the mouse,
his trade goes through a broker. The commissions online pertain to the
intermediary.

There is a need for more effective communication links over the Internet and
the ability of the server to deal with a large volume of visitors.

3.19 TRADING AND SETTLEMENT AT SHARE KHAN


The NSE first introduced online trading in India. The Online trading system
imparted a greater level of transparency and investors preferred exchanges that
offered Online trading because of the following factors:

The ease of operation from the view of the both members and the investors.

Increase in the confidence of the investors because at higher level of

transparency.

Facilities better monitoring of the market by the exchange.

The best price achieved in buying and selling.

All these resulted in ever-increasing volumes on the exchanges offering the online
trading.
TRADING PROCEDURE AT SHARE KHAN STOCK BROCKING
Share Khan deals in buying and selling equity shares and debentures on the
National Stock Exchange (NSE), the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) and the OverThe-Counter Exchange of India (OTCEI).
Share Khan is provided with a computer and required software from their
registered stock exchanges. These centers are called Broker Work Stations.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 58 These computers are connected to the server at the stock exchanges through
cable.
The member or broker sitting in his office can send the quotations, orders,
negotiations, deals, in-house deals, auction orders etc., through the computer.
The central trading system (CTS) will accept these orders and send it for match.
If there is any mistake in the order, CTS will reject the orders and send
respective error message to the member concern. All these operations are in built.
The main objective of CTS is to monitor the Stock Exchanges operations.
Order placed by the broker will be sent for a match and if the match is found
suitable, the transaction will be executed. Otherwise, the order will be deleted
automatically after completion of trading time the carry forward transactions (Good
Till cancellation) are forward to the next day. Even if the match is not found with in
the prescribed period, the order will not cancel.
TRADING SESSION
Trading timings are from 9:55 A.M. to 3:30 P.M. on all 5 days of the trading period.
Monday to Friday is the trading period in all the stock exchanges. SEBI has
stipulated that all the stock exchanges in India must have same trading period.
BROKER WORK STATION:
At the broker workstation the best BBOs the last traded price, the day s opening
price, previous days closing price, highest and lowest prices, the weighted average
price, the total trade value and total trade value will be available continuously, as
the BBO for each scrip.
Other information will be available on query from the BWS. These include top
gainers /losers of the day. Trader-wise, scrip wise net position, client wise net
position, top scrip by the volume/value, market summary etc.
The BWS as a powerful profiling future which enables each trader to customize
his/her screens layouts as is convenient, profiles may be set at the BWS by the
individual users, for the scrips that he/she is interested in watching columns of
information available, etc.
Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 59 Brokers are also provided with information relating to the companies in the matter
of Book closure, Dividend declarations, resolutions in board meeting, information
about liquidated companies, company report etc.
Broker can visualize his personal details relating to trade done he can have scrip
wise details, sub-broker wise details, and client-wise details and can also take the
point of daily volume reports and adjustment reports.
ORDERS:
Orders can be done one at a time or in a batch mode.
The submitted order will be accepted at the CTS after validation if found any invalid
reason the order is return back to the BWS, with the appropriate error message. If
Accepted at the CTS it will be added to the local pending order book.
The order will then be taken up for matching if it is a buy order the system tries to
find a sell order, which fits the requirement of the buy order when such match is
found a trade, gets executed. Each trade involves two brokers and respective
traders who sent the order. Both these traders are informed of the trade being
executed at their respective BWS.
At the BWS the trade is added to the local trade book, land the pending quantity
decreased by the trade quantity in the local pending order book.
Orders sent by the brokers are two types:

Good For the Day (GFD)

Good Till Cancellation(GTC)

Good For the Day:


This also called as market order. For an order if the member selects the deal as
good for day, the order is treated as market order. If a best bid founds match with
best order then the transaction executes. If the match is not found then after trade
time the order is cancelled that day. Next day he has to place a new order.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 60 For example if a member wants to purchase 1000 shares of satyam info @ 400,
each through Good for Day order. If the correct match is not found, order is
cancelled automatically and new quotation has to be placed the next day.
Good Till Cancellation:
This order is forwarded to the last trading day of that settlement period. This is also
called as carry forward order like GFT; broker has to select the option of GTC for
the order. If the order finds match with in the trading settlement period, the order is
executed. If no match is found, the order is cancelled on the last day of settlement
period. This order is not carried forward to the next settlement period.
For example, if a member places a purchase order of 500 shares of SBI @ 690 per
share, selects the order as GTC, and places an order. If the match is not found on
that day it will be forwarded to the next day until trading settlement period day.
SETTLEMENT OF TRANSACTIONS:
Clearing of transaction in the form of shares and cash is called settlement, which
was held in clearing house of stock exchange (for example, SHAREKHAN is a
clearance house is member in NSDL (National Securities Depository Limited).
Buyers will take the delivery of shares through the Depository Participants (DPS)
like SHARE KHAN and others. Finally, the settlement is made by means of
delivering the share certificates along with the transfer deeds. The transferor (or the
seller) duly signed transfer deed. It bears a stamp of the selling broker. The buyer
then fills up the certificates fills up the particulars in the transfer deed. Settlement
can be done in the following way.
Spot settlement: under this method, the delivery of securities and payment for
them are affected on the day of the contract itself.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 61 Rolling settlement: Under this rolling settlement the trading is on T+2,basis


i.e. if Monday is trading day then Wednesday is the paying day . In case on nondelivery, the securities will go for auction.
DETAILS OF PROCEDURES:
Delivery in : The members who is in PAY-OUT position delivers share certificates
in to clearing house with in the settlement period along with the delivery Chelan
filled in with the details of share certificates which has folio numbers or distinctive
numbers etc.
Delivery out: The buyer of shares who made pay in position will take delivery of
shares from the clearinghouse.
Pay-in: The member who is in paying position shall pay for value of shares with in
the trading settlement period (T+2).
Payout: The cheques paid in the clearinghouse will be paid members who are in
paying position.
All disputes arising between members regarding non-deliveries, non-payments,
good and bad deliveries pertaining to the settlement will be here by Share Khan
and settled by the settlement committee of the exchange.
BROKERAGE STRUCTURE AT SHAREKHAN
Trading

- 0.1 %( on each side)

Delivery - 0.5%
Exposure - 4 times of deposit

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 62 Sharekhan provides offline trading too. For this sharekhan is providing a toll-free
number i.e. 1-800-22-7500.

The given flow chart clearly explains the process of online trading:

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 63 -

L o g in

S e ll t r a n s c a t io n

B u y t r a n s c a t io n

T h e s y s te m w ill c h e c k y o u r
d p a c c o u n t q u a n tity

T h e s y s te m w ill c h e c k b u y in g
lim its

O rd e rs ac c e p te d

R e je c t e d o r d e r s w o u ld b e
c o m m u n i c a t e d a lo n g w it h r e a s o n s

o rd e rs ac c e p te d

y o u r o r d e r is t r a n s m it t e d t o e x c h a n g e f o r e x e c u t io n

p e n d in g b u y o r d e r s
w o u ld b e d is p la y e d
o n y o u r s c re e n

y o u m a y e d it y o u r
p e n d in g o r d e r

o n e x e c u t io n
o f y o u r o rd e rs

y o u m a y e d it y o u r
p e n d in g o rd e r

y o u m a y d e le t e
y o u r p e n d in g o r d e r

f la s h e d o n y o u r
s c r e e n im m e d ia t e ly
o n e x e c u t io n

c o n f o r m a t io n c o u l
d b e s e n d to y o u r
e - m a il a n d m o b ile

p e n d in g s e ll o r d e r s
w o u ld b e d is p la y e d
o n y o u r s c re e n

y o u m a y d e le t e y o u r
p e n d in g o r d e r

c o n t r a c t n o t e w o u ld
b e s e n t t o b y m a il
o r h a n d d e liv e r y

THE WINDOW WHICH DISPLYAS IS BUYING SHARES ONLINE THROUGH


SHAREKHAN.COM

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 64 -

THE WINDOW WHICH DISPLYAS IS SELLING SHARES ONLINE THROUGH


SHAREKHAN.COM

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 65 -

SURVEILLANCE:

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 66 Surveillance can be done during the continuous trading session for monitoring the
broker scrip and the market, this is referred to as online may be used for analysis.
Analysis and monitoring reports that can generate. For the continuous trading
session the surveillance workstation user can set up a member of alerts any scrip
broker or index the workstation profile will be automatically reported to the user.
The market event list will be available to the BWS user. During the continuous
trading session details of the scrip broker or index that pass the alert or violate their
circuit breakers are displayed on message window. There are three messages
windows i.e., one for each scrip and index, different colors indicate the importance
and BWS user is modified when BWS user is denied access to the system a
number of are available for the SWS user.
3.20 PROBLEM AREAS:
When internet trading was first launched in Feb. 2000, the stock markets were
experiencing an unprecedented boom and it held out a lot of promise. However,
two years down the line we find the system as failed to deliver up to its potential.
The main reasons for declining volume of trading are:
Bearish market:
The poor performance in the on line market segment can be attributed to lack of
Bull Run in the stock market. This is the reason for which the overall trading as
come down. Almost ever since internet trading has started the markets have
remained bearish. This relationship between the mood of the market and the
internet in trading indeed gets reflected in the volumes.

Poor penetration of the internet:

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 67 Besides the bearishness in the equity market, another reason for low acceptance of
net trading could be poor penetration of the internet. In India it is a fact that internet
has not been able to spread its tentacles in rural areas and small towns.
The very basis of net trading is based on two factors:
1. An equity market in good shape.
2. Deep penetration of the internet.
Poor internet connectivity:
In the Indian context, the quality of internet connections also comes into play for
determining the reasons for the lack in response. Here, we have connectivity
problems and there are instances of clients panicking, as they could not execute
their trades. Many times at particularly at places other than Mumbai, sudden
stoppage of electricity results in disconnection.
Long supply chain:
In case of conventional or offline, trading the chain is small as the clients directly
interact with the brokers. However, in case of internet trading the chain is quite long
as it involves a client, an internet service provider, server, stock exchange,
depositor and a broker and a problem can rise up at any stage of the chain,
breaking down the entire system.
A Costly Affair:
Other than the technological hassles, there is an element of cost as well. For active
traders, doing online trading he has to remain connected all the time and the cost of
connecting through dial up can work out to Rs 3500 per month which is over and
above the brokerage and other service charges. This is the reason offering online
trading facility

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 68 Allows the clients to use the conventional system as well in order to retain them. A
part from a dealing room, most broking houses have a separate room for the
clients. Where the stock exchanges terminals are kept for their use.
Low Investor Confidence:
The global recession has dampened the mood of the stock market. Although, the
US economy is showing signs of recovery, but any tangible outcome is yet to be felt
and natural calamities.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 69 -

Chapter- 4
4.1 Analysis & Interpretation
1. Which trading method do you prefer?
Category
Online
Offline
Both
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
33
10
7
50

% of Respondents
66%
20%
14%
100%

Analysis: The 66% of People prefer Online Trading, 20% People prefer the Offline
Trading and 14% People prefer to do Trading both Online and Offline.

Interpretation
As people are busy in there own schedule nowadays, online trading makes there
task easy.
2. Which of the following companies are you aware of Online Trading?

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 70 Category
ICICI Direct.COM
Sharekhan.COM
India Bulls
Kotak Securities
Religare
Any Other
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
12
9
5
9
6
9
50

% of Respondents
24%
18%
10%
18%
12%
18%
100%

Analysis: The maximum number of people in aware of ICICI Direct.Com with a


share and the next place is shared by sharekhan and Kotak Securities at 18%,12%
of people are aware of Religare and 10% of Indiabulls.

Interpretation
Many companies have come up with online trading option to attract more and more
customers.
3. In which of the following do you Trade Online?
Category
Mutual Funds
Equity
Initial Public Offer (IPO)

No. of Respondents
10
13
12

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

% of Respondents
20%
26%
24%

- 71 Commodities
Future And Options (F&O)
(Derivatives)
TOTAL

16%

7
50

14%
100%

Analysis: The maximum amount of persons trade online in Equity, The Second
Preference is to trade in IPO in which about 12 people do. 10 people trade
online to deal in Mutual Funds 8 deal in Commodities and 7 in future & Options.

Interpretation
Market Offers customers many options in Online trading.
4. Through which Technology do you Trade Online?
Category
Web Based Technology
Applet Based / Software Based
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
37
13
50

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

% of Respondents
74%
26%
100%

- 72 Analysis: Out of the people who trade online it is seen that the maximum people
trade through Web based Online trading

Interpretation
To provide better services, companies have come up with many options such as
Web Based Technology and Applet Based / Software Based

5. Do you feel Online Trading is Secure?


Category
No
Yes
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
11
39
50

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

% of Respondents
22%
78%
100%

- 73 Analysis: The 78% People believe that Online trading is secure. This shows that
the online trading has taken a good place in the mind of Indian stock Traders
and the Indian Consumer is Moving Towards Online Trading faithfully.

No
22%
No
Yes
Yes
78%

Interpretation
Keeping in view about the customers security, technology have developed to give
better security.

6. Do you think that Online trading is easy and fast way of trading?
Category
No
Yes
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
7
43
50

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

% of Respondents
14%
86%
100%

- 74 Analysis: 14% people believe that Online trading is not fast and easy way of trading
while 86% of people are in its favour.

Interpretation
As it allows instant online transfer and easy to access from anywhere through
internet connectivity from both pc and mobile.

7. Do you think that Online trading has helped in growth & development of
Indian Stock Market?

Category
No
Yes
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
7
43
50

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

% of Respondents
14%
86%
100

- 75 The 14% of people believe that the Online trading has not helped in growth and
development of Indian Stock Market While the majority of People i.e., around
86% people believe that the Online trading has Certainly helped in growth and
Development of Indian Stock Market.

Interpretation
As it is easy to access, it is helping in growth & development of Indian Stock
Market by attracting more and more investors.

8. What is your highest education level?

Category
Secondary Education
Senior Secondary
Graduate
Post Graduate
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
1
6
20
23
50

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

% of Respondents
2%
12%
40%
46%
100%

- 76 Analysis: 2% were Secondary Educated while the 12% were Senior Secondary
educated 40% people were graduates and 46% were post Graduates.

Interpretation
Higher qualification is not compulsory, it is ok to have basic knowledge on
computer and English.

9. What is your Stream of education?

Category
Science
Commerce
Arts
Others
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
19
23
6
2
50

% of Respondents
38%
46%
12%
4%
100%

Analysis: The data Collected shows that 38% are from the Science stream, 46%
people from the Commerce stream, 12% from the humanitarian, 4% are from the
Other stream.
Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 77 -

Interpretation
Specialization doesnt play vital role for online trading, but Commerce specialization
gives advanced knowledge on stock market and online trading.

10. Do you think Introduction of Online trading has helped in attracting the
new Investors thus increasing the trading volumes of Stock Market?

Category
No
Yes
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
5
45
50

% of Respondents
10%
90%
100%

Analysis: 90% of people believe that Online trading has helped in Increasing
trading Volumes at Stock exchange while 10% of People still disagree with the fact.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 78 -

Interpretation
The easy usage of online trading has attracted more and more investors.

11. Do you find easy to Operate the Computer?

Category
No
Yes
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
4
46
50

% of Respondents
8%
92%
100%

Analysis: 91% of people find it easy to Operate a Computer while the Other 9%
People does not find it easy to Operate a Computer.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 79 -

Interpretation
It is compulsory to have basic knowledge on computers.

12. Do you own a Computer?

Category
No
Yes
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
7
43
50

% of Respondents
14%
86%
100%

Analysis: 14% of people do not own a Computer while 86% of people do have it.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 80 -

Interpretation
It is not Important to have computer in home, as they can do online trade through
mobile internet and cyber centers.

13. Do you have an Internet Connection?

Category
No
Yes
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
14
36
50

% of Respondents
28%
72%
100%

Analysis: 28% of people did not had an Internet Connection while the rest 72% of
people had Internet Connection.

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Interpretation
Apart from having computer, internet connection is necessary.

14. At what time do you trade?

Category
Office hours
Non-office hours
Free time
After market trade
TOTAL

No. of Respondents
22
8
14
6
50

% of Respondents
44%
16%
28%
12%
100%

The table shows the responses of the persons who trade online and at what time
do they trade. Maximum of people trade during the office hours as the time clashes

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 82 with the office hours, 12% people also does after market trade while 28% persons
do trading in their free time.

Interpretation
Generally people do transactions in market hours between 9:30 am to 2:30 pm.

Chapter 5
5.1 OBSERVATIONS AND FINDINGS

Fluctuations more in secondary market than any other market.

There are more speculators than investors.

Information plays a vital role in the secondary market.

Previously rolling settlement is T+5 days, now it changed to T+2 days and
further it will be changing to T+1 day.

According to Mr. Manish Sukhla from Motilal Oswal Securities, many clients
who registered themselves for online trading ended up using the offline
system.

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- 83

It was also observed that many broking houses offering internet trading allow
clients to use their conventional system as well just ensure that they do not
loose them and this instead of offering e-broking services they becomes
service providers.

The number of players is increasing at a steady rate and today there are
over a dozen of brokerage houses who have opted to offer net trading to
their customers and prominent among them are SHARE KHAN, India bulls,
kotakstreet, Motilal Oswal securities and geojit.

5.2 Suggestions
They should try to make some arrangements to reduce account opening
time by verifying documents at branch itself.

The companies should come up with more and more innovative features in
their web portals.

The customer should be educated regularly about the new technologies and
techniques of trading online and also other relevant information.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 84 The companies should look after to develop more safe and secure ways of
transacting business online.

The companies should make maximum efforts to detect fraud cases and
minimize them.

Some promotional activities are required for the awareness of the customer.

People at young age should be encouraged to invest in stock market.

5.3 Conclusion
The Online trading is growing with a rapid pace with the rising level of education
among the customers. The other factors being that the Indian investor nowadays
wants to deal himself in trading rather than depending upon other middlemen. They
also consider the factors like time saving in doing the online transactions,
convenience etc. although some people feel that online trading is not secure but
the people doing the trading online is happy about the increasing security concerns
among the companies. In the present scenario and to compete the BROKERS
would require sound infrastructure and trading as per international standards. The

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 85 concepts of business have changed and today this has become to provide the best
possible service to client or to engage into new business from the regional center to
the metro centers and to impart liquidity introduction of on-line trading is necessary.
The introduction of on-line trading would influence in the investors resulting in an
increase in the business of the exchange. It has helped the brokers handling a vast
amount of transactions and this can be an efficient trading, delivering, settlement
system with adequate protection to investors. The trading of SHAREKHAN of the
first day was Fs. 1.8 crores. Due to invention of online trading there has been
greater benefit to the investors as they could sell / buy shares as and when
required and that to with online trading, it will inspire confidence in investors
resulting in increase business of the exchange. The BROKERS has a greater
scope than compared to the earlier times because of invention of online trading. It
is a found fact that during the bearish market the ratio of online trading becomes
very less. Also there is an intense competition among the companies and the
companies come up with new and new promotion schemes such as discounted and
negotiable brokerages, zero balance account, waiving account opening fee and
AMC etc. As the internet penetration is growing in India this business holds a huge
potential for growth. The mantra for success in the current situation will be
educating the customers about the benefits of online trading and the amount
of return on investment that can be generated through it, As Lack of knowledge
on Stock market for trading makes people think that it includes loss and risk
always.

5.4 LEARNINGS
The Project training was a good experience for me to learn the practical aspects of
the corporate life. Some of the learning of mine are:

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management

- 86 I improved my communication skills by learning how to talk to different


kind of people as it requires the different approaches to handle each
person.
I learnt the consumer perception about the stock market and online
trading.
Patience was the thing I learned the most as I have to approach the
clients who were to be explained same things again and again while
approaching or calling them at regular intervals.

Chapter 6

Bibilography
Books:
1)

Dr.Avadhani.V.A, Security Analysis and Portfolio Management, 10 th


Revised edition, Himalaya Publishing House, 2010

Journal & News paper:


1)

Economic Times

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- 87 2)

Business Today

Web sites:
1)

www.sharekhan.com

2)

www.economictimes.com

3)

www.moneycontrol.com

Questionnaire
1. Which trading method do you prefer?
Online
Offline
Both
2.

Which of the following companies are you aware of Online Trading?

ICICI Direct.COM
ShareKhan.COM
India Bulls
Kotak Securities
Religare

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- 88 Any Other
3.

In which of the following do you Trade Online?

4.

Mutual Funds
Equity
Initial Public Offer (IPO)
Commodities
Future And Options (F&O)

Through which Technology do you Trade Online?


Web Based Technology
Applet Based / Software Based

5.

Do you feel Online Trading is Secure?


No
Yes

6.

Do you think that Online trading is easy and fast way of trading?
No
Yes

7.

Do you think that Online trading has helped in growth & development of Indian Stock Market?
No
Yes

8.

What is your highest education level?

9.

Secondary Education
Senior Secondary
Graduate
Post Graduate

What is your Stream of education?

Science
Commerce
Arts
Others

10. Do you think Introduction of Online trading has helped in attracting the new Investors thus
increasing the trading volumes of Stock Market?
No
Yes
11. Do you find easy to Operate the Computer?

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- 89 No
Yes
12. Do you own a Computer?
No
Yes
13. Do you have an Internet Connection?
No
Yes
14. At what time do you trade?

Office hours
Non-office hours
Free time
After market trade

Thank you very much for taking the time to complete our survey.

Govt.RC.College Commerce & Management