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Block diagram of a typical electronic

amplifier system
Eg. Battery

Eg. Microphone

Eg. Speaker

Eg. Amplifier

Transformation of Elements
Element

DC Model

AC Model

Resistor

Capacitor

Open

Inductor

Short

+V, rf

rd = VT/ID

+ VS -

Short

Diode

Independent Constant
Voltage Source
Independent Constant
Current Source

IS

Open

IB Versus VBE Characteristic

vbe
iB I BQ (1 ) I B ib
VT

Common Emitter
with Time-Varying Input

Input sine wave

2
Offset voltage (+ve)
1:
2:
3:
4:

Input comes from an


Change in VCE
Change in Ic
Output voltage appears

Small-Signal Hybrid Model for npn BJT


(Two Port Network)
Transconductance

gm

I CQ
VT

Diffusion resistance

r
Input port

Output port

*Phasor signals are shown in parentheses.

VT
I CQ

g m r

Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit Using


Common-Emitter Current Gain
(ideal)

Small-Signal AC Equivalent Circuit for npn


Common Emitter Configuration

Small signal voltage gain

r
Av ( g m RC )(
)
r RB

Early Voltage/Finite Output


Resistance (CE Amplifier)

Early voltage is in the range 50 < VA < 300

Hybrid Model for npn with Early Effect


(practical)

Small signal output resistance

VA
ro
I CQ

Hybrid p Model for pnp with Early Effect

Common Emitter with Voltage-Divider


Bias and a Coupling Capacitor

Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit


Coupling Capacitor Assumed a Short

npn Common Emitter


with Emitter Resistor

Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit:


Common Emitter with RE

Rib r (1 ) RE
Ri R1 R 2 Rib
Av

RC
Ri
(
)
r (1 ) RE Ri RS

Expanded Hybrid Model for npn

rb is series resistance of S-C material and external contact (tens of ).


r is reverse biased diffusion resistance (M)

h-Parameter Model for npn

Small signal input resistance

hie rb r r
h fe

Small signal current gain

Voltage feedback ratio

r
hre
r

1 1
hoe

r
ro
Small signal output admittance

T-Model of an npn BJT

Common Emitter Cascade Amplifier

Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit:


Cascade Amplifier

RE and Emitter Bypass Capacitor

dc AND ac Load Lines:


RE and Emitter Bypass Capacitor

Amplifier Gain Versus Frequency

Transfer Functions of
the Complex Frequency
Name of Function

Expression

Voltage Transfer Function

T(s) = Vo(s)/Vi(s)

Current Transfer Function

Io(s)/Ii(s)

Transresistance Function

Vo(s)/Ii(s)

Transconductance Function

Io(s)/Vi(s)

Series Coupling Capacitor Circuit

s
T ( s) K 2 (
)
1 s
( RS RP )C S

Parallel Load Capacitor Circuit

1
T ( s ) K1 (
)
1 s
( RS RP )C P

Bode Plot of Voltage Transfer Function


Magnitude:
Series Coupling Capacitor Circuit

Bode Plot of Voltage Transfer Function


Phase:
Series Coupling Capacitor Circuit

Bode Plot of Voltage Transfer Function


Magnitude:
Parallel Load Capacitor Circuit

Bode Plot of Voltage Transfer Function


Phase:
Parallel Load Capacitor Circuit

Circuit with Series Coupling and


Parallel Load Capacitor
(Band pass filter)
S ( RS RP )C S
P ( RS RP )C P
fL
fH

1
2 S
1
2 P

Bode Plot of Magnitude of Voltage


Transfer Function:
Series Coupling and Parallel Load Capacitor
(Band pass filter)

Steady-State Output Voltage


Responses

Coupling Capacitor

Load Capacitor

Input Coupling and Parallel Load


Capacitors

Small-Signal Equivalent Circuit:


Coupling and Parallel Load Capacitor

1
fL
2 [ RS ( R1 R2 Ri )]CC

1
fH
2 ( RC RL )C P

Emitter Bypass Capacitor

Bode Plot of Voltage Gain Magnitude:


Emitter Bypass Capacitor

A v 0

g m r RC
RS r (1 ) RE

A v

g m r RC
RS r

High-Frequency Equivalent Circuit:


Common Emitter

fH

1
2 [r RB RS ](C C )

Simulation Results for Common


Emitter

Two Coupling Capacitors and a


Emitter Bypass Capacitor

Expanded Hybrid Equivalent Circuit

Typical Problem-Solving Technique:


BJT AC Analysis
1. Analyze circuit with only dc sources to find Q
point.
2. Replace each element in circuit with smallsignal model, including the hybrid model for
the transistor.
3. Analyze the small-signal equivalent circuit
after setting dc source components to zero.

Problem-Solving Technique:
Maximum Symmetrical Swing
1. Write dc load line equation that relates ICQ
and VCEQ.
2. Write ac load line equations that relates ic
and vce
3. In general, ic = ICQ IC(min), where IC(min)
is zero or other minimum collector current.
4. In general, vce = VCEQ VCE(min), where
VCE(min) is some specified minimum
collector-emitter voltage.
5. Combine above 4 equations to find optimum
ICQ and VCEQ.

Problem-Solving Technique:
Bode Plot of Gain Magnitude
1. Determine whether capacitor is producing a
low-pass or high-pass circuit.
a. Sketch general shape of Bode plot
2. Corner frequency is f = 1/(2) where = ReqC
a. Req is resistance seen by capacitor
3. Maximum gain magnitude is midband gain.
a. Coupling and bypass capacitors act as
shorts
b. Load capacitors act as opens