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Herausgeber/Editor MANFRED BIETAK

GYPTEN UND LEVANTE


EGYPT AND THE LEVANT

XVII/2007

XVII
2007

Redaktion: ERNST CZERNY

KOMMISSION FR GYPTEN UND LEVANTE DER STERREICHISCHEN AKADEMIE DER WISSENSCHAFTEN


INSTITUT FR GYPTOLOGIE DER UNIVERSITT WIEN
STERREICHISCHES ARCHOLOGISCHES INSTITUT KAIRO

Vorgelegt von w. M. MANFRED BIETAK in der Sitzung vom 12. Oktober 2007

Gedruckt mit der Untersttzung


der Universitt Wien
und des sterreichischen Archologischen Instituts

Spezialforschungsbereich (SCIEM 2000)


Die Synchronisierung der Hochkulturen im stlichen Mittelmeerraum
im 2. Jahrtausend v. Chr.
der sterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
beim Fonds zur Frderung der Wissenschaftlichen Forschung

Special Research Programme SCIEM 2000


The Synchronisation of Civilisations in the Eastern Mediterrannean
in the Second Millenium B.C.
of the Austrian Academy of Sciences
at the Austrian Science Fund

Alle Rechte vorbehalten


ISBN 978-3-7001-4012-2
ISSN 10155104
Copyright 2007 by sterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien
Grafik, Satz, Layout: Angela Schwab
Druck: Druckerei Ferdinand Berger & Shne GesmbH, Horn
http://hw.oeaw.ac.at/4012-2
http://verlag.oeaw.ac.at

Wien 2007

Die Zeitschrift gypten und Levante ist &L abzukrzen.


The Journal Egypt and the Levant should be abbreviated E&L.

Inhaltsverzeichnis/Contents

Abkrzungen/Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vorwort/Introduction von/by Manfred Bietak

.........................................

11

N. Allon, Seth is Baal Evidence from the Egyptian Script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15

H. Barnard, Additional Remarks on Blemmyes, Beja and Eastern Desert Ware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

M. Bietak und I. Forstner-Mller, Ausgrabung eines Palastbezirkes der Tuthmosidenzeit


bei cEzbet Helmi/Tell el-Dabca, Vorbericht fr das Frhjahr 2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

33

E.C.M. van den Brink, R. Gophna and A. Ovadiah,


Burial Cave 2 in the Azor-Holon Cemetery: An Early Bronze Age I Tomb with Egyptian Finds . . . . . .

59

I. Finkelstein and E. Piasetzky, Radiocarbon Dating and Philistine Chronology


with an Addendum on el-Ahwat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

73

I. Forstner-Mller, The Colonization/Urbanization of the Tell Area A/II at Tell el-Dabca


and its Chronological Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

83

I. Forstner-Mller, T. Herbich, W. Mller, Ch. Schweitzer and M. Weissl,


Geophysical Survey 2007 at Tell el- Dabca . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

97

F. Hflmayer, gyptische Skaraben auf Kreta und ihre Bedeutung


fr die absolute Chronologie der minoischen Altpalastzeit (MM IB MM IIB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

107

J.K. Hoffmeier and K.A. Kitchen, Reshep and Astarte in North Sinai:
A Recently Discovered Stela from Tell el-Borg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

127

E.S. Marcus, Amenemhet II and the Sea: Maritime Aspects of the Mit Rahina (Memphis) Inscription . . . . . .

137

M.A.S. Martin and R. Ben-Dov, Egyptian and Egyptian-Style Pottery at Tel Dan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

191

N.Ch. Math, Eine innere Chronologie der Badarikultur? Mglichkeiten und Aspekte . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

205

D. Morandi Bonacossi, The Chronology of the Royal Palace of Qatna Revisited.


A Reply to a Paper by Mirko Novk, Egypt and the Levant 14, 2004 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

221

T. Mhlenbruch, Die Synchronisierung der nrdlichen Levante und Kilikiens


mit der gischen Sptbronzezeit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

241

H. Refai, Zur Entwicklung der kniglichen Jenseitsabsicherung in den


thebanischen Totentempeln des Neuen Reiches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

257

R. Schiestl, The Coffin from Tomb I at Byblos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

265

A. Winkels, Restauratorisch-naturwissenschaftliche Untersuchung von tuthmosidischen Putzen aus


cEzbet Helmi / Tell el Dabca Ein Beitrag zur Erforschung altgyptischer Kalkputztechnik . . . . .

273

E. Yannai, New Typology and Chronology of the Grey Lustrous Wheel Made Ware in Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . .

295

Abkrzungen/Abbreviations
&L

gypten & Levante. Zeitschrift fr gyptische


Archologie und deren Nachbargebiete, Wien

CRIPEL

Cahiers de recherches de lInstitut de Papyrologie


et dgyptologie de Lille, Lille

AA

Archologischer Anzeiger. Jahrbuch des Deutschen Archologischen Instituts, Berlin

DFIFAO

Documents de Fouilles de lInstitut franais


darchologie orientale du Caire, Le Caire

AAAS

Les annales archologiques Arabes Syriennes.


Revue darchologie et dhistoire, Damascus

EA

Egyptian Archaeology. The Bulletin of the


Egypt Exploration Society, London

AASOR

Annual of the American Schools of Oriental


Research, Cambridge, Mass.

E&L

see &L

EEF

Egypt Excavation Fund, London

ADAJ

Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan, Amman

EES Excav. Mem Egypt Exploration Society Excavation Memoir, London

ADAIK

Abhandlungen des Deutschen Archologischen


Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, Berlin

ESI

Excavations and Surveys in Israel, Jerusalem

GM

Gttinger Miszellen, Gttingen

AHL

Archaeology and History in Lebanon, London

GOF

Gttinger Orientforschungen

AJA

American Journal of Archaeology, New York,


Baltimore, Norwood

HA

Hadashot Arkheologiyot, Jerusalem

HA/ESI

Hadashot Arkheologiyot Excavations and Surveys in Israel, Jerusalem


Israel antiquity Authority Reports, Jerusalem

AR

Archaeological Reports, London

ArchDelt

Archaiologikon Deltion, Athen

IAA Reports

AS

Anatolian Studies. Journal of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, London

IEJ

Israel Exploration Journal, Jerusalem

JAOS

Journal of the American Oriental Society, New


Haven, Conn.

JARCE

Journal of the American Research Center in


Egypt, New York

JEA

Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, London

JEOL

Jaarbericht van het vooraziat.-egyptisch Genootschap, Ex Oriente Lux, Leiden

JNES

Journal of Near Eastern Studies, Chicago

ASAE

Annales du service des antiquits de lgypte,


Kairo

AV

Archologische Verffentlichungen. Deutsches


Archologisches Institut, Abteilung Kairo,
Wiedbaden

BAAL

Bulletin darchologie et darchitecture libanaises,


Beirut

BaM

Baghdater Mitteilungen, Deutsches Archologisches Institut, Orient-Abteilung, Mainz

JSP

Judea and Samaria Publication, Jerusalem

BAR International Series British Archaeological Reports, International Series, London

JSSEA

Journal of the Society for the Study of Egyptian


Antiquities, Toronto

BASOR

Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental


Research, New Haven

W. HELCK und E. OTTO (eds.), Lexikon der


gyptologie, Wiesbaden

BdE

Bibliothque dtude, Le Caire

LingAeg

Beitrge Bf.

Beitrge zur gyptischen Bauforschung und


Altertumskunde, Wiesbaden, Zrich, Kairo

Lingua Aegyptia. Journal of Egyptian Language Studies, Gttingen

MAG

BICS

Bulletin of the Institute of Classical Studies,


London

Mitteilungen der Archologischen Gesellschaft,


Graz

MAN

BIFAO

Bulletin de llnstitut franais darchologie orientale , Le Caire

MAN: a record of anthropological science. Royal


Anthropological Institute of Great Britain
and Ireland, London

M.A.R.I.

BSA

The Annual of the British School at Athens,


London

M.A.R.I. Annales de recherches interdisciplinaires, Paris

MS

Mnchner gyptologische Studien, Mnchen

BSAE

British School of Archaeology in Egypt

MDAIK

BSFE

Bulletin de la societe franaise dgypte , Paris

Mitteilungen des Deutschen Archologischen


Instituts Abteilung Kairo, Mainz

CChEM

Contributions to the Chronology of the Eastern


Mediterranean, Wien

MDOG

Mitteilungen der Deutschen Orient Gesellschaft,


Berlin

CdE

Chronique d`gypte , Bruxelles

NEAEHL

CMS

MATZ, F., PINI, I., and MLLER, W. (eds.)


1964-. Corpus der Minoischen und Mykenischen
Siegel. Berlin; 2002-. Mainz am Rhein.

The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land (E. STERN ed.), New
York

OBO

Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Fribourg-Gttingen

CRAI

Compte rendue de la rencontre assyriologique


internationale, verschiedene Orte

OBO SA

Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis, Series Archaeologica,


Fribourg

10

Abkrzungen/Abbreviations

OIP

Oriental Institute Publications, University of


Chicago, Chicago

SIMA

Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology, Gteborg, Jonsered

OJA

Oxford Journal of Archaeology, Oxford

SIMA-Pb

OLA

Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta, Leuven

Studies in Mediterranean Archaeology Pocketbook, Lund

OpAth

Opuscula atheniensia. Annual of the Swedish


Institute at Athens, Lund

SJOT

Scandinavian Journal of the Old Testament,


Aarhus

PEQ

Palestine Exploration Quarterly, London

SMEA

Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici, Roma

QDAP

Quarterly of the Department of Antiquities of


Palestine, Jerusalem, Oxford

TA

Tel Aviv, Tel Aviv

UF

Ugarit Forschungen, Mnster

RA

Revue archologique, Paris

UMM

RB

Revue biblique, Jerusalem

RDAC

Report of the Department of Antiquities of


Cyprus, Nicosia

University Museum Monographs, University


Museum Symposium Series. University of
Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia

UZK

RdE

Revue dgyptologie, Paris

Untersuchungen der Zweigstelle Kairo des sterreichischen Archologischen Institutes, Wien

RlA

Das Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archologie, Berlin-New York

WB

RSO

Ras Shamra-Ougarit, Paris

A. ERMAN & H. GRAPOW, Wrterbuch der


Aegyptischen
Sprache
15
(Leipzig,
19261931)

WVDOG

SAGA

Studien zur Archologie und Geschichte Altgyptens, Heidelberg

Wissenschaftliche
Verffentlichung
der
Deutschen Orient-Gesellschaft, Berlin, Leipzig

Studien zur Altgyptischen Kultur, Hamburg

WZKM

SAK

Wiener Zeitschrift fr die kunde des Morgenlandes, Wien

SAOC

Studies in Ancient Oriental Civilization, Chicago

ZS

Zeitschrift fr gyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde, Leipzig, Berlin

SDAIK

Sonderschriften des Deutschen Archologischen


Instituts, Abteilung Kairo, Berlin

ZDPV

Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palstina-Vereins,


Stuttgart, Wiesbaden

11

Vorwort

Introduction

Von Manfred Bietak

By Manfred Bietak

Das Heft 17 der Zeitschrift enthlt 18 Artikel, die


ein weites thematisches Feld abdecken. Der
Schwerpunkt freilich liegt auf Beitrgen zur
Archologie gyptens und der umliegenden Lnder, wie es dem Profil der Zeitschrift entspricht.
Der sterreichische Grabungsplatz Tell el-Dabca ist
mit einem aktuellen Vorbericht zur letzten Grabungskampagne im Frhjahr 2007 vertreten (M.
Bietak und I. Forstner-Mller), die, nach einer
Unterbrechung im Jahr davor, neuerlich dem
Palastareal der 18. Dynastie bei cEzbet Helmi
gewidmet war. Ebenso wurden die geophysikalischen Prospektionsarbeiten des Areals von Tell elDabca fortgesetzt, und auch die vorlufigen Resultate dieser Untersuchungen sind bereits in diesem
Band vorgelegt (I. Forstner-Mller et al.).
Bereits lnger zurck (1997) liegt die Grabung
I. Forstner-Mllers im Areal A/II im Bereich des
namensgebenden Tells. Die unterste Schichte, die
damals erreicht wurde, reicht in die spte 12. Dynastie zurck und lt sich gut mit etwa gleichzeitigen Arealen in den Grabungsflchen von F/I und
cEzbet Rushdi korrellieren (Phase H). Die Befunde aus dieser Schichte werden von der Ausgrberin
unter dem Titel The colonization/Urbanization
of the Tell Area A/II at Tell el-Dabca and its chronological implications vorgestellt. Schlielich
befat sich auch noch ein naturwissenschaftlich
orientierter Beitrag von A. Winkels mit der Erforschung der gyptischen Kalkputztechnik anhand
der thutmosidischen Putze aus cEzbet Helmi.
Hosam Refai behandelt mit Zur Entwicklung
der kniglichen Jenseitsabsicherung in den thebanischen Totentempeln des Neuen Reiches ein
klassisches gyptologisches Thema. Zahlreiche weitere Artikel fhren jedoch in Randbereiche der
gyptologie. So untersucht N. Math die Mglichkeiten, eine innere Chronologie der Badarikultur
nach dem Vorbild derjenigen der Negadekultur zu
etablieren.
Der Annalentext Amenemhet II aus Memphis
gilt als eine der zentralen historischen Quellen zur
12. Dynastie. In einem weitausgreifenden Artikel
analysiert E. Marcus die maritimen Aspekte und
Implikationen dieser erstaunlichen Inschrift,
deren historisches Potential anhand dieser Auswertung wohl exemplarisch aufgezeigt wird.

Volume no. 17 of this periodical contains 18 articles, covering a wide thematic field. However,
according to the profile of this journal, the main
focus is on contributions to the archaeology of
Egypt and surrounding countries. The Austrian
excavations at Tell el-Dabca are represented by an
up to date preliminary report of the last season in
spring 2007 (M. Bietak and I. Forstner-Mller).
After an intermission the year before, work concentrated, again, on the palace precinct of the
18th Dynasty at cEzbet Helmi. Likewise, the geophysical survey work of the area of Tell el-Dabca
has been continued and the preliminary results
of the investigations are published in this volume
(I. Forstner-Mller et al.).
The excavations of I. Forstner Mller in area
A/II of the tell date back to 1997. The lowest
stratum reached then dates to the late 12th
dynasty and shows good correlation with contemporaneous strata in area F/I and cEzbet
Rushdi (Phase H). The findings of this stratum are presented by the excavator under the
title The colonization/Urbanization of the Tell
Area A/II at Tell el-Dabca and its chronological
implications.
Eventually, a science orientated contribution
by A. Winkels researches Egyptian lime plaster
technique according to Thutmoside plaster
finds from cEzbet Helmi.
Hosam Refai covers a classic Egyptological
theme with his article Zur Entwicklung der
kniglichen Jenseitsabsicherung in den thebanischen Totentempeln des Neuen Reiches. However, several other articles deal with marginal
themes in Egyptological research. N. Math, for
example, examines the possibilities to establish
an inner chronology of the Badarian Civilisation
according to the example of the one established
for the Nagada culture.
The annals of Amenemhet II from Memphis
are regarded as one of the main historical
sources of the 12th dynasty. In a comprehensive
article E. Marcus analyses the maritime aspects
and implications of this astonishing inscription,
thus showing exemplarily the historical potential of the inscription.
The last mentioned contribution already

12

Vorwort/Introduction

Der letztgenannte Beitrag fhrt thematisch


bereits in den Bereich der Levante. Aber auch
mehrere andere Artikel haben die Archologie des
Syrisch-Palstinensischen Raumes und dessen
Beziehungen zu gypten zum Gegenstand. E. van
den Brink et al. berichten ber ein frhbronzezeitliches Grab in Azor mit gyptischem Material, M.
Martin und R. Ben-Tov ber gyptische Keramik
aus Tel Dan, und J. Hoffmeier und K. Kitchen ber
die Verehrung der syrischen Gtter Reshep und
Astarte im N-Sinai anhand einer neugefundenen
Stele aus Tell Borg.
Obwohl die Funde aus dem Royal Tomb I in
Byblos bereits 1928 von Montet publiziert wurden,
blieben einige im Sarkophag des Knigs Abishemu
gefundene zerbrochene Fayence-Einlagen in ihrer
Form und Funktion bis heute unerklrt. R. Schiestl
ist es nun erstmals gelungen, diese Einlagen sinnvoll zu deuten und zu rekonstruieren. Daraus
ergibt sich, da der steinerne Sarkophag einen hlzernen Innensarg gyptischen Stils enthalten hat.
Aus einem ganz anderen Blickwinkel, nmlich
dem des Sprachwissenschaftlers, betrachtet N.
Allon einen bestimmten Aspekt gyptisch-levantinischen Kulturkontaktes, indem er aufzeigt, wie
der seit der Hyksoszeit bestehende und in der 19.
Dynastie kumulierende Synkretismus zwischen
Seth und dem semitischen Gott Baal in der Verwendung des Seth-Classifiers (Determinativ)
in der gyptischen Schrift reflektiert wird.
In die Ostwste und die S-Grenze gyptens
fhrt der Beitrag von H. Barnard, der im Anschlu
an seinen Artikel in &L 15 nochmals auf die Thematik der sog. Eastern Desert Ware und die Problematik der von ihm abgelehnten Zuordnung zu
Blemmyern und Beja-Nomaden eingeht.
F. Hflmayer versucht anhand einer neuen,
sorgfltigen Auswertung von in Kreta gefundenen
gyptischen Skaraben eine przise Definition des
chronologischen Verhltnisses der altpalastzeitlichen (mittelminoischen) Phasen zum gyptischen Mittleren Reich zu geben.
Schlielich enthlt der Band noch einige Artikel, die nicht in direkter Beziehung zu gyptischem Material stehen. Nachdem M. Novak in
&L 14 einen ausfhrlichen Aufsatz zur Chronologie des Knigspalastes von Qatna publiziert
hatte, in dem er die Grndung des Palastes aufgrund der damals verfgbaren Evidenz in die sog.
Mari-Periode setzte, greift nun D. Morandi Bonacossi die Diskussion erneut auf, und stellt anhand
der von der italienischen Mission durchgefhrten
Detailuntersuchungen dar, da die Grndung des

leads into the area of the Levant. However, several other articles cover aspects of the archaeology of the Syrian-Palestinian area and interconnections with Egypt. E. van den Brink et al.
report about an early Bronze Age burial in Azor
with Egyptian material. M. Martin and R. BenTov cover Egyptian ceramics from Tel Dan and J.
Hoffmeier and K. Kitchen write about the worship of the Syrian gods Reshep and Astarte on
Northern Sinai according to a newly discovered
stela from Tell Borg.
Several broken faience inlays found in the sarcophagus of King Abishemu in Byblos remained
unexplained until now, although the finds of the
Royal Tomb I were already published by Montet in 1928. R. Schiestl succeeds to explain and
reconstruct these inlays for the first time in a
meaningful way, showing that the stone sarcophagus contained a wooden inner coffin of Egyptian style.
From the rather different viewpoint of a
philologist N. Allon highlights a certain aspect of
Egyptian-Levantine cultural contact. He shows
that the syncretism between Seth and the Semitic god Baal, established in Hyksos times and still
ongoing in the 19th dynasty, is reflected in the
Egyptian script through the use of the SethClassifier (Determinativ).
H. Barnards contribution leads into the Eastern Dessert and to the Southern frontier of
Egypt. He covers, in connection with his article
in E&L 15, again the topic of the so-called Eastern Desert Ware and the problems of the attribution of this ware to the Blemmyes and Bejanomads, which he rejects.
F. Hflmayer tries, with a new and thorough
evaluation of Egyptian scarabs found on Crete,
to come up with a precise definition of the
chronological relationship of the Middle
Minoan phases with the Egyptian Middle Kingdom.
Furthermore this volume contains several
articles not directly dealing with Egyptian material. M. Novak published a comprehensive article
in E&L 14 on the chronology of the royal palace
at Qatna, dating the foundation of the palace,
according to the then available evidence, to the
so-called Mari period.
However, D. Morandi Bonacossi takes up the
discussion again and shows, that according to
detailed studies conducted by the Italian Mission, the foundation of the palace has to be
dated after the Mari-period (transition MB/LB).

Vorwort/Introduction

Palastes erst nach der Mari-Periode (im bergang


von MB/LB) erfolgt sein kann. Daraus folgt freilich, da es einen lteren Knigspalast in Qatna
gegeben haben mu, dessen Lage bisher unbekannt ist, der jedoch mit Sicherheit nicht unter
dem gegenwrtig vorhandenem Palast zu lokalisieren wre.
Nicht minder kontroversiell diskutiert wird derzeit die Frage der Chronologie der Philister (IA IIIA). Hierzu liefern I. Finkelstein und E. Piasetzky
neue Diskussionsbeitrge, welche sich auf neu
publizierte 14C-Daten beziehen.
E. Yannai legt eine quasi monographische
Behandlung der ebenfalls sehr unterschiedlich
gedeuteten "Grey Lustrous Wheelmade Ware" in
Israel vor, und geht dabei ausfhrlich auf die zahlreichen offenen Fragen ein, die mit dieser wenig
erforschten Ware immer noch verbunden sind.
T. Mhlenbruch schlielich gibt einen Einblick
in ein Sub-Projektes des groen SCIEM 2000 Forschungsprojekts zur Chronologie des 2. Jahrtausends im stlichen Mittelmeerraum. Dabei soll der
Raum der nrdlichen Levante und Kilikiens mithilfe mykenischer Importkeramik an die Chronologie der gischen Sptbronzezeit angeschlossen
werden.
Der Herausgeber hofft, da der vorliegende
Band, der sich durch eine Reihe ganz neuer,
aktueller Grabungsberichte, sowie durch einige
Beitrge zu derzeit heftig diskutierten Themen
auszeichnet, das Interesse einer breiten Leserschaft finden wird.

13

Therefore an older royal palace must have existed at Qatna. The location of the older palace,
which cannot be localised under the currently
existing palace, remains so far unknown.
Not less controversially debated is currently
the question of the chronology of the Philistines
(IAIIIA). I. Finkelstein and E. Piasetzky present
new contributions to the discussion with reference to recently published 14C dates.
E. Yannai presents almost a monograph on
the also controversial Grey Lustrous Wheelmade Ware in Israel. He highlights several still
open questions in connection with this little
investigated ware.
Eventually T. Mhlenbruch gives an insight
into a sub-project of the SCIEM 2000 research
programme dealing with the chronology of the
2nd millennium in the Eastern Mediterranean.
In the framework of this sub-project it is intended to connect the area of the Northern Levant
and Cilicia to the Aegean Late Bronze age with
the aid of the study of Mycenaean imported
ceramics.
The editor hopes, that this volume with contributions ranging from up to date excavation
reports to articles on currently hotly debated
issues, will be interesting to a broad audience.

SETH IS BAAL - EVIDENCE FROM THE EGYPTIAN SCRIPT


By Niv Allon*

1. INTRODUCTION
During the First Intermediate Period and the
Middle Kingdom, some words related to illness
and suffering receive the Seth classifier.1 This
phenomenon2 disappears after the Middle Kingdom, and is not found in New Kingdom texts.
However, the causes of this evolution in the usage
of the Seth classifier have remained elusive.
In a recent article, A Metaphor for Troubled
Times, 3 McDonald surveys this evolution,
reviewing the preliminary list compiled by Te
Velde4 and adding a few new words to the list.
McDonald undertakes a diachronic examination
of the occurrences of the words (i.e. mostly with
the words appearing with the Seth-deity form ),
and suggests that the reasons for this evolution
be located in the mytho-political sphere. In the
First Intermediate Period, Egypt was divided into
small political units, and retrospectively, this was
considered as a time of instability and even anarchy. According to McDonald, Seth was taken as a
symbol of the misfortunes of this period, being
the ultimate and archetypal disturber of the
established order,5 as a part of his mythological
role as the unjustified treacherous enemy of

* Hebrew University Jerusalem. I am grateful to Orly


Goldwasser for many fruitful conversations, in which
many of the ideas presented here were developed. I
would like also to thank Eitan Grossman for his important suggestions and his comments on the English. A
full discussion of the words and their occurrences will
appear in a future article.
1
I use here the term classifier as defined by Goldwasser
in her series of articles and books (GOLDWASSER 2002;
2005 and forthc.), rather than determinative.
2
Early on, Polotsky remarked in his publication of the
stela of %eka-Yeb:
appearing as such with certain
words of evil meaning in some texts of the First Intermediate Period and the Early Middle Kingdom. He
also mentions the examples from Hatnub and from the
Letter to the Dead; see POLOTSKY 1930:198.
3
MCDONALD 2007.
4
TE VELDE 1977: 2226. A preliminary list of Sethian
words was collected by Zandee already in his article in
1963, which enumerates the words nSn, Xnnw, qrj, shA,

Horus, who tries to attain dominance over


Egypt.
In this article, I shall try and draw a first sketch
of an idea I have been developing and rethinking
over the course of the last year regarding this
question. I have come to the conclusion that the
question itself should be framed differently:
instead of asking why the Seth classifier disappeared
from the negative words after the Middle Kingdom, I
suggest that a more revealing question is why the negative words disappeared from the Sethian category, and
why other words found their place in this category.
In order to answer this question, I shall try and
examine the change that the Sethian category
undergoes from three distinct but interrelated
perspectives:
The extent of the category, i.e., the set of
words that are classified by Seth classifier.
The main semantic clusters of the category.
The central members of the category, i.e., what
are the good examples of the category.6
2. THE EVOLUTION OF THE CATEGORY
In Fig. 1 it is attempted to visually present the
diachronic evolution of the Sethian category.7

swhA, and khb; Zandee saw the metaphorical-cognitive


meaning of this category, saying: Solche Gedanken
wurden also mit Seth assoziiert, cf. ZANDEE 1963: 147.
MCDONALD 2007: 32. McDonald differentiates between
the deity form of the god Seth , and its animal forms:
,
.
For central members and fuzzy edges, see GOLDWASSER 2002:
2729.
nbwty, nbwy, nTrwy, RHwy, and tx which McDonald adds
to the list are all epithets of the god Seth, and therefore
do not stand in the center of our discussion. The case
of bal will be discussed below.
In other cases words which are included in the list may
find their place there because of strong similarity of signs
in Hieratic, such are the sign of the donkey (aA and Htrw):
Donkey:
, (VOGELSANG & GARDINER 1908: R.64)
Seth:
,
(MLLER I, 13; no. 144).
Other similar cases are Akrw (see MCDONALD 2007: 36,
note a), and probably also the Giraffe (sr, cf. MCDONALD
2007: 36, note p, and mmi, see GOLDWASSER, forthc.).

16

Niv Allon

nSnj, storm, rage sSn, storm

jsd, dribble, saliva

OK
jnD, to be sick

nqm, to be afflicted
mr, pain, to be ill

FIP

MK

10
nSnj, storm, rage Xnn(w),disruption, rswt, dream
chaos, tumult

qrj, storm, clouds

jh, suffer, feel


poorly11

nSnj, storm, rage


SIP

nqmt, suffering

swhi, to vaunt, to
13
boast

qrj,storm, clouds 14

naS, to be strong, to
15
roar

nma, to be partial
16
one sided

hmhmt, war-cry

12

nSnj, storm, rage


NK

Xnn(w),
disruption,
chaos, tumult

Fig. 1a The Sethian Category according to Chronological Distribution

10

11

sSn is attested with the Seth classifier twice in PT 1270d


and in Urk. I, 183; the word appears only four times
according to HANNIG 2003: 12391240 and DZA
29.613.350, but in the latter without a Seth classifier.
SETHE 1962: 258. The word jsd is attested with the Sethian classifier only in PT 261a in the Unas Pyramid, cf. CF.
TE VELDE 1977: 85.
This one occurrence has already been discussed at
length by SIMPSON 1966, pl IX; SZPAKOWSKA 1999 and
MCDONALD 2002, who proved, I believe, the sign to be
the deity form of the god Seth.
jh appears only once with a Seth-classifier. McDonald
dates the occurrences of the word jh in the pEdwin
Smith with the Sethian classifier to the Old Kingdom as
it is generally acknowledged that P. Edwin Smith goes
back to an older original manuscript (MCDONALD 2007:
29, note 14). Nevertheless it may be dangerous to date
the classifier to a non-existing older manuscript. The
Coffin Texts allow us to see many cases in which a classi-

12

13

14

15

16

fier is changed by the copier of the text. Therefore it


would be preferred to retain the dating to the end of the
Second Intermediate Period (ALLEN 2005: 70).
nqm is attested with the Seth classifier only once in the
New Kingdom according to MCDONALD 2007: 36, note k.
swhi is listed by TE VELDE 1977:2324; cf. GARDINER
1909: 28 for a discussion on this word.
qrj is attested twice in the New Kingdom with the Seth
classifier in L. Ahmose-Henut-Tjemehu, Tb 39: 63, and
pJwja: 152, Tb 17 (BACKES in TLA, August 2007); qrj
appears also with the Seth-deity form in the Amenemope Onomasticon, cf. AEO I: 5*, 10.
naS according to TE VELDE 1977:25 and GOLDWASSER
forthc; MCDONALD reads this word as aS, cf. MCDONALD
2007:36, note d.
Although McDonald refers to sources in which nma
appears with a Seth classifier already in the Middle Kingdom, I could not find such examples, cf. MCDONALD
2007: 35.

17

Seth is Baal Evidence from the Egyptian Script

OK
pryt, crisis(?)17

18

mnt, to suffer

FIP

MK

Hrrt, Hereret

20

shA,to be in
confusion19

xAt, disease

21

kAhs, to be harsh

SIP
22

shA, to be in
confusion

NK

snm, rainstorm

26

23

pxpx, storm

srq, snow

khb(w), to harm, rage

khA, shout,
bellow

XAXAtj, storm

nhs,(the Seth
27
animal?)

24

25

nhnh, to roar

awn , to rob,
despoil 27a

Fig. 1b The Sethian Category according to Chronological Distribution continued

17

18

19

20

21

pryt is a hapax legomenon, cf. FCD: 91, and MCDONALD


2007: 34 citing POLOTSKY 1930: 23,1.9.
MCDONALD enumerates two attestation of Hrrt with the
Seth classifier, cf. MCDONALD 2007:2829.
Te Velde names two different words under with a quite
similar writing: (10)
, shA, to be in confusion, to confound (FCD: 237) and (12)
swhA, to break up (of ship; FCD:217). I agree with
McDonalds decision to treat these two words as one,
cf. MCDONALD 2007:36. The only occurrence of the latter is in GARDINER 1909: 2.11, where it is translated as
gone adrift. GARDINER analyzes the word as the same
word as shA, to be in confusion, cf. GARDINER 1909: 28
and TE VELDE 1977: 2324.
xAt appears only once with the Seth classifier, in Hatnub, cf. MCDONALD 2007: 30.
According to MCDONALD, kAhs can be omitted from the
list, because of confusion with the dog classifier, which
is the common classifier of the word, cf. MCDONALD
2007: 36, note s.

22

23

24

25

26

27

27a

pxpx appears also only once, according to TE VELDE


1977: 2425 and DZA 23.463.700.
srq is a Semitic loan word cf. HOCH 1994: 264. It
appears only once with the Seth classifier in the Amenemope Onomasticon, cf. AEO I, *6, no.20.
MCDONALD mentions only the animal form of Seth
occurring with XAXAtj. It appears in the Amenemope
Onomasticon, with Seth-deity form, cf. MCDONALD
2007: 36; DZA 28.191.780; AEO I: 5*,11.
I have found only one occurrence of nhnh with a Seth
classifier: Wb II 286; DZA 25.184.010.
snm(w) is attested twice, both in the 18th Dynasty cf.
Urk. IV, 84 and 386.
nhs appears only once with the Seth classifier, cf.
MCDONALD 2007: 35, 36 note h. I am not sure that
McDonalds argument concerning the different writing
in pNu is relevant, as we may well be dealing with a different version.
GOLDWASSER 1995: 103; awn appears in a rather late text
pPushkin 127, 2:5, dated to the 21st dynasty, cf.
Caminos 1977: 34.

18

Niv Allon

2.1 The Extent of the Category


During the New Kingdom the number of words
which take the Seth classifier increases dramatically (7 in the First Intermediate Period and 5 in
the Middle Kingdom versus 16 in the New Kingdom), although one observes the disappearance
of words related to disease and suffering.
2.2 The Main Semantic Clusters
Whereas after the Middle Kingdom one of the
main semantic clusters of the category28 disappears, some old-new clusters emerge in the New
Kingdom. The words in the New Kingdom can
be divided into two main semantic clusters. One
semantic cluster is Aggressive behavior, including words such as Xnn, disrupt, khb to harm,
rage, khA shout, bellow. Another - even bigger - semantic cluster is Weather Disturbances,
reflected in words such as srq, snow, smnw rainstorm, qrj storm, clouds, nSnj storm, rage,
XAXAtj, and pxpx, both bearing the meaning
storm. Under the category of weather disturbances one should include the new subcluster of
Uproariousness, with such words as hmhm war-

MK

cry, nhnh to roar, and shA to roar, to disturb,


through the idea that a common phenomenon
of a storm is Thunder.
The development in the semantic clusters can
also be seen, as we begin to map the adjacent and
overlapping categories, through the question
which classifier can interchange with the Seth
classifier in each period (Fig. 229).
The disappearance of the illness-suffering cluster is also indicated by the shift in the possibilities
for alternative classification of words from the relevant semantic domains. The Seth classifier no
longer interchanges with the evil bird30
(GARDINER 1957: 471 G37) or the pustule
(GARDINER 1957: 539 Aa1), which is an alternative
classifier for illnesses. One of the typical features
of the Seth classifier during the New Kingdom is
that in many of the cases it doesnt appear alone.31
It is usually accompanied by the [WEATHER] classifier,
(GARDINER 1951: 485 N4), or by the
(GARDINER 1957: 455
[POWERFUL ACTIVITY],
D40) and (GARDINER 1951: 444 A24), the latter
stressing the more anthropomorphic attributes of
the deity.

NK

Pustule

Weather

Weather

Seth

Evil Inferior

Seth

Powerful
Activity

Powerful
Activity

Voice and
Uproariousness

Fig. 2 The Seth category and its adjacent categories during the Middle and the New Kingdoms.

28

29

Goldwasser discusses the different semantic clusters of


the category in GOLDWASSER 1995: 99103; cf. also
MCDONALD 2000: 79 and MCDONALD, 2007. For a further discussion of the Sethian category, cf. GOLDWASSER
2005:107109.
An illustration of the interchangeability of the Sethian
category. The bold letters represent the prominence

30

31

and the size represents the amount of words which can


be placed in both categories.
The category of the Evil Bird is discussed thoroughly
by DAVID 2000.
From the New Kingdom on, many words tend to take a
few classifiers instead of one.

Seth is Baal Evidence from the Egyptian Script

19

When rethinking the material presented here, it


seems that the Sethian category undergoes an
interesting shift in its size, its semantic clusters,
and its prototypical values in the New Kingdom.
And although McDonalds article suggests an
interesting explanation for the phenomenon of
omission of the negative attributes related to illness and suffering, this is only a partial explanation. The category experiences a more substantial
change.
The answer, I believe, can be found in the fig-

ure of Seth himself, which undergoes remarkable


changes in this period, which reaches its peak
apparently during the 19th20th Dynasty, with
three kings naming themselves after him (Sety I,
Sety II and also Sethnakhte; however, this rise in
his status can be traced already to the Second
Intermediate Period, when through a process of
syncretism Seth was identified with the god Baal.33
Baal, who is well known by the name BaalHaddu from the texts found at Ugarit (Ras-Shamra), appears originally as an epithet of the god
Hadad (or Haddu, Addu etc), whose cult had
begun to spread in the ancient Near East as early
as the third millennium BCE. Baal has characteristics of the god Hadad, who was known throughout the region for his violent and fierce attributes,
but the former also has local attributes associating
him strongly with fertility, and as such, comprises
both revival and growth on the one hand, and
withering and decay on the other. 34
Evidently, Baal was known in Egypt as early as
the 13th Dynasty, although possibly by his former name as Hadad. Moreover, the Seth-Baal
cult in Avaris continued to exist throughout the
Hyksos Period into the New Kingdom, as the temple of Seth of Avaris was functioning continuiosly
until the Ramesside period.35 According to the
400 Year Stela, it began to function already some
70 years before the Hyksos Period.36
His warrior aspect is expressed in the myth of
Baal and Yam, in which Baal defeats the divinity of
the seas, rivers, lakes, and the subterranean abyss,
Yam, and gains his kingship.37 Papyrus Astarte38 contains an Egyptian version of this myth dated to the
reign of Amenophis II, which according to Schneider seems to sketch Baal as a prototype of belligerent Kingship.39 Baal was promoted to the status of

32

34

2.3 Central words in the Seth Category32


Although the Seth category exists from the Old
Kingdom onward, the center of the category
remains weak until the New Kingdom. Only in
this period do words begin to move to the center
of the category, as most of their occurrences
appear with the Seth classifier. During the Middle
Kingdom even nSnj, storm, rage, which is a constant member in the category, appears only in
about a third of the occurrences with the Seth
classifier. Other members such as mr, jnD and Xnn
are only fringe members in the category, i.e, they
are classified mostly by other classifiers and
belong to Seth only very marginally.
This situation changes in the New Kingdom, as
in the center of the category stand the words shA,
khA and khb, Xnn and nSnj. These changes indicate
that the strengthening semantic clusters result in
a change in the prototypical value in the New
Kingdom of the category, when Seth becomes a
better example of two values Aggressive
behavior (shA, khA, khb, Xnn) and Weather disturbances (nSnj, XAXAtj).
3. SETH IS BAAL

33

For a full discussion of the terms central words and


fringe members and their applications to the Egyptian scripts, cf. Goldwassser 2002; for a general discussion of the terms, see LAKOFF 1987.
The title Baal derives from the root bal which means
husband, owner, Lord etc, due in part to the
storm-gods exalted position among the gods and his
increasing importance, developing from the generic
use to the proper name for one specific god, Hadad, cf.
GREEN 2003: 173175. To the question of the possibility of syncretism of Baal with the god Hadad, cf. STADELMANN 1967: 27, but GREEN 2003: 175 and SCHWEMER
2001: 505511, saying: All diese berlegungen
verbleiben jedoch im Bereich der Wahrscheinlichkeiten und Plausibilitt.

35

36

37

38

39

GREEN 2003: 170176.


With an interruption only in the Amarna period,
BIETAK 1990.
BIETAK 1990: 14, for further discussion of the stela cf.
MONTET 1933; SETHE 1930; HELCK 1966 and GOEDICKE
1981; STADELMANN 1965.
For a thorough discussion of the Baal-Yam myth, cf.
GREEN 2003: 179 and UEHLINGER 1990. For its Egyptian
implications, cf. STADELMANN 1967: 3233, and SCHNEIDER 2003: 160161.
COLLOMBERT & COULLON 2000 and SCHNEIDER 2003:
160.
SCHNEIDER 2003: 161.

20

Niv Allon

god of Egyptian kingship already by Amenophis II.


Related to this myth, Baal was apparently also considered as god of the seamen (mainly in his title
Baal-Sapan). A temple for him was held in the harbor of Peru-nefer,40 in the 18th Dynasty.
The identification between Baal and Seth was
so successful not only because of the latters role
as the god of the foreign lands,41 but also through
his storm-god characteristics, which are common
to both gods.42 The depth of this syncretism is
indicated by the fact that most of the attestations
of the name Baal in Egyptian texts are classified
with the Seth sign.43 But it wasnt just Baal who was
identified with Seth, but also Seth was identified
with Baal, in a clear case of cultural appropriation,44
or an enrichment of the Seth concept as Te Velde
describes it: It would seem that the foreign god
Baal, who is regarded as manifestation of Seth
because the latter is the lord of foreign countries,
is now enriching the Egyptian concept of Seth
with a new function.45
A stimulating example of the effect this intercultural ligature46 had on Seth can be seen in a figure of Seth from the 400-Year Stela (Fig. 3).47 In
his various representations, Baal is mostly depicted in human form. In this stela, the deity figure is
shown in an anthropomorphic Baal form, wearing Canaanite and Egyptian symbols. The inscription above reads Seth of Ramsses.48
I believe that through the identification with
Baal, Seth was set free of his negative attributes
during the New Kingdom. The common attributes
of Seth and Baal were accentuated, shifting the
center of the category towards more human features, as indicated by the more frequent usage of
the anthropomorphic classifiers ( , and
).
The semantic clusters Storm and Aggressive behavior, two attributes which were also an inseparable
part of Baals character, became very prominent.

When Green describes the theophany of Baal,


he enumerates heavy rains, snow, and clouds.49
Stadelmann adds that his voice can be heard in
the yell of the thunder.50 Those elements of Baals
theophany find their clear expression in the
Sethian vocabulary: in smnw rainstorm, srq
snow, qrj storm, clouds, nSnj storm, rage, and
in the subcategory of Uproariousness.
One should observe that although the Sethian
category lost the negative cluster of illness, it still
maintained and even augmented the semantic
cluster of Aggressive behavior, containing words
such as Xnn51 and khb.

40

45

41

42
43

44

HABACHI 2001: 106108, following DARESSY 192829;


192931 proposed, that Peru-Nefer was the former
Avaris and not Memphis, see also BIETAK 2005.
Seth was also identified with the Hittite god Teshub
and with the Libyan god Ash, cf TE VELDE 1977: 120.
ZANDEE 1963: 148; TE VELDE 1977: 128 and BIETAK 1990: 13.
STADELMANN suggest that the Seth-animal sign in the
pPetersburg 1116A is to be read as a logogram for Baal,
cf. STADELMANN 1967: 35.
SCHNEIDER associates this term with the works of Michel
de Certeau and Paul Ricoeur and shows its applicability for Egyptology, cf. SCHNEIDER 2003.

Fig. 3 Seth on the 400-Year Stela


(after MONTET 1933, pl. XIII)

46

47

48
49
50
51

TE VELDE 1977: 123


For the particular phenomena of cultural appropriation,
the sociolinguistic Hannes Kniffka has coined the apt
term of intercultural ligatures (SCHNEIDER 2003:158).
Cf. disscussion in TE VELDE 1977: 124125; STADELMANN
1967: 4142 and BIETAK 1990: 11.
STADELMANN 1967: 31, 42.
GREEN 2003: 194.
STADELMANN 1967: 27.
It is striking to see that during the New Kingdom the
word Xnn grows a new semantic cluster, with the
meaning of disease but this time classified without

Seth is Baal Evidence from the Egyptian Script

But the identification with the cult of the Baal


worked both ways, and unfortunately, when different times came by, it proved to be fatal to the cult
of Seth.52 The temporary interest in the foreign
god changed into hatred as a part of the hatred
for foreigners.53 I would like to suggest that even
this deterioration is revealed in the script, when
some members of the category such as Xnn begin
to be classified with the evil bird
, a classifier that was alien to them until this period.54
4. CONCLUSION
The Sethian classifier and the cultural-cognitive
categories it delimits undergoes subtle but significant shifts over the course of Egyptian history.
During the New Kingdom the Sethian category
(a) increases its extent, and (b) experiences a
shift in its semantic clusters toward notions of
aggression and unusual or violent weather phenomena; moreover, the Sethian classifier assumes
a more central role as classifier of words from
these semantic domains.
This shift in the categorys semantic clusters is
effected in no small part by the elimination of the
sub-categories of suffering and illness, which

21

changes the nature of the category as a whole. Nevertheless, the loss of this domain does not in itself
constitute an explanation for the phenomenon.
I have argued that this change can be located
in the syncretism of Seth and Hadad/Baal, which
evidently happened before the Hyksos Period but
lasted into the New Kingdom. During the shortlived period of Seth-Baals elevated prestige, the
Sethian category was purged of its unambiguously negative sub-categories, while the shared
domains of the two gods aggression and weather disturbances were enhanced. The expansion
in its extent reflects, I believe, the increase in the
cultural centrality and relevancy of Seth himself.
The extent to which Seth-Baal constitutes a
real cultural ligature in Hyksos and post-Hyksos
Egypt is demonstrated by the deep impact that
this syncretism had on Seth and the Sethian category, leading to their positive and extensive transformation, which reaches its peak during the New
Kingdom. This change is realized in the classification system of the Egyptian script, which under
closer scrutiny reveals, to paraphrase Te Velde, a
piece of the history of an Egyptian theologia religionum mirrored in the script.55

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