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Why cant we use capacitor as a battery ?

what is the
difference between a battery and a capacitor ?
Scientific Reasoning : Why cant we use capacitor as a battery ? what is the difference between a
battery and a capacitor ?
Ans: A capacitor can not maintain constant potential difference across a circuit . After the
capacitor discharges completely no current is obtained . A capacitor discharges in very short
interval of time . On the other hand , a battery can maintain a constant potential difference for a
long period of time .
Why has nature given us two eyes instead of one ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why has nature given us two eyes instead of one ?
Sol. This is because our left eye sees more of the left side of the object and right eye sees more of
the right side of the object . The impression of the two images mix in our brain to have an idea of
solidity and distance of single object . That is why nature has provided us two eyes instead of one
.
Why repulsion is the sure test for magnetism ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why repulsion is the sure test for magnetism ?


Sol. This is because , Repulsion takes place only between two likes poles of a magnet whereas
attraction takes place between two unlike poles of a magnet and also between a magnet and a
magnetic material . So by attraction it cannot be surely identified the substance is a magnet or not
. So , repulsion is the sure test of magnetism .
Why one prefers a black umbrella to a white one , even in summer ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why one prefers a black umbrella to a white one , even in summer ?
Sol. This is because a black umbrella provides a better shade than a white umbrella . Absorption
of more light energy from the sun by the black umbrella does not matter because our body is not
in touch with the umbrella .
Why does the rising sun appear bigger ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does the rising sun appear bigger ?


Sol. Light from the rising sun reaches the earths surface obliquely through different parts of the
earths atmosphere and suffering unequal refractions . The vertical diameter appears shorter and
the horizontal diameter appears bigger . Therefore , the rising sun appears oval .
Why does a diamond shine ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does a diamond shine ?


Sol. The brilliance of diamond is due to total internal reflection of light . As refractive index of
diamond is high (2.42) , so that critical angle for diamond air interface is low (24.4 degree) . The
diamond is cut so suitably that light entering the diamond from any face suffers multiple total
internal reflections at the various faces , and remains within the diamond , Hence the diamond
sparkles .
Why are mirrors used in search lights parabolic & not concave spherical ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why are mirrors used in search lights parabolic & not concave
spherical ?
Sol. In search lights , we need an intense parallel beam of light . If a source is placed at the focus
of a concave spherical mirror , only paraxial rays are rendered parallel . Due to large aperture of
mirror , marginal rays give a divergent beam .
But in case of parabolic mirror , when source is at the focus , beam of light produced over the
entire cross-section of the mirror is a parallel beam .
Why is AM signal likely to be more noisy than FM signal ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why is a AM signal likely to be more noisy than a FM signal on


transmission through a channel ?
Solution : In case of AM , the instantaneous voltage of carrier waves is varied by the
modulating wave voltage . So , during the transmission , noise signals can also be added and
receiver assumes noise a part of the modulating signal .
In case of FM , the frequency of carrier waves is changed as the change in the instantaneous
voltage of modulating waves . This can be done by mixing and not while the signal is
transmitting in channel . So , noise does not affect FM signal .
Why Cyclotron cannot accelerate neutron ?

Scientific Reasoning : Cyclotrons cannot accelerate neutrons . Why ?


Solution : Cyclotrons work on the principle of Lorentz force. A particle can experience a Lorentz
force only if it is charged. Neutrons being uncharged are not accelerated by a cyclotron.
Cyclotron is most suitable to accelerate positively charged particles like protons, etc.
Why transverse mechanical waves cant be propagated in liquids & gases ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why transverse mechanical waves can not be propagated in liquids and
gases ?
Solution: To transmit a transverse mechanical wave the medium must be elastic so as to provide
a restoring force when acted on by shearing stress. But liquids and gases can not sustain shear
stress to provide restoring force, but rather start flowing when acted on by shearing stress.
What is the Physical significance of self-inductance

Learn about the Physical significance of self-inductance & Inertia of electricity :


Self-inductance in electrical circuit is equivalent to mass or inertia in mechanical system. As
inertia opposes any change of mechanical motion, similarly the presence of self- inductance
offers resistance to any change of current or voltage. Thats why self-inductance is sometimes
known as the inertia of electricity.
What is the Cause of Heating effect of current

Learn about the Cause of Heating effect of current :


When a battery is connected to the ends of a conductor, an electric field is setup in the conductor.
The free electrons of the conductor get accelerated in a direction opposite to the direction of the
electric field. They suffer frequent collisions with the positive ions and atoms of the conductor.
The average kinetic energy of vibrations of the ions and atoms is increased. This will raise the
temperature of the conductor.
How is white light split into its constituent colours by a prism

Learn about How is white light split into its constituent colours by a prism
The refractive index of a material is dependent on the wavelength of light , (1/) . Hence,
different components are deviated by different amounts. Since the angle of deviation depends on
the refractive index, when white light is passed through a prism it breaks up into its constituent
colors. This is known as dispersion.
Why does the mass of a body change when it emit or absorb photons ?

Scientific Reasoning about : Why does the mass of a body change when it emit or absorb
photons
Sol. As photon has energy hn and according to theory of relativity, energy E is equivalent to a
mass (E/c2), so photon has a mass (h/c2). So theoretically the mass of a body will decrease if it
emits photons and will increase if it absorbs them. However due to small value of h =(6.6 x 10-34
Js) and large value of c ( = 3 10 8 m./s) as the mass of an optical photon is too small, the change

in mass of a body due to emission or absorption of photons is practically negligible as compared


to the mass of the body.
How does a rechargeable battery work ? How are they different from ordinary
batteries?

Scientific Reasoning : How does a rechargeable battery work ? How are they different from
ordinary batteries ?
Electrochemical cells and batteries are identified as primary cell and secondary cell . The
primary batteries cannot be easily or effectively re-charged electrically and hence are discharged
and discarded whereas secondary cell can be recharged electrically and can be used again . The
electrochemical reactions in primary cells are not easily reversible , When the battery delivers
current (during use) the active materials undergo changes and the active materials slowly will
become inactive because the discharged active materials cant deliver current.
In secondary cells ( Example., lead-acid ) electrochemical reactions are reversible , as reactions
are reversible that means once the battery is used , the inactive materials can be converted back
to active materials and by re-charging the battery will be again ready for use.
What happens when Photons hits the electron ?

Scientific Reasoning : What happens when Photons hits the electron ?


If electron is loosely bound (quasi-free), then it will lead to Compton scattering (Compton
scattering is the inelastic scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron. It
results in a decrease in energy (increase in wavelength) of the photon ) . Photon hits the electron
and give some of its energy and go in some different direction with larger wavelength. Electron
will gain kinetic energy and move in some other direction.
If the electron is bound in outer shell then photo-electric effect will take place. If the energy of
photon is large enough to remove the electron from atom, it will do so. If its not large then
photon will pass unaffected.
If the photon energy is large enough to knock a tightly bound electron in inner shell , then it
might lead to X-ray production . Photon knocks out an electron from inner Shell . Since inner
shell being filled is energetically more favourable , an electron from outer shell jumps into inner
shell , emitting extra energy in form of radiation (which usually lies in X-ray spectrum ).
Under what condition can light bend ?

Scientific Reasoning : Under what condition can light bend ?

When light falls on obstacles or small apertures whose size is comparable to the wavelength of
light used, then a departure from the rectilinear propagation of light occurs. The light tends to
bend round the corners of the obstacle and this phenomenon is called diffraction of light.
How light can be treated as a wave ?

Scientific Reasoning : How light can be treated as a wave ?


In 1679, Huygens proposed the wave theory of light in which he said that each point of a source
of light sends out waves in all directions. The locus of all particles vibrating in the same phase is
called wavefront. Each point of the wavefront acts as a centre of new disturbance and emits its
own set of wavelets. The locus of these wavelets in the forward direction gives the position of
the new wavefront at subsequent times
Why some images cant be obtained on a screen ?

Why cant some images be obtained on a screen i.e. what are real and virtual object (image)?
Objects and images may be real or virtual. If light rays, after reflection or refraction, pass
through the point where the image is located then the image is called a real image. But if the light
rays appear to come from a point where the image is located then the image is called a virtual
image. Similar is the case with objects. The object is said to be real if light rays actually diverge
from the point where the object is. If the light rays only appear to go towards the point where the
object is located then the object is said to be virtual.
What is color blindness ?

Scientific Reasoning : What is color blindness ?


Ans. Colour blindness is a defect of vision in which a person can not distinguish between colours
. There is no actual blindness but there is a deficiency of color vision . A person with colorblindness has trouble seeing red, green, blue, or mixtures of these colors. The most common type
is red-green color-blindness, where red and green are seen as the same color.This is due to
damage to or insensitivity of one , two or all the three sets of nerves which are sensitive to the
primary colors , namely , red green and blue.
Why laundries use indigo blue ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why laundries use indigo blue ?


Ans. Cotton clothes become slightly yellowish after being washed with soap . This means that
they reflect its complementary colour , namely blue slightly less . When indigo solution is
added , they reflect blue light more than before . This way , the disbalance between yellow and

blue light is made up and the two now combine giving the washed fabric a pleasing white
colour . Since blue and yellow are complementary colors in the subtractive color model of color
perception, adding a trace of blue color to the slightly off-white color of these fabrics makes
them appear whiter.
Why does milk overflow while boiling ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does milk overflow while boiling ?


As we know that Milk contains 87 percent water , 4 percent proteins and 5 percent lactose ( milk
sugar ) . When we boil milk, the fat, sugar, proteins and minerals get separated. Since they are
lighter than milk they collect on the surface in the form of cream.
During heating of milk some amount of water gets converted into vapour and the bubbles of
water vapour rise to the top but the heat is conducted away by the layer of water and by the fat
droplets that have a higher boiling point than water.
The vapour gets confine in the creamy upper layer. As the milk is heated further , the water
vapour expands and thick foam is produced on the top.
As the milk is boiled continuously , and the water which boils at 100 degrees Centigrade,
produces more water vapour and pressure builds up in the boiling milk so that the vapour
pressure raises the creamy layer. So the milk pushes the creamy layer out and milk spills out .
Why Do Earthquakes Happen ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why Do Earthquakes Happen ?


The Earth is made up of many layers . The outermost layer ( below the surface ) is called shell or
crust . It consists of seven huge slabs or plates , which moves at a speed of 10 cm in a year .
These tectonic plates carrying continents and ocean floors on their Shoulders .
Due to movements of these plates the strain is produced . When strain produced increases
beyond a certain level the rocks cracks due to high pressure and creates a fracture which is
known as faults . The energy stored in the deformed rock is released in the form of heat and
seismic waves .
This sudden release of energy also shaking the ground and Earthquake happen .
As you drop a stone in a pond , the ripples are created which travel in all directions , in the same
way the seismic waves travel outward in all directions from quake focus .
How does a touch screens work ?

Scientific Reasoning : How does a touch screens work ?

There are three basic components in touch screen :


(i)Touch Sensor
(ii)Controller
(iii)Software Driver
As touch Screen is an input device , so it needs to be combined with display and a PC to make a
complete touch input system .
The Touch Sensor has a textured coating across the glass face. This coating is sensitive to
pressure and registers the location of the users finger when it touches the screen.
The controller is a small PC card that connects the touch sensor to the PC. It takes information
from the touch sensor and translates it into information that PC can understand.
The Software Driver is a software update for the PC system that allows the touch screen and
computer to work together. It tells the computers operating system how to interpret the touch
event information that is sent from the controller.
How does lightning affect your TVs ?

Scientific Reasoning : How does lightning affect your TVs ?


Lightning is actually a sudden discharge of high voltage and high current , It is arising out of
large voltage( potential differences ) between charged clouds. These surges, in their path towards
the earth, can strike power lines and antennae and pass through the wires to the terminal
equipment such as TV. The huge currents and voltages, even though of short life, can damage the
electrical components and electronic circuits which are usually designed for low power. The
surges are so powerful that they can destroy the equipment even if they are off but connected to
the mains/antenna.
How does Remote Control work in TV ?

Scientific Reasoning : How does Remote Control work in TV ?


In earlier days , the remote control were based on ultrasonic wave (i.e. the sound waves having
frequency greater than Audio range ) . The controlling circuit included a hand held transmitter
and a TV based receiver circuit . The electronic filter and stepper motor were used to allow or
select certain frequency and performing their functions depending on their key pressed .

But , recent remote control uses infrared (IR) rays and special binary (0 and 1) digit coding
system . The code , intensity and wavelength of infrared wave helps to select the different
functions . When a key is pressed , a signal is sent by Infrared source . It generates a code in
parallel format and this is converted into series format . This signal is received by Photo
Sensitive device at the receiver .,which selects one function from many predefined functions and
executes it .
How Polaroid Sunglasses reduce glare ?

Scientific Reasoning : What are Polaroid Sunglasses & How they Reduce Glare ?
The light waves which vibrates in a single plane are called polarized light . To bring the
vibration of light in a particular direction is called polarization .
Polaroid filter is used to polarizes light due to the chemical composition of filter material . All
the molecules of filter are oriented in same direction so they absorb light of same polarization .
Polarized sunglasses blocks the horizontally polarized light and allowing the vertical waves . As
light waves travels only in one direction through polarized lenses , hence glare is reduced .
Why Fire is Hot ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why Fire is Hot ?


As the chemical reactions is of two types :
(i)Exothermic ( Heat is Released )
(ii)Endothermic ( Heat is absorbed )
The Oxidation reactions are Exothermic and Reduction reactions are Endothermic .
Since combustion is an Oxidation reaction and hence is Exothermic .
When fuel is burnt the heat released makes the products of combustion hot .
The energy required to start chemical reaction is much less than the energy released . That is why
Fire is Hot .
Why one can ignore quantisation of electric charge when dealing with macroscopic
i.e. large scale charge ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why one can ignore quantisation of electric charge when dealing with
macroscopic i.e. large scale charge ?
At the macroscopic level one deals with charges that are enormous compared to the magnitude of
charge e . Since e = 1.6 10^-19 C , a charge of magnitude , say 1C contains something like
10^13 times the electronic charge . At this scale , the fact that the charge can increase or decrease

only in units of e is not very different from saying that charge can take continuous value . Thus at
the macroscopic level , the quantisation has no practical consequence and can be ignored .
Why do galaxies rotate ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why do galaxies rotate ?


Ans: As everything spins in the Universe from galaxies to stars to planets . In the early stages
of the Universe, clouds of gas came together to form the stars. These stars were then
gravitationally attracted to each other to create gigantic clusters of stars enshrouded in clouds of
gas. Eventually these groupings of stars come together through the attraction of gravity and
together they start to spin around a common centre of mass. Picking up speed, the rotation
squashes the clusters of stars flat forming a disk with a bulge at the centre.
Is Milky Way Galaxy Rotating ?

Scientific Reasoning : Is Milky Way Galaxy Rotating ?


Ans: We live in a galaxy that is called the Milky Way. Its called a barred spiral galaxy, which
means that it has a spiral shape with a bar of stars across its middle. The galaxy is rather huge
at least 100,000 light-years in diameter, making it the second-biggest in our Local Group of
galaxies.
The mass of stars, gas, planets and other objects are all spinning. Just like a pinwheel. Its
spinning at 270 kilometers per second (168 miles per second) and takes about 200 million years
to complete one rotation,
Why does earth behaves like a magnet ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does earth behaves like a magnet ?


Ans: According to scientists, the earths magnetic field originates from the outer core filled with
liquid iron. The liquid outer core surrounds the solid inner iron core and transfers heat to the
mantel and surface via convection. The magnetic field is generated by the Dynamo Effect
which is caused by the motion of the liquid part in the core. The movement of the liquid
produces a current in the moving conductor adding to the existing current.
What would happen if Earth stops spinning ?

Scientific Reasoning : What would happen if Earth stops spinning ?


Ans : If the Earth stopped spinning, it would then take 365 days for the Sun to move through the
sky and return to the same position. Half of the Earth would be baked for half a year, while the

other hemisphere was in darkness. It would get very hot on the sunny side, and very cold in the
shadowed side. You can imagine how that would be devastating to plants and animals. We get a
hint of this at the poles, where you can experience weeks of permanent night and then weeks of
permanent day. But imagine 6 months of night, followed by 6 months of day.
Why does Earth rotates about its own axis ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does Earth rotates about its own axis ?
Ans : Earth has magnetic field with North & South Poles. The axis of rotation is different from
the magnetic poles. This difference creates force for the earth to rotate on its axis. The same is
the case with all planets in the Solar System. Moon doesnt have Magnetic field; hence it does
not rotate on its axis.
Why it is safer to sit inside a car during a Thunderstorm ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why it is safer to sit inside a car during a Thunderstorm ?


Ans : It is safer to be inside a car during thunderstorm because the car acts like a Faraday cage .
The metal in the car will shield you from any external electric field and thus prevent the lighting
from travelling within the car .
Why it is necessary to use satellite for long distance TV transmission ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why it is necessary to use satellite for long distance TV transmission ?
Ans: Yes , TV signals being of high frequency are not reflected by the ionosphere . Therefore ,
to reflect these signals , satellites are needed . That is why , satellites are used for long distance
TV transmission .
Why does moving part of a moving coil galvanometer comes to rest almost
instantaneously ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does moving part of a moving coil galvanometer comes to rest
almost instantaneously ?
Ans: Moving part of a moving coil galvanometer comes to rest almost instantaneously Due to
electromagnetic damping , that is production of induced current in the frame and the coil which
strongly opposes motion according to Lenzs Law .
Why should electrostatic field be zero inside a conductor ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why should electrostatic field be zero inside a conductor ?

Ans. Electric field lines do not pass through a conductor . Hence , the interior of conductor is
free from the influence of the electric field .
Why the electric field lines do not form closed loops ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why the electric field lines do not form closed loops ?
Ans. Electric field lines do not form closed loops , because it is always directed from positive
charge to negative charge .
What happens when an electric dipole is placed in a non uniform electric field ?

Scientific Reasoning : What happens when an electric dipole is placed in a non uniform
electric field ?
Ans : when an electric dipole is placed in a non uniform electric field ,it experiences some net
force and some net torque .
Why does Microwave oven heats up the food items containing water molecules
most efficiently ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does Microwave oven heats up the food items containing water
molecules most efficiently ?
Ans. Microwave oven heats up the food items containing water molecules most efficiently
because the frequency of microwaves matches the resonant frequency of water molecules .
What is Inertial & Non-Inertial Reference frame ?

Ans: Inertial Reference Frame: A reference frame in which Newtons first law is valid is called
an inertial reference frame. An inertial frame is either at rest or moving with uniform velocity.
Non-Inertial Frame: An accelerated frame of reference is called a non-inertial frame. Objects in
non-inertial frames do not obey Newtons first law.
What is Pseudo Force ?

Ans : Pseudo Force: It is an imaginary force which is recognized only by a non-inertial observer
to explain the physical situation according to Newtons law The magnitude of this force F is
equal to the product of the mass m of the object and acceleration a of the frame of reference. The
direction of the force is opposite to the direction of acceleration.
F = ma
What is Induction ?

Ans: Induction is a process by which a charged body accomplishes the creation of other charged
bodies, without touching them or losing its own charge. An uncharged conductor gets charged by
induction due to redistribution of its own charge.
What is the Cause of Heating effect of current ?

Ans: When a battery is connected to the ends of a conductor, an electric field is setup in the
conductor. The free electrons of the conductor get accelerated in a direction opposite to the
direction of the electric field. They suffer frequent collisions with the positive ions and atoms of
the conductor. The average kinetic energy of vibrations of the ions and atoms is increased. This
will raise the temperature of the conductor.
What is the heating effect of electric current ?

Ans : When an electric current is passed through a conducting wire, the electrical energy is
converted into heat energy. This effect of electric current is called heating effect of electric
current. It is an irreversible process. Heat produced does not depend upon the direction of
current.
What is the Internal Resistance of the cell ?

Ans: The opposition offered by the electrolyte of the cell to the flow of electric current through
it is called internal resistance of the cell. It is denoted by r
Internal Resistance depends on
(1) Distance between electrodes (r d)
(2) Area of electrodes ( dipped in electrolyte) (r 1/A)
(3) Temperature of electrolyte.
Why does the mass of a body change when it emit or absorb photons ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does the mass of a body change when it emit or absorb photons ?
Ans. As photon has energy h and according to theory of relativity, energy E is equivalent to a
mass (E/c), so photon has a mass (h/c). So theoretically the mass of a body will decrease if it
emits photons and will increase if it absorbs them. However due to small value of h =(6.6 x 10-34
Js) and large value of c( = 3 108 m./s) as the mass of an optical photon is too small, the change
in mass of a body due to emission or absorption of photons is practically negligible as compared
to the mass of the body.
What is the Electromagnetic Waves ?

Ans: Electromagnetic waves are those waves in which there is a sinusoidal variation of electric
and magnetic field vectors at right angles to each other as well as at right angles to the direction
of propagation of waves. In electromagnetic waves, both the field vectors vary with time and
space and have the same frequency and same phase.
How does Modem work ?

Ans: We know that computers operate in the digital world, but telephone lines require a different
method of transmission. The modem modulates the digital signal into a sine wave. This can be
broadcast over a telephone line. The signal is transmitted over the line, until it reaches the IP hub.
At this point, the sine wave is demodulated into a digital signal once more, and the connection
with the internet is complete. Modems can perform this work at a variety of speeds, depending
on the technology and availability of access lines.
Why the name Transistor ?

Ans: By forward biasing input junction (emitter-base junction) and reverse biasing output
junction (collector-base junction), a low resistance of forward biased junction can be transformed
into a high resistance of reverse biased junction.
Also by interchanging biases, a high resistance can be transformed into a low resistance. Hence
the junction triode is called TRANsformer of reSISTOR, which in short becomes
TRANSISTOR.
What is the Electromagnetic spectrum ?

Ans: Electromagnetic waves cover a wide range of frequencies or wavelengths. On the basis of
the frequencies or wavelengths all electromagnetic waves are distributed in an orderly manner
and such a distribution of the wavelengths is known as the electromagnetic spectrum.
when current in a coil changes with time , how is the back e.m.f induced in the coil
related to it ?

Ans. A/c to Faradays law of E.M.I , Back e.m.f induced in the coil , e = L dI/dt . Where L is
the coefficient of self inductance of the coil and dI/dt is the rate of change of current through
the coil .
A lamp in a circuit consisting of a coil of large number of turns and a battery does
not light up to full brilliance instantly on switching on the circuit . Why ?

Scientific Reasoning : A lamp in a circuit consisting of a coil of large number of turns and a
battery does not light up to full brilliance instantly on switching on the circuit . Why ?

Ans. When circuit is switched on , current increases through the lamp and also through the coil .
An induced e.m.f developes in the coil which opposes the growth of current . As current takes
time to grow to maximum value , the lamp does not light instantly upto full brilliance .
A bar magnet falls through a metal ring . Will its acceleration be equal to g ?

Scientific Reasoning : A bar magnet falls through a metal ring . Will its acceleration be equal
to g ?
Ans. No , acceleration of magnet will not be equal to g . It will be less than g . This is because
as magnet falls amount of magnetic flux linked with the ring changes . An induced current is
developed in the ring which opposes the downward motion of the magnet .After the magnet has
crossed the metal ring , amount of magnetic flux linked with the ring goes on decreasing . An
induced current is developed in the ring and opposes the fall of magnet . Therefore downward
acceleration of magnet continues to be less than g .
Why it is necessary to use Satellites for long distance TV transmission ?

Scientific Reasoning : It is necessary to use Satellites for long distance TV transmission .


Why ?
Ans. Yes , TV signals being of high frequency are not reflected by the ionosphere .
Therefore , to reflect these signals , satellites are needed . That is why , satellites
are used for long distance TV transmission . Why does moving part of a moving coil
galvanometer come to rest almost instantaneously ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does moving part of a moving coil galvanometer come to rest
almost instantaneously ?
Ans. Due to electromagnetic damping , that is production of induced current in the frame and the
coil which strongly opposes motion according to Lenzs Law .

f the polar ice caps melt & spread uniformly , how will the length of the day be
affected ?

Scientific Reasoning : If the polar ice caps melt & spread uniformly , how will the length of the
day be affected ?
Ans. If the polar ice caps were to melt , the water formed would spread on the surface of the
earth and so its moment of inertia would increase . By the law of conservation of angular
momentum , the speed of rotation would be reduced , that is , the length of the day would
increase .

Why is it easy to turn the shaft of a dynamo when it is not loaded but much harder
to turn it when it is loaded ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why is it easy to turn the shaft of a dynamo when it is not loaded but
much harder to turn it when it is loaded ?
Ans: When the dynamo is unloaded , there is no current , there is only induced e.m.f . When
loaded fully , there is induced emf as well as induced current . According to Lenzs law this
induced current opposes the motion of the armature coil and it becomes harder to turn the shaft .
Why does Microwave oven heats up the food items containing water molecules
most efficiently ?

Scientific Reasoning : Why does Microwave oven heats up the food items containing water
molecules most efficiently ?
Ans. Microwave oven heats up the food items containing water molecules most efficiently
because the frequency of microwaves matches the resonant frequency of water molecules .
In a magnetic field , a charged particle always moves in a circular path . Why ?

Scientific Reasoning : In a magnetic field , a charged particle always moves in a circular


path . Why ?
Ans: In a magnetic field , a charged particle always experiences force at right angles to the
direction of motion , which is the characteristic of circular motion . So a charged particle always
moves in a circular path in a magnetic field .
It is sometimes difficult to recognize a voice over the telephone . why ?

Scientific Reasoning : It is sometimes difficult to recognize a voice over the telephone . why ?
Ans: The telephone changes the pattern of the higher harmonics present . This alters the wave
form , and since we recognize a sound by its wave form , it may be difficult to recognize a
voice .
Transverse waves are possible in solids but not in fluids .Why ?

Scientific Reasoning : Transverse waves are possible in solids but not in fluids .Why ?
Ans: Transverse waves require rigidity in the medium . Solids have rigidity but fluids do not .
However , in a liquid surface , the surface tension provides some rigidity and hence , partially
transverse waves are possible on a liquid surface , e.g. ripples .

Snakes have no ears . Yet they can hear our footsteps . How is it possible ?

Scientific Reasoning : Snakes have no ears . Yet they can hear our footsteps . How is it
possible ?
Ans: Snakes feel the vibrations produced by our footsteps . The wave travels along the ground
and also in the air . It is the ground wave that snakes feel .
Why does Cream separate from the milk when milk is churned ?

Ans: The particle whose density is less than that of liquid are driven towards the axis of rotation
and those whose density is greater than that of liquid are driven away from the axis . Cream is
lighter than milk and so it is separated from the milk and collects at the axis .
Why do the bulbs of a car become dim when the starter is operated ?
Ans. The starter draws heavy current , causing a considerable drop of potential
and so the bulbs which receive energy from the sa What is the Electric charge ?

Ans: Electric charge, like mass, is one of the fundamental attributes of the particle of which the
matter is made. Charge is the physical property of certain fundamental particles (like electron,
proton) by virtue of which they interact with the other similar fundamental particles.
me battery become dim .
What is colour blindness ?

Ans. Colour blindness is a defect of vision in which a person can not distinguish between colours
. This is due to damage to or insensitivity of one , two or all the three sets of nerves which are
sensitive to the primary colours , namely , red green and blue.
Why do laundries use indigo blue ?

Ans. Cotton clothes become slightly yellowish after being washed with soap . This means that
they reflect its complementary colour , namely blue slightly less . When indigo solution is
added , they reflect blue light more than before . This way , the disbalance between yellow and
blue light is made up and the two now combine giving the washed fabric a pleasing white colour
Why do bird fly off a high tension wire when the current is switch on ?

Ans. As they experience a strong force of repulsion due to induced current in their body .
How can you decide with the help of a strong magnet wherher the current supplied
to an electric lamp is d.c or a.c . ?

Ans. Hold the lamp b/w the poles of the strong magnet . If the current is alternating , the filament
of the lamp will begin to vibrate but if it is direct no vibration of the filament will be observed .
In a transformer , there is no transfer of charge from primary to secondary . How
then is the power transferred ?

Ans. Power is transferred through induced emf .


Why is it more economical to transmit electrical energy at high voltage and low
current ?

Ans. The loss of energy along the transmission lines is proportional to the square of current .
Hence the transmission of energy is economical at high voltage and low current .
An artificial satellite with a metal surface orbits round the earth . Will the earths
magnetism induce a current in it ? Explain .

Ans. Since there is no change in magnetic flux , no emf is induced in the body of the satellite .
Why is the core of a transformer laminated ?

Ans. The core is laminated to avoid loss of energy in the form of heat energy produced by eddy
currents .
A magnet is dropped down a long vertical copper tube . What will happen to its
ultimate motion ?

Ans. As the magnet falls with greater and greater velocity , stronger and stronger current is
induced in the copper tube which opposes the motion of the magnet . When the opposing force
due to the induced current equals the weight of the magnet , it acquires a constant terminals
velocity , as in the motion of a body through a viscous liquid .
Can a charged particle entering a uniform magnetic field normally from outside
complete a circle ?

Ans. No , the boundary line of the magnetic field has to be the diameter of the circle , whatever
be the velocity of the charged particle . Hence , it will complete a semi circle .
There is no change in the energy of a charged particle moving in a magnetic field
although a magnetic force is acting on it . Is this true or false ?

Ans. True . A charged particle experiences a force at right angles to the velocity and so it moves
in a circle with a constant speed . So there is no change in the energy of the particle through a
magnetic force acts on it .

If an electron is not deflected in passing through a certain space , can we be sure


that there is no magnetic field in that region ?

Ans. No, We can not be sure that there is no magnetic field because the force will be zero when
the direction of motion is along the direction of the field .
Why is an ammeter connected in series ?

Ans. Since the current flowing through the circuit has to pass through the ammeter , it must be
connected in series because it is a characteristic property of series connection that the same
current passes through all parts of the circuit .
we represent its sense by an arrow in a diagram . Can you name one more physical
quantity that , like current , is a scalar , but has a sense represented by an arrow in
a diagram ?

Ans. Because current does not get added or subtracted according to vector algebra , it is not a
vector . Heat , current , time , etc. , have a sense but they are not vectors .
Why do the bulbs of a car become dim when the starter is operated ?

Ans. The starter draws heavy current , causing a considerable drop of potential and so the bulbs
which receive energy from the same battery become dim .
The drift velocity of electrons is quite small . How then does a bulb light up as soon
as the switch is turned on , although the bulb may be quite far from the switch ?

Ans. For the bulb to light up , it is not necessary for the same electron to travel from the switch
to the bulb . When the switch is turned on , every electron in the circuit begins to move
simultaneously , including those in the filament of the bulb .
Lay people have notion that a person touching a high power line gets stuck to the
line . Is this true ? If not , what is the fact ?

Ans. No , it is not true . The fact is that a current of even a few milliamperes is enough to make
our nervous system inactive for a moment . The result is that the affected person is unable to
remove his hand off the live wire and so it is thought that the person has got stuck to the line .
Why it is easier to start a car engine on a warm day than on a chilly day ?

Ans. Because the internal resistance of a car battery on a chilly day is much less than that on a
warm day .

A current is passed through a steel wire which gets heated to a dull red . Then half
the wire is immersed in cold water . The portion out of the water becomes brighter .
Why ?

Ans. The resistance of the immersed portion decreases and so the current through the entire wire
increases . This is why the portion outside the water becomes brighter .
The brilliance of lamps in a room noticeably drops as soon as a high power electric
iron is switched on and after a short interval , the bulbs regain their original
brilliance . Why ?

Ans. The cold resistance of the coil of the iron is much smaller than when it is hot . So when the
iron is switched on , there is a large drop of voltage and consequently the bulb do not receive the
proper voltage . As the coil gets heated , its resistance increases and so the voltage drop is made
up when it is fully heated . This is why after some time the bulbs regain their brilliance .
Is a current carrying conductor electrically charged ?

Ans. No , the amount of positive and negative charge in any elementary volume remains the
same though the electrons are in motion . So a current carrying conductor is electrically neutral .
When moulded plastic parts are removed from metal dies , they develop a high
voltage . Why ?

Ans : When the plastic parts is removed , the capacitance of the metal dies decreases but the
charge (developed by friction ) remains unchanged and so the voltage increases in compliance
with the formula Q = CV
A metal box is placed in a space which has an electric field .What is the field inside ?
Explain

Ans : The field inside is zero (there is electrostatic screening )


Q . An electron moves along a metal tube with variable cross section . How will its
velocity change when it approaches the neck of the of the tube ?

Ans : Positive induced charges will appear on the neck of the tube and accelerate the electron
An inflated balloon is charged by rubbing it with fur . Will it stick readily to a
conducting wall or to an insulating wall ? Explain

Ans : It will stick readily to the conducting wall because the same amount of charge is induced
on the wall . But on the insulating wall , less amount of charge is induced . Due to greater force
of attraction , it will stick more readily to the conducting wall.
Can we test an electric field by a test charge of any magnitude ?

Ans : No , We can not test an electric field by any charge . The test charge should so small that
the distribution of the prime charge on the carrier conductor remains unaffected .
Why a man in an insulated metal cage does not receive any shock when the cage is
connected to a high voltage source ?

Ans : Shock is produced by current flowing through the body of a man . When the man is inside
a cage , he is at the same potential as the cage itself , so no current flows through his body when
he touches the cage .
A small sphere is charged to a potential of 50 V and a big hollow sphere is charged
to a potential of 100 V . How can you make electricity flow from the smaller sphere
to the bigger one ?

Ans : Place the smaller one inside the bigger one . As potential inside a hollow conductor is
same as that of its surface , the potential inside the hollow conductor is now 100 V . The
potential of the smaller conductor is now 100 + 50 = 150 V . Connect the two conductors by a
wire . Charge will flow from the smaller one to the bigger one as the smaller one is at 150 V and
the bigger one is at 100 V
Can two equipotential surfaces intersect ?

Scientific Reasoning : Can two equipotential surfaces intersect ?


Ans : No , two equipotential surfaces can never intersect because if they intersect at a point , the
electric field at a point can have two directions simultaneously , which is impossible .
Q . Ordinary rubber is an insulator . But the special rubber tyres of aircraft are made
conducting . why is this necessary ?

Ans : To conduct away electricity produced by friction .


How can you check whether the electric potential in a given region of space has a
constant value ?

Ans : Place two conductors some distance apart in a given region . Connect them by a wire and
then remove it . Now test the two conductors for any charge on them . If they are found to carry
no charge , it means that the electric potential in the given region of space is constant .
Can two balls with like charges be attracted to each other ?

Ans : They can , if the charge of one ball is much greater than that of other . The forces of
attraction caused by the induced charges may exceed the forces of repulsion .
A truck carrying explosives has a metal chain touching the ground . Why ?

Ans : To conduct away the charge produced by friction . This charge , unless conducted away to
the earth , may produce sparks causing the explosives in the truck to catch fire and explode.
Why Electric lines of force never cross ?

Ans : Because if they cross , the electric field at the point of intersection will have two directions
simultaneously , which is impossible .
Q .Why do electrostatics experiments not work well on humid days ?
Ans : Because humid air conducts electricity .
What are insulators and conductors ?

Ans : Conductors are materials in which there are a few free electrons per amom of the matter .
Insulators are materials in which the electrons are not as free as in conductors .