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CEH Marketing Research Report

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS


By
Donald H. Lauriente
with
Andrew DeBoo and Shojiro Mori

CEH Marketing Research Reports provide comprehensive analysis, historical data and
forecasts pertaining to the international competitive market environment for chemical
products. Detailed supply and demand data are developed for the United States,
Western Europe and Japan with the cooperation of chemical producers and consumers
worldwide.
Updated information may be available from the following CEH Program services:

CEH OnlineThe full text retrieval and update database. Updated monthly.

CEH CD-ROMThe entire contents of the CEH on one CD-ROM and including CEH
Online updates. Issued quarterly.

Manual of Current Indicators (MCI)Updates of statistical data derived from


published sources. Issued semiannually.

The Economic Environment of the Chemical Industry (EECI)Economic


indicators that impact the chemical industry; issued quarterly.

CEH Inquiry ServiceSRI Consulting researchers are available to answer your


questions.
U.S.A.Telephone:
ZrichTelephone:
TokyoTelephone:

650/859-3900
411/283-6333
813/5251-1741

Fax:
Fax:
Fax:

650/859-2182
411/283-6320
813/5251-1754

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Summary ..................................................................................................................................................

Introduction..............................................................................................................................................
Low Explosives....................................................................................................................................
High Explosives...................................................................................................................................
Alternative Technologies.....................................................................................................................
Industrial Explosives............................................................................................................................
Military Explosives..............................................................................................................................

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Environmental Issues...............................................................................................................................

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Study Methodology .................................................................................................................................


Metal Mining .......................................................................................................................................
Nonmetal Mining and Quarrying.........................................................................................................
Coal Mining.........................................................................................................................................

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Supply and Demand by Region ...............................................................................................................


North America .....................................................................................................................................
United States....................................................................................................................................
Producing Companies ..................................................................................................................
Accurate Energetic Systems, LLC...........................................................................................
Apache Nitrogen Products, Inc................................................................................................
Austin Powder Company.........................................................................................................
Coastal Chem, Inc....................................................................................................................
Daveyfire, Inc. .........................................................................................................................
Douglas Explosives, Inc. .........................................................................................................
Dyno Nobel Inc. ......................................................................................................................
El Dorado Chemical Company................................................................................................
Ensign-Bickford Industries Inc................................................................................................
Explosive Technologies Inc.....................................................................................................
Farmland Industries, Inc. .........................................................................................................
Goex, Inc..................................................................................................................................
D.C. Guelich Explosives Company .........................................................................................
Haliburton Energy Services.....................................................................................................
Hitech, Inc. ..............................................................................................................................
LaRoche Industries Inc. ...........................................................................................................
Mining Services International..................................................................................................
Nelson Brothers, Inc. ...............................................................................................................
Nitram, Inc. ..............................................................................................................................
Nitrochem Energy Corp...........................................................................................................
ORICA.....................................................................................................................................
Orica USA Inc. (formerly Energetic Solutions) ......................................................................
Owen Oil Tools, Inc.................................................................................................................
PCS Nitrogen, Inc....................................................................................................................
St. Lawrence Explosives Corp.................................................................................................
Slurry Explosives Corp............................................................................................................
Unocal Corporation .................................................................................................................
Viking Explosives & Supply, Inc. ...........................................................................................

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Consumption................................................................................................................................
Coal mining .............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and nonmetal mining ..............................................................................................
Metal mining............................................................................................................................
Construction.............................................................................................................................
Other industrial markets ..........................................................................................................
Marketing and Distribution Channels..........................................................................................
Customer purchase of ingredients............................................................................................
Customer purchase of formulated/mixed products ..................................................................
Customer purchase of formulated/mixed products and complete blasting services................
Price .............................................................................................................................................
Explosive-grade AN ................................................................................................................
ANFO ......................................................................................................................................
Trade ............................................................................................................................................
Canada .............................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Mexico .............................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Latin America ......................................................................................................................................
Argentina .........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Brazil................................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Chile.................................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Colombia..........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Peru ..................................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Venezuela.........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Other Latin America ........................................................................................................................
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Western Europe....................................................................................................................................
Producing Companies ......................................................................................................................
Consumption....................................................................................................................................
Austria..........................................................................................................................................
Belgium........................................................................................................................................
Denmark ......................................................................................................................................
Finland .........................................................................................................................................
France ..........................................................................................................................................
Coal mining .............................................................................................................................
Metal mining............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and nonmetal mining ..............................................................................................
Germany ......................................................................................................................................
Coal mining .............................................................................................................................
Metal mining............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and nonmetal mining ..............................................................................................
Greece ..........................................................................................................................................
Iceland..........................................................................................................................................
Ireland ..........................................................................................................................................
Italy ..............................................................................................................................................
Metal mining............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and nonmetal mining ..............................................................................................
Malta ............................................................................................................................................
Norway.........................................................................................................................................
Portugal........................................................................................................................................
Spain ............................................................................................................................................
Coal mining .............................................................................................................................
Metal mining............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and nonmetal mining ..............................................................................................
Sweden.........................................................................................................................................
Metal mining............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and nonmetal mining ..............................................................................................
United Kingdom ..........................................................................................................................
Coal mining .............................................................................................................................
Metal mining............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and nonmetal mining ..............................................................................................
Eastern Europe.....................................................................................................................................
Albania.............................................................................................................................................
Bulgaria............................................................................................................................................
Former Czechoslovakia ...................................................................................................................
Hungary............................................................................................................................................
Poland ..............................................................................................................................................
Romania ...........................................................................................................................................
Former Yugoslavia ..........................................................................................................................
Former USSR ......................................................................................................................................
Africa ...................................................................................................................................................
Algeria .............................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire) ......................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Egypt................................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Morocco ...........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Namibia............................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
South Africa.....................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Zambia .............................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Zimbabwe ........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Other Africa .....................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Angola......................................................................................................................................
Botswana..................................................................................................................................
Chad.........................................................................................................................................
Cote dIvoire............................................................................................................................
Gabon.......................................................................................................................................
Ghana .......................................................................................................................................
Guinea ......................................................................................................................................
Malawi, Uganda, Central African Republic ............................................................................
Mauritania................................................................................................................................
Togo.........................................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Middle East ..........................................................................................................................................
Iran ...................................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Israel.................................................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Turkey ..............................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Other Middle East............................................................................................................................
Southwest Asia ....................................................................................................................................
India .................................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Pakistan............................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Other Southwest Asia ......................................................................................................................
Socialist Asia .......................................................................................................................................
China................................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea .........................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Other Socialist Asia .........................................................................................................................
Southeast Asia .....................................................................................................................................
Indonesia ..........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Republic of Korea............................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Malaysia...........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Myanmar ..........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Philippines .......................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................

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TABLE OF CONTENTS (continued)


Taiwan .............................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Thailand ...........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Japan ....................................................................................................................................................
Producing Companies ......................................................................................................................
Consumption....................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
Construction.................................................................................................................................
Price .............................................................................................................................................
Trade ............................................................................................................................................
Oceania ................................................................................................................................................
Australia...........................................................................................................................................
Coal Mining.................................................................................................................................
Metal Mining ...............................................................................................................................
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining.................................................................................................
New Zealand....................................................................................................................................
Other Oceania ..................................................................................................................................

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SUMMARY
The total world market for industrial explosive use by the mining industry in 1997 is estimated at about
6.2 million metric tons. This estimate is based on country-by-country mineral production data published
by the U.S. Geological Survey. In addition to consumption by the mining industry, a significant volume
of explosives is also consumed by the construction industry and in miscellaneous applications. These
latter categories are not well documented in most countries, however, it is roughly estimated that they
represent a worldwide market for an additional 750-800 thousand metric tons of explosive materials. Thus
the total world market in 1997 is believed to have been on the order of 7.0 million metric tons. Assuming
an average annual growth rate of about 2%, it is projected that the worldwide market for industrial
explosives will increase to almost 8.0 million metric tons by 2003. The total value of the worlds
commercial explosives market is valued at roughly $5 billion. The market is driven primarily by demand
for energy and base metals, supplemented by demand for construction materials and civil construction
activities.
CEH estimates of explosives consumed in the various sectors of the world mining industry are
summarized in the following tables. Coal mining is the major use, accounting for about 60% of the total.
Although coal production has declined in Europe and Japan, it is growing in most other regions and is
projected to continue to increase worldwide at a moderate rate of about 2.3% per year. However, not all
coal operations use explosives and some hard coal is mined without the use of explosives, such as when
mining utilizes long-wall and other continuous mining methods. Surface mining of coal accounts for a
disproportionately larger share of explosives consumption than underground mining because of the large
amounts of overburden that have to be removed from such operations.
The second-largest end use, metal mining, which accounts for about 27% of the total, has also been
growing and world consumption of explosives by this sector of the mining industry is projected to
increase at an average annual rate of 1.7% during the forecast period. Because metallic minerals are
generally low-grade ores that are found only in geologically favorable areas of the world, the
consumption of explosives by this sector of the mining industry follows their geographical distribution.
The production of stone, for construction and the production of cement from quarrying operations
accounts for an additional 12% of the world mining market for explosives. Explosives consumption by
quarries tends to relate more to the general level of economic development of a nation than to other
factors. Because common stone is easy to locate, the location of quarrying operations is seldom
constrained by geological factors, as are other mineral operations. However, locations may be constrained
by infrastructure development in industrialized countries, and proximity to urban areas is becoming more
of a problem. This sector is also projected to grow at a moderate rate of about 1.7% per year during the
forecast period.
The smallest sector, industrial minerals, which accounts for less than 2% of the world market, is projected
to increase at a rate of about 3.8% per year between 1997 and 2003. In addition to the mining market,
which is summarized below, the market for explosives in civil construction and in miscellaneous
applications is roughly estimated to be in the range of 750-800 thousand metric tons per year.

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World Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End-Use


(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

3,257,164
3,268,878
3,397,174
3,482,790
3,570,309
3,679,728
3,700,246

1,524,666
1,531,130
1,542,748
1,632,158
1,660,728
1,695,312
1,681,556

103,449
97,229
92,953
94,546
95,618
96,311
95,334

604,878
630,368
673,308
704,094
705,521
736,245
748,924

5,490,161
5,527,605
5,706,186
5,913,589
6,032,178
6,207,593
6,226,059

2003

4,207,924

1,869,953

120,259

814,308

7,012,446

SOURCE:

Quarrying
Materials

Total

Subsequent sections of this report.

World industrial explosives consumption by the mining industry, by geographical region, is summarized
in the following table. The table is stacked in declining order based on 1997 volumes. The United States
is the major consuming region. Socialist Asia is also a large consumer, followed by Africa, the former
USSR, Latin America and Eastern Europe. No other region accounts for as much as 5%. Consumption by
this industry increased by about 2.5% per year between 1992 and 1997. Growth at an average annual rate
of 2.1% is projected for the forecast period.
World Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

United States
Socialist Asia
Africa
Former USSR
Latin America
Eastern Europe
Southwest Asia
Canada
Oceania
Western Europe
Southeast Asia
Middle East
Mexico
Japan
Total
SOURCE:

1997

2003

Quantity

Share
(percent)

Quantity

Share
(percent)

Quantity

Share
(percent)

Average Annual
Growth Rate,
1997-2003
(percent)

1,679,607
731,456
483,565
740,735
368,771
366,625
235,418
254,142
189,849
221,447
61,459
72,128
46,926
38,033

30.6
13.3
8.8
13.5
6.7
6.7
4.3
4.6
3.5
4.0
1.1
1.3
0.9
0.7

2,151,339
890,933
560,869
516,921
489,854
383,726
290,785
252,869
205,726
193,542
93,319
82,830
59,430
35,450

34.7
14.4
9.0
8.3
7.9
6.2
4.7
4.1
3.3
3.1
1.5
1.3
1.0
0.6

2,362,341
1,006,230
632,524
742,044
560,460
390,064
334,658
269,429
214,597
190,072
117,715
91,643
63,973
36,696

33.7
14.3
9.0
10.6
8.0
5.6
4.8
3.8
3.1
2.7
1.7
1.3
1.0
0.5

1.6
2.0
2.0
6.2
2.3
0.3
2.4
1.1
0.7
0.3
3.9
1.7
2.3
0.6

5,490,161

100.0%

6,207,593

100.0%

7,012,446

100.0%

2.1%

Subsequent sections of this report.

The following table summarizes world consumption of explosives by the mining industry in 1997 by
region and end use. The table has been stacked in declining order based on total consumption. Since
mineral resources are not evenly distributed, some regions are significantly more important than others in
various sectors of the mining industry. Even within sectors, the type and distribution of individual
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minerals varies enormously. The United States is the leader in explosives consumption for both coal and
quarrying materials. Latin America and Socialist Asia are the leaders in consumption for metal mining.
The former USSR and Latin America are the leader in the consumption of explosives for the production
of industrial minerals.
World Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use1997
(metric tons)
Coal Mining
United States
Socialist Asia
Africa
Former USSR
Latin America
Eastern Europe
Southwest Asia
Canada
Oceania
Western Europe
Southeast Asia
Middle East
Mexico
Japan
Total
SOURCE:

1,640,825
570,845
347,196
357,897
46,208
217,994
202,491
85,834
89,159
38,937
47,455
32,293
2,221
373
3,679,727

Metal
Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

232,922
310,819
190,656
136,895
372,108
52,367
66,791
123,132
91,730
48,158
8,490
19,206
41,395
643

7,081
7,445
3,700
20,729
20,543
6,342
1,188
16,504
588
3,685
976
4,833
2,471
226

270,511
1,825
19,317
1,400
50,994
107,023
20,316
27,399
24,250
102,762
36,398
26,499
13,343
34,208

2,151,339
890,933
560,869
516,921
489,854
383,726
290,785
252,869
205,726
193,542
93,319
82,830
59,430
35,450

1,695,313

96,309

736,245

6,207,593

Subsequent sections of this report.

The major impact of future growth is expected to be on ammonium nitrate (AN) demand, since it
accounts for 75% to about 92% of the total industry gross weight tonnage, depending on the region. In
North America, about 92% of all industrial explosives are based on AN, while in Japan and Europe,
ammonium nitrate accounts for approximately 75% and 80% of explosives, respectively. Growth in
explosives demand and in AN demand should depend primarily on the coal market and secondarily on
metallic minerals production. Underlying this and all other projections for the explosives markets,
however, is the complex interaction of uncertain economic, political and technical factors.
Beginning in the mid-1980s, the industry began restructuring, with major participants such as DuPont and
Hercules Incorporated exiting the business or being acquired by others. Major manufacturers have been
rapidly buying up regional manufacturers, distributors and drilling and blasting companies. The emphasis
is on strong vertical integration and technical customer service. Increasingly, major manufacturers are
providing computerized assistance in locating bore holes and calculating charges, designing the shot,
drilling, loading and shooting the product and controlling post-blast dust.

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INTRODUCTION
The many industrial and military uses for explosives and blasting agentsranging from earth moving to
seismic wave generation to materials modification to munitions to propulsionhave generated a host of
sophisticated and specialized explosives products and delivery packages.* However, in terms of overall
revenues, markets and products, the business is overwhelmingly dominated by chemical materials based
on the intermediate production of nitric acid (principally ammonium nitrate [AN]) that are used by the
worlds mining and quarrying industries.
Civil engineering applications of explosives are also important, but generally less so than mining and
quarrying. Explosives are used in the construction sector for excavating, clearing land, shearing steel
structures, cutting lumber and removing walls and foundations. Such applications are related primarily to
infrastructure development in industrialized countries and include highway and railroad projects, ditching,
tunneling and breaking heavy equipment for scrap.
Miscellaneous uses of explosives are numerous but do not involve large-volume markets. They are used
in seismic prospecting; in oil well shooting to increase permeability or facilitate water flooding; in
underwater clearance of harbors or clearance of underwater obstacles; in metal fabrication by explosive
forming and bonding; in the testing of metallurgical structures; in metal engraving, punching and rivet
fastening; and in releasing bolts or other structures (e.g., jettisoning tanks or rocket components).
Military explosives are manufactured by private corporations to military specifications. Some such
explosives are produced from the same nitrogen raw materials as commercial (industrial) explosives and
often at the same locations. However, the production and sale of military explosives constitute an entirely
separate business from the production and marketing of industrial explosives and the supply and demand
for military explosives are not quantified in this report. Military explosives are used in bombs, grenades,
depth charges, torpedoes, mines, rockets, projectiles and ammunition.
This report provides a general description of explosives products, both military and industrial. It reviews
expected trends in major global markets for industrial explosives and blasting agents past the turn of the
century and beyond and highlights the basic characteristics of supply. The emphasis is on ammonium
nitrate and fuel oilANFOby far the most popular blasting agent in use today. The report concentrates
on the principal industrial applications of explosives worldwide and relies on specific information
regarding powder factors used in metallic and nonmetallic mines, coal operations and miscellaneous other
applications. This information is supplemented with actual data on explosives consumption from various
government organizations, as well as from numerous producers. Coverage of certain countries in Latin
America, Africa, Asia and Western Europe is less detailed because there are no established and readily
available data for these regions.
Explosives are materials that, when properly initiated, undergo very rapid and self-propagating
decomposition or reaction of ingredients, with the consequent formation of more stable materials and the
liberation of considerable energy. The products (mostly gaseous) of explosion occupy a much greater
volume than the explosive material. Furthermore, the gaseous products are expanded by the heat of
reaction and develop a high pressure that can be applied to doing work. The work done (or energy
liberated) depends primarily on the amount of heat generated during the explosion.

The principal distinction between explosives and blasting agents is their sensitivity to initiation. Explosives are
cap-sensitive, whereas blasting agents are not and therefore require a primer. Water gels and slurries may be
either explosives or blasting agents. AN prills and prill products are blasting agents that require a primer.
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Depending on the mechanism used to generate heat, explosives can be classified into three major types:
mechanical, chemical or nuclear. Mechanical explosives are generally characterized by having external
sources of heat; an example is a metal tube fitted with both a rupture disk and a heater element and filled
with liquid carbon dioxide. As heat is applied, the carbon dioxide expands and ruptures the containment
disk and the force of the gases causes shattering of surrounding structures. In the case of nuclear
explosives, it is the heat released by the nuclear reaction that causes the explosion. Neither mechanical
nor nuclear explosives are commercially significant, so this report is concerned primarily with chemical
explosives.
With few exceptions, chemical explosives are solid, liquid or mixtures thereof. The explosive may consist
of a single chemical compound, a formulation of such compounds or a formulation of one or more
explosive compounds with nonexplosive material.
Each finished explosive product has unique and important properties that determine its potential
usefulness in specific applications. These properties include sensitivity, strength, power, brisance,
stability, hygroscopicity, volatility, reactivity and toxicity. Strength may be defined as the amount of
energy released upon detonation; power is the rate of doing work and depends on both strength and
detonating velocity (speed at which the detonation wave travels through a column of the explosive).
Brisance refers to the shattering or crushing effect of an explosive, which is proportional to the product
load density, reaction zone pressure and detonating velocity.
Sensitivity refers to the ease of detonation. While there is no straight correlation between the strength of
an explosive and its sensitivity, in general high-strength explosives tend to be more sensitive than lowerstrength ones. The fume characteristics of the explosive are also important because some of the fumes are
extremely hazardous, particularly in underground situations. Class A explosives, those that present the
highest detonating hazard (e.g., dynamite, nitroglycerin, nitrostarch), must generate less than 1.25 cubic
feet of fumes per pound to be permissible for use in underground coal mines. Class B explosives, those
that represent primarily a fire hazard but do not readily detonate, must generate from 1.25 to 2.50 cubic
feet of fumes per pound to be classified as permissible. Water and freezing resistance are other important
characteristics of explosives because both water and freezing can desensitize explosives, thus rendering
them hazardous if they detonate improperly or fail to detonate altogether.*
Although a wide variety of chemical compounds can be detonated to undergo explosion, most are too
sensitive, cannot be manufactured safely (because of the toxicity of the raw materials and intermediates)
or fail to meet standards and requirements for manufacturing cost, safety in transportation and stability in
storage. Therefore, only a relatively small number of chemicals have large-scale use in military or
industrial explosive products. Depending on the rate of chemical decomposition and, therefore, the
specific heat released, there are two classes of explosive materialslow and high.

LOW EXPLOSIVES
Low (or deflagrating) explosives are those that, in normal use, undergo autocombustion at rates varying
from a few centimeters per minute to approximately 400 meters per second and generate pressures of up
to 50,000 psi. This class is subdivided into permissible and nonpermissible explosives based on whether
they can or cannot be used in dusty or gaseous environments, such as coal mines. It is further separated on
the basis of composition into black powders, priming compositions and propellants.

The danger of an explosive that fails to detonate is that it can do so later, when people are around.
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Once used for blasting, black powder is now used mainly as an igniter for nitrocellulose gun propellants
and, to some extent, in safety blasting fuses, delay fuses and firecrackers. Potassium nitrate black powder
is used primarily in military applications but also in safety fuses for industrial blasting. Sodium nitrate
black powder, which is slower burning, less costly and more hygroscopic, is used industrially. The
industrial use of black powder is small and has not been reported by agencies collecting U.S. explosives
consumption data since 1971.
Priming compositions are low explosives that are very sensitive to impact and friction. They are used in
small quantities to ignite high explosives or other low explosives by means of a burst of flame.
Propellants are explosive materials that are formulated, designed, manufactured and initiated such that
they generate large volumes of hot gas at highly controlled, predetermined rates. Propellants are used
primarily for military purposes: that is, in the launching of projectiles from guns, rockets and missile
systems. Propellant-actuated devices are used to drive turbines, move pistons, operate rocket vanes, start
aircraft engines, eject pilots, jettison tanks from aircraft, pump fluids, shear bolts and wires and provide
sources of heat in special operations. In general, they are useful wherever a well-controlled force must be
generated for a relatively short period of time.

HIGH EXPLOSIVES
High explosives are characterized by very high rates of reaction or detonation (1,000-8,500 meters per
second) and high pressures (50 thousand to 4 million psi). High explosives are further subdivided into two
categories based on their relative ease of initiation to detonation. The two classes are primary explosives
and secondary explosives.
Primary explosives are sufficiently sensitive to heat, impact, friction, shock and electrostatic energy that
they explode reliably when they are subjected to one of these external forces. They can, even when
present in very small quantities, rapidly transform a low-energy stimulus into a high-intensity shock
wave. Because of their varying abilities to cause the detonation of less sensitive explosives, primaries are
also called initiating explosives. Primary explosives are used in military detonators, in commercial
blasting caps and in stab and percussion primers. These explosives initiate the next element in a series of
explosives of increasing mass and decreasing sensitivity that are arranged in sequence to amplify the
input energy stimulus to an output level that is sufficient to maximize the probability of initiating the
main charge.
Because of restrictive military and industrial requirements for reliability, ease of manufacture, low cost,
compatibility and long-term storage stability under adverse conditions, relatively few compounds can be
used as primary explosives. Most primary explosives are dense, metallic compounds such as lead
styphnate, lead azide and mercury fulminate.
Secondary explosives, also known as noninitiating high explosives, are explosives that are too insensitive
to be detonated by low-velocity impact, friction or the brief application of heat. A detonating wave of
considerable magnitude is required for their successful initiation. This category includes a number of
organic and inorganic chemical compounds (chiefly nitrates, nitro compounds and nitramines) that are
used alone or in formulations of binary, metallized, plastic and blasting high explosives or in low
explosives as propellants.
Secondary high explosives are widely used in military and industrial applications. Binary explosives for
military use are compositions of two secondary explosive compounds (one is usually TNT). These
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compositions are designed primarily for melt-loading into munitions. They are also used as primers or
boosters for commercial explosives. Metallized explosives include ternary systemsusually a binary mix
and aluminumfor military use and for use in a wide range of dry and slurry systems, water gels,
emulsion types and ammonium nitratebased hybrid compositions for industrial blasting purposes. The
aluminum or aluminum-magnesium alloy particles included in these formulations provide tremendous
thermochemical energy. Explosives for blastingused chiefly in industry and engineeringinclude
dynamites, ANFO (a mixture of ammonium nitrate prills and fuel oil), water gels, slurries and emulsions.

ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES
Few technologies exist that can substitute for explosives in major industrial applications. For relatively
soft materials, such as coal, mechanical devices (e.g., continuous miners) are able to cut the coal seam to
allow removal of the coal from the seam, but this type of equipment requires unusually favorable mining
conditions to operate efficiently, like fairly flat, thick seams and competent rock. Tunneling and shaft
sinking machines are also employed in civil engineering works and in mine development, but the wear
and tear on equipment in underground mining conditions makes them generally uneconomical for ore
extraction applications.
An innovation that could have significant future impact on explosives consumption is the concept of
plasma blasting. The concept, developed by Norandas Research Center in Pointe-Claire, Quebec, is
based on the fast discharge of stored electrical energy into a small amount of electrolyte placed inside a
drill hole. The electrical pulse converts the electrolyte into a high-pressure plasma, which expands very
quickly, generating a shock wave that breaks the rock. While not yet commercially available, Noranda has
spent several million dollars in recent years, turning a laboratory curiosity into a full-scale blasting device
that has been successfully tested in underground and open-pit Canadian mines. The principal advantages
of plasma blasting are its energy efficiency (it requires 0.19-0.48 kilowatt-hours per cubic meter of rock),
its excellent fragmentation, the absence of dust and its low noise generation (140-150 decibels at a
distance of 3 meters from the blast). Plasma blasting seems well suited for secondary blasting applications
but, if perfected, could gain acceptance in quarrying and hard rock underground mines because of its
inherent safety aspects.

INDUSTRIAL EXPLOSIVES
Industrial (or commercial) explosives constitute a large group of explosive compositions designed to
quickly and economically perform mechanical workin quarrying, ore dislodgement, ditching and
excavation, for example. They are categorized as either high explosives or blasting agents, the principal
distinction being in their sensitivity to initiation.
Commercial high explosives include dynamites, cap-sensitive water gels, emulsions, slurries, cast primers
and boosters. Permissible explosives are grades of brand-name high explosives tested by the U.S.
Bureau of Mines and approved by the Mine Safety and Health Administration for use, in a prescribed
manner, in underground coal mines where the presence of flammable gases and dust makes other
explosives hazardous. Permissible explosives contain up to 10% by weight sodium chloride as a flame
suppressant. When initiated, these explosives produce a flame of small volume, short duration and low
temperature, minimizing the likelihood of gas or dust ignition. Permissible explosives include dynamites
of low to medium strength (e.g., ammonia and ammonia gelatin dynamites) and approved cap-sensitive
slurries.

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Blasting agents do not contain any ingredients that are legally classified as explosives. They are
insensitive to commercial detonators or blasting caps and require high-strength explosive primers or
boosters for detonation.* Most blasting agents are essentially mixtures of ammonium nitrate plus a fuel.
Some are packaged (cartridged) to compete with various types and strengths of dynamites. However, the
most commonly used blasting agents are free-flowing mixtures of low density ammonium nitrate (AN)
prills and fuel oil (FO) with bulk-mixed water gels, emulsions and slurries. The demand for ANFO is
appreciably greater than that for all other industrial explosives combined. In 1998, the total reported sales
of ANFO (both packaged and bulk) and of unprocessed AN for use in blasting agents was slightly over
80% of total reported U.S. consumption of all industrial explosives and blasting agents. AN blasting
agents have attained this market dominance because they are safer to handle and use than nitroglycerinbased dynamites and are relatively simple to manufacture. Also, the cost of ANFO products is lower than
that of dynamites.
Within the commercial explosives manufacturing industry, use of the terms water gel and slurry is
inconsistent. Both are aqueous explosive compositions that are thickened with a vegetable gum (usually
guar gum or locust bean gum). The gum may or may not be chemically modified. In a water gel, some of
the active hydroxyl sites of the gum are reacted with an additive such as borate or antimony ions to form a
lattice-like structure, which is thought to be cross-linked. The rubberiness of the water gel can be varied
greatly by adjusting the amount of cross-linking additive and by varying other conditions of reaction. This
cross-linking improves the resistance of the explosive to water intrusion in wet holes. A slurry explosive
is not cross-linked. Slurries, once the only type of aqueous explosive in use, are now largely unused, at
least in North America. Although the terms water gel slurries and emulsion slurries are commonly
used interchangeably, it should be noted that water gels, slurries and emulsions are different entities.

MILITARY EXPLOSIVES
Military organizations use chemical explosives for a variety of purposes in conventional ordnance. In
general, military explosives have higher velocities of detonation, greater shattering effect and less bulletimpact sensitivity than commercial explosives. Ordnance end products containing chemical explosives
include bombs, depth charges, hand and rifle grenades, guided missiles, land and naval mines, projectiles,
rockets, small arms ammunition and torpedoes. Explosive compounds most commonly used in military
compositions are TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine), HMX (cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine), nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin. Production of TNT far exceeds that of any
other material. TNT is used as manufactured; as a carrier in binary compositions with other, more
powerful, high-melting explosives; or in ternary systems that generally contain a binary mix and
aluminum. Munitions are filled with TNT and TNT-based compositions using a melt-cast process.
Nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin are used almost exclusively in propellants.

For a detailed definition of blasting agents by the U.S. Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms, see Federal
Register, vol. 46, no. 152, August 7, 1981, p. 40385.
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ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES
Environmental issues of the explosives industry include the disposal of old explosives, mainly from
military stocks. Large amounts of explosives have to be disposed of in the former German Democratic
Republic. However, smaller countries also encounter the same problem. Austria reports 88,000 mines
from Swiss sources to be stockpiled in a cavern until they can be disposed of. The Austrian company
Dynamit Nobel plans to dismantle the mines in a dedicated plant and to recycle the 250 metric tons of
TNT into its civil explosives division, Donarit. ICI Explosive Environmental prepared a feasibility study
in 1993 to study the conversion of some 2 million metric tons of excess Russian military ammunition to
commercial explosives. Another environmental issue encountered is the contaminated soil in explosives
manufacturing plants. This becomes an issue when companies want to cease operation in a production
location and can be a significant exit barrier.

STUDY METHODOLOGY
Statistical information regarding explosives is generally hard to obtain. Certain industrialized countries,
such as the United States and selected European and Asian countries, publish adequate information, but
the rest seldom have or provide relevant information. Accordingly, the methodology used for this report
in assessing markets for explosives relies on detailed knowledge of mining operations worldwide and on
perceptions regarding the use of explosives in civil construction and in quarrying operations. Because of
the inordinate importance of metal and coal mining operations in terms of explosives consumption, the
outlook for these sectors is briefly discussed in this section. The markets for other applications of
explosives, such as in quarrying, industrial minerals and construction, have been estimated on the basis of
the perceived growth in those specific economic sectors in each country.

METAL MINING
The extraction of metallic minerals from the ground is a major sector of explosives consumption,
especially in countries that have well-developed mining sectors. Mining operations to extract copper,
lead, zinc, iron ore and other minerals consume vast amounts of explosives in countries that supply such
raw materials to the rest of the world. The specific consumption of explosives in these applications, the
so-called powder factor, is normally expressed in terms of kilograms or pounds per ton or in terms of
kilograms or pounds per bank cubic meter or bank cubic yard; these powder factors vary from a fraction
of one pound per ton to well over one pound per ton, depending on the type of mining operation and
traditional usage factors in a given country.

NONMETAL MINING AND QUARRYING


Globally, the mining of industrial minerals as well as quarrying operations account for a major share of
explosives consumed in most countries. The production of limestone, dolomite and granite is nearly
universal and, because of the vast quantities of these materials that are produced for the construction
industry (including cement operations), the volume of explosives consumed is also very significant.
Similarly, certain industrial minerals, such as barite, fluorspar, feldspar and phosphate rock, consume
significant amounts of explosives. However, not all these industrial minerals are extracted with
explosives. The methodology used in this report in estimating explosives consumed in industrial minerals

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production and quarrying relies on knowledge of usage practices in major producing countries, which
have been extrapolated to other countries where actual data are not available.

COAL MINING
The outlook for coal production is a function of anticipated demand for metallurgical and steam coals.
Globally, steel production will drive the future consumption of metallurgical coal, while electricity
generation drives that of steam coal. Developments in steelmaking technology, such as the proportion of
steel that is made in electric furnaces not requiring metallurgical coal or the adoption of pulverized coal
injection, which replaces the need for coke in blast furnaces, moderate the future consumption of
metallurgical coal on a global basis.
Steam coal will experience similar growth, fueled primarily by the expected increase in thermal
generation of electricity, particularly in selected countries of Asia, Europe and North and South America.
Most of the demand growth in Asia will arise from three countries: Japan, Taiwan and the Republic of
Korea. Because of their geographic location with respect to these Asian markets, coal producers in
Australia, South Africa and Indonesia should increase production substantially. China could become a
significant supplier to this region in the medium term, but infrastructure limitations will moderate the role
of China for years to come.
In estimating explosives consumption in coal operations, it is important to distinguish among different
types of coal and different mining methods. Low-rank coals such as lignite and brown coal are generally
soft and seldom require blasting. Hard coals and (particularly in the United States) subbituminous coals
are extracted by either open-pit or underground mining methods. Of these, open-pit extraction of coal
accounts for the lions share of explosives consumed, primarily because of the considerable amount of
overburden that is commonly removed prior to coal extraction. While there are several methods of mining
coal underground, two of them predominate: room-and-pillar operations and modifications of this method
and long-wall operations as well as continuous miners. The former uses explosives, but the latter do not
as the coal is actually extracted mechanically by cutting it. The consumption of explosives in coal mining
has been estimated by reference to the proportion of coal that is mined by each method, adjusting it for
specific usage patterns in major coal-producing countries.

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SUPPLY AND DEMAND BY REGION


NORTH AMERICA
UNITED STATES
Producing Companies
The text below is a list of U.S. suppliers of industrial explosives, blasting agents and ammonium nitrate
for blasting. The list is not all-inclusive, but includes companies that have responded to an information
request and/or have descriptive web sites.

Accurate Energetic Systems, LLC


Accurate Energetics is a manufacturer of explosive compositions and fabricated explosive products for
the defense, aerospace, and oil and gas industries. It currently manufactures pentaerythryitol tetranitrate
(PETN), RDX and HMX compositions. Accurate Arms Co. is an importer and distributor of smokeless
powder for small arms.

Apache Nitrogen Products, Inc.


Apache produces AN liquor and industrial-grade low-density prills from purchased ammonia and captive
AN. Sales of AN prills are primarily for blasting, although the company also sells to the agricultural
market. Primary customers are copper mines. Sales of AN prills and packaged AN-based products are
mainly in the Southwest (Arizona, California, New Mexico).

Austin Powder Company


Austin manufactures a full line of industrial explosives and accessories, and provides blasting services to
customers throughout North America and around the world. Its main manufacturing facility is in
McArthur, Ohio. Other plants are located in Camden, Arkansas; Brownsville, Texas; and Valle Hermora,
Mexico. Distribution in the United States and Canada is primarily through sixty-five company-owned
stores. Subsidiary company Austin Star Detonator manufactures a full line of electric and nonelectric
(shock tube) detonators, sold exclusively throughout the Americas by Austin Powder and Austin
International.

Coastal Chem, Inc.


Coastal produces low-density AN prills for the blasting industry from purchased ammonia and captive
AN at Battle Mountain, Nevada. At Cheyenne, Wyoming it produces both high-density and low-density
prills, and solutions. The two latter products are distributed to local blasting markets.

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Daveyfire, Inc.
Daveyfire, Inc. is a manufacturer and distributor of initiation systems for the mining, construction,
demolition, pyrotechnic and military industries. Daveyfire offers a full line of electric igniters, microdetonators, Daveydet electric blasting caps and the Daveytronic digital blasting systems. Daveyfire is the
leader in the application of digital detonator blasting technology and offers technical support for blast
design and vibration, fragmentation analysis and control. Daveyfire is ISO 9002certified and has
worldwide distribution.

Douglas Explosives, Inc.


This firm is a distributor of explosive materials to the mining industry

Dyno Nobel Inc.


Dyno Nobel Inc. (DNI) is a U.S. subsidiary of Dyno Industrier A.S.A., a Norwegian international
commercial explosives and specialty chemicals corporation with explosives production sites in twentynine countries. Dyno Industrier A.S.A. operates three explosives divisions. Dyno Nobel Europe has its
strongest base in Scandinavia, but also has extensive global export activities. Dyno Nobel Asia Pacific
operates in Australia and Asia. The largest is Dyno Nobel Americas, which includes DNI, a large network
of distributors in North America and operations in Latin America. DNI supplies a range of manufactured
packaged explosives, bulk explosives, initiation systems, accessories and services to the customer, as well
as technical-grade ammonium nitrate. Packaged products include dynamite, emulsions and water gels.
Bulk explosives include emulsions and ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil blend). DNI manufactures
electric and nonelectric (NONEL ) detonators and connector systems. DNI produces AN at Donora,
Pennsylvania and Louisiana, Missouri; dynamite, packaged emulsions and boosters at Carthage,
Missouri; and detonators at Port Ewen, New York. Bulk explosives manufacturing sites are strategically
located near customers.

El Dorado Chemical Company


El Dorado Chemical Company is a wholly-owned subsidiary of LSB Industries, Oklahoma City,
Oklahoma. El Dorado Chemical supplies bulk and packaged ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate-fuel
oil mixtures (ANFO), emulsions and water gels, as well as initiation systems, boosters, and blasting and
equipment services to the mining industry. El Dorado Chemical produces ammonium nitrate at El
Dorado, Arkansas. Bulk and packaged products manufacturing and distribution sites are strategically
located near the mining market.

Ensign-Bickford Industries Inc.


Ensign-Bickford Industries designs, manufactures and markets a complete line of nonelectric blast
initiation products ranging from Primadet nonelectric delay detonators such as EZ Det , EZ
Trunkline and EZ Drifter nonelectric blast initiation systems, to Primacord detonating cord and Trojan
Super Prime cast boosters. It is located in Simsbury, Connecticut.

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Explosive Technologies Inc.


Explosive Technologies is a leading North American explosives manufacturer, distributor and blasting
service company supplying the metal mining, quarry, construction, oil and gas exploration, coal and
material management industries. Formed in 1988 by the purchase and consolidation of DuPonts U.S. and
Canadian commercial explosives business, ETI designs and manufactures explosive products, as well
providing technical support, including blast design, explosive product selection, blast analysis and blast
monitoring. ETI offers a variety of computer programs and specialized instruments to predict and
measure blast results. It has numerous locations in the United States and Canada. Company headquarters
is in North Bay, Ontario, Canada.

Farmland Industries, Inc.


Farmland produces both high-density and low-density AN prills and solutions, from captive ammonia and
nitric acid at Lawrence, Kansas. This plant has substantial capacity for low-density blasting-grade
material.

Goex, Inc.
GOEX is the sole black powder manufacturing facility in North America, selling through a network of
distributors located throughout the United States and Canada. Product is also sold to the U.S. and foreign
governments. The company produces high-quality black powder for the muzzle-loading community, the
fireworks and safety fuse industry, specialty manufacturers, the mining industry and the military. GOEX
also produces ClearShot, a muzzle loading replica propellant powder designed to perform exactly like
black powder, which is also a replacement for other replica black powder propellants. The company is
located in Doyline Louisiana

D.C. Guelich Explosives Company


D.C. Guelich Explosives is a manufacturer and a distributor of blasting agents and a distributor of high
explosives.

Haliburton Energy Services


Haliburton is a manufacturer of shaped charges for the oil and gas industry. It supplies services only to
the oil and gas industries.

Hitech, Inc.
Hitech, a subsidiary of Primex Tech, manufactures bombs and warheads for the U.S. Department of
Defense.

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LaRoche Industries Inc.


LaRoche Industries Inc. is a privately owned, diversified producer and distributor of organic and
inorganic chemicals. Formed in 1986 through a management buyout of U.S. Steels Agri-Chemical
business, LaRoche participates in the blasting industry via the manufacture of low-density ammonium
nitrate prills and 83% ammonium nitrate solution. Low-density AN production facilities are located at
Crystal City, Missouri; Geneva, Utah; and Morris. Illinois.

Mining Services International


MSI, through its subsidiaries, licensees and joint ventures, primarily services the surface mining, quarry
and construction industry. Headquartered in Sandy, Utah, the company makes explosives and related
products used in the extraction of gold. Its explosive products are divided into four categories: HEF , a
proprietary oil-in-water emulsion; bulk ammonium nitrate prill, acquired from third parties; explosives
and accessories, such as boosters, initiators and detonating cord, acquired from third parties; and
packaged explosives (Emgel) that are currently manufactured at the companys West Virginia plant.

Nelson Brothers, Inc.


Nelson Brothers is a manufacturer of mining and blasting explosives, including ammonium nitrate prills.

Nitram, Inc.
Nitram produces both high-density and low-density AN prills and solutions from purchased ammonia and
captive nitric acid at Tampa, Florida. Product from this plant is mainly high-density material for the
agricultural market.

Nitrochem Energy Corp.


Nitrochem makes high-energy ANFO-based dry blasting agents containing metallic fuels and inhibitors
for use under dry conditions. Formed from the acquisition of Dows explosives business in 1976 and
IMCs quarry explosives business in 1982, it has as its primary market the taconite (iron ore) mining
industry in northeast Minnesota. Most packaged products are sold for quarrying, particularly in hard-rock
situations. Its product line includes specialty products intended for situations where the geology within
boreholes is variable.

ORICA
Orica, a widely held, publicly owned Australian company with operations around the globe, manufactures
and supplies commercial explosives and mining chemicals; agricultural chemicals and fertilizers;
industrial chemicals, specialty chemicals and products for water care; paints and paint preparation
products. Until 1997, Orica was part of the ICI group. Oricas Mining Services is the worlds leading
supplier of commercial explosives, initiating systems and sophisticated, fully integrated blasting
technology services to the mining, quarrying and construction industries. The company is structured into
distinct business units that possess specific knowledge, skills and systems for the industry they serve.
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Customers benefit from Oricas world-class manufacturing and distribution facilities located across North
America. Caresland Works in Calgary, Alberta, Canada is the worlds largest industrial ammonium nitrate
facility, producing low-density prilled ammonium nitrate used in quarrying and mining operations
throughout the United States and Canada. Detonators are manufactured at Oricas world-scale initiating
systems plant located in Brownsburg, Quebec, Canada. Packaged and bulk explosives products are
produced at various locations including Joplin, Missouri and Sudbury, Ontario as well as the Orica USA
sites listed below. Local distribution is provided through a network of strategically located independent
distributors, joint-venture partners, and Orica-owned sites.

Orica USA Inc. (formerly Energetic Solutions)


Orica USA is a subsidiary of Orica Ltd., an Australian-based company with operations around the globe.
Previously known as ICI Australia, the name was changed to Orica in February 1998. The U.S.
headquarters is located in Englewood, Colorado. Orica USA provides a complete range of products and
services from manufacture and supply of ammonium nitrate, packaged and bulk explosives and initiating
systems, to a total blasting service including managing the blasting process. Its major U.S. manufacturing
site is in Jeffersonville, Indiana. Other production sites are at Augusta, Georgia and Lehi, Utah.

Owen Oil Tools, Inc.


Founded in 1983, Owen designs and manufactures the most extensive line of oil well perforators and
perforating-related products. Specializing in hostile environment applications, Owen products include the
highest performance and latest technologies available in the world. Leading the competition with products
such as the StimGun well stimulution system, the Raptor and Phantom perforating systems, Split
Shot cutters, and the X-Span casing/tubing patch systems, the Owen name is synonymous with
quality, state-of-the-art, safe, reliable perforating technology and completion systems worldwide. Owen
Oil Tools is the performance, innovation and service leader in the industry.

PCS Nitrogen, Inc.


PCS produces AN liquor and industrial-grade low-density prills from captive ammonia and AN at
Augusta, Georgia. Company produces both low-density prills for the blasting industry and high-density
product for the agricultural market. The facility at Clinton, Iowa that produced both low- and high-density
product was recently closed, and the Wilmington, North Carolina plant was closed in 1997.

St. Lawrence Explosives Corp.


St. Lawrence is a leading Northeastern U.S. and Canada manufacturer, distributor and blasting service
company supplying the mining, quarry, construction and coal industries with a full compliment of
explosive products, technical assistance, research and development, and down-hole service. Incorporated
in 1959, St. Lawrence Explosives Corp. is the parent company of Hall Explosives, Inc. of Pennsylvania
and has several satellite operations throughout the Northeast.

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530.1000 W

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 23

Slurry Explosives Corp.


Slurry Explosives Corp. (SEC) is a manufacturer of hexamine nitrate water gel slurries, binary (twocomponent) products and AN-based blasting agents. SEC produces packaged products from 7/8-inch (22
mm) through 10-inch (254 mm) diameters and bulk mixes for pump and blend application. SEC custommanufactures private-label and specialty products for other explosives manufacturers. SEC holds
proprietary trademarks and patents on products developed since 1992, including new technologies of
production. SEC develops demilitarized propellants as raw material for commercial non-detonatorsensitive products. Both analytical and destructive work is completed at two separate laboratory locations.
SEC began operations in January 1989 with the purchase of certain assets in Kansas, Oklahoma and New
Mexico. SEC also operates Pryor Mine Services, a full-service drill and blasting contractor at Pryor,
Oklahoma. Slurry Explosives products are available through distributors and other explosive
manufacturers. SEC products are currently used throughout the United States and Canada, Australia,
Europe, Central America and South America.

Unocal Corporation
Unocal produces both high-density and low-density AN prills and solutions from purchased ammonia and
captive nitric acid at Kennewick, Washington.

Viking Explosives & Supply, Inc.


Viking Explosives & Supply, Inc., established in 1969, is a manufacturer of bulk blasting agents, and
provides its products and associated services primarily to large open-pit mining operations. Viking
produces ANFO products and emulsion blasting agents at facilities in Hibbing, Minnesota and Ishpeming,
Michigan serving the iron mining industry. Western coal mines are served from a new operation in
Gillette, Wyoming. Viking is a member of the Sasol DHB Group of companies headquartered in
Rosemount, Minnesota.

Consumption
Estimates of U.S. consumption of industrial explosives for the production of selected mineral
commodities are summarized in the following two tables. This analysis indicates that coal mining
accounted for about 76%, production of quarrying materials accounted for 13%, metal mining for 11%
and industrial minerals for less than 0.5% in 1997. Total consumption by the mining industry increased
by more than 25% between 1993 and 1997. Continued but more moderate growth is projected for the
forecast period. The mining sector accounts for about 90% of U.S. explosives consumption. In addition to
the mine production estimate for selected mineral commodities below, explosives are also used in the
construction sector and in miscellaneous uses. Data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) report the
combined magnitude of these two sectors at about 275 thousand metric tons per year in 1997 and 1998.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1000 X

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 24

U.S. Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use


(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal
Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

1,283,474
1,325,750
1,444,981
1,484,995
1,566,344
1,640,825
1,662,803

200,653
204,583
206,940
212,084
221,019
232,922
226,132

5,783
6,015
6,605
6,586
6,887
7,081
7,098

189,698
204,483
226,244
235,548
250,157
270,511
282,653

1,679,607
1,740,832
1,884,771
1,939,214
2,044,407
2,151,339
2,178,686

2003

1,836,667

216,452

7,140

302,081

2,362,341

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological
Survey.

U.S. Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1,283,474

1,325,750

1,444,981

Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Silver
Zinc

89,592
65,850
36,954
5,192
2,531
534

92,545
66,710
37,793
4,689
2,343
503

Total

200,653

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Barite
Boron
Diatomite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Mica
Perlite
Phosphate Rock
Pumice
Rock Salt
Talc
Vermiculite
Zeolite
Total

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1,484,995

1,566,344

1,640,825

1,662,803

1,836,667

93,980
66,353
39,049
4,842
2,122
593

96,999
65,154
41,827
5,200
2,259
645

101,647
67,654
42,994
5,794
2,296
635

103,693
75,429
43,826
6,152
3,174
648

96,012
76,262
43,500
6,608
2,999
752

96,409
67,858
43,826
5,312
2,454
593

204,583

206,940

212,084

221,019

232,922

226,132

216,452

71
19
322
58
101
3,866
72
60
722
39
299
123
26
5

61
19
338
59
108
4,168
76
63
551
38
378
121
26
8

47
35
361
61
109
4,582
95
72
644
40
403
118
25
12

48
33
391
69
126
4,466
95
80
688
44
378
135
24
9

45
41
381
71
129
4,754
86
78
725
52
368
128
22
8

33
43
202
79
131
5,101
102
82
740
49
355
137
22
6

27
30
199
74
120
5,211
78
79
713
49
355
138
20
6

33
43
202
96
136
5,101
108
91
740
58
363
137
24
7

5,783

6,015

6,605

6,586

6,887

7,081

7,098

7,140

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1000 Y

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 25

U.S. Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)
1992
Quarrying Materials
Cinder and Scoria
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Sandstone/Quartzite
Shell
Slate
Traprock
Undifferentiated
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1993

1994

1995

1996

304
33
10,012
26,355
118,620
559
851
5,635
816
242
14,851
11,420

392
37
14,747
29,781
128,967
575
871
7,101
328
370
17,254
4,059

323
35
17,238
32,582
144,715
934
791
7,083
298
489
18,499
3,258

316
34
15,742
35,432
150,388
1,002
604
7,799
390
448
19,524
3,869

351
35
16,903
35,593
162,121
1,148
618
8,639
292
504
19,389
4,563

189,698

204,483

226,244

235,548

1,679,607

1,740,832

1,884,771

1,939,214

1997

1998

2003

372
36
18,518
40,911
172,731
1,269
574
8,881
441
632
20,415
5,731

417
34
19,984
38,147
186,210
1,269
57
8,356
668
759
20,619
6,132

343
35
21,294
46,391
195,074
1,535
600
9,964
427
816
21,306
4,296

250,157

270,511

282,653

302,081

2,044,407

2,151,339

2,178,686

2,362,341

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

The data in the preceding tables have been developed from reported mineral production data using known
and estimated parameters concerning the mining variables for individual minerals. The explosives
consumption data in the tables that follow are primarily from explosives consumption data reported by the
USGS. The USGS data do not provide a mineral-by-mineral picture of explosive use. Thus we have used
the methodology outlined above in order to do so. As a result of this dual approach, there are some
variations, particularly from year to year, between the data reported by the USGS, which is relatively allinclusive, and the estimates developed by CEH, which include only selected minerals.
The data in the next table summarize the data reported by the USGS on U.S. consumption of industrial
explosives and blasting agents by market segment. Based on these data, the coal mining industry
accounted for 67% of total demand in 1998. Quarrying and nonmetal mining accounted for 14%, metal
mining for 9%, construction for 7% and other uses for 3%. USGS data indicate that the market increased
at an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1987 and 1997. Anticipated growth during the 1997-2003
forecast period is 1.6% per year for all explosives. Metal mining is expected to exhibit the slowest growth
due to competition from other regions and low metal prices.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1000 Z

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 26

U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents by Market


(thousands of metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Quarrying and
Nonmetal Mining

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

1,461
1,423
1,440

1,390
1,343
1,364

154
200
218

140
177
196

219
270
286

175
213
231

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

1,452
1,252
1,275
1,239
1,538

1,378
1,187
1,209
1,177
1,458

226
191
200
209
244

205
171
180
190
220

290
245
245
243
302

235
196
196
195
245

1995
1996
1997
1998

1,498
1,460
1,757
1,940

1,417
1,382
1,662
1,834

251
239
276
272

223
215
248
244

308
310
369
407

248
250
298
328

2003

1,970

1,862

257

230

411

331

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent)
19972003

1.9%

1.9%

1.2%

1.2%

1.8%

1.8%

19871997

1.9%

1.8%

6.0%

5.9%

5.4%

5.5%

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 A

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 27

U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents by Market (continued)


(thousands of metric tons)
Construction

Other Industrial Uses

Total

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

140
145
150

120
120
125

66
111
86

63
104
80

2,040
2,149
2,180

1,887
1,957
1,996

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

145
118
127
136
168

119
95
105
113
141

43
44
47
50
70

39
41
44
47
66

2,156
1,850
1,893
1,876
2,322

1,977
1,689
1,734
1,722
2,129

1995
1996
1997
1998

165
160
193
203

137
132
159
167

68
64
75
76

64
60
70
71

2,290
2,233
2,670
2,898

2,089
2,038
2,437
2,644

2003

215

177

79

74

2,932

2,674

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent)
1997-2003

1.8%

1.8%

0.9%

0.9%

1.6%

1.6%

1987-1997

3.3%

2.9%

1.3%

1.0%

2.7%

2.6%

SOURCES:

(A) Mineral Industry Surveys, Explosives, Annual, U.S. Department of the Interior,
Bureau of Mines (data for GROSS WEIGHT).
(B) CEH estimates (data for AN Content).

U.S. consumption by type of explosive is summarized in the following table. Where mining conditions
permit, the use of dry AN prills and prill products is preferred for economic reasons. In 1998, these
product types accounted for 84% of total explosives consumption. Water gels and slurries (including all
water gels, slurries and emulsions except those approved as permissible) accounted for about 15%.
Consumption of high explosives accounts for only about 1% of the total market. The solid AN and water
gel and slurry categories exhibited growth between 1987 and 1998, while the markets for high explosives
have declined steadily, mainly because of displacement of nitroglycerin-based dynamites by cartridged
water gels, slurries and emulsions.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 B

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 28

U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents by Type


(thousands of metric tons)
Solid AN
Fuel Mixtures

Unprocessed

Water Gels
and Slurry

Total

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

286
392
347

263
361
320

1,456
1,377
1,466

1,441
1,363
1,451

1,742
1,769
1,813

1,704
1,724
1,771

218
299
293

135
186
181

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

311
264
254
262
464

286
243
234
241
427

1,483
1,256
1,312
1,300
1,490

1,468
1,243
1,298
1,287
1,475

1,793
1,520
1,566
1,562
1,954

1,753
1,486
1,532
1,528
1,902

294
276
285
277
328

182
171
177
172
203

1995
1996
1997
1998

440
392
479
527

405
361
440
485

1,454
1,451
1,727
1,865

1,439
1,436
1,710
1,846

1,894
1,843
2,206
2,392

1,844
1,797
2,150
2,331

357
355
433
473

221
220
268
293

2003

534

491

1,891

1,872

2,425

2,363

473

293

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent)
19972003

1.9%

1.9%

1.5%

1.5%

1.6%

1.6%

1.5%

1.5%

19871997

5.3%

5.3%

1.7%

1.7%

2.4%

2.4%

7.1%

7.1%

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 C

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 29

U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents by Type (continued)


(thousands of metric tons)
High Explosives
Permissibles
Gross
Weight

Other

Total

Total

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

15
12
10

8
7
6

65
68
64

39
41
38

80
80
74

47
48
44

2,040
2,149
2,180

1,887
1,957
1,996

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

9
6
5
4
4

5
3
3
2
2

60
49
37
32
36

36
29
22
19
22

69
54
42
37
40

41
32
25
22
24

2,156
1,850
1,893
1,876
2,322

1,977
1,689
1,734
1,722
2,129

1995
1996
1997
1998

3
3
3
2

2
1
1
1

36
32
29
31

22
19
17
19

39
35
32
33

23
21
19
20

2,290
2,233
2,670
2,898

2,089
2,038
2,437
2,644

2003

31

19

34

20

2,932

2,676

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent)
19972003

1.1%

1.1%

1.2%

1.2%

1.0%

1.1%

1.6%

1.6%

19871997

16.6%

16.6%

7.8%

7.8%

8.9%

8.8%

2.7%

2.6%

SOURCES:

(A) Mineral Industry Surveys, Explosives, Annual, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines (data
for GROSS WEIGHT).
(B) CEH estimates (data for AN CONTENT).

Coal mining
The growth in explosives demand has been outpacing coal production because of the growing share of
total coal output from surface mines. Surface operations use much larger volumes of blasting materials
than underground coal mines, and surface-mined coal increased by 13% between 1992 and 1997. During
that period, the share of surface-mined coal increased from 57% to 65%. A slight increase in the average
overburden ratio is also believed to be a factor. The following tabulation illustrates how underground
mining of coal has evolved in the recent past and how long-wall methods, which do not require
explosives, have increased in proportion to other methods, such as room-and-pillar operations with or
without the use of continuous miners and other systems.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 D

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 30

U.S. Production of Coal by Mining Method


(millions of metric tons)
Underground

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

Surface

Conventional

Continuous

Long-Wall

Other

Total

548.4
534.2
535.5
539.3
575.5
577.6
593.3
607.2
623.2

26.0
42.1
41.1
37.6
32.9
31.0
28.2
20.0
16.9

242.6
216.0
210.7
179.9
163.9
155.9
166.5
181.8
178.4

111.7
107.9
115.8
99.5
164.4
171.8
176.3
176.7
181.3

4.9
3.4
1.8
1.5
0.8
0.6
0.8
3.1
2.4

933.6
903.6
904.9
857.8
937.6
937.0
965.1
988.8
1,002.1

SOURCE:

Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy.

Thus, approximately 46% of underground coal in the United States is extracted with long-wall systems
that require no explosives. An additional 48% utilizes continuous mining systems that require little if any
explosives. The trend for room-and-pillar and other operations that utilize conventional explosives is
down and more underground mines are likely to shift to the higher-productivity methods that require less
explosives to the extent they can obtain long-term contracts that justify the capital costs. The overall
result is demand for explosives and blasting agents by the coal industry increased by about 20% according
the USGS data in the table below.
The following table summarizes U.S. consumption of industrial explosives and blasting agents for the
coal mining industry. In 1997, solid AN product accounted for 92% of consumption by this sector, water
gels and slurries accounted for 8% and high explosives for less than 1%. This explosives market grew at
an average annual rate of 2.6% between 1992 and 1997. A more moderate growth rate of 1.8% per year is
projected for the forecast period.
U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents by Type
(thousands of metric tons)
Solid AN
Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

1,346
1,293
1,315

1,320
1,263
1,288

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

1,328
1,140
1,161
1,134
1,416

1995
1996
1997
1998
2003

Water Gels
and Slurries
Gross
Weight

High Explosives

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

89
109
106

55
67
66

26
21
19

1,301
1,118
1,139
1,112
1,383

107
100
104
96
114

66
62
64
60
71

1,369
1,332
1,602
1,767

1,337
1,303
1,566
1,727

122
121
148
167

1,794

1,753

170

AN
Content

Total
Gross
Weight

AN
Content

15
12
11

1,461
1,423
1,440

1,390
1,343
1,364

17
12
10
9
8

10
7
6
5
4

1,452
1,252
1,275
1,239
1,538

1,378
1,187
1,209
1,177
1,458

76
75
92
103

7
7
7
6

4
4
4
4

1,498
1,460
1,757
1,940

1,417
1,382
1,662
1,834

105

1,970

1,862

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 E

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 31

U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents by Type (continued)


Average Annual Growth Rate
(percent)
Solid AN

Water Gels
and Slurries

High Explosives

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

19972003

1.9%

1.9%

2.3%

2.3%

0.3%

0.3%

1.9%

1.9%

19871997

1.8%

1.7%

5.3%

5.3%

12.8%

12.7%

2.6%

2.6%

SOURCES:

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Total
Gross
Weight

AN
Content

(A) Mineral Industry Surveys, Explosives, Annual, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines (data
for GROSS WEIGHT).
(B) CEH estimates (data for AN CONTENT).

Explosives may be used to break up overburden and/or coal. The amount of explosive or blasting agent
required is a function of the strip ratio (the depth of the overburden to the depth of the coal seam and/or
the thickness and hardness of the coal seam). In general, strip ratios are low to moderate (3:1 to 15:1) in
the West and moderate to high (15:1 to 50:1) in the East. At any given location, the amount of explosive
required may increase as mining progresses. In addition, explosives are used to develop new mines before
coal production begins.

Quarrying and nonmetal mining


The quarrying and nonmetal mining sectors of explosives consumption in the United States basically
parallel construction activity, since much of the output of these mining activities is crushed and broken
stone. A large portion of this output is used in a variety of construction activities, principally highway
construction and cement or concrete. The annual explosives demand pattern is likely to continue the
cyclical fluctuations exhibited historically unless the U.S. economy and the construction component that
requires crushed stone products attain greater long-term stability. The Transpiration Equity Act for the
twenty-first century may lead to a greater demand for crushed stone. The following table summarizes U.S.
consumption of industrial explosives in quarrying and nonmetal mining by type of explosive. These
segments of the mining industry consumed a reported 369 thousand metric tons of explosives and blasting
agents in 1997. Limestone accounted for 64% and granite for 15% of the consumption for the quarrying
segment. Gypsum accounted for 72% of the smaller industrial mineral segment.
The following table summarizes U.S. consumption of industrial explosives and blasting agents for the
quarrying and nonmetal mining sectors. In 1997, solid AN product accounted for 56% of consumption by
this sector, water gels and slurries accounted for 41% and high explosives for 3%. Overall demand in
these markets increased cyclically at a rapid average annual rate of 5.8% between 1992 and 1997. A
moderate growth rate of 1.8% per year is projected for the forecast period.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 F

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 32

U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents for Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining
(thousands of metric tons)
AN Prills and
Prill Products

Water Gels
and Slurries

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

1987
1988
1989

118
141
161

112
133
154

73
100
98

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

162
128
130
132
173

156
123
125
127
165

1995
1996
1997
1998
2003

171
170
204
223
225

163
163
196
214
216

AN
Content

High Explosives

Total

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

45
62
60

28
30
28

17
18
17

219
270
286

175
213
231

102
95
98
97
115

63
59
61
60
71

27
22
17
14
14

16
13
10
8
8

290
245
245
243
302

235
196
196
195
245

121
125
153
170
171

75
78
95
105
106

16
15
12
14
14

10
9
7
8
8

308
310
369
407
411

248
250
298
328
331

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent
19972003

1.7%

1.7%

1.9%

1.9%

2.8%

2.8%

1.8%

1.8%

19871997

5.6%

5.7%

7.7%

7.7%

8.2%

8.2%

5.8%

5.9%

SOURCES:

(A) Mineral Industry Surveys, Explosives, Annual, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
(data for GROSS WEIGHT).
(B) CEH estimates (data for AN CONTENT).

Quarry blasting has changed greatly in both materials and methods since the mid-1950s. Previously,
dynamite was used almost universally, but the subsequent availability of lower-cost blasting materials
such as ANFO has largely led to the displacement of dynamite. However, some large quarries that
formerly used 100% ANFO are now using a combination of ANFO and dynamite. Dynamite generates
more explosive energy and is used in the lowest part of the drill hole in order to achieve greater
fragmentation at the toe of the quarry floor or bench. The increased explosives cost is believed to be
more than offset by cost savings in drilling (holes can be spaced farther apart), loading and secondary
breakage that result from the improved blast control. There is also a trend toward drilling larger holes and
using newer types of explosives, such as high-energy products, to yield greater masses of rock for
processing in plants that have large output capacities. However, most quarries continue to use AN
compositions, including field-mixed ANFO; site-mixed, pneumatically loaded dry or slurry compositions;
and prepackaged formulations. Next to ANFO products, ammonia dynamite is the most commonly used
quarry explosive. It is safer, easier to handle, lower in cost and has a lower freezing point than straight
nitroglycerin dynamite. Unfortunately, ammonia dynamite is water-soluble and cannot be used in wet
holes. Straight gelatin or ammonia gelatin dynamites, which are insoluble, are used if water is a problem.
In recent years, packaged water gels have started to displace ammonia dynamites in quarries. Generally,
2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 G

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 33

the explosives used for blasting limestone and softer rocks are of lower strength than those used for
blasting harder stone, such as granite.

Metal mining
Explosives and blasting agents are used in mining many metallic ores, but by far the largest use is in the
mining of copper deposits in the West and Southwest, lode gold deposits mostly in the West and Alaska
and iron deposits in the Lake Superior region. Surface uranium mining has become a minor market. In
1997, copper, gold and iron ore production accounted for about 45%, 32% and 19% respectively, of U.S.
explosives consumption by the metal mining sector. This sector increased at the significant average
annual rate of 3.0% between 1992 and 1997. Because of low prices for gold and base metals, this sector is
projected to decline moderately during the forecast period. International competition will continue to
affect demand for U.S.-produced metals in both the domestic and export markets. Producers of metals in
many countries outside the United States tend to be very competitive in terms of production costs because
of higher-grade ores, lower labor costs or both. Over the past decade, various economic, environmental
and social policies of the U.S. government have increased production costs for U.S. metals. Export
demand for U.S. iron ore, steel, copper and the other important base metals is small and has not increased
significantly since 1970.
The following table summarizes U.S. consumption of industrial explosives in metal mining by explosive
type. Solid AN products accounted for 92% of explosives consumption by this segment in 1997. Water
gels and slurries accounted for the bulk of the remainder and use of high explosives was minimal.
U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents for Metal Mining
(thousands of metric tons)
AN Prills and
Prill Products

Water Gels
and Slurries

High Explosives

Total

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

122
150
169

119
146
166

29
45
44

18
28
28

4
5
4

2
3
2

154
200
218

140
177
196

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

180
148
156
167
191

177
145
154
164
187

43
40
41
40
51

26
25
26
25
32

4
3
2
2
2

2
2
1
1
1

226
191
200
209
244

205
171
180
190
220

1995
1996
1997
1998

189
186
214
210

185
182
209
206

60
52
61
61

37
33
38
38

2
1
1
1

1
1
1
1

251
239
276
272

223
215
248
244

2003

198

194

57

36

257

230

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent
19972003

1.3%

1.3%

1.1%

1.1%

0.0%

0.0%

1.2%

1.2%

19871997

5.8%

5.8%

7.9%

7.9%

13.1%

13.1%

5.3%

5.2%

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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SOURCES:

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 34

(A) Mineral Industry Surveys, Explosives, Annual, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
(data for GROSS WEIGHT for 1960-1993).
(B) CEH estimates (all other data).

ANFO, because it is inexpensive, is the primary blasting agent used in the open-pit mining of copper.
Cast primers or dynamites are used as detonators. Water gels and slurries are generally used only under
wet conditions. However, powder factors vary greatly from mine to mine.
At most iron ore mines, large quantities of overburden and/or waste rock must be stripped in order to
expose crude ore. The amount of waste stripped commonly ranges from one-fourth to three times the
tonnage of crude ore produced. The most severe hard-rock conditions (low-iron-content cherty iron
formations) are encountered in the Iron Range in the Lake States region and the hardness of the rock or
taconite often varies at different locations within an ore body. Water gels and slurries, including
metallized slurries, can be adapted for use in large-diameter boreholes where water makes the use of dry
AN blasting agents impractical or where high density is needed for blasting very hard materials. For these
reasons, water gels and slurries have become the most commonly used blasting agents for taconite
mining. Metallized dry and slurry blasting agents, which are formulations of AN with varying amounts of
metal particles, provide the tremendous chemical energy needed for blasting taconite. Because they are
less expensive than slurries, dry ANFO or metallized ANFO mixtures are generally used as a top load
wherever conditions are dry.

Construction
Many construction projects require the direct use of explosive energy for earth moving and site
preparation. The largest uses are in highway grade construction and dam building. Other applications
include grading for railways and airports, ditch blasting for oil and gas transmission pipelines and utility
lines, land clearing, demolition of old buildings and tunneling for highways, railroads and subways, etc.
The segments that consume the most explosives are largely publicly financed. As with quarrying and
nonmetal mining, explosives consumption in direct construction uses is subject to the cyclical nature of
the specific activities that generate the demand.
The following table summarizes U.S. consumption of industrial explosives and blasting agents in the
construction industry. In 1997, solid AN product accounted for 65% of consumption by this sector, water
gels and slurries accounted for 30% and high explosives for 5%. This explosives market grew at the
significant average annual rate of 3.4% between 1992 and 1997. Continued growth at the more moderate
rate of 1.8% is projected for the forecast period.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 35

U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents for Construction


(thousands of metric tons)
AN Prills and
Prill Products
Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Water Gels
and Slurries

High Explosives

Total

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

95
88
95

92
85
92

25
36
35

16
22
22

20
21
19

12
12
11

140
145
150

120
120
125

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

88
66
77
86
112

84
63
75
82
107

38
36
37
40
42

24
22
23
25
26

20
16
12
10
14

12
10
7
6
8

145
118
127
136
168

119
95
105
113
141

1995
1996
1997
1998

105
100
121
126

100
95
115
120

47
50
62
67

29
31
39
42

13
10
10
10

8
6
6
6

165
160
193
203

137
132
159
167

2003

140

133

65

40

10

215

179

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent)
19972003

2.5%

2.5%

0.7%

0.7%

0.0%

0.0%

1.8%

2.0%

19871997

2.4%

2.2%

9.4%

9.4%

6.6%

6.6%

3.4%

3.1%

SOURCES:

(A) Mineral Industry Surveys, Explosives, Annual, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
(data for GROSS WEIGHT).
(B) CEH estimates ( all other data).

Although building demolition is a minor market for the use of explosives, a new kinetic technology is
being developed to replace explosives, pneumatic drills and wrecking balls in demolition of concrete
structures that may also affect other markets for explosives. The technology is based on shape-memory
alloys that return to a predetermined shape upon heating. It appears to be best developed in Japan, where
nickel-titanium alloys are used as concrete busters. In the United States, the system consists of an
approximately 50-50 nickel-titanium alloy referred to as Nitinol, which stands for Nickel-Titanium Naval
Ordnance Laboratory. Concrete busters consist of six 1.14-inch shape-memory alloy cylinders mounted
vertically between two pairs of tempered steel plates. The assembly is wedged into a hole drilled into the
concrete and the cylinders are heated using internal wires. When the temperature reaches 120-180F, the
cylinders return to their predetermined shape, stretching 0.5 inch. The force generated is approximately
ten tons, which is sufficient to shatter concrete and hard rock such as granite. Reportedly, few concrete
busters are needed for destruction. Within two minutes of being heated, the concrete crumbles. The
process is quick, inexpensive and relatively quiet, except for the noise of falling debris. This application is
expected to be most useful in congested urban areas, where the noise and vibration associated with
explosions, pneumatic drills and wrecking balls affect the greatest number of people.
2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 36

Other industrial markets


Other industrial uses of explosives and blasting agents are in seismic prospecting for oil and natural gas,
well shooting (fracturing oil-, gas- and water-bearing formations to initiate the flow and increase ultimate
recovery), submarine blasting (to deepen and clear harbors and channels), jet tapping of iron blast
furnaces, agricultural blasting (ditching and field clearing) and a variety of metalworking and
metallurgical applications (forming, bonding, welding, engraving, punching and testing). Consumption of
explosives in this sector has fluctuated greatly in recent years. Since this category is also a statistical
catch-all for the explosives statistics, it is also impacted by year to year inventory fluctuations.
The following table summarizes U.S. consumption of industrial explosives and blasting agents for
nonprimary industrial markets. In 1997, solid AN product accounted for 88% of consumption by this
sector, water gels and slurries accounted for 9% and high explosives for 3%. This explosives market grew
at an average annual rate of 1.3% between 1992 and 1997. Only marginal growth is projected for the
forecast period.
U.S. Consumption of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents for Other Industrial Markets
(thousands of metric tons)
AN Prills and
Prill Products

Water Gels
and Slurries

High Explosives

Total

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

Gross
Weight

AN
Content

1987
1988
1989

61
98
73

60
96
72

3
9
9

2
6
6

2
5
4

1
3
2

66
111
86

63
104
80

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

36
37
41
44
62

35
37
40
44
61

5
4
4
4
6

3
3
3
3
4

2
2
2
2
2

1
1
1
1
1

43
44
47
50
70

39
41
44
47
66

1995
1996
1997
1998

60
55
65
66

59
54
64
64

7
7
8
8

4
4
5
5

1
2
2
2

1
1
1
1

68
64
75
76

64
60
70
71

2003

68

66

79

73

Average Annual Growth Rate


(percent)
19972003

0.7%

0.7%

2.6%

2.6%

0.0%

0.0%

0.9%

0.8%

19871997

0.7%

0.6%

10.9%

10.9%

2.1%

2.1%

1.3%

1.0%

SOURCES:

(A) Mineral Industry Surveys, Explosives, Annual, U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines
(data for GROSS WEIGHT for 1960-1993).
(B) CEH estimates (all other data).

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 K

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 37

Welding represents a small but growing market for explosives. Explosion welding is commonly used in
welding pipe joints, most notably in the construction of nuclear power plants where radioactive leaks
could be disastrous. Explosives are also used to weld railroad tracks used by high-speed electric trains.
Explosives have been used experimentally to make super-tough diamonds for industrial use and to clad or
bond hard-to-weld metals. Explosion techniques must be perfected before these applications become a
routine commercial market. Some products targeted for production using explosive charges are as
follows:

Ceramic superconductors

Gallium arsenide semiconductors

Semiconductors that perform effectively at higher temperatures

Titanium aluminide (an extremely lightweight, strong and heat-resistant intermetallic alloy that is
being considered for skins of future hypersonic airplanes)

Nickel-based superalloys for jet engines

Aluminum-lithium alloys for light, stiff airframe materials

Ultra-hard boron carbide and titanium diboride ceramic plates for tank armor

Cubic-boron-nitride cutting tools

Marketing and Distribution Channels


The distribution of explosive and blasting ingredients from a relatively small number of producers to
several thousand ultimate customers and delivery points requires an extensive intermediate marketing
system in which independent formulators and distributors play a major role. From a users perspective,
there are three basic avenues of purchase: purchase of ingredients and supplies for on-site
formulating/mixing and blasting; purchase of formulated/mixed products for blasting; and purchase of
formulated/mixed products and complete blasting services.

Customer purchase of ingredients


Major users with large, trained technical staffs (e.g., large coal and metal mining firms) often buy many
of their own blasting materials directly from manufacturers and do their own mixing and blasting. Such
volume-ingredient purchases are often made by a centralized company location, from which the materials
are delivered to the various locations where blasting is conducted. Some customers purchase ammonia for
toll conversion to nitrate prills.
The purchase of ingredients is restricted largely to operations that use routine ANFO blasting procedures
in which bulk AN can be delivered directly to the blasting site and oiled by the mining staff in their
own mixers above-ground or in the hole. Little if any technical service from the explosives supplier is
required and bulk ingredient purchases are based almost solely on price.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 38

Customer purchase of formulated/mixed products


Premixed and site-mixed ANFO, water gel and emulsion products are purchased in bulk by large coal and
metal mining companies for use in surface mining operations. Suppliers include the major explosives
companies, which usually have field-mix plants, plus hundreds of independent formulator/distributors.
Many of the independent companies are authorized distributors of products for major explosives
manufacturers. Bulk water gels and emulsions are supplied primarily by the major producers or their
distributors because they can often provide more-sophisticated products and technical services than can
the independents. Suppliers of all bulk explosive products may provide down-the-hole delivery, where
customers own crews still do the drilling and blasting. Although such services as borehole dewatering
and the provision of plastic liners are important to large-volume customers, price is generally the primary
consideration in selecting a supplier.

Customer purchase of formulated/mixed products and complete blasting services


Although many customers have their own drilling and blasting crews, some still require complete blasting
services, including the design of the drilling, loading and blasting operations. Generally, complete
blasting services are required only for unique or problem projects. Outside consultants sometimes are
employed to design and conduct the blast. Smaller-volume users, such as small mines, quarries and
construction contractors, usually purchase packaged explosive products, including dynamites, water gels,
emulsions and ANFOs. Although most of these customers do their own drilling and blasting, technical
services provided by the suppliers of explosives are becoming increasingly important. Because of the
encroachment of cities into mining and quarrying areas and because it is frequently necessary to blast near
populated areas during demolition or excavation phases of construction projects, it has become necessary
to minimize the vibration and noise associated with blasting and keep records of blasts (in case of public
complaints or lawsuits). The technical representatives of major explosives companies can assist with blast
design for special projects. They also conduct training courses for customers blasting crews and provide
technical support for their own distributors and subsidiaries.

Price
Most suppliers of explosives and explosive products consider price and pricing information to be
confidential. As a result, the following information on prices is based on secondary sources with very
little input from suppliers.

Explosive-grade AN
The table below gives published data for total shipments and shipment values, along with calculated data
for average unit value of shipments of explosive-grade AN. The shipments data are considered to indicate
the order of magnitude only, because some producers did not report shipments of explosive-grade AN
prills separately. Also, explosive grade is sometimes used as a fertilizer material and vice versa.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 M

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 39

U.S. Shipments of Explosive-Grade Ammonium Nitrate


Value
Quantity
(thousands of
short tons)

Total
(thousands of
dollars)

Average
Unit Value
(dollars per
short ton)

1987
1988
1989

1,571
1,764
1,892

169,500
192,300
240,400

108
109
127

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

1,988
1,845
1,984
2,016
2,118

257,600
239,300
253,000
238,600
309,700

130
130
128
118
146

1995
1996
1997
1998

1,563
1,540
1,619
1,630

247,000
246,100
250,400
246,800

158
160
155
151

See MANUAL OF CURRENT INDICATORS for additional information.


SOURCE:

Current Industrial Reports, Series MA28B, U.S.


Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

Ammonium nitrate (AN) is primarily used as a fertilizer material. Fertilizer use accounts for almost 80%
of U.S. consumption, while explosive use accounts for almost all of the balance. Thus the price for
explosive-grade AN is affected by the demand for AN for fertilizer. Depressed fertilizer markets for AN
translate into greater availability to explosives buyers and more competitive pricing. Most fertilizer
purchases are made on a spot basis while most explosives sales are done on annual contracts. As a result,
average annual prices for the two grades often vary somewhat, but tend to average out over a period of
several years. The price data for fertilizer-grade AN presented in the following table can be used as a
reasonable guide to price levels and their variation from region to region within the United States.
U.S. Regional Wholesale Fob Spot Prices for Fertilizer-Grade Ammonium Nitrate
(dollars per short ton product)

1987
Spring
Fall
1988
Spring
Fall
1989
Spring
Fall
1990
Spring
Fall

Gulf
Coast

Southeast

South
Central

Southern
Plains

110
110

103
103

103
103

103
88

133
129

130
113

121
118

146
124

148
123

143
138

125
133

Corn
Belt

Great
Lakes

Northern
Plains

California

Northwest

94
94

119
119

114
114

145
145

123
105

113
118

115
118

119
119

117
117

138
138

118
138

133
113

140
115

144
110

147
130

132
115

163
153

158
140

130
125

125
125

125
128

131
134

128
134

152
157

132
139

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 N

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 40

U.S. Regional Wholesale Fob Spot Prices for Fertilizer-Grade Ammonium Nitrate (continued)
(dollars per short ton product)

1991
Spring
Fall
1992
Spring
Fall
1993
Spring
Fall
1994
Spring
Fall
1995
Spring
Fall
1996
Spring
Fall
1997
Spring
Fall
1998
Spring
Fall
1999
Spring
Fall
SOURCE:

Gulf
Coast

Southeast

South
Central

Southern
Plains

Corn
Belt

Great
Lakes

Northern
Plains

California

Northwest

143
139

128
103

130
127

122
123

120
123

126
129

126
125

145
155

130
130

127
140

119
119

115
128

115
123

120
130

126
137

126
136

163
152

129
133

148
137

129
119

134
124

133
128

138
133

144
139

135
130

156
152

131
139

168
163

149
140

152
148

140
138

145
147

152
154

151
150

155
164

143
152

175
163

156
156

159
148

165
143

165
154

173
162

170
148

181
171

169
167

188
175

170
164

160
159

166
161

173
165

181
173

175
170

190
181

175
172

175
150

164
134

159
137

160
128

165
140

173
147

170
170

188
185

181
151

150
133

134
130

137
120

123
123

138
125

132
128

144
131

169
169

133
129

133
133

127
118

120
120

113
102

118
109

125
116

123
114

164
162

123
120

CEH estimates based on trade journals.

ANFO
During the early 1980s, prices for ANFO were generally established by the many small independent
suppliers whose labor and overhead costs were lower than those of their major explosives company
competitors. Starting in the mid-1980s, many of these suppliers were purchased by their major
competitors. Although there are now fewer players, the ANFO business is still very competitive and none
of the ANFO suppliers interviewed would discuss prices or pricing for proprietary reasons. Pricing is
apparently integral with delivered cost of ANFO to the blasting site, plus additional services that may
include all blasting functions at the site.
The principal suppliers of explosives to the Powder River Basin region include Austin Powder, ICI
Explosives, Intermountain Dyno, Nelson Brothers and Wesco. (Prices during 1994 were on the order of
$9.50 per hundred pounds for ANFO, $18 per hundred pounds for emulsions and $20 per hundred pounds
for cartridges.
Because of the higher cost of gel and slurry products compared with AN prillbased products, innovative
techniques, such as borehole dewatering and the use of plastic borehole liners, have been developed to
maximize the use of AN prillbased products. However, the rate of growth of gel and slurry products
continues to keep pace with that of AN prillbased products. Water gels and emulsions can be formulated
2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1001 O

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 41

for specific blasting conditions and suppliers promote them as being cost-competitive with ANFO on a
net result basis.

Trade
U.S. trade in explosives and blasting agents, other than AN, are summarized in the two following tables.
AN is excluded from the table as separate statistics for explosive and fertilizer grade material are not
reported. The United States is generally a net exporter of dynamite and other high explosives and a net
importer of propellant powders. In terms of total explosives consumption, the U.S. import and export
volumes are very small, However, they do represent a fairly large portion of the market for high
explosives.
The United States has a long history as a net importer of explosive-grade AN. These imports mainly
represent sales in the Western states. Separate trade statistics for industrial and fertilizer AN have not
been reported since 1988. At that time, industrial-grade imports totaled about 90 thousand metric tons.
U.S. exports of industrial-grade AN in 1988 were approximately 25 thouand metric tons.
U.S. Imports of High Explosives, Blasting Agents and Propellant Powders
(thousands of metric tons)
TNT

Dynamite and Other


High Explosives

Propellant
Powders

1987
1988
1989

2.0
5.4
2.7

0.7
0.1
0.1

1.6
0.2
2.7

1.8
2.1
1.5

6.2
7.8
7.0

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

2.1
1.5
1.9
2.1
na

2.0
1.5
3.0
3.3
na

2.9
2.8
3.5
3.2
na

2.2
11.4
9.4
9.3
na

9.2
17.1
17.9
17.9
0.0

1995
1996
1997
1998

na
na
na
na

na
3.9
5.4
2.5

na
1.6
2.6
2.6

na
7.7
13.1
8.0

0.0
13.2
21.1
13.1

SOURCE:

Other

U.S. Imports, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

Total

June 2000
530.1001 P

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 42

U.S. Exports of High Explosives, Blasting Agents and Propellant Powders


(thousands of metric tons)
Dynamite and Other
High Explosives

Propellant
Powders

TNT

1987
1988
1989

5.7
7.5
6.7

1.0
1.2
0.8

na
na
na

4.4
6.5
9.3

11.1
15.2
16.9

1990
1991
1992
1993
1994

8.2
14.8
12.9
13.8
15.2

0.9
0.5
1.2
1.6
2.5

na
na
na
na
na

9.2
8.8
13.6
12.1
13.1

18.2
24.1
27.7
27.5
30.8

1995
1996
1997
1998

16.8
18.6
12.0
10.5

1.4
1.2
1.1
1.9

na
na
na
na

11.8
13.1
16.7
14.8

30.0
32.9
29.8
27.2

SOURCES:

Other

Total

U.S. Exports, U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.

CANADA
Estimates of Canadian consumption of industrial explosives for the production of selected mineral
commodities are summarized in the following two tables. In addition, industrial minerals and quarrying
production have been assessed to project likely future production volumes. These volumes, together with
average powder factors used in similar operations in other regions, have been used to estimate industrial
explosives consumption. Metal mining accounted for about 49% of estimated consumption in 1997. Coal
mining accounted for about 34%, production of quarrying materials accounted for 11% and industrial
minerals accounted for about 7%. Total consumption by the mining industry exhibited a level trend
during the 1992-1997 period. Marginal to moderate growth is projected for the forecast period. In
addition to the mine production, explosives are also used in the construction sector. Reliable data for this
segment, which is roughly estimated to be on the order of 15 thousand metric tons per year, are not
available.
Canadian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use
(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

71,193
75,547
80,284
82,174
83,237
85,834
86,985

135,653
125,427
115,703
131,455
126,750
123,132
128,771

16,899
16,399
17,281
16,612
16,733
16,504
14,567

30,396
30,765
32,025
34,980
26,880
27,399
27,480

254,142
248,137
245,293
265,222
253,600
252,869
257,802

2003

90,000

128,205

16,225

34,999

269,429

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 43

Canadian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

71,193

75,547

80,284

82,174

83,237

85,834

86,985

90,000

Metal Mining
Columbium
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead/Zinc Ore
Molybdenum
Nickel
Silver
Uranium Oxide
Zinc

473
79,846
190
24,921
4,609
677
9,376
545
1,387
13,628

493
76,134
180
23,917
2,443
698
9,462
402
1,366
10,333

476
64,095
173
28,329
2,246
661
7,540
344
1,439
10,398

485
75,487
179
28,973
2,826
685
9,147
576
1,561
11,535

478
71,548
196
25,848
3,448
583
9,742
587
1,744
12,576

472
68,291
198
28,015
2,496
548
9,585
548
1,777
11,203

474
72,947
192
29,187
2,537
575
9,550
528
1,775
11,006

480
73,000
190
27,000
3,000
650
9,585
500
1,800
12,000

135,653

125,427

115,703

131,455

126,750

123,132

128,771

128,205

6,987
4
8,074
159
140
1,515
20

6,187
6
8,409
159
139
1,478
21

6,282
6
9,070
159
152
1,586
25

6,199
7
8,595
159
157
1,474
21

5,986
6
8,752
159
153
1,661
15

5,288
11
9,073
159
159
1,798
15

3,904
11
8,513
159
159
1,806
14

5,000
10
9,073
159
159
1,798
25

16,899

16,399

17,281

16,612

16,733

16,504

14,567

16,225

525
29,871

479
30,286

479
31,546

506
34,474

466
26,414

476
26,923

480
27,000

525
34,474

30,396

30,765

32,025

34,980

26,880

27,399

27,480

34,999

254,142

248,137

245,293

265,222

253,600

252,869

257,802

269,429

Total
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Barite
Gypsum
Magnesite
Nepheline Syenite
Rock Salt
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Quartz
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Most coal produced in Canada originates in the Western provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and
Saskatchewan, where open-pit methods predominate. There are underground operations of significant size
in Nova Scotia, but they involve long-wall methods that do not utilize explosives. Powder factors in coal
production in Canada average about 0.38 pound per metric ton but because of the high stripping ratios of
Western operations, they account for a significant tonnage of explosives.

Metal Mining
Canada is a major world supplier of lead, zinc, copper and other metallic minerals. Copper, iron ore,
nickel and zinc mining, combined, accounted for 95% of estimated explosives consumption by the metal
mining segment in 1997. This segment, which declined moderately during the 1992-1997 period, is
projected to grow moderately during the forecast period.
2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 44

Base metal operations in Canada may be classified into zinc and lead mines, lead and zinc mines, copper
mines, complex copper/lead/zinc mines, nickel mines, molybdenum mines, uranium mines and
miscellaneous other mines such as columbite/tantalite operations. The first group is located mostly in the
Yukon, with some mines in British Columbia and Quebec; they are largely underground operations,
although one open-pit operation is sufficiently large to assign a strip ratio of 3.5:1 to the group. Average
lead and zinc grades are 2.98% and 5.94%, respectively, with significant silver and gold by-product
values. The average powder factor for this group is about 0.55 pound per metric ton. Lead and zinc mines
are fewer and contain about 1.43% lead and 0.2% zinc, with average powder factors on the order of 0.82
pound per metric ton. Copper mines are found primarily in British Columbia and Quebec; they have
copper values of 0.43% on average, significant precious metal and molybdenum by-products and average
powder factors of approximately 0.43 pound per metric ton, reflecting the influence of open-pit operations
in the group. Copper, lead and zinc mines are found over much of Canada and have average grades of
1.39% copper, 0.54% lead and 4.67% zinc with precious metal values; they are largely underground
operations with average powder factors on the order of 0.89 pound per metric ton. Nickel mines are an
important source of copper, as well as Canadas only source of platinum and cobalt values; because they
are large underground operations in Ontario and Manitoba, they have average powder factors of about
1.05 pounds per metric ton.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Canada also produces small but significant quantities of industrial minerals. Those that are relevant in
terms of explosives were tabulated in the preceding table. The most significant operations include
asbestos mines, gypsum and salt operations. These three materials accounted for 98% of the estimated
explosives consumption by the industrial minerals sector in Canada in 1997. The trend for asbestos,
gypsum and salt has been marginally downward, a trend that is projected to continue during the forecast
period.

MEXICO
Estimates of Mexican consumption of industrial explosives for the production of selected mineral
commodities are summarized in the following two tables. Mexico does not publish official statistics
concerning explosives. However, SRICs mining data base is particularly complete for Mexican mining
of hard rock minerals. In addition, industrial minerals and quarrying production in Mexico have been
assessed to project likely future production volumes. These volumes, together with average powder
factors used in similar operations in other regions, have been used to estimate industrial explosives
consumption. Metal mining accounted for an about 70% of estimated consumption in 1997. The
production of quarrying materials accounted for about 23% and coal mining and industrial minerals each
accounted for about 4%. Total consumption by the mining industry increased by about 25% during the
1992-1997 period. Continued growth at a lower but still significant rate is projected for the forecast
period. In addition to the mine production, explosives are also used in the construction sector. Reliable
data for this segment, which is roughly estimated to be in the 5-10 thousand metric ton range, are not
available.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 45

Mexican Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use


(metric tons)
Coal
Mining

Metal
Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

1,722
2,023
2,166
2,223
2,416
2,221
2,250

33,418
37,726
34,667
36,658
37,668
41,395
41,274

2,069
2,073
2,017
2,096
2,598
2,471
2,812

9,716
10,430
11,042
10,301
11,611
13,343
13,343

46,926
52,253
49,892
51,279
54,293
59,430
59,678

2003

2,469

41,827

2,781

16,896

63,973

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

Mexican Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead/Zinc Ore
Manganese Ore
Silver
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Strontium
Talc
Wollastonite
Total
Quarrying Materials
Calcite
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Quartz
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1,722

2,023

2,166

2,223

2,416

2,221

2,250

2,469

17,930
7
8,580
665
835
186
5,215

19,784
7
9,843
601
745
189
6,558

19,200
10
7,194
666
630
196
6,771

21,039
14
7,336
643
969
206
6,451

21,086
17
7,968
680
995
224
6,698

24,443
17
8,191
683
1,096
237
6,727

24,014
16
8,261
685
1,047
238
7,013

24,443
17
8,580
683
1,096
237
6,771

33,418

37,726

34,667

36,658

37,668

41,395

41,274

41,827

82
71
1,474
425
14
1
2

59
54
1,526
413
16
1
3

38
59
1,440
451
25
1
3

109
54
1,387
513
31
1
2

206
62
1,733
563
32
1
3

104
69
1,677
589
31
1
2

71
70
2,013
624
31
1
2

206
71
1,880
589
35
1
1

2,069

2,073

2,017

2,096

2,598

2,471

2,812

2,781

132
262
8,826
151
345

117
307
9,433
174
400

108
330
9,997
191
415

101
524
9,124
158
395

90
523
10,447
116
435

136
507
12,131
91
478

136
507
12,131
91
478

136
524
15,435
191
610

9,716

10,430

11,042

10,301

11,611

13,343

13,343

16,896

46,926

52,253

49,892

51,279

54,293

59,430

59,678

63,973

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 46

Coal Mining
Mexican coal production originates in the northeast of the country, where numerous mines operate,
primarily to provide coal to power stations owned by the state-owned power company, Comision Federal
de Electricidad (CFE). Typically, these mines utilize open-pit methods with moderate overburden.
Mexican coal production increased rapidly, from a small base, during the 1992-1997 period and is
projected to continue to increase moderately during the forecast period.

Metal Mining
Mining of metallic minerals is a well-developed and diversified industry in Mexico. Copper, zinc and iron
ore mining combined accounted for 95% of estimated explosives consumption by the metal mining
segment in 1997. This industry exhibited significant growth during the 1992-1997 period. More moderate
growth is projected for the forecast period because of the present low prices for base metals.
The numerous mining operations may be broadly classified into zinc and lead mines, lead mines, copper
mines, complex copper-lead-zinc mines, gold mines and silver mines. Zinc and lead mines, containing on
the average 2.05% zinc, 0.9% lead and significant silver values, are about evenly divided into
underground and surface operations, with powder factors of 0.48 pound per metric ton for the group. Lead
mines are fewer in number, contain on the average 4.54% lead, with substantial amounts of silver
(0.014%), and are primarily underground operations with an average powder factor of 0.64 pound per
metric ton. Copper mines comprise both underground and open-pit operations, contain 0.47% copper and
0.008% molybdenum, and average about 0.4 pound per metric ton in powder factor. Complex copper,
lead and zinc mines are largely underground operations containing on the average 0.37% copper, 1.61%
lead and 3.66% zinc, with significant silver (0.011%) and have average powder factors of 0.78 pound per
metric ton. Gold and silver mines are predominantly underground and contain significant copper, lead and
zinc by-products with average powder factors of about 0.78 pound per metric ton.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Mexico also produces small but significant quantities of industrial minerals. Those that are relevant in
terms of explosives were tabulated in the table above. Gypsum and phosphate rock accounted for a
combined 87% of this segment in 1997. Barite is the only other industrial mineral that accounts for a
significant volume of explosives consumption. Growth, which has been significant, is projected to slow to
a more moderate rate during the forecast period.
As a developing country, Mexican production of stone and other quarrying materials lags behind that of
industrialized countries with a similar population. In terms of overall volume, the most important product
is limestone, which is used largely by the Mexican cement industry and accounts for about 90% of the
explosives consumed by this segment. Dolomite and quartz account for most of the balance. This segment
has increased significantly since 1992 and is projected to exhibit a moderate growth rate during the
forecast period.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 47

LATIN AMERICA
The Latin American region includes the Central American countries (except Mexico), the Caribbean
Islands including Trinidad and the continent of South America. Latin American consumption of industrial
explosives for the production of selected mineral commodities is summarized in the following two tables.
Brazil, with its large iron ore resources, dominates Latin American consumption, accounting for 42% of
the regional market. Chile follows, accounting for about 30%. Metal mining accounts for approximately
75% of Latin American industrial explosives consumption.
Latin American Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by Country
(metric tons)
Argentina

Brazil

Chile

Colombia

Peru

Venezuela

Other

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

3,695
3,841
4,340
4,999
4,918
7,332
18,592

162,605
169,612
183,356
189,796
181,696
191,487
215,195

98,588
102,341
111,219
122,816
150,516
162,039
155,994

29,466
25,916
27,401
32,002
35,326
37,599
38,249

34,820
37,865
40,040
42,075
45,573
48,286
41,748

29,816
28,326
30,005
32,017
30,749
31,891
31,891

9,781
9,729
10,417
10,779
10,970
11,221
10,943

368,771
377,629
406,779
434,485
459,748
489,854
512,610

2003

15,375

197,792

204,807

45,620

50,587

34,164

12,114

560,460

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Latin American Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use


(metric tons)
Coal
Mining

Metal
Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

34,211
32,580
34,027
38,150
41,448
46,208
46,704

266,642
275,161
302,740
322,557
346,261
372,108
392,992

18,467
20,321
19,846
21,342
20,389
20,543
21,494

49,452
49,568
50,166
52,436
51,650
50,994
51,420

368,771
377,629
406,779
434,485
459,748
489,854
512,610

2003

49,921

430,151

25,351

55,037

560,460

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

ARGENTINA
Argentina accounts for less than 4% of Latin American industrial explosives consumption. In spite of
significant geologic potential, the development of mineral resources in Argentina has been very limited
compared to some of its neighbors. Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in
Argentina is summarized in the following table. Until the recent startup of a major copper operation,
consumption was dominated by the production of quarrying materials, mainly limestone and granite.
Copper production began in 1997 and is projected to become the primary consumer of industrial
explosives.
2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 48

Argentine Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

Coal Mining

208

196

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese
Silver
Uranium
Zinc

24
11
235
11
64
7
42

Total
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Basalt
Calcite
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Quartz
Quartzite
Serpentine
Slate
Tuff
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

211

206

196

196

196

210

0
4
155
0
60
7
32

0
96
131
0
53
4
27

0
0
138
0
67
3
33

0
0
147
0
71
1
32

2,409
0
175
0
76
0
30

13,651
0
196
0
71
0
36

10,000
0
163
0
76
4
33

393

257

312

241

251

2,691

13,954

10,276

1
3
12
45
1

1
5
13
46
1

1
9
10
48
1

1
9
9
52
0

2
4
17
56
0

2
5
10
53
0

1
4
8
51
0

2
6
12
60
0

62

65

69

72

80

69

66

81

196
8
117
724
1,763
3
21
19
72
6
9
94

322
9
143
802
1,753
4
22
18
88
4
9
147

479
11
226
743
1,954
2
22
13
111
4
5
178

572
10
366
1,000
1,884
2
79
17
331
13
8
200

328
10
411
1,107
2,011
2
80
24
161
12
9
236

327
10
410
1,105
2,008
2
80
23
162
11
9
229

327
10
410
1,105
2,008
2
80
23
162
11
9
229

572
11
411
1,107
2,011
4
80
24
331
13
9
236

3,033

3,323

3,749

4,481

4,391

4,376

4,376

4,808

3,695

3,841

4,340

4,999

4,918

7,332

18,592

15,375

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Economic coal deposits in Argentina are found primarily in the Southern Patagonia district and consist of
subbituminous coals with moderate to low overburden. The sector has not increased production for
several years for lack of infrastructure and investment, a situation that is unlikely to change in the
immediate future.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 49

Metal Mining
In spite of significant geologic potential, the extraction of metallic minerals in Argentina has not yet been
significant. Lead and zinc production comes largely from a single mining operation, while silver
originates from numerous small mining activities. However, the recently developed Bajo do la Alumbrera
copper project has become the countrys largest consumer of explosives.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


The very limited industrial mineral production in Argentina is driven primarily by local demand for
industrial production of glass, aluminum and construction materials. This minor segment is projected to
continue to exhibit slow growth. Quarrying operations in Argentina are anticipated to experience healthy
growth as the economy of the country improves and its construction industry expands.

BRAZIL
Brazil, with the largest surface area in Latin America, has abundant metallic mineral resources and is an
important producer of industrial minerals and stone. Brazil is the largest consumer of explosives in this
region and accounted for approximately 42% of regional consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives
consumption for mineral production in Brazil is summarized in the following table. Iron ore production
accounts for about 65% of Brazilian explosives use. Total consumption exhibited moderate growth during
the 1992-1997 period. Continued slow but steady growth is projected for the forecast period.
Brazilian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

4,845

4,953

4,556

5,638

4,836

5,745

5,745

5,745

Metal Mining
Chromium
Copper
Gold
Ilmenite
Iron Ore
Lead
Nickel
Silver
Tin
Tungsten
Zinc

374
3,448
30
15
98,229
14
905
3,174
30
9
805

238
3,756
31
18
103,295
1
990
2,116
19
10
999

329
3,433
31
19
118,944
8
853
987
18
11
959

332
4,235
32
20
123,310
67
897
975
19
7
1,018

329
3,998
33
20
116,816
0
778
946
21
7
634

331
3,446
32
20
126,034
0
779
950
20
7
824

265
3,477
32
20
148,969
72
779
950
20
7
640

331
3,719
32
19
130,000
0
900
1,000
20
7
917

Total

107,033

111,473

125,594

130,911

123,581

132,442

155,232

136,945

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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Explosives
Page 50

Brazilian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Barite
Diamond
Feldspar
Gemstones
Gypsum
Lithium
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Potash
Pyrophillite
Rock Salt
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Basalt
Calcite
Dolomite
Gneiss
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Quartz
Quartzite
Slate
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

6,786
22
0
48
5
79
9
199
8,132
7
19
21
7

9,244
24
0
49
5
66
14
193
8,132
14
21
23
9

9,244
15
0
49
5
74
20
204
8,132
19
19
23
10

9,244
14
0
48
5
84
21
240
8,132
17
20
22
8

9,244
15
0
48
5
99
20
252
8,132
20
20
25
8

9,244
15
0
48
5
112
20
258
8,132
22
20
25
7

9,244
20
0
48
5
123
20
258
9,036
20
20
25
8

9,244
15
0
48
5
120
20
275
8,132
22
20
30
8

15,335

17,794

17,813

17,854

17,888

17,908

18,826

17,940

939
5
1,286
533
22,629
9,796
47
45
108
5

939
5
1,286
533
22,629
9,796
47
45
108
5

939
5
1,286
533
22,629
9,796
47
45
108
5

939
6
1,286
533
22,629
9,796
47
45
108
5

939
6
1,286
533
22,629
9,796
47
45
108
5

939
6
1,286
533
22,629
9,796
47
45
108
5

939
6
1,286
533
22,629
9,796
47
45
108
5

986
7
1,350
560
23,760
10,286
49
47
113
5

35,391

35,392

35,392

35,392

35,392

35,392

35,392

37,162

162,605

169,612

183,356

189,796

181,696

191,487

215,195

197,792

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Brazils coal resources are located in three of its southern provinces: Rio Grande do Sul, Parana and Santa
Catarina. Coal reserves in Brazil are relatively low grade, contain high ash and are insufficient to meet
local demand from its steel and power generation industry. The quality factors will conspire to restrict
future growth.

Metal Mining
Brazil competes with Australia as the largest world supplier of iron ore and is one of the worlds top
producers of alumina, columbium and tin. In addition, the country mines lead, zinc and copper. The
largest of these sectors in terms of explosives used is iron ore, which is produced at two main locations;
Minas Gerais, the original source, now largely serving domestic markets, and the huge operations at Serra
do Carajas in the northeast. Lead-zinc operations in Brazil average about 7% lead and 1.5% zinc, with
significant silver values. Zinc-lead mines average 9.3% zinc and 1.4% lead. Copper mines are largely
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Page 51

open pit with moderate to high stripping ratios and contain 0.95% copper on average. Iron ore mines are
extremely high grade (66% iron), which because of the overburden translates into substantial
consumption of explosives.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Brazil has abundant mineral resources and is an important producer of industrial minerals and stone from
quarrying operations. Furthermore, the present restructuring of the Brazilian economy bodes well for the
eventual resumption of construction activities in the country and for resumed industrial growth in
industries that consume industrial minerals.

CHILE
Chile, with one of the most vigorous economies in Latin America, has expanded its production of metallic
minerals, especially copper, quite substantially. Chile is the second-largest consumer of explosives in the
Latin American region and accounted for 30% of regional consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives
consumption for mineral production in Chile is summarized in the following table. Copper ore production
accounts for 89% of Chilean explosives use. Total consumption exhibited a rapid growth rate during the
1992-1997 period. Continued significant growth is projected for the forecast period.
Chilean Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

2,082

1,368

1,197

1,020

1,092

1,384

1,400

1,416

Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese
Silver
Zinc

82,433
343
10,802
1
96
368
183

87,636
341
9,911
1
121
346
181

94,672
394
11,793
3
121
351
191

106,144
453
11,921
3
135
372
218

132,883
540
12,840
4
121
374
222

144,653
502
12,354
4
122
390
209

138,402
457
12,581
1
122
479
98

185,000
500
14,500
4
135
400
222

Total

94,226

98,538

107,525

119,246

146,984

158,234

152,139

200,761

1
3
37
1,343
5
4

1
2
45
1,371
4
4

1
5
49
1,305
3
4

1
4
41
1,421
4
4

1
2
46
1,284
5
15

1
2
35
1,344
4
12

1
2
69
1,344
4
12

1
3
46
1,421
5
12

1,394

1,428

1,367

1,475

1,353

1,399

1,432

1,488

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Nitrates
Phosphate Rock
Potash
Total

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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Page 52

Chilean Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Calcite
Dolomite
Limestone
Quartz
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1
0
798
87

1
0
922
82

1
2
1,029
98

1
2
965
107

1
1
981
105

1
4
917
100

1
4
917
100

1
4
1,029
107

886

1,006

1,130

1,076

1,088

1,022

1,022

1,142

98,588

102,341

111,219

122,816

150,516

162,039

155,994

204,807

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Chile was formerly a significant producer of metallurgical coals. However, those operations, which
entailed deep underground mines below the ocean, have been closed for economic reasons. At present,
coal production in Chile comes from subbituminous deposits in the south, at Riesco Island, which are
mined using open-pit methods. Reserves in the country are limited and little or no growth in production is
anticipated from this sector.

Metal Mining
Chile is the worlds largest producer of copper. The copper industry has been undergoing a substantial
expansion in production capacity, which is now largely on stream. Some additional production increases
are still anticipated, as numerous deposits of economic importance are available to outside investors.
However, low copper prices, at present, will restrict growth in the short term. Copper production accounts
for 89% of Chilean explosives consumption. The copper ores average about 1.1% copper and most
deposits are open-pit mined with significant overburdens. The second-most-important segment is iron ore
mining, where grades above 55% iron predominate, with stripping ratios in excess of 6:1.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


As one of the most vigorous economies in Latin America, Chile is well positioned to expand its industrial
mineral production as well as quarrying operations. These two sectors serve local industrial production of
glass, fertilizers and cement, and should continue to grow with the economic expansion of the country.

COLOMBIA
Colombias mineral sector is modest by world standards, with identified mineral resources that have seen
only limited development. Colombia accounted for slightly less than 7.5% of Latin American explosives
consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in Colombia is
summarized in the following table. Coal production accounts for almost 88% of Colombian explosives
use. Total consumption exhibited a significant growth during the 1992-1997 period. Continued but more
moderate growth is projected for the forecast period.
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Page 53

Colombian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese
Nickel
Silver
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Barite
Feldspar
Gemstones
Gypsum
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Rock Salt
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Calcite
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

24,286

21,656

23,128

26,551

30,679

33,022

33,500

36,000

316
363
622
7
6
719
61
3

0
311
503
5
8
703
54
3

207
235
563
3
2
805
43
3

221
239
677
3
9
745
43
3

178
250
588
3
9
853
47
3

92
213
680
3
9
962
26
3

113
35
618
3
9
962
0
0

175
269
700
3
9
900
46
3

2,097

1,586

1,861

1,941

1,932

1,988

1,740

2,105

332
3
41
0
59
3
9
4
0

0
2
32
0
39
2
14
4
1

0
3
40
0
40
2
14
5
0

239
8
31
0
40
2
15
5
1

268
3
41
0
46
2
12
3
0

267
0
35
0
50
2
13
2
0

267
0
29
0
50
2
14
2
0

267
3
37
4,500
46
2
13
4
0

452

92

104

340

374

370

364

4,871

1
15
2,612
3

1
15
2,563
3

1
15
2,286
6

1
15
3,143
11

1
15
2,310
15

1
15
2,186
16

1
15
2,612
16

1
15
2,612
16

2,631

2,582

2,308

3,170

2,341

2,219

2,644

2,644

29,466

25,916

27,401

32,002

35,326

37,599

38,249

45,620

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Colombia has the largest and highest-quality reserves of coal in Latin America. Unfortunately, the bulk of
these resources are located in the Cundinamarca Basin, near Bogota and therefore distant from export
ports and low-cost transportation infrastructure. At present, most coal produced in Colombia is thermal
coal from El Cerrejon, an open-pit operation that accounts for most of the consumption of explosives in
this sector. Colombia, however, is actively exploring ways of increasing coal production, particularly of
its high-grade metallurgical reserves. Moderate growth is projected for this sector during the forecast
period.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 54

Metal Mining
Colombia is a significant regional producer of nickel, iron ore and gold. However, a significant portion of
gold production originates from placer operations that require no explosives.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


The Colombian economy has a history of steady and stable growth, which should continue to result in
expansion of the industrial minerals sector as well as stone quarrying operations for construction.
Colombia is the worlds largest producer of emeralds and has cement and glass production that consumes
local raw materials.

PERU
Peru has traditionally been recognized as one of the important metal mining countries in Latin America.
The governments active privatization program in recent years has significantly increased the production
of copper, lead, zinc and iron ore, all significant users of explosives. Peru accounted for approximately
8% of regional consumption in 1998. Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in Peru is
summarized in the following table. Copper production accounts for about 54% of Peruvian explosives
use, followed by zinc, which accounts for 25%. Total consumption grew rapidly between 1992 and 1997,
but is projected to grow only marginally during the forecast period, due to dependence on base metal
production.
Peruvian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

58

44

49

36

38

38

40

50

Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese
Silver
Tin
Tungsten
Zinc

1
20,461
1
2,628
833
2
1,782
318
34
8,363

1
20,575
1
4,547
874
2
1,801
453
16
9,187

1
19,726
2
6,853
908
2
1,924
641
11
9,546

1
22,110
2
5,749
924
2
2,130
706
31
9,578

1
26,133
3
4,025
968
2
2,175
854
14
10,522

1
27,144
5
4,094
1,004
2
2,293
884
12
11,971

1
22,541
4
4,094
1,011
2
2,136
812
3
10,257

1
27,500
5
4,649
1,055
2
2,408
1,451
20
12,569

Total

34,423

37,456

39,613

41,234

44,697

47,410

40,860

49,660

6
2
3
11
1
0
0

9
3
3
11
1
0
0

20
3
3
11
1
0
0

14
3
3
9
1
0
10

14
3
3
31
1
0
12

14
3
3
31
1
0
12

23
3
3
31
1
0
12

14
3
3
31
1
1
12

24

27

38

40

64

64

74

65

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Pyrophillite
Talc
Travertine
Total

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1002 C

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 55

Peruvian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Quartz
Slate
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

15
242
1
7
2
49

15
263
1
7
2
49

18
261
1
7
2
49

1
704
1
7
2
49

0
712
1
7
3
49

0
712
1
7
3
49

0
712
1
7
4
49

0
750
1
7
4
49

316

337

339

765

773

773

774

812

34,820

37,865

40,040

42,075

45,573

48,286

41,748

50,587

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Peru has considerable coal resources that remain largely undeveloped. The success of the governments
privatization program has been limited by the distance between the coal reserves, in the north of the
country, and the major population and consumption centers.

Metal Mining
In terms of explosives consumption, the most important segments of this sector are copper, lead, zinc and
iron ore mining. Mining operations in Peru consist primarily of copper-lead-zinc mines, zinc-lead mines,
lead-zinc-silver mines, copper mines and precious metal mines.
Copper-lead-zinc mines are largely underground polymetallic deposits, although a few open-pit mines in
the group cause average stripping ratios for the group to exceed 2:1. Average metal grades for this group
are about 0.9% copper, 0.9% lead and 2.4% zinc with significant by-product values in precious metals.
Zinc-lead mines include both underground and open-pit operations with average stripping ratios higher
than the previous group and average metal grades of about 5.75% zinc, 1.7% lead and 0.007% silver.
Lead-zinc-silver mines are predominantly underground with 9.15% lead, 1.4% zinc and substantial silver
values (0.023%). Copper mines are similar to those in neighboring Chile, with 0.74% copper, significant
molybdenum by-product values and moderate stripping ratios (about 3.5:1).

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Peru has relatively modest industrial minerals and quarrying sectors, but government efforts at
privatization should eventually promote further growth in both.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 56

VENEZUELA
Venezuela accounted for approximately 6% of regional explosives consumption in 1997. Estimated
explosives consumption for mineral production in Venezuela is summarized in the following table. Iron
ore production accounts for 76% of Venezuelan explosives use. Total consumption exhibited a moderate
growth rate during the 1992-1997 period, which is projected to continue during the forecast period.
Venezuelan Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

2,733

4,362

4,886

4,699

4,608

5,823

5,850

6,500

Metal Mining
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead

318
22,752
163

334
20,324
152

375
22,067
163

264
22,833
174

436
22,180
174

830
22,116
174

268
24,281
174

830
23,000
174

Total

23,233

20,810

22,605

23,271

22,790

23,120

24,723

24,004

1,003
96
0
18
6
4

717
98
0
19
0
4

251
72
0
12
30
4

1,219
119
0
9
51
4

386
108
0
5
45
4

431
84
0
7
96
4

431
99
0
7
75
4

601
96
0
7
96
4

1,127

838

369

1,402

548

623

616

804

110
32
2,479
12
90

110
55
2,061
0
90

110
37
1,908
0
90

110
56
2,389
0
90

83
40
2,592
0
90

75
56
2,104
0
90

75
56
2,104
0
90

110
56
2,600
0
90

2,722

2,316

2,145

2,644

2,804

2,324

2,324

2,856

29,816

28,326

30,005

32,017

30,749

31,891

33,513

34,164

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Amphibolite
Feldspar
Diamond
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Pyrophillite
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Serpentine
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Coal mining accounted for approximately 18% of Venezuelan industrial explosives consumption in 1998.
This segment grew dramatically between 1992 and 1997. Additional, but moderate growth is projected.

Metal Mining
Venezuela is the worlds largest producer of direct-reduction iron and the production of iron ore to feed
this industry accounted for 98% of explosives use by the metal mining sector and 76% of total
Venezuelan explosives consumption in 1998. Gold production has increased sharply since 1995.
However, present low prices and future uncertainty may preclude further expansion in the near term.
2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 57

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Limestone production accounts for the bulk of Venezuelan quarry production, while amphibolite and
diamond dominate explosives consumption for industrial mineral production. The latter are projected to
recover from several years of decline, while limestone production is expected to increase marginally.

O THER LATIN AMERICA


The remaining countries of Latin America account for only about 2% of regional explosives consumption.
Metals mining, primarily nickel, gold and zinc, accounted for 55% for this group of countries in 1997.
The production of quarrying materials, mainly limestone, accounted for 43%. A handful of industrial
minerals accounted for the balance. This group of countries does not produce coal.
Other Latin American Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Nickel
Silver
Tin
Tungsten
Zinc

7
195
787
67
315
1,806
316
614
36
1,093

2
226
1,015
64
248
1,633
224
692
12
924

3
302
1,150
12
225
1,860
263
602
20
792

4
202
983
8
230
2,273
368
537
28
1,079

5
193
1,113
7
200
2,515
353
551
25
1,064

6
136
1,138
11
221
2,739
350
480
22
1,119

6
13
1,014
11
187
2,739
343
421
22
1,190

6
156
1,118
11
248
2,805
359
579
30
1,089

Total

5,237

5,041

5,229

5,712

6,026

6,223

5,947

6,401

0
5
64
2

0
8
66
1

3
8
73
1

4
9
145
1

3
11
67
1

3
38
68
2

5
36
67
2

4
26
70
1

72

76

85

160

83

110

110

101

10
2,678
3
405
722
0
653

11
2,764
3
420
760
0
653

17
3,135
3
444
852
0
653

17
2,882
2
466
886
0
653

14
2,773
3
477
897
28
670

14
2,941
2
504
913
6
508

14
2,941
2
504
913
6
508

17
3,380
2
524
1,006
12
670

4,473

4,613

5,103

4,907

4,862

4,888

4,887

5,612

9,781

9,729

10,417

10,779

10,970

11,221

10,943

12,114

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Ulexite
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Stone
Tuff
Undifferentiated
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1002 F

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 58

WESTERN EUROPE
The leading manufacturers of commercial explosives and blasting agents in Western Europe are Dyno
Nobel Europe, Dynamit Nobel, Orica, Nobel Explosifs France, Nitro Bickford and Unin Espaola de
Explosivos. In most countries only a small number of (or even single) companies have achieved stature.
Regulations and agreements have kept the business a national one. Companies in different countries
having similarities in name often have no other relation. However, manufacturers have established
international subsidiaries, in most cases by purchasing the operations of smaller producers.
Manufacturing of commercial and military explosives has traditionally been separated, with
manufacturers of commercial explosives serving civilian applications and industrial markets while
manufacturers of military explosives work in conjunctions with ministries of defense. In company groups
that manufacture products for both commercial and military use, production is usually carried out in
separate companies.
The industry also by tradition exercises considerable reserve regarding publication of information. While
justification may be sought in arguments about security, the fierce competitiveness of the market has also
not promoted its transparency. Western European capacity for commercial explosives exceeds demand
and the market is not increasing in size, although the volume consumed appears to be fairly stable.
Further consolidation of the industry is anticipated.
Estimates of explosives consumption have been developed for the mining industry from published
geological survey information on mineral production. Primary information concerning consumption is
generally not available. Commentary on the estimates in this report section, as provided by sources within
the commercial explosives manufacturing industry, has expanded its perspective beyond a strict focus on
the mining industry. More concrete information that would clarify discrepancies between developed
estimates and industry commentary was not, however, forthcoming.
The Federation of European Explosives Manufacturers (FEEM) is a strong association of manufacturers
that addresses problems of safety, security, transport and administration. Information regarding accidents
and their prevention is rapidly disseminated to assure that all participants in the market maintain equal
standards.

PRODUCING COMPANIES
The following table lists Western European producers of explosives, including some companies that serve
military applications, though commercial explosives are of principal interest:
Western European Producers of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents
Company and Plant Location

Products

Austria
Dynamit Nobel Wien Ges.mbH
Sankt-Lambrecht

Industrial, permissible and nitro explosives

Schaffler & Co. Ges.m.b.H


Winzendorf

Electric detonators and blasting accessories

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Western European Producers of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents (continued)


Company and Plant Location

Products

Belgium
Nobel Explosifs Belgique sa
Chatelet

Explosives for commercial use: nitrate fuel, ANFO


(cartridged and bulk), explosive emulsions, blasting
accessories

Finland
Nexplo Vihtavuori Oy
(formed as part of a joint venture between
Celsius AB and Patria Industries Oyj)
Vihtavuori

Nitro explosives and nitrocellulose, TNT, dynamite,


AN and permissible explosives, powders, emulsions
and detonating accessories

France
Cheddite SA
(Societe Nouvelle Basalte SA)
Bourg Les Valances
Davey Bickford
Hery
Explosifs et Produits Chimiques SA (EPC)
Billy-Berclau
St. Martin de Crau
Nobel Explosifs France SA (NEF)
Rivesaltes
Vonges

SNPE SA
(formerly Socit Nationale des Poudres
et Explosifs SA)
Angouleme
Bergerac
Pont de Buis
Saint Medard en Jalles
Sorgues
Toulouse
Titanite SA
Pontailler sur Saone

Hunting ammunition
Sales carried out by Nitro Bickford, in conjunction
with Nitrochimie
Initiators and detonating accessories and systems

ANFO and dynamite, emulsions, water gels, bulk


explosives, detonating accessories

Explosion bonded-clad metals


Black powder and commercial explosives (dynamites,
slurries, emulsion, ANFO)
Primarily military applications

Ball powders and solid propellants


Nitrocellulose and military powders
Damping materials and gunpowders
Ballistics, solid propellants and special devices
TNT, PETN, nitro explosives, picric acid, sodium
azide and military and civilian explosives
Ammonium perchlorate

ANFO, emulsion explosives

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Western European Producers of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents (continued)


Company and Plant Location

Products

Germany
Dynamit Nobel GmbH Explosivstoff- und
Systemtechnika
Troisdorf

Eurodyn Sprengmittel GmbH


(100%-owned subsidiary of Dynamit Nobel
Gmb)
Burbach-Wrgendorf
Wasagchemie Sythen GmbH
(owned by Wasag Chemie AG)
Haltern

WNC-Nitrochimie Aschau GmbH


Aschau am Inn

Gelatinous explosives (dynamite), emulsions (cartridge


and bulk), ANFO, seismic explosives, permissible
emulsion explosives, propellant powders, explosion
bonded-clad metals; initiators: nonelectric, electric,
electronic; detonating cord, primers, delay elements

Nitroglycerin, nitroglycol, gelatinous explosives

Permissible explosives, safety fuses, fireworks fuses,


black powders, exploders and accessories, vibration
meters and acoustic ground detectors

Nitrocellulose, propellants and combustible cartridge


cases

Greece
ELVIEMEK, SA
Inofyta

Nitroglycerin, PETN, dynamite, detonating cord,


distress signals, grenades, mines and safety fuses,
pentaplastic (plasticized PETN), demolition charges

Ireland
Kemek
(part of the EPC Groupe owned in equal
shares by ICI [United Kingdom], EPC
[France] and Irish shareholders)
Enfield

Nitroglycerin-based explosives and supplies

Italy
Cheddite Italia SpA
Aulla
Pravisani S.p.A.
Spilimbergo

Societa di Explosivi Italiana SpA


(part of the EPC Groupe)
Ghedi

Nitroglycerin and explosives, hunting ammunition

Nitroglycerin, detonating cord, dynamite diethylene


glycol dinitrate (DEGDN), ethylene glycol dinitrate
(EGDN)

Dynamite, slurries

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Western European Producers of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents (continued)


Company and Plant Location

Products

Netherlands
Muiden Chemie BV
(owned 100% by Royal Ordnance
[United Kingdom])
Muiden

Civil and military propellants

Norway
Dyno Nobel Europe
Defence Products
Saetre-i-Hurum
Gullaug Plant
Drammen

Nitrocellulose and military high explosives


Nitroglycerin, detonating cord, industrial explosives
and smokeless powders

Portugal
Sociedade Portuguesa de Explosivos, S.A.
(part of the EPC Groupe)
Seixal

TNT, explosives and ammunition

Spain
Ibernobel S.A.
(formerly an ICI subsidiary, now part
of the Orica organization)
Valderas
Unin Espaola de Explosivos, S.A.
Alumbres
El Garrobo
Galdacano
La Manjoya
Nanclares de Oca
Paramo de Masa

ANFO, emulsions

Industrial explosives
Industrial explosives
Nitrocellulose, PETN, explosives, gunpowder and
rocket propellants, boosters, detonating cord
Industrial explosives
Gun cartridges
Nitroglycerin, TNT and industrial explosives

Sweden
Dyno Nobel Europe
Gyttorp Plant
Nora
Ljungaverk Plant
Ljungaverk

Nitroglycerin, accessories for blasting, charging


equipment, detonators and explosives
Ammonium nitrates

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Western European Producers of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents (continued)


Company and Plant Location

Products

Sweden (continued)
Nexplo Industries AB
(joint venture between Celsius AB [Sweden]
and Patria Industries Oyj [Finland])
Karlskoga
Propellants and explosives for commercial and military
applications
Switzerland
EMS-DOTTIKON AG
(formerly known as Schweizerische
Sprengstoff Fabrik Dottikon AG and sold to
the EMS Group in 1988)
Dottikon

PETN; less than 2% of annual turnover is now in


explosives

Poudrerie Aubonne
Aubonne

Black powder

Schweizerische Munitionsunternehmung
Altdorf
Thun
Wimmis

Ammunition (military)
Ammunition (military and civil)
Propellant powder

Socit Suisse des Explosifs (SA)


Brig

PETN, nitroglycerin, emulsions, detonating cord

United Kingdom
Exchem Explosives Ltd.
(part of the EPC Groupe)
Alfreton
Harwich
Explosives Developments Ltd.
Yorkshire

Nitroglycerin, ANFO and slurries


Nitroglycerin and slurries

Water gel and emulsion explosives, initiating


explosives

Orica Explosives
(formerly Nobels Explosives Company Ltd.,
ICI Explosives Europe)
Wigan
Industrial slurry and emulsion explosives
a.

Dynamit Nobel GmbH Explosivstoff- und Systemtechnik in Germany no longer has links with
other Nobel companies in other countries (e.g., Austria, France).

SOURCES:

(A) 1998/1999 Directory of Chemical ProducersEurope, SRI International.


(B) CEH estimates.

The Western European industrial explosives business environment is highly competitive. Overcapacity
exists and consumption is not growing. Manufacturers have been and will continue to be forced to
rationalize and concentrate their businesses. Further efforts to expand business across national boundaries,
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especially by larger participants purchasing smaller ones, can be expected. Developments of particular
significance since 1995 are discussed in the following paragraphs.

Dynamit Nobel GmbH (Germany) established Dynamit Nobel Eesti OU in Johvi, Estonia, as a
subsidiary which commenced operation in 1998 with a combined annual capacity of 25 thousand
metric tons per year. In Germany and other major European markets Dynamit Nobels
Dynatronic electronic detonator system has been tested and successfully launched in the mining
and quarrying industries, maintaining the companys tradition as a detonation technology
development leader.

ICI PLC sold its explosives business in the Americas and Europe to its former subsidiary, ICI
Australia, in January 1998. It was then renamed to Orica and established as an independent
company in February 1998. Prior to this, ICI Explosives had established a foothold in the Spanish
explosives market in January 1996 by taking a 51% stake in Ibernobel, which it then increased to
80% in 1997. ICI sold its 51% stake in AECI of Johannesburg, South Africa to AECI itself.

Orica Explosives European headquarters has been established in Wigan (Lancashire), following
ICI PLCs divestiture to its former subsidiary, ICI Australia, which assumed the name Orica in
February 1998. The sale included manufacturing operations in the United Kingdom, Canada,
Mexico and Brazil, as well as distribution facilities in the United States. Products and services
comprised bulk and packaged explosives, initiating systems and blast management services to the
mining, quarrying, construction and exploration industries.

Dyno Industrier A.S.A, headquartered in Oslo, Norway, renamed its Explosives Division Dyno
Nobel in 1996 and undertook reorganization steps to focus on this core business. Dyno Nobel
comprises the business areas Dyno Nobel Americas, Dyno Nobel Asia Pacific and Dyno Nobel
Europe. In 1998 Dyno Nobel accounted for 55% of Dyno Industriers sales or nearly 60% of total
company profits. Dyno Nobel maintains production sites in 27 countries and has large market
shares in America and Europe. Most strongly based in Scandanavia, where it has recently
instituted a cost optimization program, the company is highly export-oriented and intends to
expand ammonium nitrate supplies and its distribution network, anticipating a trend toward
rationalization in the international mining and construction industries which will emphasize
global supply and sourcing of explosives products, for which it considers itself well-positioned.

Both Dyno Industrier and Orica bid separately in the first quarter of 1999 to form joint ventures
with AECI of Johannesburg, South Africa, but both offers were declined. Dyno and Orica rank as
the worldwide leading suppliers in commercial explosives and initiation systems manufacturing.
The two companies together account for roughly 40% of the international explosives market, with
the remainder made up of various smaller and regional players.

Nexplo Industries AB is a joint venture undertaken by Celsius AB of Sweden, with a 60% share,
and Patria Industries Oyj of Finland, owning 40%. The company began operations, in October
1998, producing propellants and explosives for commercial and military applications and has
production facilities in Vihtavuori, Finland and Karlskoga, Sweden. Nammo AS is another
Nordic joint venture, among Celsius AB, Patria Industries Oyj and Raufoss ASA of Norway,
which also began operations in October 1998, specializing in ammunition products.

Discussions of a possible fusion of activities between NITROCHEMIE Aschau GmbH


(Germany) and the Schweizerische Munitionsunternehmung of Thun were reported upon in June
of 1997. Subsequent developments are unknown.
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Developments in the Western European explosives market in recent years are occurring within an active
international context. Changes within the region are not isolated. Overcapacity, demands on products and
desire for improved services, stagnant consumption and strong competition are influencing local
manufacturers to concentrate their efforts to maintain profitability. Positioning for participation in global
markets appears to be a strong concern.

CONSUMPTION
Western Europes industrial explosives market is characterized as flat in terms of its consumption. The
market is traditionally small compared with other regions of the world, and growth in consumption is not
expected over the next five years. If trends in product market share continue, the value of the regional
market may decline somewhat.
The following table summarizes estimates of Western European explosives consumption by the mining
industries during the 1992-1997 period by individual country. A second table provides an end-use
breakdown. Both tables present projections for the year 2003. It should be noted that comments from
sources within Western Europe do not agree completely with the estimates, which are primarily based on
geological survey mineral production data. In addition, in some countries, a significant construction
market for explosives exists. That would be additive to the mining industry estimate that has been
developed. The leading consumer in 1997 was the United Kingdom, which accounted for 32% of the
Western European total. Sweden and Spain, with similar proportions, combined to account for an
additional 30%. Italy, accounting for an estimated 11%, was also a large consumer. The proportions of
total Western European consumption of explosives in all other countries were considerably smaller. Total
Western European mining industry consumption of industrial explosives in 1997 is estimated to have
been about 194 thousand metric tons. Industry sources estimate the total industrial explosives market in
Western Europe to be in excess of 300 thousand metric tons, with a combined value of roughly $430
million.
Western European Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by Country
(metric tons)
Austria

Belgium

Denmark

Finland

France

Germany

Greece

Iceland

Ireland

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

9,639
10,104
10,353
10,571
9,891
9,808
9,677

8,357
8,063
8,080
7,998
7,793
7,332
7,338

170
135
159
179
158
158
158

2,020
1,807
1,710
1,343
1,383
1,494
1,482

9,530
7,331
6,225
5,581
5,535
5,443
4,564

11,515
10,685
11,162
10,757
11,455
11,468
11,523

1,958
1,739
1,937
1,995
1,735
1,850
1,946

29
27
30
24
24
24
24

4,070
4,097
3,593
3,478
2,963
3,393
3,224

2003

9,985

6,888

154

1,428

4,901

11,617

1,855

25

3,412

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Western European Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by Country (continued)


(metric tons)
Portugal

Spain

Sweden

United
Kingdom

Total

3,594
3,257
3,577
3,432
3,146
3,007
2,806

9,200
8,092
11,685
7,712
8,947
6,826
7,027

25,565
23,884
25,453
27,484
30,459
27,534
27,634

30,666
30,600
29,051
30,975
27,850
30,754
31,078

81,669
73,292
64,649
65,519
60,874
61,952
61,312

221,447
205,249
200,040
199,692
194,812
193,542
192,384

3,055

6,967

26,409

30,513

60,301

190,072

Italy

Malta

Norway

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

23,090
21,777
22,016
22,318
22,274
22,172
22,265

376
359
359
327
327
327
327

2003

22,238

325

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Quarrying is the most important sector of the Western European mining industry, insofar as explosives
consumption is concerned, accounting for an estimated 53% of the market in 1997. Quarrying activity is
relatively flat, with a marginal upward trend. Metal mining ranks second and comprises about 25% of the
market. The volume of explosives consumed by this sector has declined marginally since 1992 and will
probably continue to do so. The coal mining sector has declined at a rapid rate of about 10% per year
since 1992, but still accounts for approximately 20% of this regional market. It is projected to decline
further, but at a much more moderate rate. The production of industrial minerals is minor, accounting for
only about 2%. The trend has been and is expected to remain, flat. In addition to mining, there is also a
significant but largely undefined construction market for explosives. Miscellaneous applications such as
seismic surveying and metal cladding, a expertise-intensive application offered by Dynamit Nobel and
SNPE, for example, are proportionally much smaller.
Western European Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use
(metric tons)
Coal
Mining

Metal
Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

64,634
55,501
43,686
45,095
43,758
38,937
38,346

50,393
44,459
43,529
46,815
45,381
48,158
47,521

3,748
3,384
3,547
3,727
3,756
3,685
3,620

102,671
101,903
109,278
104,056
101,916
102,762
102,897

221,447
205,249
200,040
199,692
194,812
193,542
192,384

2003

34,738

48,413

3,697

103,225

190,072

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

The market consists of two major segments: industrial explosives and initiating systems. Initiating
systems comprise specialty products with a high unit value, supported by systems expertise. Industrial
explosives, on the other hand, are more standardized. These two product areas represent only part of an
entire service package offered by commercial explosives manufacturers, the completeness of which is
growing in importance. Not only explosives product mixes and accessories such as detonating cord and

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detonators, whether nonelectric, electric or electronic, are offered, but companies have added storage,
drilling, filling, blasting advice and execution, dragging and even crushing to their portfolios.
The majority of industrial explosives consumed in Western Europe is based on ammonium nitrate.
Western European explosives consumption breakdown by product in 1997 was approximately 50%
ANFO, 30% emulsions and 20% dynamite. ANFO consumption is stable and emulsions are gaining
ground at the expense of dynamite, especially because the latter is more dangerous to manufacture.
Emulsions are not dangerous to manufacture, but can be difficult to produce properly, though technology
is readily available. Safety in transportation, ease of handling, a lower volume of fumes, and cleaner
residue gases and higher cost-performance ratio in comparison with other products are reasons for the
growth in emulsions use. For certain applications, dynamites (nitroglycerin-based explosives) still offer
better results than emulsions. While ANFO products carry the lowest price and are thus used wherever
possible, weather conditions (wetness) and geology are overriding considerations.
The main industrial explosive delivery forms in use in Western Europe are as follows:

On-site explosives (e.g., ANFO), where explosive grade is supplied separate from fuel oil and
mixed on-site (allowed in few countries, however, for safety and security reasons)

Factory-manufactured and packaged explosives (e.g., dynamites, emulsion- or water gelbased,


ANFO in cartridges or bags)

Bulk explosives (e.g., ANFO, emulsions or water-based slurries supplied by special trucks,
whether factory-sensitized explosives, site-mixed explosives or delivered directly to the borehole)

Generally, emulsions in bulk form are growing in importance. This poses logistical and distribution
challenges for suppliers who must locate a network of component stations strategically and efficiently
across a geographic area. Nobel Explosifs France and Nitro Bickford (the sales organization of
Nitrochimie and Davy Bickford, part of the EPC Group) have fifteen and ten warehouses, respectively,
distributed across France to serve major consumption centers. Dynamit Nobel maintains eighteen logistic
centers throughout Germany.
Commercial explosives manufacturers conform to strict safety regulations, particularly with regard to
transportation of products classified as potentially dangerous. This is a primary reason the industry has
developed on a national rather than an international scale. Domestic markets have tended to be favored
and profitable, due to a limited number of producers and governmental influence on market activity in
individual countries. Trade between countries is very small and between major geographic regions
smaller still. It is a relatively new development that companies would operate in more than one country,
this occurring mainly where a few firms have distinguished themselves as leaders by purchasing smaller
companies. In the current competitive climate, such activity can be expected to continue.
In construction, the use of explosives is limited primarily to tunneling and hydroelectric projects, which
are not in continuous demand. In tunneling projects, additionally, the length of the project influences the
choice of technology, with boring machines more economically employed for longer projects. Geology
remains a factor that influences this choice. Tunnels for the high-speed ICE trains between Hamburg and
Frankfurt and now between Cologne and Frankfurt in Germany are examples of recent projects, and
tunnels of 50- and 80-kilometer lengths through the Swiss Alps are planned. Similar projects, though not
of the same magnitude, will be carried out at other locations. Explosives use in demolition of buildings is
a very narrow application.

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Austria
The table below summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Austria.
Austria accounted for an estimated 5% of explosives consumption by the Western European mining
industry in 1997. The Austrian mining industry has been in decline, in spite of which explosives
consumption during the period 1992-1997 remained relatively stable. The number of operating mines has
continued to drop and extraction of minerals is becoming more difficult. Quarrying materials remains the
sector of strongest activity, accounting for 88% of estimated explosives consumption in 1997. Limestone
and dolomite producers are the major consumers. The production of quarrying materials has been
increasing and is projected to continue to increase marginally. Metal mining, which accounted for an
estimated 10% of this market in 1997, is dominated by iron ore production. This sector is not projected to
change significantly. Significant change is also not expected in the small industrial mineral sector. Coal
mining in Austria is restricted to the Graz-Kflacher Bergbaugesellschaft, which produces roughly one
million metric tons per year for a neighboring electrical power station and the Wolsegg-Traunthaler
Kohlenwerks GmbH, which has discontinued underground in favor of open-pit operations. This sector
consumes little or no explosives.
Austrian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992
Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Iron Ore
Lead
Tungsten
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Basalt
Dolomite
Limestone
Marl
Quartzite
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

823
17
73
220

722
14
4
279

837
0
0
0

1,071
0
31
0

938
0
60
0

911
0
59
0

782
0
59
0

911
0
60
0

1,134

1,020

837

1,102

998

970

841

971

2
80
170
13

1
88
111
12

1
108
116
11

0
97
134
11

0
100
107
11

0
101
120
13

0
100
120
13

0
100
115
14

264

212

236

242

218

234

233

229

1,088
1,941
3,151
239
92
1,731

891
2,569
3,200
258
77
1,878

1,086
2,697
3,264
209
75
1,949

1,115
2,906
3,115
175
71
1,845

185
3,027
3,265
181
57
1,959

172
2,976
3,265
181
51
1,959

172
2,976
3,265
181
51
1,959

175
3,000
3,380
180
50
2,000

8,241

8,872

9,280

9,227

8,675

8,604

8,604

8,785

9,639

10,104

10,353

10,571

9,891

9,808

9,677

9,985

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

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Belgium
The following table summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Belgium.
Belgium accounted for an estimated 4% of the explosives consumption by the Western European mining
industry in 1997. This market declined moderately during the 1992-1997 period and is projected to
decline marginally during the forecast period. Quarrying activities account for almost all of the explosives
consumption. Limestone producers are the major consumers, followed by dolomite. Metal mining is not a
significant industrial sector in Belgium. The coal mining and metal mining industries register no
consumption of explosives, and coal production has ceased. Nobel Explosifs Belgique, the sole national
producer of explosives, dominates this market with a share of some 65-70%.
Belgian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992
Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Quartzite
Sandstone
Undifferentiated
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

301

20

20

20

20

20

20

27

20

1,316
375
5,453
90
264
539

1,322
375
5,453
90
264
539

1,322
375
5,469
90
264
539

1,322
375
5,388
90
264
539

1,117
375
5,388
90
264
539

1,146
375
4,898
90
264
539

1,146
375
4,898
90
264
539

1,100
375
4,500
90
264
539

8,037

8,043

8,060

7,978

7,773

7,312

7,312

6,868

8,357

8,063

8,080

7,998

7,793

7,332

7,338

6,888

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Denmark
Mineral production and explosives consumption by the mining industry in Denmark are minimal.
Limestone is the only significant product. A marginal decrease in explosives consumption is projected for
the forecast period.

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Danish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial Minerals

3
167

3
131

3
156

3
176

4
154

3
155

3
155

4
150

170

135

159

179

158

158

158

154

170

135

159

179

158

158

158

154

Quarrying Materials
Granite
Limestone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Finland
The following table summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Finland.
Mining activity in Finland is very minor and accounted for less than 1% of the explosives consumption by
the Western European mining industry in 1997. This small market declined significantly during the 19921997 period and is projected to decline marginally during the forecast period. Metal mining accounted for
about 57%, quarrying for 30% and industrial minerals for about 13%. Zinc, copper and nickel are the
main metal products. Limestone is the only significant quarry product and phosphate rock accounts for
most of the industrial materials production. Indicating that data on the Finnish mining industry does not
account completely for commercial explosives consumption, industry sources in Western Europe estimate
1997 consumption at approximately 6 thousand metric tons.
Finnish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Lead
Nickel
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Phosphate Rock
Talc
Wollastonite
Total

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

36
251
6
568
458

27
273
0
508
315

32
325
0
468
236

31
240
0
211
229

30
227
0
131
367

31
209
0
184
430

32
221
0
175
418

30
200
0
175
402

1,319

1,123

1,062

710

755

853

846

807

8
138
32
2

9
156
34
2

7
163
39
2

7
166
40
3

7
163
30
2

7
161
30
2

7
159
28
2

5
160
30
1

180

201

212

216

201

200

195

196

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Finnish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Quarrying Materials
Limestone

521

483

436

417

427

441

441

425

Total

2,020

1,807

1,710

1,343

1,383

1,494

1,482

1,428

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

France
The following table summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in France.
France accounted for an estimated 3% of explosives consumption by the Western European mining
industry in 1997. This market declined rapidly during the 1992-1997 period and is projected to continue
to decline during the forecast period. The mining industry in France has seen significant changes in recent
years, notably in the coal and metal mining sectors. Mines have been closed and agreements for further
output reductions made. Sources within the industry place French commercial explosives consumption
much higher than that based solely on geological survey data, suggesting that the mining industry is not a
dominant consumer. Consumption is estimated to lie between 40 thousand and 50 thousand metric tons.
The major suppliers in this market are Nobel Explosifs France and Nitro Bickford, each with shares of 3540%, followed by Titanite with roughly 20%.
French Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

2,917

2,670

2,474

2,159

2,250

2,154

2,100

1,392

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Uranium
Zinc

6
4,012
921
165

3
2,473
681
138

7
1,701
551
10

7
1,052
322
0

7
1,029
316
0

7
1,019
310
0

0
203
300
0

7
1,000
300
0

Total

5,103

3,295

2,269

1,380

1,351

1,336

503

1,307

39
35
253
5
113
6
13

27
34
245
5
89
7
11

29
48
255
6
76
9
12

30
78
236
8
70
10
12

31
67
223
8
66
22
13

30
68
221
8
44
18
12

30
62
221
8
57
18
12

30
80
225
10
25
20
11

465

419

435

445

431

402

409

401

Quarrying Materials
Limestone

1,045

947

1,047

1,597

1,502

1,551

1,551

1,800

Total

9,530

7,331

6,225

5,581

5,535

5,443

4,564

4,901

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Kyanite
Potash
Rock Salt
Talc
Total

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

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Coal mining
Coal production in France has been declining for many years and plans for closure in 2005 have now been
agreed upon. Explosives consumption in this sector declined by 4.9% per year between 1992 and 1997.
Charbonnages de France, the national producer, faced with deep and heavily faulted mines that are costly
to maintain and with dwindling reserves, recorded losses in 1995, 1996 and 1997. Production declines
will continue, accompanied by reduction in explosives consumption estimated at 7% per year through
2003.

Metal mining
The metal mining sector accounted for the largest drop in explosives consumption in the French mining
industry between 1992 and 1997, falling from about 5.1 thousand metric tons to an estimated 1.3
thousand metric tons, an average annual decline of 20%. Iron ore and uranium mining are the primary
explosives consumers and production of each has declined dramatically since 1992. Projections foresee a
minor decline through 2003.

Quarrying and nonmetal mining


As a heavily industrialized country, France produces a number of industrial minerals for its glass,
aluminum and construction industries. Consumption of explosives for quarrying materials (limestone)
production has risen rapidly and is expected to continue to grow. Consumption for industrial minerals has
fallen slightly. Potash production has declined dramatically and further significant decline will occur
during the forecast period. Explosives consumption in this sector is dominated by the production of
gypsum.

Germany
The table below summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Germany.
Germany accounted for an estimated 6% of the explosives consumption by the Western European mining
industry in 1997. This market increased marginally during the 1992-1997 period and is projected to
continue to increase marginally during the forecast period. The quarrying minerals sector accounts for
more than 90% of Germanys explosives consumption. This sector is expected to offset declines in metal
mining and industrial minerals during the forecast period. Sources within industry itself place total
German commercial explosives consumption as high as 70 thousand metric tons in 1997, leading all
Western European nations, thus the mining industry would appear to account for only 15-20% of the total
explosives market. The leading explosives producer in Germany is Dynamit Nobel, manufacturing in
Troisdorf, with its 100% owned subsidiary Eurodyn located in Wrgendorf. Besides offering a wide range
of explosives products, Dynamit Nobel has consistently advanced detonation technology and currently
offers nonelectric Dynashoc detonators, electric Dynadet detonators and electronic Dynatronic
detonators, which have been successfully field-tested in Australia.

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German Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Metal Mining
Iron Ore
Lead
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Potash
Rock Salt
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Limestone
Quartz
Slate
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

77
31
42

102
0
0

102
0
0

48
0
0

70
0
0

70
0
0

75
0
0

64
0
0

150

102

102

48

70

70

75

64

63
41
98
861
1

53
51
103
578
1

51
47
111
662
1

49
41
139
663
1

49
44
147
673
1

49
44
147
687
1

49
56
147
642
1

34
48
145
687
1

1,063

787

873

893

915

929

895

916

2
10,286
5
8

3
9,780
4
9

3
10,167
5
12

3
9,796
5
12

3
10,449
5
12

3
10,449
5
12

3
10,531
5
15

3
10,612
5
17

10,301

9,796

10,187

9,816

10,469

10,469

10,553

10,638

11,515

10,685

11,162

10,757

11,455

11,468

11,523

11,617

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal mining
Though the German coal industry ranked sixth worldwide in production in 1997 with an output of 223.5
million metric tons, consumption of explosives is insignificant, since nearly all German coal production is
extracted using long-wall methods and continuous miners. German coals are high quality and were
exported to the rest of Europe as recently as ten to twelve years ago. Plans for the industry including mine
closures foresee that the coal industry should be self-supporting by 2005.

Metal mining
Germany used to be an important producer of lead and zinc and a minor producer of copper. However, the
mines, which were among the oldest in the world, have essentially exhausted their reserves. This
circumstance is reflected in explosives consumption estimates. Minor amounts of explosives are used in
the production of iron ore.

Quarrying and nonmetal mining


Industrial mineral production has fluctuated around a moderate downward trend that is reflected in the
consumption estimates for explosives. Little change is projected for the forecast period. Potash production

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is the main consumer in this sector. Quarrying minerals production (mainly limestone) has been flat and is
projected to remain so.

Greece
The following table summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Greece.
This country accounted for only about 1% of the explosives consumption by the Western European
mining industry in 1997. This market declined marginally during the 1992-1997 period and is projected to
remain at about the present level during the forecast period. Metal mining accounts for more than 85% of
consumption. The production of nickeliferous ore and nickel itself, which has increased moderately since
1992, is the major consumer. Lead and zinc production has been declining. The production of industrial
minerals (mainly magnesite) has risen
Greek Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Metal Mining
Chromite
Lead
Manganese Ore
Nickel
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Marble
Quartz
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1
278
139
944
373

1
291
92
792
347

0
287
81
1,113
240

0
206
93
1,221
202

2
117
104
1,090
190

2
195
95
1,078
248

2
250
95
1,078
289

2
195
90
1,075
250

1,735

1,523

1,722

1,723

1,502

1,618

1,713

1,612

1
4
46
80

1
4
45
82

0
6
46
98

0
5
49
97

0
5
55
117

1
5
50
111

1
5
50
111

0
6
55
115

131

131

150

150

177

167

167

176

0
91
0

18
66
0

26
38
1

31
90
1

8
47
1

17
47
1

16
49
2

15
50
2

91

84

65

122

55

65

66

67

1,958

1,739

1,937

1,995

1,735

1,850

1,946

1,855

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Commercial explosives manufacturing sources indicate levels of consumption in Greece that stretch
considerably beyond estimates based on geological survey data, reaching quantities in 1997 in excess of
10 thousand metric tons.

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Iceland
The consumption of industrial explosives by the mining industry in Iceland is essentially negligible. The
only mineral production documented is the production of a relatively small volume of basalt. No
significant change from the recent historical level of production and consumption of explosives is
expected.
Icelandic Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial Minerals

Quarrying Materials
Basalt

29

27

30

24

24

24

24

25

29

27

30

24

24

24

24

25

Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Ireland
Ireland accounted for an estimated 1.7% of the explosives consumed by the Western European mining
industry in 1997. Irish consumption, which declined at an annual rate of about 3% between 1992 and
1997, is forecast to remain flat through the forecast period. Metal mining accounted for more than 90% of
this consumption, mainly for zinc mine production. Coal production has ceased, for official reporting
purposes, as has barite production. Consumption for limestone quarrying has been stagnant.
Irish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

665

665

133

Metal Mining
Lead
Zinc

434
2,722

489
2,708

543
2,715

699
2,570

459
2,292

457
2,719

466
2,543

480
2,717

Total

3,156

3,197

3,259

3,269

2,751

3,176

3,009

3,196

46
35

35
32

0
33

0
41

0
43

0
48

0
45

0
45

81

67

33

41

43

48

45

45

163
4

163
4

163
5

163
5

163
7

163
6

163
6

163
7

167

167

168

168

170

169

169

171

4,070

4,097

3,593

3,478

2,963

3,393

3,224

3,412

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Gypsum
Total
Quarrying Materials
Limestone
Undifferentiated
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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Italy
The following table summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Italy.
Italy accounted for an estimated 11% of the explosives consumption by the Western European mining
industry in 1997. The Italian mining industry and the consumption of explosives declined marginally
during 1992-1997. The focus of the Italian mining industry is on the production of quarrying materials.
This industry has well-developed operations for various types of stone used in construction and for
decorative purposes. There is some coal production in Sardinia, but it is soft coal and requires little or no
explosives. The metal mining industry is shrinking. The industrial mineral mining industry continues to
grow moderately. Sources within the commercial explosives manufacturing industry indicate a
consumption level for explosives in Italy of about 15 thousand metric tons for 1997, somewhat lower than
the analysis of the mining industry in the table below indicates. Little change in explosives consumption
is anticipated for the forecast period.
Italian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Lead
Manganese Ore
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Potash
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Quartz
Sandstone
Serpentine
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

676
4
162

232
4
26

435
4
106

474
3
114

440
3
51

369
3
39

397
3
60

350
2
45

842

262

545

591

494

411

460

397

30
171
41
10
6

21
189
59
2
5

23
223
67
0
5

18
271
116
0
5

33
285
98
0
5

11
272
98
0
5

12
285
98
0
4

25
275
100
0
5

259

276

318

410

421

385

399

405

140
20
20,408
267
671
45
198
238

140
14
19,592
346
667
45
198
238

140
14
19,592
354
571
45
198
238

140
14
19,592
439
667
45
198
222

140
1
19,592
492
667
5
198
264

140
1
19,592
487
714
5
198
238

140
1
19,592
493
732
5
198
244

140
1
19,592
500
750
5
198
250

21,989

21,239

21,153

21,317

21,359

21,376

21,406

21,436

23,090

21,777

22,016

22,318

22,274

22,172

22,265

22,238

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

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Metal mining
Metal mine production in Italy is shrinking, as is the market for industrial explosives. Mines in operation
to supply the lead and zinc smelters have gradually closed over the past decade as reserves have dwindled
and operating costs have escalated. Production of lead and zinc at Italian smelting operations has become
increasingly dependent upon secondary sources, such as recycled automobile batteries. Further decline in
the production of metallic minerals and a similar decline in the consumption of explosives in this sector
are anticipated.

Quarrying and nonmetal mining


Traditionally, Italy has been a major world supplier of quarrying products and this sector is among the
most developed in Europe. Moderate growth is anticipated in selected products, mostly from operations in
the Alps and Sardinia. Production of limestone dominates explosives consumption in this sector.
Explosives consumption for production of marble and marl has increased. Feldspar and gypsum dominate
the consumption of explosives by the industrial minerals sector. Overall this area increased its explosives
consumption by an average 6.8% per year between 1992 and 1997. Continued marginal growth is
projected for both quarrying materials and industrial minerals.

Malta
The mining industry in Malta is a very minor consumer of explosives. Limestone quarrying is the only
significant end use. Limestone production and explosives consumption declined moderately between
1992 and 1997. Significant change is not anticipated during the forecast period.
Maltese Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Industrial Minerals
Quarrying Materials
Limestone
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

376

359

359

327

327

327

327

325

376

359

359

327

327

327

327

325

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Norway
The following table summarizes estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Norway.
Norway accounted for less than 2% of explosives consumption by the Western European mining industry
in 1997. The main areas of consumption are in metal mining and in quarrying materials. Metal production
has been decreasing and continues to decline. Coal production in this oil-rich nation is also declining.
Production of construction materials is strong, however. The growth in consumption of explosives for
quarrying materials reflects in part the strength in this activity. Industry sources indicate that consumption
estimates supported solely by the analysis of the mining industry summarized in the following table
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Page 77

underestimate Norwegian commercial explosives consumption by a considerable margin. Scandinavia as


a whole is a leading consumer at roughly 60 thousand metric tons in 1997 and Norways portion accounts
for about half of this amount. Dyno Nobel Europe maintains production facilities in Drammen and Saetrei-Hurum.
Norwegian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

478

354

400

456

347

346

346

346

Metal Mining
Copper
Ilmenite
Iron Ore
Lead
Nickel
Zinc

311
141
1,089
38
208
302

213
142
1,094
17
212
200

182
165
1,196
31
204
222

167
166
1,018
15
207
138

182
150
863
21
192
138

164
150
860
30
150
63

66
150
755
30
150
64

165
150
860
30
160
100

Total

2,090

1,879

2,000

1,711

1,545

1,417

1,216

1,465

17
56
5

13
59
4

11
47
2

13
50
3

13
51
2

13
51
2

13
51
2

13
51
2

78

76

60

65

66

66

65

65

215
571
162

215
571
162

246
711
160

263
763
173

264
751
172

264
735
180

264
735
180

264
735
180

948

948

1,117

1,200

1,188

1,179

1,179

1,179

3,594

3,257

3,577

3,432

3,146

3,007

2,806

3,055

Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Nepheline Syenite
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Quartz
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Portugal
Portugal accounted for about 4% of the estimated explosives consumed by the Western European mining
industry in 1997. Consumption has been fluctuating around an overall downward trend and is estimated to
have declined at an average annual rate of about 5% since 1992. Quarrying materials and metal mining
account for the largest shares of consumption and both sectors have been in decline. Copper mining
accounts for the bulk of the explosives consumed by the metal mining sector. Limestone and granite
producers are the primary users in the quarrying sector. Little change in explosives consumption in
Portugal is anticipated during the forecast period.

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Portuguese Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

294

287

197

186

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Tin
Tungsten
Uranium

3,738
7
40
48
1

3,774
8
70
33
1

3,279
7
57
3
1

3,293
7
61
47
1

2,645
9
61
33
1

2,614
9
53
34
1

2,807
9
53
35
1

2,700
11
50
35
1

Total

3,833

3,886

3,348

3,409

2,749

2,710

2,905

2,797

17
42
14
1

15
46
13
1

15
45
12
1

18
45
13
1

17
52
15
1

17
45
14
1

17
50
14
1

17
49
15
1

74

75

74

77

84

77

82

81

27
50
1,562
3,265
90
1
5

27
165
1,106
2,449
90
2
6

141
156
2,260
5,410
94
3
4

27
165
1,302
2,449
90
5
3

27
169
33
5,775
107
3
2

27
165
1,302
2,449
90
4
3

27
165
1,302
2,449
90
4
3

27
165
1,300
2,500
90
8
1

4,999

3,844

8,066

4,040

6,114

4,039

4,039

4,090

9,200

8,092

11,685

7,712

8,947

6,826

7,027

6,967

Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Gypsum
Rock Salt
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Basalt
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Quartzite
Quartz
Slate
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Spain
Spain accounted for a 15% share of estimated explosives consumption by the mining industry in Western
Europe in 1997. Coal mining (36%) and metal mining (41%) dominate consumption. Quarrying activity
also accounts for a large share of the market. Estimated explosives consumption by the mining industry in
Spain grew at an average annual rate of about 1.5% between 1992 and 1997. Gains in the metal mining
and quarrying materials sectors more than compensated for losses in consumption by coal mining. A
marginal decline in total consumption is expected during the forecast period as coal production continues
to decline. Industrial explosives manufacturers rank Spain among the leading nations in commercial
explosives consumption, a position also reflected in estimates based on geological survey data. Total
Spanish explosives consumption is said to be roughly in the range of 40-50 thousand metric tons. Having
had a virtual monopoly for many years, Unin Espaola de Explosivos has in recent years faced more
competitive pressure.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 A

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 79

Spanish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

13,307

13,858

13,433

12,677

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Mercury
Uranium
Zinc

2,299
2,563
420
0
83
1,679

858
1,732
287
5
95
1,396

1,204
3,259
268
30
133
1,234

Total

7,044

4,373

3
30
332
104
48
163
2

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Potash
Rock Salt
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Basalt
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Quartz
Quartzite
Sandstone
Serpentine
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1997

1998

2003

12,712

9,939

9,900

8,000

5,512
1,500
341
113
186
1,414

9,144
919
270
65
188
1,149

9,214
91
271
31
188
1,409

9,753
0
273
38
188
1,051

10,000
100
275
115
185
1,150

6,127

9,067

11,734

11,205

11,302

11,825

7
30
356
104
53
151
2

11
31
358
104
55
171
2

12
47
368
128
61
133
4

11
51
368
127
55
144
3

11
56
368
130
52
132
3

12
53
373
130
51
76
3

11
56
368
130
52
132
3

683

704

734

753

761

753

698

753

585
1,609
196
286
171
189
180
239
167
129
782

874
1,653
233
261
184
190
290
180
157
127
800

878
1,616
267
237
184
238
272
359
147
143
819

233
1,693
359
380
170
245
262
405
258
155
828

234
1,873
399
392
212
248
272
395
255
143
829

273
1,984
399
408
248
405
272
431
245
143
829

274
1,992
412
417
274
415
274
441
250
146
839

275
2,000
425
425
300
425
275
450
255
150
850

4,531

4,949

5,160

4,988

5,252

5,637

5,733

5,830

25,565

23,884

25,453

27,484

30,459

27,534

27,634

26,409

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal mining
Coal production in Spain has been declining. Long protected by government subsidies, this sector is
constrained by European Community directives that will lead to continued decreases in production and
considerable workforce reduction.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 B

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 80

Metal mining
Spanish metallic mineral reserves are considerable, but with the exception of copper, production during
recent years has been low and in the case of iron ore has declined drastically. Between 1992 and 1997,
copper production and estimated explosives consumption, increased by a factor of four. Production of
iron ore, however, has declined drastically, as subsidies for further support of activities were not granted.
Metal mine production and consumption of explosives are expected to increase marginally during the
forecast period.

Quarrying and nonmetal mining


The quarrying sector of Spains mining industry is large and well diversified, and modest growth is
expected to continue, at a rate consistent with overall economic growth and the outlook for the
construction industry. Production of all products except basalt has shown gains between 1992 and 1997.
The industrial mineral sector in Spain is relatively small. Gypsum, magnesite and salt are the largest
explosives users. This sector is expected remain constant.

Sweden
Sweden accounted for 16% of the estimated consumption of industrial explosives by the mining industry
in Western Europe in 1997. The level of consumption has remained fairly steady and as overall
consumption in Western Europe has declined, Swedens proportion has grown. A slight drop is projected
for the forecast period. Metal mining consumes some 79% of explosives used in Swedish mining.
Quarrying accounts for almost all of the balance. Commercial explosives manufacturing industry sources
corroborate consumption estimates developed on the basis of geological survey data as being adequately
descriptive of Swedish consumption levels during recent years. Dyno Nobel, a European market leader,
has production facilities in Ljungaverk and Nora.
Swedish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

12

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Zinc

15,973
5,158
816
1,950

15,931
5,011
855
1,917

14,224
5,261
863
1,817

14,980
5,789
1,050
1,900

12,848
5,624
1,042
1,823

15,517
5,858
1,117
1,796

15,407
6,263
1,071
1,872

15,061
5,800
1,110
1,900

Total

23,898

23,714

22,166

23,718

21,337

24,289

24,613

23,871

4
15
1

4
15
1

5
13
1

6
6
1

6
0
1

6
0
1

6
0
1

6
0
1

20

20

19

13

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Olivine
Talc
Total

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 C

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 81

Swedish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Quartz
Sandstone
Undifferentiated
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

3
232
887
611
100
5
4,898

3
257
998
601
100
5
4,898

4
257
998
601
100
5
4,898

4
257
639
1,339
103
5
4,898

4
220
698
1,388
105
10
4,082

4
220
698
1,344
100
10
4,082

4
220
698
1,344
100
10
4,082

5
220
700
1,500
100
10
4,100

6,735

6,861

6,862

7,244

6,507

6,458

6,458

6,634

30,666

30,600

29,051

30,975

27,850

30,754

31,078

30,513

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Metal mining
The metal mining sector accounts for almost 80% of explosives consumption in the Swedens mining
industry. Metal production and the consumption of explosives has been relatively constant. Copper
mining is the largest consumer, followed by iron ore production. Zinc and lead mine production also
consumes significant quantities of explosives. This country continues to be a major world producer and
exporter of iron ore. Sweden is a major supplier of mining equipment and mining technology for the
world. This allows Swedish mines to maintain productivity in the face of declining reserves and grades.
Mine production of metallic minerals is anticipated to continue without major declines in the foreseeable
future. Little change in explosives consumption is anticipated for the forecast period.

Quarrying and nonmetal mining


Quarrying operations account for an estimated 20% of the mining industrys explosives consumption.
Although the sector declined marginally between 1992 and 1997, some recovery is projected. Industrial
mineral output is relatively modest by regional standards and is not projected to change during the
forecast period.

United Kingdom
The United Kingdom accounted for 32% of the estimated consumption of industrial explosives by the
mining industry in Western Europe in 1997. The level of consumption has fluctuated around a relatively
level trend line. Once the largest consumer, the coal industry accounted for about 43% of the 1997 total,
while quarrying activity accounted for an estimated 56%. Consumption by the metal mining and
industrial minerals sectors is minimal. Total explosives consumption is projected to decline marginally
during the forecast period as further rationalization of the coal industry occurs. Sources within the
industry suggest that consumption levels in the United Kingdom have dropped into the range of 40
thousand metric tons annually, indicating that the estimate for consumption by the coal industry, in the
table below, may be exaggerated. The leading UK explosives producers are Orica and Exchem.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 D

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 82

United Kingdom Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

46,661

37,663

27,044

29,617

28,449

26,497

26,000

25,000

Metal Mining
Iron Ore
Lead
Tin

8
16
63

0
16
69

0
32
60

0
26
61

0
29
65

0
29
74

0
26
12

0
30
70

Total

88

86

92

87

95

104

38

100

31
1
265
43
90

13
1
265
44
72

22
1
212
47
102

34
1
212
47
108

41
1
212
50
108

30
1
212
46
108

30
1
212
46
108

29
1
212
49
110

430

395

384

402

412

397

398

401

77
6,810
11,505
14,596
1,459
45

76
6,607
11,527
15,302
1,573
63

76
6,471
11,273
17,408
1,859
42

76
6,595
11,386
15,419
1,910
27

92
5,878
10,118
14,097
1,690
44

93
6,245
10,077
16,784
1,714
41

52
6,122
10,039
16,892
1,732
40

10
6,000
10,000
17,000
1,750
40

34,491

35,149

37,130

35,412

31,918

34,954

34,877

34,800

81,669

73,292

64,649

65,519

60,874

61,952

61,312

60,301

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Potash
Rock Salt
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Sandstone
Slate
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal mining
Traditionally one of the largest in Europe and the world, the coal industry in the United Kingdom ranked
sixteenth worldwide in terms of production in 1997. Since 1992 a number of mines have been closed,
while strategic development at others has been postponed. Coal production in the United Kingdom fell by
roughly 1.8 million metric tons between 1994 and 1997 and should continue to decline as the
restructuring process proceeds. The largest coal producer in the United Kingdom, RJB Mining, now
controls 70% of the countrys remaining deep mines, which in 1997 produced 64% of 47.1 million tons
mined. Consumption of natural gas as an alternate fuel source has had the greatest impact on demand for
coal in the United Kingdom. Government action has sought to slow the changeover to gas-fired power
plants. It is expected that coal production and consequently explosives consumption, will continue to
decrease.

Metal mining
The United Kingdom is not a significant producer of metallic minerals and operations are generally old
and costly. Little change in the level of explosives is projected for this sector during the forecast period.
2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 E

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 83

Quarrying and nonmetal mining


The production of limestone, granite and dolomite are the main consumers of explosives by the quarrying
industry. Little overall change has occurred since 1993 and significant change is not projected for the
forecast period. Gypsum and salt are the main consumers among the industrial minerals. Significant
change is not expected.

EASTERN EUROPE
This region includes Albania, Bulgaria, the former Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and the
former Yugoslavia. The explosive manufacturers listed below are known producers of commercial
explosives in this region. There are military explosives manufacturers in the region that could possibly
manufacture industrial products.
Eastern European Manufacturers of Explosives
Company and
Plant Location

Annual Capacity
as of Late 1999
(thousands of
metric tons)

Products and Remarks

Bulgaria
Smjadow Chemical Works
Smajdowo

na

na

na

Gelatin explosives for mining.

20

Gelatin and bulk explosives for mining;


emulsions; special-purpose explosives; TNT;
nitrocellulose based PETN; blasting agents,
including black powder; nitroglycerine powders,
diglycol powders; dinitrotoluene; nitrocellulose.

Nitro-Chem S.A.
Bydgoszcz

10

TNT; PETN.

Zaklady Tworzyw Sztucznych


Nitron S.A.
Krupski Mlyn

20

Precise product mix unknown.

Zaklady Tworzyw Sztucznych


Pronit
Pionki

Bosnia and Herzegovina


Vitezit
Vitez
Czech Republic
Aliachem A.S.
Pardubice

Poland

Precise product mix unknown; military


explosives also manufactured.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 F

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 84

Eastern European Manufacturers of Explosives (continued)


Company and
Plant Location

Annual Capacity
as of Late 1999
(thousands of
metric tons)

Products and Remarks

Romania
Rompiro S.A.
Fagaras

10

TNT is included among the products, but


capacity is not solely dedicated.

Slovak Republic
Dyno-Chemko S.A.
Strazske

ANFO; bulk explosives; emulsions.

Istrochem, a.s.
Bratislava

TNT is included among the products, but


capacity is not believed solely dedicated; blasting
agents for mining and quarrying.

na

ANFO; emulsions, mining powder explosives;


black powder.

na

ANFO; emulsions; powder.

Slovenia
Kemiyska Industriya
Kamnik

Yugoslavia
Trayal
Krusevac
SOURCE:

CEH estimates.

The following two tables contain estimates of industrial explosives consumption in Eastern Europe by the
various sectors of the mining industry. In 1997, coal mining accounted for an estimated 57% of regional
industrial explosives consumption. Quarrying accounted for 28% and metal mining accounted for about
15%. Consumption for the production of industrial minerals was minor. Poland and the former
Czechoslovakia are the major consumers, accounting for about 56% and 31%, respectively. During the
1992-1997 period, it is estimated that consumption grew by an average of about 1% per year. All
countries recorded some growth in consumption during the period except the former Yugoslavia. Only a
marginal regional increase is projected for the forecast period, as a decline in coal mine production in
Poland is anticipated.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 G

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 85

Eastern European Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by Country


(metric tons)
Albania

Bulgaria

Former
Czechoslovakia

Hungary

Poland

Romania

Former
Yugoslavia

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

154
194
110
158
214
214
201

7,242
9,033
7,719
8,777
9,925
9,925
9,421

114,613
116,944
120,208
120,568
114,344
118,421
118,394

3,065
2,861
3,295
3,044
3,120
3,320
3,319

203,721
206,200
211,748
216,658
217,711
214,789
214,514

10,698
10,873
12,640
11,783
10,482
10,776
10,850

27,132
23,658
25,536
26,238
26,191
26,282
25,647

366,625
369,764
381,256
387,226
381,986
383,726
382,347

2003

227

10,704

132,412

3,856

202,940

12,332

27,594

390,064

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Eastern European Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use


(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

217,620
214,824
216,795
220,833
220,641
217,994
218,187

55,056
55,978
50,063
50,866
52,257
52,367
50,928

4,207
7,027
6,296
5,658
6,330
6,342
6,209

89,742
91,936
108,102
109,869
102,758
107,023
107,023

366,625
369,764
381,256
387,226
381,986
383,726
382,347

2003

208,622

56,092

6,854

118,496

390,064

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

ALBANIA
Albania is a very minor consumer of explosives, but the country has metal ore reserves of chromite,
copper and nickel. Political instability has impacted the economy and curbed the strength of this industry
and investments that had been expected have not been made. However, it appears that the Ministry of
Mining and the Ministry of Public Economy and Privatization are poised to undertake the restructuring
necessary and enact legislation that will ensure the survival and resurgence of this sector of the economy.
In particular the chromium and copper mining industries have drawn the attention of investors.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 H

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 86

Albanian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

46
25
56
9

40
90
42
5

32
56
0
5

35
106
0
0

43
154
0
0

43
154
0
0

30
154
0
0

45
165
0
0

136

176

93

141

197

197

184

210

Industrial Minerals
Phosphate Rock

Quarrying Materials
Dolomite

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

17

154

194

110

158

214

214

201

227

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Iron Ore
Nickel
Total

Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

BULGARIA
Bulgarias estimated consumption of explosives accounted in 1997 for 2.6% of total Eastern European
use. The metal mining sector accounted for about 90% of this consumption. Copper production dominates
this sector, accounting for an estimated 80% of the explosives consumption for the production of metals.
Explosives consumption by the mining industry in Bulgaria increased by about 6.5% per year during the
1992-1997 period (1997 data are not yet available), primarily on the strength of increased copper mine
activity. Because of low metal prices, only moderate growth in explosives consumption is projected for
the forecast period. Though significant quantities of some industrial minerals and quarrying materials are
known to exist in Bulgaria, these areas are still underdeveloped. Privatization in the mining and
metallurgical sectors is in its beginning stages. Further development can be expected, particularly after the
establishment of mining legislation that will increase the security of foreign investments.
Bulgarian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Uranium
Zinc
Total

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

330

350

230

258

273

273

273

285

4,567
252
455
241
36
775

6,340
279
405
147
36
856

5,113
266
506
109
36
802

6,408
268
374
180
36
567

7,226
279
334
419
36
687

7,226
279
334
419
36
687

6,882
279
298
419
36
687

8,000
307
300
450
36
599

6,327

8,062

6,831

7,833

8,981

8,981

8,601

9,693

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 I

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 87

Bulgarian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

564
8
13

598
9
14

631
11
16

658
12
16

649
5
17

649
5
17

526
5
16

700
5
21

585

621

658

686

671

671

547

726

7,242

9,033

7,719

8,777

9,925

9,925

9,421

10,704

1998

2003

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

FORMER CZECHOSLOVAKIA
The Czech Republic and Slovakia combined account for an estimated 31% of Eastern European
consumption of explosives by the mining industry. The Czech Republic accounts for about 92% of the
combined total. Quarrying materials production consumes close to 75% of explosives used and the coal
mining industry accounts for most of the balance. The production of dimension stone (Czech Republic)
increased at an average rate of 2.5% annually between 1992 and 1997 and is projected to grow at about
2% per year during the forecast period. The Czech Republic also accounts for the explosives consumption
by the coal sector. While Slovakia also produces coal, its production is lignite that uses little or no
explosives. Coal production in the Czech Republic declined marginally between 1992 and 1996 and is
projected to remain at about the present level during the forecast period.
Former Czechoslovakian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

32,847

31,744

27,817

28,348

28,979

29,267

29,267

32,847

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Uranium
Zinc

13
359
29
64
5,965

12
257
19
40
6,762

0
243
18
21
476

0
229
18
24
75

9
238
18
23
75

10
238
18
24
75

10
218
18
24
75

13
341
18
35
83

Total

6,431

7,091

758

346

363

364

344

490

21
25
74
220

30
34
64
208

28
28
72
107

30
31
68
141

30
35
56
159

30
36
55
159

24
35
56
159

30
36
81
220

341

337

235

270

281

281

275

368

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Total

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1003 J

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 88

Former Czechoslovakian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Basalt
Dolomite
Limestone
Quartz
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

65,020
28
1,488
2,552
8
5,897

68,694
36
827
2,449
4
5,765

82,653
23
562
2,301
0
5,858

77,143
29
5,951
2,301
1
6,181

69,796
24
5,951
2,385
1
6,564

73,469
27
5,951
2,449
1
6,612

73,469
27
5,951
2,449
1
6,612

82,653
30
6,546
2,552
1
6,924

74,995

77,773

91,397

91,604

84,721

88,509

88,509

98,707

114,613

116,944

120,208

120,568

114,344

118,421

118,394

132,412

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

H UNGARY
Hungary accounted for only about 1% of Eastern European explosives consumption by the mining
industry in 1997. Quarrying materials (54%) and coal (40%) are the major consuming sectors, having
reversed their respective positions sine 1992. The production of bituminous coal declined by 4.8% per
year, while production of quarrying materials grew by 8.4%. Coal production is projected to recover and
quarrying production is expected to increase moderately for an overall explosives consumption growth of
2.5% per year during the forecast period. Hungary has been restructuring its economy subsequent to the
changes in the nations political system. Formerly state-owned companies are continually being
privatized, with many being sold to foreign investors as a means of raising badly needed capital. Demand
for commercial explosives is currently met by imports.
Hungarian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Manganese Ore
Industrial Minerals
Gypsum
Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Limestone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1,695

1,253

1,362

1,123

1,280

1,330

1,330

1,695

168

200

210

194

178

184

184

200

11

11

11

11

12

497
99
604

548
213
640

708
308
698

676
331
709

680
192
779

680
331
784

680
331
784

750
350
850

1,199

1,401

1,714

1,715

1,652

1,795

1,795

1,950

3,065

2,861

3,295

3,044

3,120

3,320

3,319

3,856

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

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POLAND
Poland accounts for the largest portion of explosives consumption in the Eastern European mining
industries. Coal mining accounts for more than 80% of Polands total. Production levels for hard coal
have been static, at about 135 thousand metric tons per year. However, a restructuring program has been
instigated which could reduce hard coal production to 120 thousand metric tons by 2000, thus explosives
consumption by this sector is projected to decline moderately. The 65 underground mines operating in
1998 were generating mounting losses and a restructuring program has been proposed, including closures
and sales, targeted to return the sector to profitability in 2002. Copper ore extraction is the main activity
in Polands metal mining sector. Explosives consumption for copper production, which increased at an
average rate of 3.6% between 1992 and 1997, is projected to increase moderately during the forecast
period. Both the industrial minerals and the quarrying materials sectors are expected to increase
explosives consumption marginally during the projected period. Overall, explosives consumption by the
mining industry in Poland is projected to decline at an average annual rate of about 1%.
Polish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Lead
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Rock Salt
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

174,977

173,578

178,172

182,473

182,843

179,592

179,592

165,000

9,392
1
1,527
4,979

10,859
1
1,490
4,882

10,678
1
1,575
4,888

10,867
1
1,621
4,898

11,217
1
1,612
4,946

11,217
1
1,612
4,946

11,031
1
1,648
4,822

13,042
1
1,697
4,914

15,898

17,232

17,141

17,386

17,776

17,776

17,501

19,654

6
4
47
2,943
30

8
5
47
5,887
38

11
6
59
5,194
39

9
6
57
4,502
43

8
6
56
5,194
42

9
6
56
5,194
42

9
6
56
5,194
42

10
7
60
5,500
45

3,031

5,984

5,309

4,616

5,306

5,307

5,307

5,622

1,538
5,994
2,282

1,557
5,622
2,228

2,006
6,366
2,753

2,581
6,386
3,214

2,480
6,041
3,265

2,645
6,204
3,265

2,645
6,204
3,265

2,750
6,414
3,500

9,815

9,406

11,125

12,182

11,786

12,114

12,114

12,664

203,721

206,200

211,748

216,658

217,711

214,789

214,514

202,940

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

ROMANIA
Romanias mining activities focus on coal and metal mining, which accounted for about 68% and 32%,
respectively. Coal production, which has declined from its 1994 peak, is projected to partially recover
during the forecast period. Metal mining involves manganese, zinc, copper, iron and lead. Production of
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all these metals is expected to recover marginally from the 1997 levels. A new mining law has been
enacted with the intention of advancing the industry whereby investors will be granted five-year
exploration concessions in addition to which twenty-year mining concessions will be granted. The effect
achieved will be a privatization of the industry as both national and international investors apply for
concessions.
Romanian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

7,476

7,663

8,977

8,455

7,089

7,317

7,500

8,500

606
618
169
945
3
690

621
430
171
1,182
3
749

639
478
241
1,295
3
945

602
284
235
1,229
3
929

597
327
189
1,418
3
827

614
327
202
1,418
3
856

562
328
202
1,418
2
803

621
450
236
1,500
3
945

3,032

3,156

3,602

3,281

3,361

3,419

3,315

3,755

78
5
81
25
1

8
15
10
21
1

19
5
12
23
1

12
5
11
18
1

8
6
7
9
1

10
6
10
13
1

12
5
8
9
1

20
10
20
25
1

190

55

61

47

32

40

35

76

10,698

10,873

12,640

11,783

10,482

10,776

10,850

12,332

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Silver
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Rock Salt
Talc
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

FORMER YUGOSLAVIA
This group of countries has been struggling to repair the damage done to its infrastructure and economy
by years of warfare. Metals mining accounts for about 82% of explosives consumption in the region, with
iron ore leading and copper and lead following. Growth during the projection period is estimated to be
low at 0.5% per year. Quarrying materials represent the other substantial area of explosives consumption,
accounting for almost 18% of the total in 1997. Growth of 2.1% per year is foreseen between 1997 and
2003.

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Former Yugoslavian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Quartz
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

295

237

237

176

177

216

225

295

1
7,984
14,580
405
95

1
5,649
14,153
238
19

1
6,957
14,091
361
19

1
7,155
14,105
405
19

1
6,789
14,080
513
19

1
6,787
14,080
560
19

1
6,600
13,625
553
19

1
7,310
14,155
578
47

23,064

20,061

21,428

21,684

21,401

21,446

20,799

22,091

3
3
18
32
1

2
2
8
10
0

1
2
10
10
0

1
3
9
13
0

1
3
10
16
0

1
3
10
17
0

3
2
12
17
0

2
3
12
32
0

57

23

23

27

30

32

34

49

126
18
3,573

124
15
3,199

99
16
3,733

116
16
4,219

115
12
4,456

115
13
4,461

115
13
4,461

125
18
5,016

3,717

3,338

3,848

4,351

4,583

4,589

4,589

5,159

27,132

23,658

25,536

26,238

26,191

26,282

25,647

27,594

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

FORMER USSR
The explosives manufacturers listed below are known producers of commercial explosives in this region.
Former USSR Manufacturers of Explosives1999

Company and
Plant Location

Annual Capacity
as of January 1999
(thousands of
metric tons)

Remarks

Ukraine
Zarya Rubezhnoe
Rubezhnoe

na

TNT is included among the products, but


capacity is not believed solely dedicated.

Styrol Gorlovka
Gorlovka

TNT is included among the products, but


capacity is not believed solely dedicated.

SOURCE:

CEH estimates.

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Page 92

Only limited information is available on the mining sector in the various republics of the former USSR.
Industrial explosives consumption estimates for this region, based on the limited data, are summarized in
the two following tables. Russia is the largest consumer, accounting for almost two-thirds of the regional
estimate, followed by the Ukraine with about 25%. The second table shows that the coal mining sector is
the largest consumer, followed by metal mining. The rate of decline since 1992 has been rapid.
Consumption is projected to return to the 1992 level by the end of the forecast period.
Former USSR Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
Armenia

Belarus

Estonia

Kazakhstan

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

294
133
68
343
461
461
517

1,940
1,117
1,764
1,881
1,587
1,587
1,999

1,361
1,361
1,318
1,207
1,270
1,270
1,270

87,131
78,704
70,768
60,209
56,837
56,837
60,099

984
763
364
219
192
192
196

2003

552

1,940

1,361

88,132

990

SOURCE:

Kyrgyzstan Latvia

Russia

Turkmenistan

Ukraine

Total

124
90
70
61
66
66
70

398,788
359,915
329,836
331,543
323,675
323,675
322,933

0
0
0
24
19
19
12

250,112
204,191
166,086
152,711
132,813
132,813
126,714

740,735
646,273
570,273
548,198
516,921
516,921
513,809

124

398,793

24

250,128

742,044

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Former USSR Estimated Consumption of Explosives by Mining Sector


(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

510,014
456,851
405,671
380,768
357,897
357,897
357,897

192,512
160,276
141,491
145,110
136,895
136,895
133,757

36,570
27,622
21,712
21,056
20,729
20,729
20,755

1,638
1,524
1,398
1,264
1,400
1,400
1,400

740,735
646,273
570,273
548,198
516,921
516,921
513,809

2003

510,014

193,740

36,651

1,638

742,044

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

AFRICA
In spite of its modest economic development, Africa is an important source of mineral commodities and,
therefore, an equally important region for explosives consumption. Although South Africa accounts for
almost 90% of the regional demand for explosives, other countries in Southern Africa such as Zambia,
Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zimbabwe and Namibia are also significant consumers. Several
North African countries such as Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia are also significant consumers. Coal
mining accounted for approximately 62% of the estimated industrial explosives consumption in Africa in
1997 and metal mining accounted for about 34%. South Africa is clearly dominant both in the
development of its mining industry and that of commercial explosives manufacturing. Sasol SMX, AECI
Explosives Limited, Bulk Mining Explosives Ltd. and Dantex are the leading players, serving not only
South Africa but the rest of the continent as well.
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African Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by Country


(metric tons)

Algeria

Congo,
Democratic
Republic of
thea

Egypt

Morocco

Namibia

South
Africa

Zambia

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

881
803
705
795
771
771
720

11,858
3,296
3,395
3,200
2,918
2,918
17

10,061
9,545
10,035
9,636
9,564
11,522
11,522

2,295
3,033
3,197
3,178
3,181
3,369
3,742

9,829
8,361
8,954
7,662
6,051
6,051
3,232

409,777
430,371
457,424
477,403
477,529
498,746
499,107

14,692
14,481
12,167
11,327
11,725
11,725
11,725

2003

830

3,367

13,088

3,465

7,161

562,524

13,830

a.

Zimbabwe

Other

Total

10,636
8,778
9,365
9,883
9,843
9,267
9,343

13,536
13,554
15,075
16,589
16,848
16,499
16,499

483,565
492,222
520,320
539,674
538,431
560,869
555,909

10,669

17,589

632,524

Known as Zaire between 1971 and 1996.

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

African Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use


(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

276,490
288,113
309,720
325,616
326,409
347,196
345,429

187,025
184,981
190,493
192,538
190,736
190,656
187,406

4,033
3,394
3,485
3,977
3,717
3,700
3,758

16,017
15,734
16,622
17,543
17,569
19,317
19,315

483,565
492,222
520,320
539,674
538,431
560,869
555,909

2003

395,495

211,829

4,020

21,180

632,524

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

ALGERIA
Estimates of industrial explosives consumption by the mining industry in Algeria are summarized in the
following table. Although Algeria has traditionally been a significant supplier of base metal concentrates,
many of which are exported to Europe, the consumption of explosives by the mining industry is minimal.
Metal mining, primarily iron ore, accounted for 91% of estimated consumption in 1997. Industrial
minerals accounted for the balance. Coal is not mined in Algeria and quarrying is also not a factor.
Consumption can be expected to rise given the level of development activity. Considerable geological,
topological and cartographic survey information is available as the government has invested more than $1
billion in research throughout the last twenty-five years. The legislative framework surrounding mining is
deemed supportive of developmental projects that would encourage participation of foreign investors.
Projects for kaolin, marble, sodium and calcium carbonate, and feldspar are examples of such
developments for industrial minerals, while projects for lead, zinc and gold are also being undertaken.

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Algerian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Metal Mining
Iron Ore
Lead
Mercury
Zinc

705
22
11
53

646
37
11
48

572
26
10
40

615
33
7
51

627
24
9
42

627
24
9
42

570
24
9
42

650
30
10
50

Total

791

742

648

706

702

702

646

740

10
1
32
44
3

9
1
20
28
3

4
1
20
28
3

6
1
23
57
3

6
1
23
36
3

6
1
23
36
3

6
1
25
39
3

7
1
24
55
3

90

62

57

89

69

69

75

90

881

803

705

795

771

771

720

830

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Strontium minerals
Total
Quarrying Materials
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Metal Mining
Iron ore production accounts for about 90% of estimated explosives consumption by the metal mining
sector. State-owned FERPHOS is mandated with iron ore development and exploitation. Production has
declined somewhat since and only marginal recovery is projected for the forecast period. Prospects for
gold are considered of some importance and projects directed by ENOR are under way at Tiririne,
Inabegui and Hanane.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Phosphate rock and gypsum production account for the bulk of the limited volume of explosives
consumed in the production of industrial minerals in Algeria. Explosives consumption has fluctuated
around a relatively level trend and only moderate growth is projected for the forecast period.

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO (FORMERLY ZAIRE)


Since the last publication of this report, the Alliance of Democratic Forces overthrew the ruling
government of President Mobutu. The new government has set about stabilizing the political, social and
economic situation within the country. Hyperinflation, which had raged above 600% annually, was
brought under control. The 1997 annual inflation figure was reported at 14%, a result attributed to strict
application of monetary and fiscal policy by the government and central bank. Recovery is not complete,
as indicated by drops in the gross domestic product and the production index for the mining and metals
sector. The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo greatly depends on the productive function
of this sector. While the new government had initially shown great interest in attracting foreign
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investment and had initiated intensive geological research and private capitalization mobilization, as well
as legislative steps (including a revision of the mining code and the instigation of a Chamber of Mines), it
withdrew operating rights from several foreign mining companies in January 1998. Negotiations between
the new government and mining companies have been tense. The importance of the mining industry and
the vast potential value of the nations resources provide substantial motivation that equitable solutions be
reached. The Democratic Republic of the Congos mining industry is directed primarily to copper and
cobalt operations. Total output has decline drastically in recent years, the result of political instability. A
moderate rate of recovery is projected for the forecast period.
Democratic Republic of the Congo Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

12

Metal Mining
Copper
Tin
Zinc

11,617
28
155

3,194
19
47

3,332
28
1

3,147
18
0

2,870
14
0

2,870
14
0

0
0
0

3,300
20
0

Total

11,800

3,260

3,361

3,165

2,883

2,883

3,320

Industrial Minerals
Gemstones

Quarrying Materials
Stone

46

33

33

33

33

33

16

45

11,858

3,296

3,395

3,200

2,918

2,918

17

3,367

Coal Mining

Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Coal production is a minor industrial sector in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Production has
declined in recent years and is not expected to change.

Metal Mining
This sector accounts for 99% of explosives consumption in this country. The largest mining company in
the Democratic Republic of the Congo is Gcamines, which has been failing in recent years, particularly
in copper production. Explosive use for copper mine production has declined dramatically. It is hoped
that joint venture partners can be found who would be capable of supporting the revival of the company.
The copper ores of the Copperbelt that straddles the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia are
among the richest in the world, with average grades in excess of 2.5% copper, 0.2% zinc and 0.01%
cobalt, as well as significant silver values. Cobalt production, the explosives consumption for which is not
known, has also been unsteady, rising during 1994-1996 at an annual rate of 9% to 4 thousand metric
tons, but falling sharply again to 3.2 thousand tons in 1997. Renewed efforts at the Kamoto and the SKM
(Kov) mines at Tilwezembe, Kamoya and Kasombo were hoped to contribute to Gcamines recovery.

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Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Not being an industrialized country, Democratic Republic of the Congos production of industrial
minerals and its quarrying operations are limited to those segments that either offer potential for export,
such as gemstones, or provide for domestic markets, such as stone for construction. Commercial
explosives consumption is negligible and consumption for stone quarrying is relatively insignificant.

EGYPT
Though it possesses a long mining history, particularly for gold and gemstones, Egypt is not generally
considered a mining country and the industry does not contribute significantly to the gross national
product. The largest area of explosives consumption has been production of stone, primarily limestone,
from quarrying operations. Iron ore constitutes the only segment of relative importance in metallic
minerals output and phosphate rock accounts for much of the limited explosives consumption for the
production of industrial minerals. State-owned companies have been under criticism for prolonged
deliberation before decisions can be taken that would develop and exploit available mineral reserves. The
Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA) has recently focused on establishing the
mineral wealth of the Western Desert Province. Growth in Egyptian commercial explosives consumption
for the mining industry is foreseen during the projection period of 1997-2003, but the rise is expected to
be slight, at about 1% per year.
Egyptian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Metal Mining
Ilmenite
Iron Ore

0
671

0
612

0
1,082

11
571

12
679

12
755

12
754

15
850

Total

671

612

1,082

583

691

767

766

865

2
8
0
129
227
1

1
9
0
109
61
0

0
6
0
109
72
0

0
6
1
184
87
0

0
6
0
0
92
0

0
6
0
109
102
0

0
6
0
109
103
0

0
9
0
109
225
0

366

179

187

279

98

218

219

343

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Fluorspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Talc
Total

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Egyptian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Basalt
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Sandstone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

716
298
5
7,935
16
54

395
315
7
7,979
4
54

430
331
7
7,935
4
60

430
331
7
7,935
13
60

430
331
7
7,935
13
60

430
331
7
9,698
13
60

430
331
7
9,698
13
60

430
364
9
11,000
13
65

9,023

8,753

8,766

8,774

8,774

10,537

10,537

11,880

10,061

9,545

10,035

9,636

9,564

11,522

11,522

13,088

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
An underground coal mining project began production in 1995, with the intended production level of 600
thousand metric tons meant to serve the steel industry and for power generation. Customers are being
sought after targeted markets evaporated. Production volume data are not available.

Metal Mining
The production of iron ore accounts for about 98% of the explosives consumption by this segment in
Egypt. Egypt is one of the few African countries to have an integrated steel industry with long-term needs
for iron ore and coal. Iron ore is produced in the Western Desert at the El Bahariya Oasis deposit.
Production has declined since the peak of 1994. However, a partial recovery is projected for the forecast
period. All iron ore produced within Egypt is also consumed there and additional imports are necessary to
satisfy steel production demand. Discoveries in 1996 identified 345 million metric tons of iron ore
reserves in the Eastern Desert, for which a development project will be sought.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


The production of quarrying materials accounted for an estimated 91% of industrial explosives
consumption by the mining industry in Egypt in 1997. And limestone accounted for 92% of this sector.
Consumption of explosives in this sector has increased, moderately since 1992 and is projected to grow at
an average annual rate of about 2% during the forecast period. Explosives consumption for the production
of industrial minerals is very minor.

MOROCCO
Estimates of explosives consumption by the mining industry in Morocco are summarized in the following
table. These data are based on production data for selected mineral commodities published by the U.S.
Geological Survey. Some industry sources suggested that the CEH estimates are much too low, indicating
consumption figures lying in the range of 30 thousand metric tons per year. The data that have been
developed indicate the Morocco accounts for less than 1% of African industrial explosives consumption.
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Metal mining accounted for about 69% of the estimated market in 1997, followed by industrial minerals
at about 26%. Morocco is a traditional mining country with well-recognized resources of a variety of
minerals. Morocco has striven, in recent years, to establish itself more firmly in the global political and
economic community. A parliamentary system of government was introduced in 1997, following which a
twelve-year free-trade pact with member nations of the European Union went into effect. Plans to develop
industry include the privatization of government holdings in minerals and metals, structural grants and
loans. Explosives consumption as estimated by CEH, which jumped by about a 6% in 1997, is projected
to exhibit marginal growth during the forecast period.
Moroccan Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

193

202

218

218

170

170

170

170

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Silver
Zinc

398
23
506
19
3
308

415
19
694
17
3
890

418
18
621
12
3
1,045

418
13
575
12
1
1,088

437
3
609
11
1
1,084

434
3
655
11
2
1,214

447
1
648
11
2
1,470

450
3
650
11
2
1,250

1,258

2,036

2,118

2,107

2,145

2,319

2,579

2,367

80
18
41
701
4

65
15
41
671
3

53
18
41
746
4

58
22
41
726
4

56
20
41
743
4

67
22
41
743
6

69
22
41
856
6

67
26
41
785
6

844

795

861

853

866

881

994

925

2,295

3,033

3,197

3,178

3,181

3,369

3,742

3,465

Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Fluorspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Rock Salt
Total
Quarrying Materials
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Coal is mined as fuel for electrical power and is a relatively small segment of the mining industry that has
declined in the recent past. Coals contribution to explosives consumed in the country is minor. A mine
located in Jerada produces roughly 500 thousand metric tons of hard coal annually for fueling electric
power stations. Growth in explosives consumption during the forecast period for coal mining is not
anticipated.

Metal Mining
Explosives consumption by this sector of the Moroccan mining industry is dominated by the production
of zinc, lead and copper. Explosives consumption for production of these three metals is expected to rise
slightly during the projection period. The Bureau de Recherches et Participations Minires (BRPM) has a
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100% share of Sodecat, a copper, silver and gold mining company. Omnium Nord Africain (ONA)
reached an agreement through negotiations with the Privatisation Ministry, whereby it has obtained a
majority interest in the Societe Metallurgique dImiter, a silver mining interest.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Phosphate rock production dominates the consumption of explosives for the production of industrial
minerals. Morocco is an undisputed international leader in phosphate rock production, possessing
approximately half of the worlds economic reserves. The Office Cherifien des Phosphates (OCP)
maintains control of the production of this resource and to great extent of downstream product processing,
there being no plans for privatization entertained in this sector. The recent average annual growth rate of
about 1% is projected to continue. Little information is available concerning Moroccos quarrying
industry, which is assumed to have negligible impact on explosives in this country.

NAMIBIA
Though estimates of commercial explosives consumption by the Namibian mining industry based upon
geological survey information place Namibias use at 1% of the African total, Namibia is a nation rich in
mineral resources, the development and exploitation of which contribute significantly to the countrys
economy. However, diamonds, which require virtually no explosives use, account for the largest portion
of the export values produced by the Namibian mining industry. The countrys well-diversified metallic
minerals sector also contributes significantly. Namibia is not a coal producer and its quarrying industry is
minor. In 1996, the Minerals Development Fund of Namibia Act was introduced, designed to expand the
mining industrys production base by providing monetary, informational and educational assistance. A
Minerals Ancillary Rights Commission has also been established, to be instrumental in the resolution of
disputes between license holders and land owners in conjunction with the Chamber of Mines of Namibia,
though a Minerals Board with a policy advisory mandate that is yet to be formed.
Namibian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Lead
Uranium
Zinc

7,178
1
867
44
1,727

6,765
1
671
45
870

6,513
1
751
50
1,626

5,166
1
930
53
1,493

3,418
1
887
65
1,665

3,418
1
887
65
1,665

1,147
1
289
65
1,716

4,500
1
900
75
1,665

Total

9,817

8,351

8,942

7,644

6,036

6,036

3,217

7,141

4
0
6

5
0
4

6
0
4

4
0
12

3
0
10

3
0
10

3
0
10

4
0
14

10

16

13

13

13

18

Industrial Minerals
Fluorspar
Gemstones
Lithium
Total

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Namibian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Granite
Marble
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1
1

1
1

2
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

9,829

8,361

8,954

7,662

6,051

6,051

3,232

7,161

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Metal Mining
Metal mining accounted for almost all of the estimated explosives consumption in Namibia in 1997 and
uranium, gold, copper, zinc and lead operations ranked in that order behind diamonds in their
contributions to Namibias export sales revenue. In terms of explosives consumption, copper is the major
consumer, followed by zinc and lead. A project in development involves establishment of what may
become Namibias largest mining venture near Noordoewer, where cathode copper, gold and
molybdenum would be produced. Studies at Rosh Pinah have indicated 15 million tons of leachable
reserves of 11% zinc and plans for a production start in 2001 have been envisaged. The Rossing open-pit
uranium mine near Swakopmund is the worlds largest and production rose continuously from 1994 to
1997. Current production is estimated at 75% of the mines capacity. Long-term delivery contracts exist
with European customers, but some difficulty in establishing new contracts has been experienced.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


These sectors have only a minimal impact on the use of explosives by the Namibian mining industry.

SOUTH AFRICA
South Africa is one of the worlds richest countries in terms of its mineral resources. The palette of
recovered minerals is both broad and deep. It is one of the leading coal producers and exporters and an
important producer of a wide variety of industrial minerals, such as diamonds, gemstones and other
minerals. South Africa is an essential world supplier of gold and platinum group metals, chromite,
antimony and uranium, as well as more traditional metals such as copper, lead, zinc and their metallic byproducts. Compared with the other African nations, South Africa almost completely dominates the
consumption of commercial explosives by the continents mining industry, accounting for more than 88%
of the regional total. About 57% of the South African total is taken up by bulk explosives and the
remainder by packaged explosives. The latter products, specifically small-diameter cartridge explosives
along with the accessories used for their detonation, comprise the majority of the markets value.
South Africa is home to four commercial explosives manufacturers that effectively split the South African
market among them and that also service much of the continental market. Sasol Mining Explosives
(SMX) of Randburg, manufactures and markets a full range of packaged commercial explosives and
blasting accessories for the mining and construction industries. Among its products are Explogel V-series
water gels, Emex emulsions and Expanfo ammonium nitratebased explosives as well as nonelectric
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initiation products such as Primadet, EZ Det and EZ Stoper. Electronic initiation systems include EZ
Tronic electronic initiation systems. In addition to packaged explosive products, SMX supplies bulk and
down-the-hole matrix products including AN-Emex 6000 and Expanfo. Sasol has a 60% interest in
Ensign Bickford Limited, an initiation systems manufacturer, a 65% interest in SMX Northwest Limited,
an explosives producer, and an 80% interest in Sasol Mining Initiators Limited, which manufactures
electronic initiation systems for mining explosives. In addition, South African gold-mining activities were
somewhat reduced, affecting earnings from small-diameter factory-packaged explosives. Consumption of
bulk and quarrying explosives, however, continues to expand. Sasols market share of the South African
bulk explosives market is estimated at 29%, while a share of 35% of the packaged explosives market is
maintained. The company group achieves a market share of 19% for initiators and accessories.
African Explosives Limited (AEL) is part of African Explosives and Chemical Industries Ltd. AECI
purchased ICIs shares in AEL in 1997 when ICI divested its business to Orica. Headquartered in
Modderfontein, Johannesburg, with several locations throughout South Africa, AECI Explosives Ltd. also
maintains regional offices in Ghana, Kenya, Zambia and Zimbabwe. AEL offers a full range of
explosives, initiating systems and services. Packaged explosives include ammonium nitrate and
ammonium nitrate fuel oil (ANFO) products under the trade names Anfex , Energan heavy
ANFOMagnum , Powergel emulsions and doped emulsions and Energex water-based explosives.
Special bulk systems for underground applications have also been developed. AECI is one of the worlds
largest manufacturers of commercial explosives and initiating systems, with the majority of its business
transacted in the sub-Saharan African continent. Estimates place African Explosives and Chemical
Industries market shares in South Africa for bulk explosives at 27%, for packaged explosives at 43% and
for accessories at 71%, and it is clearly dominant among the three south African producers. AECIs
ancillary products include detonating cord and capped fuse systems, surface and underground shock tube
systems, and electric and electronic detonators.
Another major commercial explosives manufacturer in South Africa is Omnia Holdings Ltd., of which the
firm Bulk Mining Explosives (BME) is a part. BMEs market share in the bulk explosives area is large at
roughly 44%, while its market share in factory-packaged explosives is around 3%.
Dantex Explosives Ltd. (90% owned by Unin Espaola Explosivos) is not active in the bulk explosives
market but holds a market share of 19% in factory-packaged explosives. The companys combined
turnover of permitted and nonpermitted cartridged explosives totals roughly Rand 40 million ($8.68
million), showing considerable strength in its market share of 52% of permitted cartridge explosives,
while it claims 10% of the market for nonpermitted cartridge explosives with revenue totaling Rand 21.4
million ($4.64 million). In sum, the four competitors divide a market for permitted and nonpermitted
cartridge, bulk and ANFO explosives.
In a review of a proposed merger whereby Sasol endeavored to acquire AECIs explosives interests,
South Africas Competition Board ruled in September 1998 that such an acquisition would constrain
competition in that particular raw materials necessary for commercial explosives manufacturing would be
available from fewer producers (Sasol and AECI had respective ammonia market shares of 60% and
40%) and that the market position of the entity engendered by the merger of the two organizations,
particularly as regarded sales of initiating systems and explosives accessories, would be exceedingly
dominant. As South Africa is one of the largest explosives markets in the world, if not the largest, the
merged companys power within the domestic economy would be too great, even if its international sway
were no more than large. The proposed merger was disallowed.

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South African Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Bauxite
Chromite Ore
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Nickel
Platinum Group
Tin
Uranium
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Andalusite
Asbestos
Barite
Feldspar
Fluorspar
Gemstones
Gypsum
Magnesite
Nepheline Syenite
Phosphate Rock
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Quartzite
Slate
Stone
Undifferentiated
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

270,486

282,636

303,767

319,836

321,032

341,845

340,000

390,000

86
5,703
25,034
6,532
27,610
1,888
4,323
1,687
59,390
16
45
1,099

95
4,794
23,652
6,586
28,744
2,494
4,441
1,830
68,432
12
40
1,178

103
6,176
23,490
6,172
29,824
2,386
5,098
1,889
71,446
0
42
1,166

126
8,655
23,541
5,572
31,249
2,202
5,735
1,824
71,621
0
34
1,073

117
8,508
21,696
5,296
30,157
2,207
5,792
1,997
73,401
0
34
1,174

117
8,508
21,696
5,296
30,157
2,207
5,792
1,997
73,805
0
34
1,174

117
8,500
23,114
5,040
33,143
2,092
4,204
1,997
73,805
0
29
1,069

117
8,508
23,185
5,296
29,623
2,231
5,792
2,000
88,220
0
38
1,200

133,412

142,298

147,792

151,633

150,378

150,782

153,111

166,210

45
351
1
8
55
5
30
10
24
349
1

37
274
0
9
46
5
26
11
0
280
1

40
243
0
6
37
5
28
12
13
289
1

40
234
1
8
42
5
26
14
20
316
1

44
151
1
9
46
5
31
11
20
349
2

44
151
1
9
46
5
31
11
20
349
2

44
53
0
10
46
5
33
11
25
317
2

44
125
2
9
45
5
32
13
20
349
2

880

689

674

706

669

669

546

646

115
3,230
2
1,629
17
5
2

105
2,974
2
1,641
19
4
3

123
3,192
1
1,847
21
3
3

162
3,223
1
1,820
19
2
2

127
3,598
0
1,699
22
2
2

127
3,598
0
1,699
22
2
2

127
3,598
0
1,699
22
2
2

139
3,700
0
1,800
25
2
2

4,999

4,748

5,190

5,228

5,450

5,450

5,450

5,668

409,777

430,371

457,424

477,403

477,529

498,746

499,107

562,524

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
This sector accounted for an estimated 69% of South Africas explosives consumption in 1997. South
Africa, in 1997, ranked seventh in world coal production and third in exports Three major
producer/exporters dominate this sector Ingwe Coal, Anglo American Coal and Duiker Mining account
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for more than 75% of production and 85% of South African coal exports. Sasol, the oil-from-coal
producer and Iscor, a steel manufacturer, produce for captive consumption. Eskom, the national electricity
company, is the largest national consumer. Underground coal mining accounts for about 46% of total
production; the rest is open cast. Commercial explosives industry sources indicate that open cast mining
accounts for the largest proportion of explosives consumption for coal production, estimated at 190
thousand tons annually. Board-and-pillar methods consume some 3 thousand metric tons of explosives
per year, while pillar extraction accounts for 5 thousand metric tons of explosives consumption. Coal
consumption within South Africa is expected to increase, and the Richards Bay Coal Terminal is being
expanded to export 62 million metric tons per year, while another export terminal with a capacity of 12
million tons annually is planned for South Dunes. The three largest producers have seen South Africas
export market share trimmed by foreign competitors and anticipate expanding overseas. Coal production
and explosives consumption by the sector increased at an average annual rate of 4.8% between 1992 and
1997. A moderate growth rate of 2.2% per year is projected for the forecast period.

Metal Mining
Metal mining accounted for about 30% of explosives consumption in 1997. The countrys metallic
minerals sector is one of the largest in the world and South Africa is a recognized international source of
metallic ores, both traditional and exotic. The largest contributors to explosives consumption are the
platinum group minerals, iron ore and copper. Consumption by this sector increased at an average rate of
1.2% per year between 1992 and 1997. Only marginal growth is projected for the forecast period. Some
South African base metal mines, such as Palabora for copper, have declining reserves that will limit future
production. However, South Africa has ample reserves of many other metals. Gold and uranium tend to
be associated together in deep underground deposits in South Africa and, while reserves are still ample,
their cost of extraction is likely to limit production volumes in the future. The Anglo American Platinum
Corporation is the leader among South African producers and expects to increase output in response to
growing demand and the gradual reduction of the stockpiled Russian supply. The combined total of
explosives consumption for gold and platinum group metals based on CEH estimates is 79.2 thousand
metric tons for 1997. This estimate is considerably lower than that from manufacturing industry sources,
which estimated use of 128 thousand metric tons annually.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Quarrying and nonmetal mining accounted for only a combined 1.2% of South African explosives
consumption in 1997. Limestone and quartzite dominate the quarrying materials, while phosphate rock
dominates the industrial minerals. In addition to producing many conventional industrial minerals, South
Africa is an important producer of some minerals that are seldom found elsewhere. For example, South
Africas production of asbestos is one of the largest in the world (after Canada), and while this material is
progressively being replaced by substitutes because of its carcinogenic properties, it still accounts for a
significant fraction of the mining output of this sector. Diamonds and other gemstones are also an
important segment, but are not large consumers of explosives. South Africa ranks fifth worldwide in
diamond production.

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ZAMBIA
Sharing the Copperbelt, one of the richest mineral regions in the world, with the Democratic Republic of
the Congo, Zambia has developed a long and continued dependence on copper, the wealth of which has
on one hand sustained and supported recovery efforts but on the other fostered inertia toward
development of other resources. The deposits in the African Copperbelt typically contain high-grade
copper and substantial values of cobalt, plus minor values of gold and silver. Zambias mining industry is
directed primarily toward the extraction of metallic minerals and this is reflected in the modest size of its
coal, industrial minerals and quarrying sectors. The nations mining industry was long dominated by the
government-operated Zambia Consolidated Copper Mines (ZCCM), but in 1997 these operations were
privatized following six years of stagnant deliberation. These operations had represented roughly onequarter of Zambias gross national product, but inefficiency resulted in continued production declines
over several years, and falling copper metal prices had threatened to upset the divestment proceedings.
Originally offered in its entirety, ZCCM was partitioned into nine asset packages and three smaller
properties that were prepared for sale. While operations at Chibuluma, Ndola and Kansanshi have been
sold, negotiations for the sale of the larger packages have been slow. More than forty groups submitted
bids early in 1997 and disenchantment has swelled since as information about ZCCM, future prospects,
the extent of continued government participation and obligatory debt assumption were divulged. While
the possibility remains that Anglo American Corporation of South Africa would acquire a controlling
interest, the outcome of this economically, socially and politically significant undertaking is still
undecided. The fate of this industry in which the state itself is so heavily involved virtually overshadowed
the failure of a coup in October 1997.
Zambian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

61

44

24

20

14

14

14

14

Metal Mining
Copper
Lead
Zinc

14,271
21
26

14,071
33
30

11,847
0
0

10,993
0
0

11,397
0
0

11,397
0
0

11,397
0
0

13,500
0
0

Total

14,319

14,134

11,847

10,993

11,397

11,397

11,397

13,500

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

1
1

131
53
127

126
49
127

116
52
127

131
54
127

131
54
127

131
54
127

131
54
127

131
56
127

310

302

295

312

312

312

312

313

14,692

14,481

12,167

11,327

11,725

11,725

11,725

13,830

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Gemstones
Gypsum
Total
Quarrying Materials
Limestone
Slate
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

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Coal Mining
Coal production in Zambia originates primarily from a single open-pit operation, the Maamba mine. Coal
reserves are of sufficient grade and quality to deserve expansion, but this sector suffers from endemic
shortages of spare parts and foreign exchange for imported supplies and it is therefore constrained in its
abilities to expand production. Though capacity is estimated at one million metric tons per year, the mine
achieved its highest level of production in the mid-1970s and amounted to no more than 100 thousand
metric tons in 1996. No change in output or in the consumption of explosives is anticipated in this sector.

Metal Mining
Copper is the only significant metal mined in Zambia and this sector accounts for an estimated 97% of
industrial explosives consumption. With the exception of the Nchanga and Mindola open pits, copper
mines in Zambia are all underground and utilize a combination of sublevel stopes, sublevel caving, longhole open stopping and block caving. Average copper grades in Zambian mines are in excess of 1.42%
copper, with significant by-product values of cobalt, which renders this country the second-largest
producer of this metal. The copper industry in Zambia has stagnated and declined, but is projected to
experience a moderate rate of recovery during the forecast period. The Konkola division of ZCCM
appears as a major future resource for the Copperbelt, in particular the Konkola Deep project. Currently
producing at a reduced rate, the mine requires a considerable pumping effort to remain serviceable. The
Mufulira is considered to have deep resources that have not been extensively explored.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Zambias economy determines much of the market for industrial minerals. Accordingly, with the
exception of gypsum for its construction industry and gemstones that have substantial export potential,
the sector lacks diversity. Little information is available on production of quarrying materials and
industrial minerals. Only marginal growth is projected for these minor sectors during the forecast period.

ZIMBABWE
Zimbabwe has a well-diversified mining sector that includes coal, industrial minerals, quarrying and
metallic mineral production. The number of mines is high, totaling roughly 400, but their size is
comparatively small and many are gold producers. Zimbabwe continues to rank within the top twenty
gold producers internationally, third in Africa behind South Africa and Ghana. The country is still largely
agricultural, with this sector of the economy having an output value nearly three times that of mining
industries. Droughts thus have a marked impact on overall economic health, and water shortages can
affect mining production. Zimbabwe accounts for only about 1.6% of explosives consumption by the
African mining industry. Coal mining and metal mining essentially share about 90% of the market, which
declined at an average annual rate of about 2.9% between 1992 and 1997. Growth at a rate of about 2.3%
per year is projected during the forecast period, mainly on the strength of increased metal mining activity.
Being heavily export-oriented, the mining sector industries are also heavily affected by world market
demand and prices for mineral products. Recent declines in gold prices and in asbestos demand, for
example, have had an impact on profitability and in some cases on production.

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Zimbabwean Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

4,443

4,030

4,272

4,289

4,096

4,096

4,175

4,204

Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Nickel
Platinum Group
Silver
Tin

885
1,499
267
1,252
1,511
7
1
26

427
1,349
277
398
1,559
3
1
22

877
1,349
300
4
1,689
5
0
3

1,199
1,349
350
330
1,431
8
1
0

1,182
1,499
361
344
1,412
78
0
0

1,136
749
355
509
1,412
190
0
0

1,119
749
355
752
1,460
192
0
0

1,300
1,299
443
650
1,502
374
0
0

5,449

4,036

4,228

4,668

4,876

4,352

4,274

5,569

396
0
0
51
1
16

414
0
0
72
1
17

401
0
0
100
0
17

446
1
0
133
1
17

435
1
0
123
2
14

382
1
0
123
2
14

369
1
0
198
2
14

412
1
0
150
2
16

465

505

519

598

574

521

583

581

16
248
15

7
188
12

19
301
26

22
272
34

20
259
19

20
259
19

20
272
20

23
269
23

279

207

346

328

297

297

312

315

10,636

8,778

9,365

9,883

9,843

9,267

9,343

10,669

Total
Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Feldspar
Gemstones
Lithium
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Total
Quarrying Materials
Granite
Limestone
Quartz
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Most coal production (75%) in Zimbabwe comes from an underground operation at the nations single
large coal mine at Wankie, which primarily serves the Hwange power station. This segment accounts for
about 46% of industrial explosives consumption in this country. Coal production in Zimbabwe, which
declined moderately during the 1992-1997 period, is projected to increase marginally during the forecast
period.

Metal Mining
Metal mining accounts for approximately 45% of the estimated consumption of explosives in Zimbabwe.
Nickel, chromite ore and copper mine production are the major users. Iron ore is a significant user and the
production of platinum group metals, which has increased dramatically since 1995 has also become
significant. Overall, consumption by metal mining declined at an annual average rate of 5.1% between
1992 and 1997. A recovery rate of 4.2% per year is projected for the forecast period. Platinum production
in Zimbabwe is growing in importance. The Hartley Platinum mine, located on the Great Dyke, was
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commissioned in 1997. Delta Gold and BHP, both of Australia, are partnered in this joint venture. Other
companies are either studying development possibilities or have already begun production. It is
anticipated that platinum could rank second to gold in terms of output value.
Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining
With a relatively well-developed economy by African standards, Zimbabwe has a diversified industrial
minerals sector. The primary explosives consumers are the asbestos and lithium producers. Asbestos
production declined in 1997, primarily as a result of a drop in demand in Asia consequential to financial
instability there. The outlook for asbestos during the forecast period is flat at best. Lithium production has
experienced dramatic growth, which is forecast to continue at only a moderate rate.
O THER AFRICA
Mineral wealth in Africa is widespread, but much of it remains unexplored. Infrastructure in some cases is
still being developed, while in others warfare or political changes have either deterred exploration or
hindered diversification. For many countries, the contribution of mining industries to the national
economy lies well below 10% of gross domestic product. Dependency on agriculture even at a
subsistence level is still prevalent. Effective extraction and use of known and potential resources is still a
challenging task for the future. There has been, however, enough geological surveying and exploration,
sampling and testing carried out that the breadth and extent of mineral resources has been reasonably
gauged. Many African countries do not individually produce a broad range of minerals, concentrating
rather on reserves that can be extracted and developed quickly. This has led many countries to focus on
diamonds and gold as materials that can be marketed with relative ease internationally to strengthen
foreign currency reserves. Collectively this group of African nations accounts for a significant amount of
mine production and is estimated to account for about 3% of African industrial explosives consumption.
Among these countries are Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Cte DIvoire,
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritania, Mauritius,
Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania and Tunisia.
Explosives consumption in these countries increased moderately during the 1992-1997 period. Additional
marginal growth is projected for the forecast period.
Other African Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

1,295

1,198

1,436

1,251

1,095

1,069

1,069

1,104

Metal Mining
Chromite
Copper
Gold
Ilmenite
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Tin
Tungsten
Uranium
Zinc

44
996
25
0
2,662
6
828
26
8
4,883
31

40
1,024
29
0
2,811
4
696
17
8
4,863
18

38
1,133
35
0
3,378
11
750
7
2
4,945
175

42
1,008
41
1
3,354
22
934
15
4
5,020
597

39
1,143
34
2
3,269
16
1,206
9
3
5,475
431

37
1,143
41
2
3,259
5
1,202
9
3
5,677
40

37
1,143
41
2
3,259
5
1,202
9
3
5,677
40

40
1,290
45
3
3,344
10
1,255
11
3
5,900
215

9,509

9,511

10,475

11,039

11,626

11,417

11,417

12,117

Total

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Other African Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Feldspar
Fluorspar
Gemstones
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Total
Quarrying Materials
Basalt
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Slate
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

91
2
20
0
33
1,229

92
2
17
0
29
1,015

74
2
11
0
33
1,055

78
1
17
0
54
1,284

56
1
18
0
76
1,275

55
1
18
0
69
1,184

55
1
18
0
69
1,184

53
1
18
0
100
1,239

1,376

1,155

1,175

1,435

1,425

1,327

1,327

1,410

0
1
1
99
462
128
12
653

0
1
1
609
379
30
18
652

30
6
0
812
726
27
7
380

62
6
0
825
1,283
66
34
590

135
6
0
834
978
54
34
660

135
6
0
834
963
54
34
660

135
6
0
834
963
54
34
660

135
6
0
834
1,180
60
40
701

1,357

1,689

1,989

2,865

2,701

2,686

2,686

2,957

13,536

13,554

15,075

16,589

16,848

16,499

16,499

17,589

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
It is estimated that coal mining accounts for about 7% of industrial explosives consumption in the other
African countries. Production declined at a rate of about 3.1% per year during the 1992-1997 period, but
is projected to recover marginally during the forecast period. Botswana, Swaziland and Niger are the
major coal producers in this group of countries.

Metal Mining
Metal mining accounts for an estimated 69% of the industrial explosives consumed by the mining
industries in this group of countries. Metal mine production and explosives consumption increased
moderately between 1992 and 1997 and are projected to continue to do so. Iron ore, copper, manganese
and uranium account for the bulk of the consumption in this sector. Mauritania accounts for the bulk of
the explosives consumption for iron ore, Botswana accounts for all of the copper, Gabon and Ghana for
most of the manganese, and Niger and Gabon for uranium. During the forecast period, a nickel property is
projected to come on-stream in Cte dIvoire.
A brief review of metal and industrial mining development and potential for selected other African
countries follows.

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Page 109

Angola
Angola has notable diamond production from alluvial deposits, of which a high percentage are of gem
quality. However, alluvial deposits generally do not require use of explosives. Gold, platinum,
manganese, iron, copper and phosphate are also counted among the countrys resources.

Botswana
Botswana leads the world in terms of diamond output value, since a high proportion of its finds are
gemstone quality. Output totaled 20 million carats in 1997 and production has risen at an annual rate of
8% since 1993. Copper-nickel matte and copper and nickel production also represent significant sources
of mining activity. However, poor prices put continued mining operations in question. Industrial
explosives consumption estimates for copper and nickel production are indicated at approximately 12
thousand metric tons annually by sources within the explosives industry. Coal, salt and soda ash are also
recovered in large quantities. Production of the latter two minerals rose between 1996 and 1997. Coal
reserves in Botswana are estimated to be above 17 billion metric tons, but production has not risen,
primarily due to market conditions.

Chad
Trona, salt, alluvial gold and building materials are currently the mineral products most readily recovered
in Chad, but in this nation to which political stability has recently returned and in which legislative
measures to encourage exploration and development of mineral resources have been undertaken, other
significant deposits are known to exist. These include bauxite, graphite, kaolinite, diatomite, uranium and
wolframite.

Cote dIvoire
The Cote dIvoire has some mining activity in gold and substantial nickel and iron ore reserves that have
reached an early level of development. A project for nickel production of 45 thousand tons at Touba has
been undertaken by Falconbridge as the major shareholder. It is also estimated that Cte dIvoire holds
some 3 billion tons of iron ore reserves.

Gabon
Gabon has limited mineral reserves of manganese, uranium and gold, and these metals are the main
products of Gabons mining industry. Some manganese ore and manganese dioxide are exported to
Western Europe.

Ghana
Ghana ranks as the second-leading gold producer on the African continent, behind South Africa. The
Ashanti Goldfields Group dominates this production. Ghana depends on gold as its leading export
product, ahead of cocoa and oil, and thus faced an uncertain situation precipitated by gold price declines.
Earnings from gold sales amounted to $564 million in 1997. Other mineral products of importance
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include bauxite, manganese and diamonds. The Ghana Bauxite Company, which produced 537 thousand
metric tons in 1997, has been negotiating the sale of its 35% share with British Alcan. Similar
privatization efforts in manganese production have also been underway.

Guinea
Guinea has large bauxite reserves, the export of which provide over 85% of the nations foreign exchange
income. Quantities exported amounted to 18.4 million metric tons in 1996. This accounted for nearly 15%
of the worlds supply. Gold in Guinea is also of interest and the country as a whole has extensive
potential resources, recovery of which is hindered by lack of infrastructure.

Malawi, Uganda, Central African Republic


Malawi, Uganda and the Central African Republic are three countries in which vast mineral reserves have
been identified, but they have not been developed. The pre-Cambrian rock foundations beneath Uganda
and the Central African Republic contain gold, copper, cobalt, uranium, tin, iron, marble, granite and
limestone, among other minerals. Uganda expects to move into the world ranks of cobalt producers with
the commissioning of a production facility in Kasese in 1999. In the Central African Republic, diamonds
are of great interest and have been a consistent source of national income. Malawi has made some study
of its mineral reserves and estimates include nearly 30 million tons of bauxite, 15 million tons of ceramic
clay and 4.1 million tons of limestone. The governments of both Malawi and Uganda have undertaken
legislative steps that should make exploration and development more attractive.

Mauritania
Mauritania has established itself in the world ranks of iron ore producing nations. Output in 1997
amounted to 11.7 million metric tons. Other minerals of note include gypsum, of which 12.5 thousand
metric tons were sold in 1996 and of which several hundred million tons remain in reserve.

Togo
Togo, which is small in comparison with its Northwest African neighbor Morocco, derives nearly 40% of
its foreign exchange income from the export of phosphate rock. Togo does not have downstream chemical
processing facilities. Other mineral resources include iron, manganese, chromite and diamonds.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Quarrying materials and industrial minerals account for an estimated 16% and 8%, respectively, of the
industrial explosives consumption in this group of African countries. Consumption by the quarrying
segment increased rapidly between 1992 and 1997 and is projected to grow moderately during the
forecast period. Limestone, granite and miscellaneous stone producers are the primary consumers.
Angola, Ethiopia, Botswana and Nigeria account for much of this consumption. The production of
industrial minerals, which declined marginally during the 1992-1997 period, is projected to increase
marginally between 1997 and 2003. Phosphate rock production is the major end use and Tunisia, Togo
and Senegal are the main consumers among this group of countries.
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MIDDLE EAST
This region is defined to include Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman,
Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. In general, the Middle East is
not an important mining region, except for Iran and Turkey. Estimates of Middle Eastern consumption of
industrial explosives for the production of selected mineral commodities is summarized in the two
following tables. Turkey accounted for 67% of the estimated regional market in 1997. Iran accounted for
23% and Israel with 8% was the only other significant consumer. Coal mining accounted for about 39%,
quarrying materials for 32% and metal mining for about 23% of the market.
Regional explosives consumption grew at an estimated annual rate of 2.8% between 1992 and 1997.
During this period, the balance of consumption between various sectors of the mining industry changed
significantly. Whereas in 1992 the quarrying materials sector accounted for 21% of explosives
consumption, this share had in 1997 grown to about 32%. During the same period, the coal mining sector
lost proportionally. Use of explosives both in metal mining and for production of industrial minerals
expanded at rates of 4.8% and 8.8% annually between 1992 and 1997. Overall growth in consumption of
explosives in this region is expected increase at an average annual rate of about 1.7% during the forecast
period.
Middle Eastern Consumption of Explosives
by the Mining Industry by Country
(metric tons)
Iran

Israel

Turkey

Other

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

13,671
15,481
16,030
16,905
17,253
18,837
19,037

3,958
6,314
6,321
6,325
6,317
6,323
6,324

52,177
49,288
46,941
47,660
49,353
55,215
55,595

2,322
2,189
2,463
2,390
2,472
2,455
2,556

72,128
73,272
71,755
73,280
75,396
82,830
83,512

2003

23,931

6,495

58,459

2,759

91,643

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals


Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Middle Eastern Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry by End Use


(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

38,594
34,105
31,196
25,039
26,543
32,293
32,272

15,147
16,671
16,071
17,392
17,510
19,206
19,831

3,173
2,297
3,351
4,218
4,804
4,833
4,910

15,213
20,198
21,138
26,631
26,539
26,499
26,499

72,128
73,272
71,755
73,280
75,396
82,830
83,512

2003

33,271

24,642

5,236

28,495

91,643

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

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IRAN
Iran is probably the most important country in the Middle East in terms of geological potential and
mineral reserves. However, the mining industry accounted for only 3% of gross national product in 1997.
High-priority and ambitious development plans have been developed that foresee growth in this industry
during the next ten years. Irans mountains already are the site of substantial copper operations at Sar
Chesmeh. The National Iranian Steel Co. (NISCO) has an active and growing integrated steel sector. The
Iranian parliament established new mining legislation in November 1997 providing a legal framework for
exploration and recovery of minerals. Included are stipulations concerning foreign investment and the
recovery of capital by investors. This should lower commercial and psychological inhibitions to active
expansion, and a number of international companies are currently involved in development projects.
Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in Iran is summarized in the following table.
The metal mining sector accounted for 64% of Irans estimated explosives use in 1997 while the
production of quarrying materials accounted for approximately 30%. Consumption of explosives by the
mining sector grew at an average rate of 6.6% per year between 1992 and 1997. The most significant
growth occurred in metals mining, in which consumption estimates of 7.7 thousand metric tons in 1992
rose to 12.1 thousand metric tons in 1997, a rapid 9.6% annual growth. Consumption of explosives for
quarrying materials production also rose, at the more moderate rate of 2.9% per year. Overall growth is
projected for the 1997-2003 period at about 4% per year.
Iranian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead/Zinc Ore
Manganese Ore
Molybdenum
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Fluorspar
Gypsum
Strontium
Talc
Total

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

274

302

312

272

272

272

272

271

106
3,962
3,083
365
28
63
49

93
3,177
5,389
432
55
52
57

105
3,670
4,745
538
54
50
54

105
4,402
4,958
468
54
42
108

105
4,402
5,378
462
54
42
57

105
4,402
6,962
462
54
42
57

105
4,477
6,941
535
54
42
60

104
7,000
9,000
500
55
45
64

7,656

9,256

9,217

10,136

10,500

12,083

12,215

16,768

36
8
2
749
7
2

45
12
2
707
11
2

28
12
2
765
11
2

30
12
2
746
11
2

30
1
2
753
11
2

30
1
2
753
11
2

36
1
2
816
11
1

30
1
2
757
15
2

804

779

819

803

798

798

868

807

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Iranian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Stone
Travertine
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

38
2
1,943
247
354
2,353

29
3
2,122
187
367
2,435

33
2
2,286
259
392
2,712

40
2
2,286
259
392
2,715

33
2
2,286
259
392
2,712

33
2
2,286
259
392
2,712

33
2
2,286
259
392
2,712

35
2
2,629
270
400
2,750

4,937

5,143

5,683

5,694

5,683

5,683

5,683

6,086

13,671

15,481

16,030

16,905

17,253

18,837

19,037

23,931

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Coal extraction in Iran is relatively modest by world standards and functions primarily as a support for the
steel industry. Production in recent years has fluctuated slightly around a level trend. Despite expansions
foreseen for the steel industry, significant projects in coal mining are not being undertaken and the
consumption of explosives in this sector is not expected to rise.

Metal Mining
Iran has substantial copper mining operations and the country has an active and growing integrated steel
sector with the largest concentration of direct-reduction plants outside South America. These two
industries account for the bulk of the explosives consumption in Irans metal mining sector. Copper
production originates from Sar Chesmeh, a major open-pit mine with average copper grades on the order
of 0.9% recoverable copper, with significant by-product molybdenum. Copper ore production increased at
the moderate average annual rate of about 2% between 1992 and 1997 and present plans foresee a
possible doubling of production by 2000. Foreign capital and know-how from Japan (Tomen Corp.) and
Australia (BHP and MIM) will support this effort.
The National Iranian Steel Company has outlined an ambitious plan to increase steel production from 6.3
million metric tons in 1997 to 10 million metric tons by 2000. Iron ore mines are operating or being
developed at Yazd (Chadormalou and Choghart), Khorassan and Gol-e-Gohar. Foreign companies
involved in various projects include Danielli (Italy), Voest-Alpine (Austria), ABB (Switzerland), TAIMTFG (Spain) and BSF (France). Iron ore production has increased from a level of 5.6 million metric tons
in 1992 to 12.8 million metric tons in 1997.
Traditionally, most lead and zinc mines in Iran have been open-pit operations with significant stripping
ratios and grades that averaged over 6% lead and 1.6% zinc, but many of these have exhausted their
reserves. Other operations are expected to take their place, and thus production in this segment of metallic
ores is anticipated to show moderate increases. Where formerly lead-zinc concentrates were exported for
processing, smelting capacity has now been developed in the country. A lead smelter at Zanjan with a
capacity of 40 thousand metric tons per year came on-stream in 1993. A zinc smelter at Bafq with a
capacity of 27 thousand metric tons per year will begin trials this year, and other domestic smelters are
planned for development through 2005, which could significantly increase refined zinc capacity.
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Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Quarrying activity, which accounts for about a third of Irans explosives consumption, grew moderately
between 1992 and 1997 and should continue to grow at a moderate rate. Iran developed a well-diversified
industrial minerals sector during earlier years and this sector continues to supply raw materials for its
construction and industrial activities. This sector is small but has exhibited a level trend that is projected
to continue into the forecast period.

ISRAEL
Israel is not blessed with vast mineral resources, but is a significant regional consumer of explosives and
accounts for about 8% of estimated regional consumption. Estimated explosives consumption for mineral
production in Israel is summarized in the following table. Quarrying materials account for about 98% of
the total. Significant restructuring has occurred in Israels industrial minerals sector. Formerly majority
owner of Israel Chemical Ltd., the Israeli government reduced its share to 28% in 1994. The majority
shareholder now is the Eisenberg Group. Also, Dead Sea Bromine, Dead Sea Works and Rotem Amfert
Negev have been established as separate business units. (These companies produce elemental bromine
and derivative chemicals; potash and salt; and phosphate rock and derivative chemicals, respectively).
Israels explosives consumption grew by an estimated 60% between 1992 and 1993, but has been static
since.
Israeli Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

Metal Mining

4
128

4
130

4
140

5
143

5
136

5
142

5
143

5
156

132

135

144

148

141

146

147

161

1,034
2,792

1,034
5,145

1,034
5,143

1,034
5,143

1,034
5,143

1,034
5,143

1,034
5,143

1,034
5,300

3,826

6,179

6,177

6,177

6,177

6,177

6,177

6,334

3,958

6,314

6,321

6,325

6,317

6,323

6,324

6,495

Industrial Minerals
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Total
Quarrying Materials
Marble
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


The production of miscellaneous crushed stone and marble accounts for most of the explosives
consumption in Israel. Some consumption also occurs in the production of phosphate rock.

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TURKEY
Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in Turkey is summarized in the following table.
Coal mining accounts for about half of the explosives consumption in Turkey. The production of
quarrying materials accounts for approximately 25% and the metal mining sector accounts for about 18%.
While Turkey is not a major mining country, its economy is sufficiently vigorous to support diversified
industrial minerals activities, quarrying operations and mining of certain metallic minerals. Turkey
accounts for the largest proportion of explosives consumed among the countries in this region. Political
developments during the middle of the decade have left unclear how strongly the new coalition
government will emphasize and encourage the growth of the mining industry. Between 1992 and 1996,
the consumption of explosives by Turkeys mining industry is estimated to have declined slightly, before
rebounding in 1997. Marginal growth is anticipated during the forecast period.
The state-owned Etibank, a major producer of nonferrous metal ores, boron minerals and chemicals, has
been reorganized. Banking operations have been privatized and minerals and metals operations have been
established under Eti Holdings, comprising the operating units Aluminum, Boron, Chrome, Copper,
Electrometallurgy, Silver and Eti Pazarlama. Other state-owned companies are undergoing similar
privatization.
The supply of explosives originates primarily from three Turkish producers: MKE, Nitromak and Tugsas.
MKE manufacturers approximately 6.5 thousand metric tons of nitroglycerin-type explosives; Nitromak
concentrates on emulsion explosives and produces some 2.5 thousand metric tons and Tugsas produces
the bulk of ammonium nitrate in the country, some 45 thousand metric tons.
Turkish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead/Zinc Ore
Manganese Ore
Silver
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Strontium
Total

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

38,320

33,803

30,884

24,767

26,271

32,021

32,000

33,000

320
3,581
2,512
505
95
5
102

323
3,638
2,751
25
354
5
65

535
3,242
2,443
24
326
3
83

876
3,723
2,093
22
470
3
29

703
3,139
2,718
22
350
3
38

703
3,251
2,718
22
350
3
38

879
3,250
2,930
26
350
3
40

876
3,500
2,925
22
470
3
38

7,119

7,160

6,656

7,217

6,972

7,085

7,478

7,834

24
26
26
1,499
19
16

9
21
46
643
23
18

9
28
56
1,566
0
12

12
43
56
2,359
0
13

13
58
56
2,782
0
13

13
58
56
2,782
0
13

15
58
61
2,782
0
13

13
65
60
3,000
0
13

1,610

760

1,671

2,483

2,922

2,922

2,929

3,151

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Turkish Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Quartzite
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

102
4,153
284
588

150
6,496
377
541

151
6,585
388
606

170
12,270
141
613

170
12,272
140
606

170
12,272
140
606

170
12,272
140
606

200
13,500
150
624

5,127

7,565

7,730

13,193

13,187

13,187

13,187

14,474

52,177

49,288

46,941

47,660

49,353

55,215

55,595

58,459

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Turkeys hard coal production is significant by Middle Eastern standards. However, it declined fairly
rapidly during the 1992-1997 period and is projected to remain at about the present level. Turkey ranked
eighteenth in the world in coal production in 1997 with an output of 42.3 million metric tons. In 1992 this
sector consumed an estimated 73% of the explosives used by Turkeys mining industry. In 1997 this
proportion had fallen to 58%. Emphasis is being placed on meeting national needs from internal
resources, and while hydroelectric and natural gas (which must be imported) options exist, coal reserves
will also be exploited. A new power station has been planned for Afsin-Elbistan B.

Metal Mining
Turkeys metallic minerals sector consists primarily of iron ore, lead, zinc and copper operations that may
be grouped in terms of lead-zinc mines, complex copper-lead-zinc operations and copper mines, which
account for a significant share of by-product secondary metals, such as antimony, gold and silver.
Explosives consumption by this sector is led by copper and iron ore production. Copper production,
which had increased somewhat between 1992 and 1995, has since declined in response to low metal
prices. Recovery to the average previous level is projected for the forecast period. Iron ore production is
projected to continue to grow moderately. In addition, Turkey is an important regional producer of
chromite ore.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Turkey is an important world producer of magnesite and its industrial and construction sectors support
significant quarrying and other traditional industrial minerals output. In general, production in the
industrial minerals sectors is expected to increase moderately. Quarrying operations are also projected to
increase moderately, in line with the overall growth of the economy and its construction industry.

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O THER MIDDLE EAST


Other Middle Eastern countries include Cyprus, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria,
the United Arab Emirates and Yemen. This group of countries accounted for 3% of estimated region
explosives consumption in 1997. Consumption increased marginally between 1992 and 1997 and is
projected to increase moderately during the forecast period. Explosives use is dominated by the
production of quarrying materials (59%) and industrial minerals (39%). The metal sector has declined
sharply since 1992 due to demise of the copper operation in Oman. Consumption by the coal sector is not
a factor. In the industrial minerals sector, phosphate rock is produced by Syria, Jordan and Iraq, while the
gypsum is mainly from Lebanon. In quarrying materials, the limestone is mainly from Cyprus with some
from Qatar. Oman is the primary producer of crushed stone, along with Yemen and Cyprus.
Some of these countries, however, have ongoing exploration programs designed to assess the extent of
their reserves and resources more accurately and publish findings to attract investors. In Oman, for
example, with known resources of many minerals (i.e., chromite, copper, manganese ore, iron ore, gold,
silver, lead, zinc, industrial minerals including gypsum, limestone, dolomite, marble and various clays),
the Directorate General of Minerals within the Ministry of Commerce and Industry has carried out
research and exploration projects, and handouts and maps have been printed to distribute to prospective
investors. The Government of Oman has encouraged market-based, private initiative and has itself formed
agreements with the Government of Japan to engage in mineral exploration projects.
Mineral resources in Jordan lie in phosphates, potash, salt, limestone, granite, copper and aluminum
fluoride. Investigation is still being carried out and legislation being formulated to make exploitation
possible and attractive.
Other Middle Eastern Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Lead/Zinc Ore
Silver
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Total

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

2003

0
355
2
1
14

0
239
1
1
14

1
182
1
1
13

1
23
1
1
13

2
20
1
1
13

3
20
1
1
13

5
20
1
1
13

372

255

198

38

38

38

40

0
0
254
373

0
0
293
330

1
0
307
408

5
1
300
477

5
1
394
543

5
1
392
567

5
1
427
684

627

623

717

783

943

966

1,117

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Page 118

Other Middle Eastern Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

2003

623
31
127
542

638
25
136
512

638
24
145
742

670
31
181
686

638
28
145
681

638
33
145
637

684
43
163
711

1,323

1,311

1,549

1,568

1,492

1,452

1,602

2,322

2,189

2,463

2,390

2,472

2,455

2,759

Quarrying Materials
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

SOUTHWEST ASIA
This region includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Estimates of
Southwest Asian consumption of industrial explosives for the production of selected mineral commodities
is summarized in the following two tables. India accounts for almost 98% of the regional market. Pakistan
accounts for almost all of the balance. Coal mining accounts for 70% of the market and metal mining
accounts for 23% of estimated regional explosives consumption. Quarrying materials account for most of
the balance. Regional consumption increased significantly between 1992 and 1997 and is projected to
continue growing at a significant rate.
Southwest Asian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
India

Pakistan

Other

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

229,756
241,702
237,732
265,803
282,139
283,748
292,352

5,276
6,084
5,791
5,775
7,077
6,648
6,691

385
386
397
431
460
389
445

235,418
248,172
243,920
272,009
289,675
290,785
299,488

2003

326,649

7,494

515

334,658

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals


Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

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Page 119

Southwest Asian Consumption of Explosives by Mining Sector


( metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

163,742
172,800
177,985
187,392
201,533
202,491
204,010

55,787
57,893
60,557
65,405
66,717
66,791
73,862

849
1,061
1,073
1,052
1,139
1,188
1,190

15,039
16,418
4,304
18,161
20,286
20,316
20,426

235,418
248,172
243,920
272,009
289,675
290,785
299,488

2003

233,041

75,239

1,322

25,055

334,658

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

INDIA
India accounted for an estimated 98% of regional consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives
consumption for mineral production in India is summarized in the following table. Coal production
accounts for about 70% of Indian explosives use. Metal mining accounts for approximately 25%. The
available industrial mineral and quarrying material production data indicate that these sectors account for
only about 1%, but they may be somewhat understated. Indian consumption increased significantly
between 1992 and 1997 and is projected to continue growing at a significant rate.
Indian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite
Copper
Ilmenite
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Silver
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gemstones
Gypsum
Kyanite
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Talc
Wollastonite
Total

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

160,080

168,401

173,883

183,403

197,076

198,489

200,000

228,576

657
1,256
520
50,605
235
1,857
190
318

570
1,266
555
52,916
200
1,698
205
325

518
1,177
520
55,773
235
1,675
201
306

876
1,203
520
60,108
262
1,810
152
321

777
1,224
520
61,476
269
1,843
142
308

777
1,024
520
61,793
246
1,847
140
295

775
940
520
69,107
302
1,638
135
297

800
1,192
520
70,000
241
1,847
172
312

55,637

57,734

60,404

65,252

66,561

66,643

73,715

75,084

304
11
1
153
1
104
121
39
5

364
11
1
213
2
71
240
41
7

331
11
1
204
1
58
307
42
6

279
17
1
206
1
58
330
52
8

245
14
0
288
1
65
355
54
7

266
15
1
295
1
65
372
53
7

286
15
1
283
1
65
386
53
7

298
19
1
350
0
65
400
55
10

741

949

960

952

1,029

1,074

1,096

1,198

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Indian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Quartz
Slate
Undifferentiated
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

960
12,273
52
1
11

1,156
13,403
45
1
11

1,033
1,400
40
1
11

1,180
14,957
46
1
12

1,035
16,380
46
1
11

1,157
16,327
47
1
11

1,157
16,327
47
1
11

1,354
20,380
47
0
10

13,298

14,617

2,484

16,196

17,473

17,542

17,542

21,791

229,756

241,702

237,732

265,803

282,139

283,748

292,352

326,649

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
India has adequate coal resources to serve the needs of its domestic industries. The bulk of Indias coal
production is managed by Coal India Limited (CIL), a state-owned corporation in charge of Indias
nationalized coal industry. There is also some additional production from private operators. India
produced 312 million metric tons of coal in 1997, primarily bituminous. This represented an increase of
about 25% between 1992 and 1997 and moderate additional growth of about 15% is projected for the
forecast period.

Metal Mining
While India is not rich in metallic minerals, it is a major regional producer of iron and manganese ores.
Iron ore mining accounted for an estimated 93% of explosives consumption by this sector in 1997. This
sector increased significantly between 1992 and 1997 and moderate additional growth is projected for the
forecast period.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


India is not rich in mineral resources. However, it has adequate industrial mineral resources to serve the
domestic needs of its cement, construction and other industries. Phosphate rock, gypsum and barite
production are believed to account for most of the explosives use for industrial minerals. Quarrying
operations are much more significant, especially the production of limestone. This sector has been
growing significantly and is projected to continue to do so to accommodate the additional infrastructure
needed as Indias economy continues to develop.

PAKISTAN
Pakistan accounted for about 2% of regional consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives consumption for
mineral production in Pakistan is summarized in the following table. Coal production accounts for about
60% of Pakistani explosives use and quarrying materials accounts for approximately 38%. Pakistani
consumption increased rapidly between 1992 and 1997, especially quarry production. A moderate rate of
growth is projected for the forecast period.
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Pakistani Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Rock Salt
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

3,660

4,397

4,100

3,987

4,450

3,991

4,000

4,450

13
2
26
1
8
45
1

11
2
30
1
5
47
2

8
2
34
1
6
44
1

6
3
18
3
4
49
1

8
4
28
1
0
49
1

8
4
31
1
3
49
1

8
4
14
1
3
49
1

8
5
34
0
3
53
2

96

97

97

84

91

96

80

105

51
1,430
28
8

64
1,481
33
8

75
1,485
34
1

65
1,595
41
1

53
2,428
49
1

56
2,449
50
2

55
2,500
50
2

62
2,800
71
2

1,517

1,586

1,594

1,702

2,532

2,556

2,607

2,934

5,276

6,084

5,791

5,775

7,077

6,648

6,691

7,494

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Pakistans consumption of explosives for coal production fluctuated about the 4 million metric ton level
during the 1992-1997 period. Significant change is not projected for the forecast period.

Metal Mining
Pakistan is not rich in metallic minerals and the consumption of explosives by this segment is minimal.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


The production of limestone accounts for most of the explosives consumption by this sector. Production
increased by about 68% between 1992 and 1997. This sector is projected to increase moderately during
the forecast period.

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O THER SOUTHWEST ASIA


The remaining countries of Southwest Asia account for only 0.1% of regional explosives consumption.
The estimated explosives market for this group of countries is summarized below. Afghanistan accounts
for all of the explosives use in the coal and metal mining segments. Bhutan and Sri Lanka share the use
for production of quarrying materials.
Other Southwest Asian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Copper (copper content)
Ilmenite
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Quartz
Quartzite
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

140
7

140
15

140
12

147

155

1
1
3
6

2003

11

10

15

140
10

140
13

140
4

140
4

140
10

152

150

153

144

144

150

1
1
2
9

1
2
5
8

1
1
6
7

1
2
6
8

1
3
5
7

1
3
5
5

1
3
6
8

12

14

17

16

18

17

14

19

89
134
0
0
0

68
147
0
0
0

70
153
0
0
3

82
171
0
1
9

86
184
1
1
9

8
197
2
2
9

75
190
2
2
9

86
230
2
3
10

224

215

226

263

281

217

277

330

385

386

397

431

460

389

445

515

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

SOCIALIST ASIA
This region consists of Cambodia, China, Laos, Mongolia, the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea
(North Korea) and Vietnam. Estimates of Socialist Asian consumption of industrial explosives for the
production of selected mineral commodities are summarized in the following two tables. China accounted
for 93% of the regional market in 1997 and North Korea accounted for most of the balance. Coal mining
accounts for about 65% of the market and metal mining accounts for approximately 35% of estimated
regional industrial explosives consumption. The industrial mineral and quarrying segments are likely
understated as a result of limited production data.

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Page 123

Socialist Asian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

China

Korea, Peoples
Democratic
Republic of

Other

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

668,047
715,637
763,951
832,369
840,700
827,297
792,846

55,361
56,036
55,935
56,558
55,939
54,884
54,452

8,049
7,972
7,718
8,325
8,651
8,752
8,715

731,456
779,646
827,604
897,252
905,290
890,933
856,013

2003

938,957

56,584

10,689

1,006,230

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals


Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Socialist Asian Consumption of Explosives by Mining Sector


(metric tons)
Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

475,954
488,026
525,477
573,107
577,791
570,845
570,250

247,880
283,997
294,673
314,998
318,947
310,819
276,840

5,999
5,987
6,082
6,472
6,726
7,445
7,123

1,623
1,637
1,372
2,675
1,825
1,825
1,800

731,456
779,646
827,604
897,252
905,290
890,933
856,013

2003

656,069

339,217

8,931

2,013

1,006,230

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological
Survey.

CHINA
Based on its large population and substantial coal and metal mine production, demand for explosives in
China is assumed to be high. However, no statistics on supply or demand are available. Since other
countries do not report substantial exports to China, most explosives are assumed to be produced
domestically. The Chinese explosives market, which accounts for about 93% of estimated Socialist Asian
industrial explosives consumption, is summarized in the following table. Coal production accounts for
about two-thirds of this estimate, with metal mine production accounting for most of the balance. It is
quite likely that the estimates for industrial minerals and quarrying materials, which are based on the
limited available product production data, are unrealistically low.

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Chinese Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

Coal Mining

425,878

437,388

475,755

522,180

527,167

Metal Mining
Antimony
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese
Mercury
Nickel
Silver
Tin
Tungsten
Zinc

421
30,957
232
182,242
7,060
8,613
15
1,041
320
383
1,394
2,500

425
31,957
242
216,422
7,229
9,523
14
975
337
430
1,185
2,556

645
36,645
245
221,504
9,875
5,802
12
1,171
324
473
1,482
3,266

886
41,221
260
229,970
11,118
11,213
21
1,327
365
542
1,504
3,335

Total

235,181

271,294

281,446

979
996
1,297
62
226
1,587
218

1,051
996
1,250
62
184
1,575
201

5,365

Industrial Minerals
Asbestos
Barite
Gypsum
Lithium
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Total
SOURCE:

1998

2003

520,261

520,000

603,135

915
40,665
270
230,155
13,747
12,351
14
1,390
457
585
1,454
3,694

723
38,349
325
225,958
13,897
11,376
13
1,397
561
569
1,372
3,958

851
44,092
331
193,330
11,887
6,500
16
1,395
604
664
1,355
3,628

1,021
44,740
409
235,495
20,565
13,228
13
1,819
785
708
1,558
5,360

301,760

305,697

298,498

264,655

325,702

1,314
996
804
63
148
1,843
210

1,140
1,195
865
63
306
1,974
210

1,270
1,660
917
65
314
1,575
210

1,062
2,324
920
67
299
1,835
205

1,083
1,992
910
65
300
1,835
206

1,072
3,652
590
73
414
2,096
210

5,319

5,378

5,754

6,011

6,713

6,391

8,107

1,623

1,637

1,372

2,675

1,825

1,825

1,800

2,013

668,047

715,637

763,951

832,369

840,700

827,297

792,846

938,957

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

There are believed to be about fifty producers of industrial explosives in China, but production capacities
are not reported. Known major producers of Chinese industrial explosives are shown below.
Major Chinese Producers of Industrial Explosives1999
Guangdong Nanhai County Chemical General Factory (Nanhai, Guangdong Province)
Guangshui City Chemical Plant (Guangshui, Hubei Province)
Jiangyin County Chemical Plant (Jiangning, Jiangsu Province)
Panzhihua Mine Bureau No. 424 Plant (Panzhihua, Sichuan Province)
Qiqihar City Chemical Factory (Qiqihar, Heilongjiang Province)
Sichuan Daxian District Qujiang Chemical Plant (Daxian, Sichuan Province)
Sichuan Liangshan Xichang Chemical Plant (Liangshan, Sichuan Province)
Xinjiang Coal Mine Chemical Plant (Xinjiang, Uygur Province)
Xinjiang Tianhe Chemical Factory (Xinjiang, Uygur Province)
SOURCE:

CEH estimates.

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June 2000
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 125

Coal Mining
China continues to be an enigma in the worlds coal industry. It is the worlds largest producer of hard
coal with 1997 production of 1,356 million metric tons or approximately one-third of world production.
Chinese exports of coal are minimal, but have the potential to have significant future impact on Asian
coal trade. The current five-year plan calls for 1.4 billion metric tons to be produced in 2000. Chinese
coal production, hence estimated explosives consumption, increased significantly between 1992 and 1997
and is projected to continue to increase moderately during the forecast period.

Metal Mining
Estimates of explosives consumption in the metallic minerals sector of China were developed by
reference to other mining operations in Southeast Asian countries that share common borders with China
and that may share similar geologic characteristics. However, little is known about current industrial
practices regarding average powder factors in Chinese mining operations. Iron ore and the production of
copper, lead, manganese and zinc appear to be the major consumers of explosives in the metal mining
sector. This sector grew significantly between 1992 and 1997 and is projected to grow moderately.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Significant uncertainties regarding production volumes in for Chinas industrial minerals and quarrying
sectors preclude making reliable estimates of explosives consumption. Based on the size of the population
and the nature of its resources, Chinas consumption of explosives in these sectors is believed to be
substantially higher than indicated by the summary table above.

DEMOCRATIC PEOPLE S REPUBLIC OF KOREA


The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) accounted for an estimated 6% of regional
consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in North Korea is
summarized in the following table. Coal production accounts for almost 80% of explosives use. Metal
mining accounts for most of the balance. Little information is available regarding North Koreas mining
sector, except for certain coal operations. The consumption trend in North Korea is flat and is projected to
remain so during the forecast period. Like the Chinese data in the previous section, these data are
considered to be only rough estimates.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 126

Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

42,857

43,469

42,857

43,469

42,857

42,857

42,500

43,469

Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Silver
Tungsten
Zinc

94
10,858
319
36
55
622

94
10,858
340
36
55
653

94
11,375
340
36
49
653

94
11,375
340
36
49
653

94
11,375
340
36
49
653

88
10,341
319
36
49
653

82
10,341
319
36
49
622

94
11,375
340
36
55
653

Total

11,983

12,036

12,547

12,547

12,547

11,486

11,449

12,553

66
277
167
10

73
277
170
11

73
277
170
11

80
277
173
11

73
277
173
11

80
277
173
11

66
277
150
9

93
277
180
12

521

531

531

541

534

541

503

562

55,361

56,036

55,935

56,558

55,939

54,884

54,452

56,584

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
The principal coal-producing complexes in the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea are those of Anju,
Sunchon, Tokchon, Pukchang and Kaechon, all in the South Pyongan Province. These, together with
minor coal operations in the north of the country, produced about 90 million metric tons of coal in 1997.
The coal produced in North Korea is primarily anthracite. Although North Korea has potential for
increasing coal production, the production level has been flat and is projected to remain so.

Metal Mining
Iron ore production accounts for 90% of the estimated explosives use by North Koreas metal mining
sector. Zinc and lead account for most of the balance. The trend has been flat and is not projected to
change.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Uncertainties regarding production volumes and powder factors for the industrial minerals and quarrying
sectors in North Korea preclude making reliable estimates of explosives consumption. Consumption of
explosives in these sectors is likely higher than indicated by the summary table.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 127

O THER SOCIALIST ASIA


The remaining countries of Socialist Asia account for only 1% of regional explosives consumption. Coal
mining accounts for about 90% and metal mining for about 10% of the estimated explosives market for
this group of countries. Coal is mainly produced in Vietnam (60%) and Mongolia (40%). Metal mining
consumption is primarily copper produced in Mongolia.
Other Socialist Asian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

7,220

7,169

6,864

7,458

7,767

7,726

7,750

9,465

Metal Mining
Copper
Silver
Tin
Tungsten
Uranium
Zinc

615
13
23
14
4
47

567
13
23
14
4
47

583
14
25
8
4
47

587
14
28
11
4
47

596
14
32
11
4
47

733
14
31
5
4
47

625
14
32
5
4
56

851
15
41
5
3
47

Total

716

667

680

691

704

834

736

962

0
16
97

0
16
121

0
17
157

0
17
160

0
20
160

0
27
163

0
31
197

0
31
230

113

137

173

177

180

191

229

262

8,049

7,972

7,718

8,325

8,651

8,752

8,715

10,689

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Gemstones
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Total
Quarrying Materials
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

SOUTHEAST ASIA
This region includes Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore,
Taiwan and Thailand. Estimates of Southeast Asian consumption of industrial explosives for the
production of selected mineral commodities is summarized in the following two tables. Indonesia
accounted for 53% of the regional market in 1997, the Republic of Korea accounted for 19% and
Thailand for 12%. No other country accounted for as much as 10%. Coal mining accounts for about 51%
of this regional market and quarrying materials for 39%. Regional consumption increased rapidly between
1992 and 1997 and is projected to continue growing at a significant rate.

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Explosives
Page 128

Southeast Asian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)
Indonesia

Korea,
Republic of

Malaysia

Myanmar

Philippines

Taiwan

Thailand

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

20,313
24,309
30,370
37,406
40,828
49,098
47,843

19,065
19,056
18,751
17,743
17,283
17,607
17,441

6,914
6,423
6,518
5,989
6,979
6,421
5,979

473
412
497
566
545
621
643

4,533
4,188
4,309
4,606
4,245
4,311
4,307

4,158
3,868
3,868
3,734
3,410
4,048
4,040

6,003
6,884
8,526
8,874
9,932
11,214
11,167

61,459
65,138
72,839
78,917
83,221
93,319
91,420

2003

62,115

21,125

7,686

777

4,601

4,316

17,095

117,715

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Southeast Asian Consumption of Explosives by Mining Sector


(metric tons)
Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Coal Mining

Metal Mining

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

26,985
29,116
30,912
37,033
39,461
47,455
44,943

8,977
7,952
7,951
8,588
8,529
8,490
9,504

825
828
873
942
962
976
989

24,672
27,243
33,102
32,354
34,269
36,398
35,985

61,459
65,138
72,839
78,917
83,221
93,319
91,420

2003

61,604

9,840

1,020

45,251

117,715

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S.
Geological Survey.

INDONESIA
Indonesia is the largest regional consumer of industrial explosives, accounting for about 53% of the
Southeast Asian market in 1997. Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in Indonesia
is summarized in the following table. Coal production accounts for about 87% of Indonesian explosives
use and metal mining accounts for approximately 8%. Most of the balance is consumed in the production
of quarrying materials. Indonesian consumption increased dramatically between 1992 and 1997 and is
projected to continue growing at a significant rate.

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Page 129

Indonesian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Chromite
Copper
Manganese Ore
Nickel
Silver
Tin
Total
Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Granite
Limestone
Marble
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

16,999

20,973

23,928

31,500

34,216

42,579

40,000

55,000

25
1,643
30
275
73
172

31
1,747
32
233
66
170

31
1,885
32
288
78
179

126
2,595
43
313
133
225

167
2,969
43
319
134
225

27
3,096
46
316
138
275

25
4,570
45
315
138
234

29
3,200
46
325
150
275

2,217

2,279

2,493

3,434

3,858

3,897

5,327

4,025

3
47
2

5
0
2

7
0
2

9
0
2

9
0
2

9
0
2

9
0
2

10
0
2

52

11

11

11

11

12

4
476
565
0

1
453
595
1

1
839
3,096
4

1
502
1,955
2

1
507
2,231
3

1
524
2,083
3

1
500
2,000
3

1
572
2,500
6

1,045

1,050

3,940

2,461

2,743

2,610

2,504

3,078

20,313

24,309

30,370

37,406

40,828

49,098

47,843

62,115

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Coal production in Indonesia increased by a factor of 2.5 between 1992 and 1997 and the associated use
of explosives increased in tandem. Significant further growth is projected for the forecast period. Coal
accounts for the bulk of the industrial explosives market in Indonesia. Most of that production is centered
in Sumatra and Kalimantan, mainly from open pits with a low overburden. Lack of infrastructure, in
particular lack of deep-water ports, hampered the development of this industry until recently.

Metal Mining
While significant in regional terms, the metal mining industry in Indonesia accounts for only an estimated
8% of the industrial explosives market. Copper production, which almost doubled between 1992 and
1997, accounted for almost 80% of the explosives use by the metal mining sector in 1997. Only marginal
additional growth is likely until international copper prices recover.

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Page 130

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Quarrying operations are limited to construction materials like granite and limestone. This segment grew
rapidly between 1992 and 1997. Moderate additional growth is projected for the forecast period. The
production of industrial minerals is relatively unimportant in terms of production volumes and explosives
consumption.

REPUBLIC OF KOREA
The Republic of Korea (South Korea) accounted for an estimated 19% of regional consumption in 1997.
Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in South Korea is summarized in the following
table. The production of quarrying materials accounts for about 78% of South Korean industrial
explosives use. Coal mining accounts for about 20%. Metal mining accounts for about three-quarters of
the balance. South Korean consumption, which declined moderately between 1992 and 1997, is projected
to increase significantly during the forecast period.
Republic of Korea Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Tungsten
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Limestone
Quartzite
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

8,466

6,725

5,655

4,349

3,764

3,432

3,500

5,000

230
58
0
10
132

226
31
0
0
83

198
9
0
0
43

190
17
0
0
47

229
22
0
0
51

306
15
0
0
54

300
15
0
0
63

350
25
0
0
60

430

341

250

255

301

376

379

435

51
46

58
43

58
45

67
50

58
49

62
62

62
50

70
70

97

101

103

117

107

124

112

140

9,735
336

11,437
451

12,318
424

12,537
485

12,605
505

13,230
445

13,000
450

15,000
550

10,071

11,888

12,742

13,022

13,111

13,675

13,450

15,550

19,065

19,056

18,751

17,743

17,283

17,607

17,441

21,125

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
The Republic of Koreas hard coal production has declined progressively since 1992 and is projected to
recover only partially during the forecast period. This sector presently accounts for 20% of explosives
consumption in this country.

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Page 131

Metal Mining
The Republic of Koreas ferrous and nonferrous mineral production is small and stagnant. Iron ore
production accounted for more than 80% of explosives consumption by this segment in 1997. Moderate
growth is projected.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Industrial mineral production is not important in the Republic of Korea and is dwarfed by quarrying
operations that consume the bulk of the industrial explosives. Limestone is the most important product.
This sector grew rapidly between 1992 and 1997 and is projected to exhibit additional moderate growth.

MALAYSIA
Malaysia has a fairly well diversified mining sector by regional standards, but most minerals are produced
in fairly small volume. Malaysia traditionally has been one of the worlds largest tin suppliers. However,
international competition from lower-cost producers has had a negative impact. Estimated explosives
consumption for mineral production in Malaysia is summarized in the following table. Malaysia
accounted for an estimated 7% of regional explosives consumption in 1997. The production of quarrying
material accounts for about 66% of Malaysian explosives use and metal mining accounts for
approximately 34%. Malaysian production of coal and industrial materials is minimal. Malaysian
explosives consumption, which declined moderately between 1992 and 1997, is projected to increase
significantly during the forecast period.
Malaysian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

Metal Mining
Copper
Ilmenite
Iron Ore
Tin

2,866
67
295
78

2,527
56
227
57

2,536
23
224
35

2,082
30
186
35

2,029
49
300
28

1,862
33
248
28

1,406
35
250
28

2,600
33
300
35

Total

3,307

2,866

2,818

2,334

2,406

2,171

1,719

2,968

11

11

12

15

8
3,592

9
3,539

12
3,675

9
3,634

5
4,556

3
4,245

5
4,250

3
4,700

3,600

3,548

3,688

3,644

4,561

4,248

4,255

4,703

6,914

6,423

6,518

5,989

6,979

6,421

5,979

7,686

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

2003

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Page 132

Coal Mining
Malaysia produces only soft coal that requires the use of little or no explosives.

Metal Mining
The Mamut mine constitutes the primary source for copper and gold production in Malaysia. This openpit operation, however, has limited life and additional reserves are required to sustain anticipated
production increases. Copper production has decline progressively since 1992, but may recover somewhat
when metal prices improve. Production of tin has declined and is not expected to recover significantly.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Limestone is the only significant stone product reported from quarrying operations. Explosives use by this
sector increased significantly between 1992 and 1997 and moderate further growth is projected for the
forecast period. Barite is one of the few industrial minerals produced in Malaysia for which official
statistics are available. However, its impact on explosives consumption is minimal.

MYANMAR
Myanmar accounted for about 0.7% of regional consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives consumption
for mineral production in Myanmar is summarized in the following table. Quarrying materials account for
more than 84%. Myanmars industrial explosive consumption increased dramatically between 1992 and
1997 and a significant rate of growth is projected for the forecast period.
Myanmar Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

Metal Mining
Chromite
Copper
Lead
Silver
Tin
Tungsten
Zinc

78
22
12
3
4
22
7

13
21
9
2
4
22
5

13
29
10
4
5
23
8

13
31
10
3
4
22
4

13
29
9
3
3
14
3

13
35
12
1
2
12
2

63
30
14
1
2
9
2

15
40
12
1
2
20
5

148

76

92

88

75

78

121

96

9
0
4

10
1
3

15
1
4

23
2
4

16
2
4

15
1
5

15
1
4

20
3
6

13

15

20

29

22

21

20

28

Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gypsum
Total

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Page 133

Myanmar Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1
311

0
320

1
384

1
447

2
446

2
521

2
500

3
650

312

321

385

449

448

522

502

653

473

412

497

566

545

621

643

777

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Myanmar produces only lignite coal that requires the use of little or no explosives.

Metal Mining
Myanmar is not rich in metallic minerals and the consumption of explosives by this segment is minimal.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


The production of limestone accounts for most of the explosives consumption by these segments.

PHILIPPINES
The Philippines accounted for an estimated 4.6% of regional industrial explosives consumption in 1997.
Estimated consumption for mineral production in the Philippines is summarized in the following table.
Consumption was evenly shared among coal production, metal mining and the production of quarrying
materials in 1997. Philippine consumption, which declined marginally between 1992 and 1997, is
projected to increase marginally during the forecast period.
Philippine Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

1,258

1,164

1,109

1,004

1,369

1,369

1,369

1,479

Metal Mining
Chromite Ore
Copper
Manganese Ore
Nickel
Silver

1,013
723
31
46
24

777
797
28
27
20

956
680
4
35
21

1,397
632
0
53
19

986
321
0
52
18

1,101
275
0
53
14

1,095
284
0
50
9

1,189
350
0
55
14

1,837

1,650

1,696

2,102

1,377

1,443

1,438

1,608

Total

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Page 134

Philippine Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Quartz
Stone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

9
3
0
1

4
0
3
26

8
0
3
7

5
0
0
9

5
0
0
9

5
0
0
9

5
0
0
9

5
0
0
9

14

33

18

14

13

13

14

13

155
757
61
9
441

36
772
84
9
441

223
744
70
9
441

223
744
70
9
441

223
744
70
9
441

223
744
70
9
441

223
744
70
9
441

223
750
78
9
441

1,424

1,341

1,487

1,487

1,487

1,487

1,487

1,501

4,533

4,188

4,309

4,606

4,245

4,311

4,307

4,601

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Coal production accounted for about 32% of estimated explosives consumption in the Philippines in
1997. Consumption increased moderately between 1992 and 1997 and is projected to continue to grow at
a moderate rate.

Metal Mining
The Philippines has a relatively well developed metallic minerals sector in which copper mining and its
associated by-product gold predominates. However, the production of chromite ore is believed to
dominate the use of explosives in the metal mining sector. Explosives consumption by this sector has
fluctuated around a level trend that is expected to continue.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Only minor volumes of traditional industrial minerals are produced in the Philippines and significant
change is not projected. Quarrying operations are much more important and account for perhaps 35% of
explosives consumed in the country. Limestone, dolomite and miscellaneous crushed stone account for
most of the explosives consumption.

TAIWAN
Taiwan accounted for about 4.3% of regional consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives consumption
for mineral production in Taiwan is summarized in the following table. The production of quarrying
materials accounted for about 98% of Taiwanese explosives use in 1997. Coal mining accounted for the
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 135

balance. Overall, Taiwanese consumption declined only marginally between 1992 and 1997. A moderate
rate of growth is projected for the forecast period.
Taiwanese Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

255

249

217

179

112

75

75

125

Metal Mining

Industrial Minerals

84
2,512
1,258
49

93
1,946
1,526
52

87
1,978
1,529
57

65
1,974
1,463
54

38
1,686
1,510
63

65
2,298
1,557
53

65
2,300
1,550
50

65
2,512
1,557
56

3,903

3,618

3,651

3,555

3,298

3,973

3,965

4,191

4,158

3,868

3,868

3,734

3,410

4,048

4,040

4,316

Coal Mining

Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Serpentine
Total
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
Taiwans coal production, which has declined, is projected to recover only partially during the forecast
period.

Metal Mining
Taiwan is not rich in metallic minerals and the consumption of explosives by this segment is minimal.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


The production of limestone and marble accounts for most of the explosives consumption by this sector.
Consumption declined progressively between 1992 and 1996, but recovered to the 1992 level in 1997.
Marginal growth is projected for the forecast period.

THAILAND
Thailand accounted for an estimated 12% of regional consumption in 1997. Estimated explosives
consumption for mineral production in Thailand is summarized in the following table. The production of
quarrying materials accounted for about 88% of Thailands explosives use in 1997. Industrial minerals
and metal mining accounted for the remainder. Thailands consumption doubled between 1992 and 1997
and is projected to continue growing at a rapid rate.

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Thai Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Ilmenite
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Tin
Tungsten
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Barite
Feldspar
Gemstones
Gypsum
Phosphate Rock
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Limestone
Marble
Marl
Quartz
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

1
394
201
4
100
4
334

4
193
103
3
56
4
377

0
132
135
3
34
2
296

0
32
164
2
19
3
155

0
79
356
2
13
2
61

0
40
90
0
7
1
388

0
35
102
0
6
1
375

0
100
150
0
15
1
442

1,038

739

603

375

513

526

519

708

31
89
0
516
2
3

20
95
0
541
3
4

24
88
0
591
2
6

24
108
0
619
2
7

32
109
0
648
1
6

36
97
0
643
1
27

73
95
0
653
1
4

42
105
0
643
1
20

641

663

710

760

796

804

826

811

3
110
4,126
7
67
4

1
178
5,230
8
56
4

4
246
6,894
8
56
2

6
221
7,438
8
61
2

5
352
8,173
34
57
2

5
266
9,599
12
1
1

5
300
9,500
15
1
1

7
422
15,073
16
57
2

4,317

5,477

7,209

7,737

8,622

9,884

9,822

15,576

6,003

6,884

8,526

8,874

9,932

11,214

11,167

17,095

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
The production of hard coal in Thailand, which requires the use of explosives, has declined and ceased
while the production of soft coal that uses little or no explosives has increased.

Metal Mining
Thailands limited metallic minerals sector includes ferrous as well as nonferrous operations. Iron ore
comprises the former, while base metal mines provide for modest tonnage of lead, zinc and some other
ores. Tin production was formerly one of the principal activities in this sector, but it has suffered from
international competition in recent years, as have other countries in the region. This segment has declined
sharply between 1992 and 1997, but is projected to recover significantly during the forecast period.

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Page 137

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Quarrying production, primarily limestone, more than doubled between 1992 and 1997. This sector is
expected to show continuous growth during the forecast period. Explosives consumption by the industrial
minerals sector in Thailand is dominated by gypsum. Only marginal growth is projected during the
forecast period.

JAPAN
PRODUCING COMPANIES
Four major producers in Japan (Nippon Kayaku Company, Ltd.; NOF Corporation; Asahi Chemical
Industry Co., Ltd.; and Japan Carlit Co., Ltd.) collectively supply about 75-80% of the total domestic
market. The following table identifies producers of industrial explosives and blasting agents in Japan:
Japanese Producers of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents1999
Explosive Formulations

Company and Plant Location


Asahi Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
Nobeoka, Miyazaki Prefecture
Oita, Oita Prefecture

ANFO

Gelatin
Dynamite

Water
Gels and
Slurries

Chugoku Kayaku Co., Ltd.


Aki-gun, Hiroshima Prefecture

Hokkaido NOF Corporationa


Bibai, Hokkaido Prefecture

Hokuyo Kayaku Co. Ltd.


Sunagawa, Hokkaido Prefecture

Japan Carlit Co., Ltd.


Akagi, Gumma Prefecture

Kamaishi ANFO Co., Ltd.


Kamaishi, Iwate Prefecture

Other

BlastingGrade
AN

Blasting
Accessories

X
X

Mitsubishi Chemical Corporationb


Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture

Nikko Gika Co., Ltd.


Kitakyushu, Fukuoka Prefecture

Nippon AN-FO Manufacturing Co. Ltd.


Odate, Akita Prefecture

Nippon Kayaku Company, Ltd.


Himeji, Hyogo Prefecture
Sanyo-cho, Yamaguchi Prefecture

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Explosives
Page 138

Japanese Producers of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents1999 (continued)


Explosive Formulations

Company and Plant Location

ANFO

Nippon Koki Co. Ltd.


Nishigo, Fukushima Prefecture

Gelatin
Dynamite

Water
Gels and
Slurries

Other

BlastingGrade
AN

Nishi-Nippon Kakohin Co., Ltd.


Karatsu, Saga Prefecture

NOF Corporationc
Taketoyo, Aichi Prefecture
Okinawa ANFO Co. Ltd.
Okinawa Prefecture

Radia Industry Co., Ltd.


Takasaki, Gumma Prefecture

Shikofu AN-FO Co. Ltd.


Sagawa, Kochi Prefecture

YSK Co., Ltd.


Okayama, Okayama Prefecture

a.

Former Hokkaido Nippon Oil and Fats Company Ltd.

b.

Former Mitsubishi Kasei Corp.

c.

Former Nippon Oil and Fats Company Ltd.

SOURCE:

Blasting
Accessories

CEH estimates.

Hokkaido Nippon Oil and Fats Company (former Nippon Oil and Fats Company at Bibai) was established
in March 1994. The company and the parent company changed their English names to Hokkaido NOF
Corporation and NOF Corporation, respectively. Hokuyo Kayaku stopped the production of other
explosive formulations in 1993 because of the decreasing demand for its products. Nikko Gika changed
its name from the former Nikko Co., Ltd. in 1991. Japan Carlit closed its Yokohama factory in March
1996 and moved its production base to new location at Akagi in Gumma Prefecture. NOF Corporation
took over Nippon Koki in October 1999. The takeover made NOF Corporation the second-largest
producer, following Asahi Chemical Industry.

CONSUMPTION
Estimates of Japanese consumption of industrial explosives are summarized in the following two tables.
This analysis indicates that quarrying materials accounted for about 60% of explosives consumption in
1997, while construction accounted for about 38%. Total consumption declined by about 20% between
1992 and 1997. Moderate positive growth is projected during the forecast period. Recovery by the
construction industry should account for most of the projected growth. The second table contains
estimates of explosives consumption for selected mineral commodities.
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Japanese Consumption of Explosives by End-Use Industry


(metric tons)
Construction
and Other

Coal
Mining

Metal
Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

32,575
27,180
24,268
26,321
24,642
21,242
21,250

662
628
604
545
566
373
370

2,206
1,898
1,256
1,063
835
643
690

278
271
247
253
241
226
222

34,887
34,299
34,325
34,080
34,417
34,208
34,300

70,608
64,277
60,700
62,262
60,701
56,692
56,832

2003

25,000

217

566

215

35,698

61,696

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological
Survey.

Japanese Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry


( metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Copper
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Tungsten
Zinc
Total
Industrial Minerals
Feldspar
Talc
Pyrophyllite
Total
Quarrying Materials
Dolomite
Limestone
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

662

628

604

545

566

373

370

217

506
11
1,108
1
23
558

430
3
968
0
4
492

253
1
585
0
0
417

100
1
568
0
0
395

48
1
456
0
0
331

39
0
307
0
0
297

45
0
364
0
0
281

30
0
285
0
0
251

2,206

1,898

1,256

1,063

835

643

690

566

86
6
186

84
6
181

77
5
165

80
6
167

74
5
161

64
0
161

61
0
161

65
0
150

278

271

247

253

241

226

222

215

1,605
33,282

1,572
32,727

1,267
33,058

1,247
32,832

1,291
33,126

1,327
32,881

1,300
33,000

1,218
34,480

34,887

34,299

34,325

34,080

34,417

34,208

34,300

35,698

38,033

37,097

36,432

35,941

36,059

35,450

35,582

36,696

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Japanese consumption of industrial explosives peaked at approximately 78 thousand metric tons in 1990.
Beginning in 1991, the Japanese economy fell into a depression that continued through 1993. During that
period, consumption declined by about 17%. Since 1993, consumption of industrial explosives has
continued to decline progressively to the present level of about 57 thousand metric tons. The following
table summarizes the supply/demand balance for industrial explosives and blasting agents in Japan since
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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

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Page 140

1992. Imports and exports have both been very limited in recent years and most Japanese production is
consumed domestically. Japanese production has been decreasing in proportion to the decline in domestic
demand. In 1997, consumption fell below 60 thousand metric ton due to restraints on the use of
explosives in public works projects and the closing of Mitsui Mining Companys Miike mine. A further
decline occurred in 1998.
Japanese Supply/Demand for Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents
(metric tons)

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
a.

Production

Imports

Exportsa

Apparent
Consumption

70,184
63,852
62,395
62,674
61,660
57,290
54,835

5
6
5
19
4
49
104

203
101
109
105
60
29
53

69,986
63,757
62,291
62,588
61,604
57,310
54,886

Mainly dynamite; some slurries; excludes blasting-grade AN.

SOURCES:

(A) Japan Explosive Industry Association (data for PRODUCTION for


1992 and 1993).
(B) Yearbook of Chemical Industries Statistics, Ministry of International
Trade and Industry (data for PRODUCTION for 1994-1998).
(C) Japan Exports & Imports, Japan Tariff Association (data for
IMPORTS and EXPORTS).

A breakdown of Japanese production of industrial explosives and blasting agents by product type is
presented in the following table. Ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (ANFO) products were introduced into the
Japanese market in 1964. Since then ANFO products have been displacing gelatin dynamites, taking the
dominant share of the total market. ANFO has accounted for more than 70% of the Japanese explosives
market in recent years. Water gels and slurries also grew at the expense of gelatin dynamites and other
explosive products and now account for more than 18% of the market.
Japanese Production of Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents
(metric tons)

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
a.

ANFO

Gelatin
Dynamites

51,634
46,027
44,731
46,263
46,523
42,979
39,532

7,904
6,887
6,057
5,444
5,086
4,817
4,033

Water Gels
and Slurries
9,320
9,596
9,864
9,460
8,806
8,754
10,403

Othera

Total

2,159
1,891
1,743
1,507
1,245
740
867

71,017
64,401
62,395
62,674
61,660
57,290
54,835

Includes ammonium nitrate explosive, ammonium nitrate dynamite, carlit and TNT.

SOURCE:

Yearbook of Chemical Industries Statistics, Ministry of International Trade and Industry.

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Explosives
Page 141

With cost and safety advantages over other explosives, ANFO has been the dominant industrial explosive
in Japan since its introduction to the market and is the primary explosive used by the quarrying industry.
Since site mixing of ANFO is banned in Japan, these products are manufactured in factories. Dynamites,
water gels and slurries are used mainly for construction. All producers of water gels and slurries in Japan
use technology licensed from U.S. manufacturers.

Coal Mining
Coal production in Japan, which was 7.6 million metric tons per year in 1992, declined to only 3.7 million
metric tons in 1998, less than half of the 1992 volume. Coal mine production has been decreasing as a
result of the continual closing of coal mines since 1965. There are only two coal mines in operation, on
Hokkaido and Kyushu Islands, since Mitsui Mining Company closed its Miike mine in 1997 due to
difficulty competing with imported coal. Coal mining accounted for less than 1% of Japanese explosives
consumption in 1997 and domestic coal production is expected to continue to decline gradually.

Metal Mining
Metal mining activity in Japan consists mainly of copper and lead/zinc mines. Because of high costs, both
the production of ores and the consumption of explosives have been declining steadily since 1970 and this
sector accounted for only about 1% of Japanese consumption in 1997. The consumption of industrial
explosives in metal mining, which was estimated at about 2,200 metric tons in 1992, is estimated at only
about 643 metric tons in 1997. Although preliminary information indicates a 17% recovery in 1998, the
longer-term downward trend is expected to continue into the future.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Quarrying operations are expected to continue to function at about the same level that has been
experienced in recent years. Limestone production accounts for the bulk of this segment. About twothirds of the limestone produced in Japan is used in cement production and one-third is used in iron and
steel production. Production of cement is expected to increase moderately, whereas iron and steel
production is expected to decline marginally because of declining export demand. The net result will be a
slight increase in explosives demand for this sector.
The production of pyrophyllite accounts for the bulk of Japanese explosives consumption by the nonmetal
segment. However, consumption has been declining and is projected to continue to do so. These minerals
account for only about 0.5% of the total explosives market.

Construction
Preliminary data indicate that consumption in 1998 recovered somewhat from the depressed volume in
1997 that occurred due to restraints on the use of explosives in public works projects. In 1999, economic
stimulus measures by the government will lead to a modest further consumption increase. Future
consumption will fluctuate with the level of public works projects.

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EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 142

Price
The following table summarizes prices of blasting-grade AN and explosive products:
Japanese Prices for Industrial Explosives and Blasting Agents
Yen per Kilogram

Blasting-Grade AN
ANFO
Bulk (25kg)
Packaged
(50mm x 750g)
Dynamite
Slurry Explosives
SOURCE:

U.S. Dollars per Kilogram

1992

1994

1999

1992

1994

1999

30

30-40

30

0.22

0.31-0.41

0.25

335
455

335
455

335
455

2.50
3.39

3.40
4.62

2.77
3.76

1,030-1,130
1,020-1,370

1,030-1,130
1,020-1,370

1,030-1,130
1,020-1,060

7.69-8.43
7.61-10.22

10.46-11.48
10.36-13.92

8.51-9.34
8.43-8.76

Kensetsu Bukka, Kensetsu Bukka Chousa-kai.

Trade
Japanese exports of explosives, which were once in the 55 thousand metric ton-per-year range, have been
less than 100 metric tons per year since 1996. Japanese producers of blasting-grade AN have lost their
export markets to competitors in Western Europe and North America because of high ammonia
manufacturing costs. Exports in recent years have been primarily finished explosives, consisting mainly
of dynamites, almost exclusively to Indonesia. Export demand for Japanese dynamite products is not
expected to increase significantly in the future. Imports, which had been negligible throughout most of the
1990s, are now more significant that exports.

OCEANIA
This region includes Australia, New Zealand, New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea and the Pacific Islands.
Oceanian consumption of explosives for the productions of selected mineral commodities is summarized
in the following two tables. Australia dominates the consumption of explosives in this region, accounting
for 88% of the estimated regional market in 1997. The second table shows that coal mining and metal
mining each account for approximately 44%. Consumption, which increased moderately between 1992
and 1997, is projected to increase only marginally during the forecast period, due to heavy dependence on
base metals.
Oceanian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
Australia

New
Zealand

New
Caledonia

Papua New
Guinea

Christmas
Island

Nauru
Island

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

163,168
168,069
171,135
162,411
169,551
180,534
180,907

1,564
1,712
1,643
1,803
1,722
1,809
1,786

22,092
18,990
19,035
23,742
24,394
21,507
21,556

2,791
2,920
2,982
3,015
2,398
1,618
2,154

47
74
64
107
149
136
136

185
157
152
123
127
122
122

189,849
191,922
195,012
191,200
198,340
205,726
206,661

2003

188,479

1,816

21,627

2,415

135

125

214,597

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

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June 2000
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Page 143

Oceanian Consumption of Explosives by Mining Sector


(metric tons)
Coal
Mining

Metal
Mining

Industrial
Minerals

Quarrying
Materials

Total

1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998

91,869
93,014
93,670
79,820
82,265
89,159
89,800

73,317
74,128
76,614
86,629
91,223
91,730
92,048

549
550
538
555
607
588
587

24,114
24,230
24,190
24,196
24,244
24,250
24,226

189,849
191,922
195,012
191,200
198,339
205,726
206,661

2003

95,796

93,740

816

24,244

214,597

SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook,


U.S. Geological Survey.

AUSTRALIA
Australia is recognized as a major mining country that supports multiple mining sectors. Mining activity
in the rest of this geographic region is very limited. Like Canada, South Africa and a few other countries,
Australia is a major center of mineral production and, on a per capita basis, far exceeds the average output
of most other nations. Australias mining activities are well diversified and the country is known as one of
the largest world producers of coal, diamonds, iron ore, lead, zinc and gold. As an industrialized nation,
Australia also has a well-diversified quarrying sector that boasts major production tonnage of various
types of stone. Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in Australia is summarized in
the following table. Total consumption has grown moderately since 1992 and is projected to grow
marginally during the forecast period.
Australian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Coal Mining

91,266

92,380

92,968

78,980

81,551

88,363

89,000

95,000

Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Iron Ore
Lead
Manganese Ore
Nickel
Silver
Tin
Uranium
Zinc

5,055
2,711
31,451
1,116
1,448
798
386
137
1,541
3,743

5,478
2,758
33,817
1,004
2,534
895
343
166
1,489
3,688

5,655
2,858
36,049
1,039
2,293
1,087
329
155
1,457
3,633

5,723
2,828
40,102
880
2,590
1,349
295
179
2,449
3,421

7,154
3,230
41,270
1,010
2,485
1,555
319
182
3,263
3,911

7,631
3,478
44,262
1,027
2,487
1,707
348
210
3,622
3,779

8,550
3,445
43,516
1,196
1,747
1,700
462
211
3,600
3,863

8,000
2,977
45,000
1,013
2,590
2,000
337
220
3,800
3,696

48,386

52,171

54,556

59,817

64,379

68,552

68,289

69,632

Total

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Page 144

Australian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry (continued)


(metric tons)

Industrial Minerals
Barite
Diamond
Feldspar
Gypsum
Magnesite
Phosphate Rock
Spodumene
Talc
Total
Quarrying Materials
Broken Stone
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Limestone
Quartzite
Other
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

7
0
3
236
44
0
8
19

7
0
3
236
44
0
10
19

7
0
3
236
49
0
8
19

8
0
3
236
45
1
15
19

8
0
3
236
41
4
21
19

10
0
3
236
42
4
16
19

10
0
3
236
42
4
16
19

10
0
3
236
44
225
20
19

317

319

322

326

331

329

329

556

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
359
4,898

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
359
4,898

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
449
4,898

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
449
4,898

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
449
4,898

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
449
4,898

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
449
4,898

12,676
1
3,306
1,959
450
4,898

23,200

23,200

23,289

23,289

23,289

23,289

23,289

23,290

163,168

168,069

171,135

162,411

169,551

180,534

180,907

188,479

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

Coal Mining
In Australia, most of the open-pit coal is found in Queensland, where large draglines are used to remove
overburden. Unlike the United States, dragline operations in Australia are characterized by wide pits and
extended benches that tend to increase the rehandling of material. To offset this, Australian operations
have increasingly adopting cast blasting as an integral part of dragline burden removal. With weak
overburden, such as prevails at many Queensland mines, the cost of drilling and cast blasting is generally
higher than that of conventional dragline operations. However, cast blasting increases dragline
productivity with minimal capital investment, and, with increasing depth, is more cost-effective than prestripping techniques. Open-pit methods account for about 75% of production and underground methods
for the balance.

Metal Mining
Australia is one of the worlds two largest producers of iron ore and the most important supplier to
Japans steel industry. Iron ore production accounts for about two-thirds of Australias explosives use by
the metal mining sector. Iron ore production, which grew rapidly during the 1992-1997 period, is
expected to increase only marginally during the forecast period. Similar performance is anticipated in the
production of most base metals, such as copper, lead and zinc, although a rapid economic recovery by the
Southeast Asian countries may spur some additional growth. Australia has uncommonly rich and low-cost
base metal resources that typically contain significant values of by-product silver and gold.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1005 O

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 145

Base metal mines in Australia include zinc-lead mines that are exclusively underground operations
containing on the average about 7.4% recoverable zinc, 3.65% lead and significant silver. Complex
copper-lead-zinc operations include both underground and open-pit mines. These mines have average
grades of about 1.27% recoverable copper, 2.08% lead, 5.5% zinc and nearly 0.005% silver. Copper
mines as a group are predominantly open-pit situations containing some 2.2% copper, significant precious
metal values and, in the case of one mine (Roxby Downs), important by-product uranium. Nickel mines
are typically underground.

Quarrying and Nonmetal Mining


Quarrying operations are expected to continue to function at about the same level that has been
experienced in recent years. Diamond production accounts for the bulk of explosives consumption by the
industrial mineral sector. Most of the projected increase in this sector involves the Queensland Phosphate
operation that is expected to restart in 2000.

NEW ZEALAND
Estimated explosives consumption for mineral production in New Zealand is summarized in the following
table. Total consumption, which has grown marginally since 1992, is projected to remain at about the
present level during the forecast period. Mining activity in New Zealand is largely confined to the
production of coal and quarrying materials, particularly limestone, although precious metals account for a
significant share. Little change in production levels is expected.
New Zealand Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)

Coal Mining
Metal Mining
Gold
Silver
Total
Industrial Minerals
Quarrying Materials
Dimension Stone
Dolomite
Limestone
Serpentine
Other
Total
Total
SOURCE:

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

602

635

702

841

714

796

800

796

78
25

83
20

75
22

90
22

86
23

86
23

65
20

100
22

104

103

97

112

109

109

85

122

0
4
603
4
247

1
3
693
4
274

0
4
663
1
176

0
5
625
3
217

0
3
648
3
245

0
3
653
2
245

0
3
650
2
245

0
2
647
3
245

858

974

844

850

899

904

901

898

1,564

1,712

1,643

1,803

1,722

1,809

1,786

1,816

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International

June 2000
530.1005 P

EXPLOSIVES AND BLASTING AGENTS

Explosives
Page 146

O THER O CEANIA
Minor volumes of explosives are consumed by the mining industry in other parts of Oceania, as
summarized in the next table. This mainly involves copper, gold and silver production in Papua New
Guinea, nickel production and crushed stone in New Caledonia and phosphate rock production on Nauru
and Christmas Islands. Nickel production in New Caledonia accounted for 92% of consumption in 1997.
Other Oceanian Consumption of Explosives by the Mining Industry
(metric tons)
1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

2003

Metal Mining
Copper
Gold
Nickel
Silver

2,635
119
22,036
37

2,779
103
18,934
37

2,852
99
18,979
30

2,899
89
23,685
27

2,290
86
24,337
23

1,515
84
21,451
19

2,056
98
21,500
20

2,290
97
21,571
29

Total

24,827

21,854

21,961

26,700

26,735

23,069

23,674

23,986

233

231

217

230

275

258

258

260

56

56

56

56

56

56

56

56

25,116

22,141

22,234

26,986

27,067

23,384

23,989

24,302

Coal Mining

Industrial Minerals
Phosphate Rock
Quarrying Materials
Crushed Stone
Total
SOURCE:

CEH estimates based on production data from the Minerals Yearbook, U.S. Geological Survey.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Chemical Economics HandbookThe following CEH marketing research reports, product reviews and
data summaries contain additional information that is pertinent to the subject of this marketing research
report:
Ammonium Nitrate
Coal and Coke Products
Lime/Limestone
Nitrogen Industry Overview

2000 by the Chemical Economics HandbookSRI International