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Covenant University

KM. 10 Idiroko Road, Canaan Land, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria

Department of Chemical Engineering

CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design I


Text: Coulson & Richardsons CHEMICAL ENGINEERING VOLUME 6,
FOURTH EDITION, Chemical Engineering Design, R. K. SINNOTT

Daniel B. Ayo, PhD

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Course Outline

Process Design Principles


Flow sheets
Chemical Engineering Design of Mass and Heat Transfer
Equipment (Plate columns, absorption towers, distillation
columns, heat exchangers, evaporators etc).
Mechanical Design of Equipments - Pressure vessels,
columns, storage tanks, heat exchanger, etc.

Piping and instrumentation.


Costing and Project Evaluation

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Course Outline
WEEK

TOPIC
Process Design Principles
Flow sheets,
Chemical Engineering Design of Mass and
Heat Transfer Equipment (Plate columns,
absorption towers, distillation columns, heat
exchangers, evaporators etc).
Mechanical Design of Equipments Pressure vessels, columns, storage tanks,
heat exchanger, etc.
Piping and instrumentation.
Costing and Project Evaluation

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Conservation of Energy

Note:
Computer Applications are readily available to determine many of the
parameters and properties discussed in this course. However the basis and the
concepts are discussed to give a more complete understanding of the subject.
This ensures correct interpretation of computer generated results.
Furthermore, it provides foundation for students who may want to delve into
development of Computer-Aided Process applications in future

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Process Design Principles

Nature of design and design objective


Design is a creative activity
The synthesis, the putting together, of ideas to achieve a
desired purpose.
the conversion of an ill-defined requirement into a
satisfied customer

Main Objective: Profit


Sub Objectives: Minimize Production cost, minimize heat
loss, maximize conversion or yield etc.

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Process Design Principles.

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Design Constraints

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Design Process

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Data collection

Accuracy required depends on:


The level of design
The reliability of the design methods
The sensitivity to the particular property

Sources of information on manufacturing processes and physical


properties
Companys process files
General literature - initial stages of process design, for
screening potential process
Technical Publications e.g. International Critical Tables
(1933) - comprehensive
World wide Web
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

General Sources of physical properties


BOUBIK, T., FRIED, V. and HALA, E. (1984) The Vapour Pressures of Pure Substances, 2nd edn (Elsevier).
BOUL, M., NYVLT and SOHNEL (1981) Solubility of Inorganic Two-Component Systems (Elsevier).
CHRISTENSEN, J. J., HANKS, R. W. and IZATT (1982) Handbook of Heats of Mixing (Wiley).
DREISBACH, R. R. (1955-61) Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds, Vols. I, II, III (American Chemical Society).
DREISBACH, R. R. (1952) Pressure-volume-temperature Relationships of Organic Compounds, 3rd edn (Handbook Publishers).
FENSKE, M., BRAUN, W. G. and THOMPSON, W. H. (1966) Technical Data Book-Petroleum Refining (American Petroleum Institute).
FLICK, E. W. (ed.) (1991) Industrial Solvent Handbook, 4th edn (Noyes).
GALLANT, R. W. (1968) (1970) Physical Properties of Hydrocarbons, Vols. 1 and 2 (Gulf).
LANGE, N. A. (ed.) (1961) Handbook of Chemistry, 10th edn (McGraw-Hill).
MAXWELL, J. B. (1950) Data Book on Hydrocarbons (Van Nostrand).
NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDARDS (1951) Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties, Circular C500 (US Government Printing Office).
PERRY, R.H., GREEN, D. W. andMALONEY, J. O. (eds) (1997) Perrys Chemical Engineers Handbook, 7th edn. (McGraw-Hill).
RENON, H. (1986) Fluid Properties and Phase Equilibria for Chemical Engineers (Elsevier).
ROSS, T. K. and FRESHWATER, D. C. (1962) Chemical Engineers Data Book (Leonard Hill).
ROSSINI, F. D. (1953) Selected Values of Physical and Thermodynamic Properties of Hydrocarbons and Related Compounds (American Chemical Society).
SEIDELL, A. (1952) Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, 3rd edn (Van Nostrand).
SOHNEL, O. and NOVOTNY (1985) Densities of Aqueous Solutions in Organic Substances (Elsevier).
SPIERS, H. M. (ed.) (1961) Technical Data on Fuel, 6th edn (British National Committee, Conference on World Power).
STEPHEN, T. and STEPHEN, H. (1963) Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds, 2 vols. (Macmillan).
STEPHENSON, R. M. (1966) Introduction to Chemical Process Industries (Reinhold).
TAMIR, A., Tamir, E. and STEPHAN, K. (1983) Heats on Phase Change of Pure Components and Mixtures (Elsevier).
TIMMERMANNS, J. (1950) Physico-chemical Constants of Pure Organic Compounds (Elsevier).
TIMMERMANNS, J. (1959) Physico-chemical Constants of Binary Systems, 4 vols. (Interscience).
VISWANATH, D. S. and NATARAJAN, G. (1989) Data Book on Viscosity (Hemisphere).
WEAST, R. C. (ed.) (1972) Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 53rd edn (the Chemical Rubber Co.).
WASHBURN, E. W. (ed.) (1933) International Critical Tables of Numerical Data, Physics, Chemistry, and Technology, 8 vols. (McGraw-Hill).
DESIGN INFORMATION AND DATA 357
WISNIAK, J. and TAMIR, A. (1980) Liquid-liquid Equilibria and Extraction: A Literature Source Book, Parts A and B.
WISNIAK, J. and HERSKOWITZ, M. (1984) Solubility of Gases and Solids, 2 vols. (Elsevier).
YAWS, C. L. (1977) Physical Properties (McGraw-Hill).
YAWS, C. L. (ed) (1999) Chemical Properties Handbook (McGraw-Hill).
Yaws Handbook of Thermodynamic and Physical Properties of Chemical Compounds (2003) Knovel.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Internet Sources of physical properties (Useful Sites/Gateways)


Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers: www.nsche.org
Herriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK: www.hw.ac.uk/lib
Edinburgh, UK: www.eevl.ac.uk
University of Florida, USA: www.che.ufl.edu/
Karlsruhe, USA: www.ciw.uni-karlsruhe.de/chem-eng
EEVL (Edinburgh Engineering Virtual Library) Internet Guide to
Engineering,
Mathematics and Computing, www.eevl.ac.uk
Herriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK
World-Wide Web Virtual Library: www.che.ufl.edu/WWWCHEindex.html
University of Florida, USA
International Directory of Chemical Engineering URLs: www.ciw.unikarlsruhe.de/chemeng.html
Karlsburg University, Germany
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Generation of Possible Design Solutions

Chemical engineering projects can be divided into three types:


Modifications, and additions, to existing plant; usually
carried out by the plant design group.
New production capacity to meet growing sales demand, and
the sale of established processes by contractors. Repetition of
existing designs, with only minor design changes.
New processes, developed from laboratory research, through
pilot plant, to a commercial process. Even here, most of the
unit operations and process equipment will use established
designs.
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Design selection

Selection process can be considered to go through the following


stages:
Possible designs (credible) within the external constraints.
Plausible designs (feasible) within the internal constraints.
Probable designs likely candidates.
Best design (optimum) judged the best solution to
the problem

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Anatomy of a Chemical Manufacturing Process

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Continuous and Batch Processes

Continuous processes
Designed to operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a
week, throughout the year.

Some down time will be allowed for


maintenance and, for some processes, catalyst
regeneration.
The plant attainment usually 90 to 95%.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Continuous and Batch Processes

Continuous processes
Production rate greater than 5 X 106 kg/h
Single product
No severe fouling
Good catalyst life
Proven processes design
Established market

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Continuous and Batch Processes

Batch Processes
Batch processes are designed to operate
intermittently. Some, or all, the process units
being frequently shut down and started up.
Batch processes are used where some
flexibility is wanted in production rate or
product specification.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Continuous and Batch Processes

Batch Processes

Annual production = quantity produced per batch x batches per year.

Plant attainment is the fraction of the total hours in a


year (8760) that the plant is in operation.
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Continuous and Batch Processes

Batch Processes
Production rate less than 5 X 106 kg/h
A range of products or product specifications
Severe fouling
Short catalyst life
New product
Uncertain design

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Organization of a Chemical Engineering Project

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Organization of a Chemical Engineering Project

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Project Documentation

1. General correspondence within the design group and with:


government departments; equipment vendors; site personnel; the
client
2. Calculation sheets
design calculations
costing
computer print-out
3. Drawings flow-sheets
piping and instrumentation diagrams
layout diagrams
plot/site plans
equipment details
architectural drawings
design sketches
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Project Documentation

4. Specification sheets for equipment, such as:


heat exchangers
Pumps
5. Purchase orders
quotations
invoices

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Codes and Standards

Modern engineering standards cover:


Materials, properties and compositions.
Testing procedures for performance, compositions,
quality.
Preferred sizes; for example, tubes, plates, sections.
Design methods, inspection, and fabrication.
Codes of practice, for plant operation and safety.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Codes and Standards

Organizations that issues standards of interest to chemical


engineers:
Standards Organization of Nigeria (SON)
Nigerian Society of Chemical Engineers (NSChE)
Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria
(COREN)
The American National Standards Institute (ANSI),
The American Petroleum Institute (API)
The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM)
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
(pressure vessels).
British Standards Institute
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
coordinates the publication of international standards.
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Factors of Safety

To allow for uncertainties in physical and chemical properties,


design methods, fabrication and operating loads
The greater the uncertainty in the design methods and data, the
bigger the design factor that must be used

Avoid overdesign
(Preferred terminology: Design factor) Factor of safety historical

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Systems of Units

SI unit is favoured in academics


In practice the design methods, data and standards often only available in
the traditional scientific and engineering units.

Need to be familiar with CGS and MKS systems, the American


Engineering System and British engineering systems.
Some bizarre traditional units; such as degrees Twaddle (density) and
barrels for quantity.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Systems of Units

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Systems of Units

Note:
The electrical supply frequencies vary from one country to
another; 60 Hz in the US, 50 Hz in the UK and Nigeria. So a pump
specified running at 1750 rpm (revolutions per minute) in the US
would have its motor speed reduced to 1460 rpm in Nigeria and UK.

American catalogue in US gallons or gpm (gallons per minute) will


have only 80 per cent of the rated capacity when measured in
imperial gallons.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Degrees of Freedom and Design Variables

Degrees of freedom: The difference between the number of variables involved in a design
and the number of design relationships.

Nd= Nv- Nr
Nv = the number of possible variables in a design problem
Nr= the number of design relationships
Nd = Degrees of freedom

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Degrees of Freedom and Design Variables

Flash distillation
F = stream flow rate,
P = pressure,
T = temperature,
xi = concentration, component i,
q = heat input.
Suffixes, 1 = inlet, 2 = outlet vapour, 3 = outlet liquid.
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Degrees of Freedom and Design Variables

Variable
Streams 1

Still

Number
Stream1
C+2
Stream 2
C+2
Stream 3
C+2
Pressure
1
Temperature
1
Heat input
1
Nv(Total 3C+9

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Degrees of Freedom and Design Variables

Relationship

Number

Material balance (each component)


Heat balance (overall)
Vapour-Liquid-Equilibrium
Relationships (for each component)
Equilibrium still restrictions
Nr

C
1
C
4
2C+5

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Degrees of Freedom and Design Variables

Nd= Nv- Nr
Nd= (3C+9) - (2C+5) = C+4

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Degrees of Freedom and Design Variables

Equilibrium separation implies that the outlet streams and


the still are at the same temperature and pressure. This gives
four equations:
P2 = P3 = P
T2 = T3 = T
Hence Equilibrium still restrictions 4 implies the total
degrees of freedom is (C + 4)
Feed composition and feed conditions will be fixed by the
upstream processes; the feed will arise as an outlet stream
from some other unit. Defining the feed fixes (C +2)
variables, so the designer is left with:
(C+ 4)-(C + 2) =2
as design variables.
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Optimization

For a chemical process, the overall objective for the operating


company will be to maximise profits. This will give rise to subobjectives, which the designer will work to achieve.
The main sub-objective will usually be to minimise operating
costs.
Other sub-objectives may be to reduce investment, maximise
yield, reduce labour requirements, reduce maintenance, and
operate safely.
Recall Maxima and Minima problems (Further mathematics)
Sometimes the minimum point may not be the optimum point
as a result of constraints:

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Optimization

Effects of Constraints on Optimum Conditions


Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Optimization

Plot of two variable problem


Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Optimization

The values of the objective function as contour lines,


Seeking the optimum likened to seeking the top of a hill (or bottom of a valley),
and a useful technique for this type of problem is gradient method
(method of steepest ascent, or descent),
Linear programming : an optimisation technique that can be used when the
objective function and constraints can be expressed as a linear function of the
variables
Dynamic programming: a technique developed for the optimisation of large
systems. The system is divided into convenient sub-systems and each sub-system
optimised separately, while taking into account the interactions between the subsystems

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

The equivalence of mass and energy:


Einstein: E = mc2
Invoked only in Nuclear reactions
Conservation of mass:
Material out = Material in + Generation - Consumption - Accumulation
Units used to express compositions:
Weight, molar or volume.
The abbreviations w/w and v/v are used to designate weight basis and
volume basis

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Stoichiometry

Write out and balance the overall equation for the manufacture of vinyl
chloride from ethylene, chlorine and oxygen
Write out the equation using letters for the unknown number of
molecules of each reactant and product. Make a balance on each
element. Solve the resulting set of equations.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Consider the reaction:

A(C2H4) + B(Cl2) + C(O2) = D(C2H3Cl) + E(H2O)


Balance on carbon
2A =2D, A= D
on hydrogen
4A = 3D + 2E
substituting D = A gives E =A/2
on chlorine
2B = D, hence B =A/2
on oxygen
2C = E, C = E/2=A/4

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Consider the reaction:

A(C2H4) + B(Cl2) + C(O2) = D(C2H3Cl) + E(H2O)


putting A = 1, the equation becomes
C2H4 + 1/2Cl2 + 1/4O2 = C2H3Cl + 1/2H2O
multiplying through by the largest denominator to remove the fractions
4C2H4 + 2Cl2 + O2 = 4C2H3Cl + 2H2O

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Choice of system boundary


General rules:
With complex processes, first take the boundary round the complete process
and if possible calculate the flows in and out. Raw materials in, products and byproducts out.
Select the boundaries to sub-divide the process into simple stages and make a
balance over each stage separately.
Select the boundary round any stage so as to reduce the number of unknown
streams to as few as possible.
As a first step, include any recycle streams within the system boundary

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Choice of basis for calculations
Guide rules:
Time: choose the time basis in which the results are to be presented; for
example kg/h, tonne/y.
For batch processes use one batch.
Choose as the mass basis the stream flow for which most information is
given.
It is often easier to work in moles, rather than weight, even when no reaction
is involved.
For gases, if the compositions are given by volume, use a volume basis,
remembering that volume fractions are equivalent to mole fractions up to
moderate pressures.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Constraints on flows and compositions
The sum of the individual component flows in any stream cannot
exceed the total stream flow
The sum of the individual molar or weight fractions must equal 1.
Hence, the composition of a stream is completely defined if all but one
of the component concentrations are given.

The component flows in a stream (or the quantities in a batch) are


completely defined by any of the following:
Specifying the flow (or quantity) of each component.
Specifying the total flow (or quantity) and the composition.
Specifying the flow (or quantity) of one component and the
composition.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Problem:
The feed stream to a reactor contains: ethylene 16 per cent, oxygen 9 per
cent, nitrogen 31 per cent, and hydrogen chloride. If the ethylene flow is 5000
kg/h, calculate the individual component flows and the total stream flow. All
percentages are by weight.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Solution:

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

General rule: the ratio of the flow of any component to the flow of any other
component is the same as the ratio of the compositions of the two components.
The flow of any component could have been calculated directly from the ratio of
the percentage to that of ethylene, and the ethylene flow.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Tie Component

Flow of any component is in the same ratio to the flow of any other component, as
the ratio of the concentrations of the two components.
If one component passes unchanged through a process unit it can be used to tie the
inlet and outlet compositions. (Nitrogen in combustion)

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Problem:
Carbon dioxide is added at a rate of 10 kg/h to an air stream and the air is
sampled at a sufficient distance downstream to ensure complete mixing. If the
analysis shows 0.45 per cent v/v CO2, calculate the air-flow rate.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Solution:

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Excess reagent
In industrial reactions the components are seldom fed to the reactor
in exact stoichiometric proportions.

A reagent may be supplied in excess


to promote the desired reaction;
to maximise the use of an expensive reagent; or
to ensure complete reaction of a reagent, as in combustion.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Problem:
To ensure complete combustion, 20 per cent excess air is supplied to a
furnace burning natural gas. The gas composition (by volume) is
methane 95 per cent, ethane 5 per cent.
Calculate the mols of air required per mol of fuel.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Solution:

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Conversion versus Yield

Stoichiometric factor = Stoichiometric mols of reagent


required per mol of product produced

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Problem
In the manufacture of vinyl chloride (VC) by the pyrolysis of dichloroethane (DCE), the
reactor conversion is limited to 55 per cent to reduce carbon formation, which fouls
the reactor tubes. Calculate the quantity of DCE needed to produce 5000 kg/h VC.

Solution: Text Example 2.10


Problem

In the production of ethanol by the hydrolysis of ethylene, diethyl ether is produced


as a by-product. A typical feed stream composition is: 55 per cent ethylene, 5 per
cent inerts, 40 per cent water; and product stream: 52.26 per cent ethylene, 5.49
per cent ethanol, 0.16 per cent ether, 36.81 per cent
Solution: Text Example 2.11

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Recycle Processes

Production of vinyl chloride from ethylene.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Recycle Processes
Flow stream returned (recycled) to an earlier stage in the processing
e.g. Recycle of unreacted expensive reagent
Two approaches to the solution of recycle problems are possible:
The cut and try method. The recycle stream flows can be estimated and the
calculations continued to the point where the recycle is calculated. The estimated
flows are then compared with the calculated and a better estimate made. The
procedure is continued until the difference between the estimated and the
calculated flows is within acceptable limits.
The formal, algebraic, method. The presence of recycle implies that some of the
mass balance equations will have to be solved simultaneously. The equations are
set up with the recycle flows as unknowns and solved using standard methods for
the solution of simultaneous equations.
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Problem

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Problem

Production of vinyl chloride from ethylene.

Solution: Text Example 2.13


Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Purge
A portion of a recycle stream bled off to prevent the build-up of unwanted material

Under steady-state conditions:


Loss of inert in the purge = Rate of feed of inerts into the system
The required purge rate can be determined from the following relationship:
[Feed stream flow-rate] X [Feed stream inert concentration] =
[Purge stream flow-rate] X [Specified (desired) recycle inert concentration]

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances

Problem:
In the production of ammonia from hydrogen and nitrogen the conversion, based on
either raw material, is limited to 15 per cent. The ammonia produced is condensed from
the reactor (converter) product stream and the unreacted material recycled. If the feed
contains 0.2 per cent argon (from the nitrogen separation process), calculate the purge
rate required to hold the argon in the recycle stream below 5.0 per cent. Percentages
are by volume.

Solution: Text Example 2.14

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


By-Pass

A flow stream divided and some part diverted (bypassed) around some units often used to control
stream composition or temperature.
Material balance calculations similar to those
involving recycle, except that the stream is fed forward
instead of backward

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Unsteady-State Calculations

Accumulation not zero, varying stream flow-rates and


compositions (with time)
Steady state calculations are usually sufficient for the
calculations of the process flow-sheet
Unsteady state observed in :
process start-up
Process shut-down
response to process upsets
Batch Processes

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


Problem:
A hold tank is installed in an aqueous effluent-treatment process to
smooth out fluctuations in concentration in the effluent stream. The
effluent feed to the tank normally contains no more than 100 ppm of
acetone. The maximum allowable concentration of acetone in the
effluent discharge is set at 200 ppm. The surge tank working capacity is
500 m3 and it can be considered to be perfectly mixed. The effluent flow
is 45,000 kg/h. If the acetone concentration in the feed suddenly rises to
1000 ppm, due to a spill in the process plant, and stays at that level for
half an hour, will the limit of 200 ppm in the effluent discharge be
exceeded?
Solution: Text Example 2.15

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Material Balances


General Procedures for Material-Balance Problems
Step 1. Draw a block diagram of the process.
Show each significant step as a block, linked by lines and arrows to show the stream
connections and flow direction.
Step 2. List all the available data. Show on the block diagram the known flows (or
quantities) and stream compositions.
Step 3. List all the information required from the balance.
Step 4. Decide the system boundaries.
Step 5. Write out all the chemical reactions involved for the main products and by
products.
Step 6. Note any other constraints, such as: specified stream compositions; azeotropes;
phase equilibria; tie substances.
Step 7. Note any stream compositions and flows that can be approximated.
Step 8. Check the number of conservation (and other) equations that can be written, and
compare with the number of unknowns. Decide which variables are to be design
variables; (Used only for complex problems).
Step 9. Decide the basis of the calculation
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Conservation of Energy
Energy Out =Energy In + Generation - Consumption Accumulation

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Forms of Energy

For isothermal expansion (expansion at constant temperature):


Pv = Constant
For reversible adiabatic expansion (no heat exchange with the surroundings):
Pv = Constant
where = ratio of the specific heats, Cp/Cv.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Forms of Energy

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Energy Balance

General Steady State Process

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Energy Balance

H= U+Pv

- Enthalpy is a function of temperature and pressure


(can be calculated from Specific Latent heat data).

H2 - H1= Q - W
Q=H2-H1
Q=Qp +Qs

- without kinetic and potential energy terms


- where work =0

Qs=Heat generated in the system and Qp=Heat added


to system

Qp =H2-H1-Qs

H1= Enthalpy of inlet stream, H2=Enthalpy of outlet stream

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Problem:

Estimate the steam and the cooling water required for the distillation column
shown in the figure. Steam is available at 25 psig (274 kN/m2 abs), dry
saturated. The rise in cooling water temperature is limited to 300C. Column
operates at 1 bar.
Solution: Text Example 3.1
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Calculation of Specific Enthalpy

No Phase transition.

where
HT = specific enthalpy at temperature T,
Cp = specific heat capacity of the material, constant pressure,
Td = the datum temperature
Phase transition takes place.

where Tp D phase transition temperature,


Cp1 = specific heat capacity first phase, below Tp,
Cp2 = specific heat capacity second phase, above Tp.
Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Energy Balance
The specific heat at constant pressure will vary with temperature
For Solids
Absolute (K) or relative (0C) temperature scales

Absolute (K) or relative

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Problem

Solution: Text Example 3.2

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Mean Heat Capacities

facilitates the calculation of sensible-heat changes


tabulated in various handbooks

change in enthalpy between temperatures t1 and t2 (tr = reference Temp):

If Cp is represented by polynomial:
Then.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Mean Heat Capacities
If the reference temperature is taken at 00C then :

and the enthalpy change from t1 to t2 .

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Problem
The gas leaving a combustion chamber has the following composition:
CO2 7.8, CO 0.6, O2 3.4, H2O 15.6, N2 72.6, all volume percentage. Calculate
the heat removed if the gas is cooled from 800 to 2000C.

Mean Heat capacities from Literature:

Solution: Text Example 3.3

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


The Effect Of Pressure On Heat Capacity

on Cp refers to ideal gas state

Excess heat capacity chart (Sterbacek et


al. (1979)) - based on hydrocarbons, but
can be used for other materials to give
an indication of the likely error if the
ideal gas specific heat values are used
without corrections
Tr = Reduced temperature
Pr = Reduced pressure

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


The Effect Of Pressure On Heat Capacity

Excess heat capacity chart (Sterbacek et al. (1979))

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Problem

The ideal state heat capacity of ethylene is given by the equation:

Estimate the value at 10 bar and 300 K.

Solution: Text Example 3.4

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Enthalpies of Mixtures

For gases:
negligible heats of mixing
heat capacities and enthalpies can be taken as additive

For Liquids:
negligible heats of mixing not negligible
Heat of mixing considered in calculation of enthalpies .
For binary mixture.

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


integral heat of solution
Heats of solution are dependent concentration.
The integral heat of solution = cumulative heat released, or absorbed, in preparing the
solution from pure solvent and solute. (standard integral heat of solution at infinite
dilution.)
From Tables and plots
used to calculate the heating or cooling required in the preparation of solutions,

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Fundamentals of Energy Balances


Enthalpy-Concentration Diagrams
facilitate the calculation of
energy balances involving
concentration and phase
changes

Process Design Principles

Covenant University Department of Chemical Engineering . CHE 414: Principles of Plant Design - Daniel Ayo, PhD.

Process Design Principles