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Tutorial - 1

Q1. (i) What type of filter is it? Calculate the


cutoff frequency of the filter.
(ii) The switch is closed at t = 0, calculate the
output voltage at t = 0 and at t = 10 mS.

10 k

+
12 V

(i) Lowpass filter.


Cutoff frequency = 175.1 Hz.

1 k

vo

1 F

909

(ii) At t = 0, the capacitor is shorted.


Vo = 0 V.

vo

1 F

Now, time constant = ReqC = 0.909 mS.


t 5
Vo = 1.09 V.
Calculate the time constant of the following
12 V
circuit.
The output is open-circuited.
time constant = RC = 10 mS.

10 k

10 k

+
1 F

vo

Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Questions
Q2. A Series RC circuit is excited by a voltage source of variable frequency. The
output is taken across the R. Sketch the variation of the steady state transfer
function with angular frequency .
Hints: Obtain H(j) and represent in magnitude and phase form.
1.0
0.707

900
450
()

M()
1/RC

Phase response

Magnitude response

Q3. Initially the switch is connected to a and the circuit is


in steady state. The switch is moved from a to b at t = 0.
Find the current in the inductor. What is the power
dissipated in R at t = 0 and t = ?
Answer: i =
6 R e Rt L A, t 0

6 R A,

t<0

1/RC

a
6V

b
iL

PR = 36 R W,
= 0 W.
2

Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Tutorial - 1
Q4. In the circuit, the capacitors are fully charged at t =
0- so that vi = 12 V (C = 47 F, and R = 1 k).
+
(i) The switch is closed at t = 0, calculate the time v
i
when vc = 6 V.
(ii) Calculate the minimum power rating of the resistor. -

+
C

vc

(i) Ceq = 94 F.

vC = Vo e
ln

t RC eq

vC
=
t RC eq
Vo

65.2 mS .
t =

(ii). Power rating = i peak

12
= 1k
1k
= 144 mW .
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

3
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Tutorial - 1
Q5. In the following circuit, a current source ii =
sin(2ft) mA with internal resistance Ri = 10 k is
connected to a RC circuit. Calculate the output
voltages (magnitudes) at f = 10 kHz and 100 kHz.
Given that C = 2.2 nF, and RL = 10 k.

ii

+
Ri

RL

v0

Transform the current source into a voltage source vi.

vi = ii Ri = 10sin ( 2 ft ) V.
Now,

vRL
vi

CRL
1 + 2 C 2 ( Ri + RL )

1.382,
at 10 kHz , CR
=
L
vRL

10 kHz

7.643
C ( Ri + R=
L)
2

vRL
= 0.47
vi

= 4.7 sin ( 20 103 t ) V.

at 100 kHz ,

vRL
vi

13.82
1 + 764.3

=0.4996 vRL

100 kHz

Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

=5sin ( 20 104 t ) V.
4
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Tutorial - 1
Q6. In the following circuit, a pulse of height V and
width a is applied at t = 0. Find an expression for the
current.

+
V

vc

t ) V U ( t ) U ( t a ) .
vin (=
t

Now, applying KVL,

1
vc ( 0 ) + i dt +=
Ri V U ( t ) U ( t a )
C 0

Taking Laplace transform,


vc ( 0 )

I (s)

V
1 e as
s
Cs
s
1 e as V
1
e as
Assuming =
vc ( 0 ) 0,
I ( s ) VC =
=

1 + CRs R s + 1 CR s + 1 CR
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V t CR
( t a ) CR
i (t ) =
e
U
t

e
U ( t a ) .
(
)

R
+

+ R I (s) =

Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Tutorial - 1
Q7. In the following circuit, charge on the capacitor is zero for t <0. R1 = 10 k, R2 =
10 k R3 = 1 k C = 10 F.
(i) At t = 0 Sec, the switch is closed. Find I1 and I2 at t = 0 and at t = 1 Sec.
(ii) The switch is reopened at t = 2 Sec. Find I1 and I2 at t = 2 Sec.
R1

Answer:
(i) At t = 0, the capacitor is shorted.
I1 ( 0 ) = 9 ( R1 + R 2 || R 3 ) = 0.825 mA. and

+
I1
9V

I 2 ( 0 ) =R 3 0.825 ( R 2 + R 3 ) =0.075 mA.

vc

R2
I2

R3

==
Req C 60 mS << 1 Sec the capacitor is fully charged.
I1 (1Sec )= I 2 (1Sec )= 9 ( R1 + R 2 )= 0.45 mA.
(ii) At t = 2 Sec, left-hand part is open.
I1 ( 2 Sec
=
0.409 mA.
) 0 and I 2 ( 2 Sec=) 4.5 ( R 2 + R=
3)

6
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Tutorial - 1
R

Q8. The circuit is in steady state. The switch is


closed at t = 0. Find an expression for the vc.

2
V.
vc ( 0 ) =
3
But, for t >0, looking from the capacitor terminal,
the Thevenin's voltage =
Now, applying KVL,

+
R
vc

V
R

V
.
2
t
1
R
V
i + vc ( 0 ) + i dt =
2
2
C 0

R/2

Taking Laplace transform,


vc ( 0 ) I ( s ) V
R
,
I (s) +
+
=
2
2s
s
Cs
2V I ( s ) V
R
I (s) +
+
=,
2
3s
2s
Cs
V ( 3R )
I (s) =

.
s + 2 ( CR )

V/
2

Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

vc
C

Equivalent circuit for t >0.


7
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Tutorial - 1
Capacitor voltage for t >0,
v ( 0 ) I ( s ) 2V
V ( 3RC )
Vc ( s ) =c +
,
=
s
Cs
3s s s + 2 ( CR )
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) A
B
.
=
=
+
s s + 2 ( CR )
s s + 2 ( CR )
Now, expanding into partial fractions,
A

( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )
=
s + 2 ( CR )
s =0

+
R
vc

V
R

V
2

( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )

V
.
=
6
s
s = 2 CR

V
V
.
Vc ( s ) = +
2 s 6 s + 2 ( CR )
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V V 2t CR
vc ( t ) =
+ e
, (for t > 0).
2 6
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

8
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in

Tutorial - 1
Capacitor voltage for t >0,
v ( 0 ) I ( s ) 2V
V ( 3RC )
Vc ( s ) =c +
,
=
s
Cs
3s s s + 2 ( CR )
( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC ) A
B
.
=
=
+
s s + 2 ( CR )
s s + 2 ( CR )
Now, expanding into partial fractions,
A

( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )
=
s + 2 ( CR )
s =0

+
R
vc

V
R

V
2

( 2 3)Vs + V ( RC )

V
.
=
6
s
s = 2 CR

V
V
.
Vc ( s ) = +
2 s 6 s + 2 ( CR )
Taking inverse Laplace transform,
V V 2t CR
vc ( t ) =
+ e
, (for t > 0).
2 6
Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering, I.I.T. Kharagpur

9
mkmandal@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in