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Managers often ignore problems.

TRUE

Managers typically face ill-structured problems, leaving the


decision maker uncertain about how to proceed
TRUE

Jake Smith is the manager of a small auto repair shop and


must decide how much money he owes his suppliers. This is
an example of a non-programmed decision.
FALSE

Programmed decisions are useful when there is no


predetermined structure on which to rely.
FALSE

Important, difficult decisions tend to be nonprogrammed,


and they demand creative approaches.
TRUE

During and after Hurricane Katrina, which destroyed so much


of the city of New Orleans, the decisions made by
government officials were mostly programmed.
FALSE

Risk is a fact of life in nonprogrammed management


decisions.
TRUE

Managers prefer uncertainty to certainty because it makes


the job more challenging and interesting.
FALSE

Another way of referring to "risk" is "taking a risk."


FALSE

Conflict exists when the manager must consider opposing


pressures from different sources.
TRUE

Two opposing pressures that can lead to conflict include


psychological and interpersonal.
TRUE

The first stage of decision making requires the decision


maker to generate alternatives.
FALSE

The "problem" in decision making may actually be an


opportunity that needs to be exploited.

TRUE

Choosing a ready-made alternative will likely take less time


than designing a custom-made solution.
TRUE

Ready-made solutions are ideas that have been seen or tried


before.
TRUE

Fundamental to choosing an alternative is to predict the


consequences that will occur if the various options are put
into effect.
TRUE

Contingency plans are best developed after the decision is


made
FALSE

Satisficing is achieving the best possible outcome.


FALSE

When you satisfice, you compare your choice against your


goal, not against other options.
TRUE

Optimizing means that you achieve the best possible


balance among several goals.
TRUE

Decision makers should presume that things will go smoothly


during implementation
FALSE

Evaluating the decision is useful whether the conclusion is


positive or negative.
TRUE

Vigilance means that the decision maker evaluates every


decision he or she makes.
FALSE

Following all six stages of the decision making process


guarantees successful decisions
TRUE

Decisions are influenced by subjective psychological biases,


time pressures, and social realities.
TRUE

The illusion of control is a belief that one can influence


events even when one has no control over what will happen.
TRUE

. Framing effects refer to a decision bias influenced by the


way in which a problem or decision alternative is phrased or
presented.
TRUE

Discounting the future is said to partly explain governmental


budget deficits, environmental destruction, and decaying
urban infrastructure.
TRUE

The most conscientiously made business decisions can


become irrelevant and even disastrous if managers take too
long to make them.
TRUE

Many organizational decisions are the result of intensive


social interactions, bargaining, and politicking.
TRUE

Some experts advise that in today's complex business


environment, significant problems should always be tackled
by groups.
TRUE

One advantage of using a group for decision making is that


one person dominates.
FALSE

One potential advantage of a group for decision making is


that people understand the decision.
TRUE

A condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses


sight of its original goal and a new, less important goal
emerges is called groupthink.
FALSE

Effectively managing group decision making requires an


appropriate leadership style, the constructive use of
disagreement and conflict, and the enhancement of
creativity.
TRUE

The most constructive type of conflict is cognitive conflict.


TRUE

The job of a "devil's advocate" is to create destructive


conflict
FALSE

Affective conflict is differences in perspectives or judgments


about issues, whereas cognitive conflict is emotional and
directed at other people.
FALSE

Creativity is more than just an option; it is essential to a


firm's survival.
FALSE

In brainstorming, group members generate as many ideas


about a problem as they can.
TRUE

Brainstorming isn't necessarily as effective as some people


think.
TRUE

Incremental rationality is a less-than-perfect form of


rationality in which decision makers cannot be perfectly
rational because decisions are complex and complete
information is unavailable or cannot be fully processed.
FALSE

Incremental decision making occurs when managers make


small decisions and move cautiously toward a bigger
solution
TRUE

The confrontational model of decision making arises when


people disagree on goals or compete with one another for
resources.
FALSE

The garbage can model of decision making occurs when


people aren't sure of their goals, or disagree about the goals,
and likewise are unsure of or in disagreement about what to
do.
TRUE

Decision making under crisis conditions will inevitably result


in poor decisions and negative publicity.
FALSE

Characteristics of managerial decisions include which of the


following?

A. Success
B. Certainty
C. Convention
D. Lack of structure
E. Speed
lack of structure

Managers often ignore problems for which of the following


reasons?
A. They don't agree with the outcome.
B. Getting involved won't impress their boss.
C. It's not the manager's job to solve problems.
D. Managers are often too busy to make decisions.
E. Managers cannot be sure how much time, energy, or
trouble lie ahead once they start working on the problem.
managers cannot be sure how much time, energy, or trouble
like ahead once they start working on the problem

__________ are those decisions encountered and made before,


having objectively correct answers, and solvable by using
simple rules, policies, or numerical computations.
A. Structured decisions
B. Unstructured decisions
C. Structured procedures
D. Nonprogrammed decisions
E. Programmed decisions
programmed decisions

Decisions encountered and made before, having objectively


correct answers and solvable by using simple rules, policies
or numerical computations are
A. qualitative decisions.
B. programmed decisions.
C. non-economic decisions.
D. policy options.
E. nonprogrammed decisions.
programmed decisions

New, novel, complex decisions having no proven answers


are
A. nonprogrammed decisions.
B. standing decisions.
C. single-use decisions.
D. corporate objectives.
E. programmed decisions.
nonprogrammed decisions

The state that exists when decision makers have accurate


and comprehensive information is
A. uncertainty.
B. probability analysis.
C. certainty.

D. policy formulation.
E. risk.
certainty

The state that exists when decision makers have insufficient


information is
A. uncertainty.
B. probability analysis.
C. certainty.
D. policy formulation.
E. risk.
uncertainty

Sally, the owner of Learn English! educational salons is


contemplating whether to open the company's first
international branch in Europe or in Asia. She is facing a
_______ decision.
A. routine
B. programmed
C. well structured
D. nonprogrammed
E. satisficing
nonprogrammed

Quan works for a large contractor. Company policy requires


that in hiring subcontractors, at least three bids must be
received and that the lowest bid which meets specifications
will be accepted. Quan's decisions regarding the hiring of
subcontractors would be classified as
programmed

Uncertainty exists when the manager


has insufficient information to make the decisions

The state that exists when the probability of success is less


than 100 percent and losses may occur is
risk

Opposing pressures from different sources is called


conflict

Jonathan has received two job offers. One is from a firm in


New York City, where Jonathan would like to live but the
other offer in Kansas City would pay more. Jonathan is
having a difficult time making a decision due to experiencing
psychological conflict

Sam is the sales manager at Allied Manufacturing. The


company makes a wide variety of shoes. The problem is that
Sam will call on his customers, get large orders for certain
styles and sizes of shoes, and then the company can't fill the

orders. Sam is so angry with Phil, who runs Allied's


production lines that he can hardly speak. "Phil" Sam said,
"Why can't you just make plenty of these shoes so that our
orders can always be filled?" Phil, of course had his own
point of view. "I'll tell you why," Phil said. "It would cost the
company so much that we couldn't afford to pay YOU!!"
"Now get off my factory floor!" Phil and Sam could best be
described as having a(n)
A. emotional breakdown.
B. individual-level conflict.
C. organizational conflict.
D. psychological conflict.
E. external conflict.
individual-level conflict

The initial step in the decision making process is to


A. select an alternative.
B. evaluate the decision.
C. implement the alternatives.
D. generate alternatives.
E. identify the problem.
identify the problem

A manager may discover that a problem exists with current


company performance by comparing it with
A. past performance.
B. the performance of other organizations.
C. future performance forecasts.
D. the business plan for the year.
E. all of the above.
all of the above

The manager of the Capitol Restaurant noted that the


restaurant had experienced a decreased number of evening
customers. The manager promptly ordered the chef to
rewrite the evening menu. Customer feedback later
indicated that the problem had not been the menu but poor
service from the wait staff. The manager's decision to have
the menu revised suggests that he failed to
A. identify the problem.
B. evaluate the alternatives and consequences.
C. properly diagnose the cause of the problem.
D. evaluate the decision and its consequences.
E. identify a solution.
properly diagnose the cause of the problem

Once a problem is identified and properly diagnosed, the


next stage in the decision making process involves
A. evaluating alternatives.
B. evaluating consequences.
C. evaluating information.
D. evaluating the decision.
E. generating alternative solutions.

generating alternative solutions

When a solution is specifically designed for a particular


problem or set of problems, it is called a
A. designer-enhancement.
B. dynamic solution.
C. ready-made solution.
D. future-generated solution.
E. custom-made solution.
custom-made solution

Custom-made decisions most often require


A. a consultant.
B. in-depth computations.
C. top management approval.
D. creativity.
E. brainstorming.
creativity

Alternative courses of action that can be implemented based


on how the future unfolds are called
A. single-use plans.
B. contingency plans.
C. standing plans.
D. corporate objectives.
E. shadow plans.
contingency plans

Hilda, the manager of Happy Hounds Kennel, knows that the


economy can greatly affect her level of business. She has
developed a plan of action for each of the four possible
economic outcomes that have been predicted for her
geographic area over the next 4-6 years. Hilda's use of these
strategies according to the state of the economy suggests
that she
A. is facing a stable environment.
B. utilizes contingency planning.
C. focuses on efficient decisions.
D. engages in satisficing.
E. is an irrational decision maker.
utilizes contingency planning

__________ requires searching thoroughly for a complete


range of alternatives, carefully assessing each alternative,
comparing one to another and then choosing or creating the
very best.
A. Benchmarking
B. Maximizing
C. Minimizing
D. Satisficing
E. Optimalizing
maximizing

Making a decision by accepting the first option that meets


your goal is referred to as
A. optimizting.
B. satisficing.
C. maximizing.
D. minimizing.
E. accepting
satisficing

Gloria, as the executive assistant to the President of a small


midwest university, has a large number of decisions to be
made because several of her assistants are on vacation. One
of the decisions she has to make today is which paper clips
to purchase for the office. She looks at the office supply
catalog and picks the first one she sees that is priced
acceptably. Gloria is using _________ to make her decision.
A. minimizing
B. optimizing
C. satisficing
D. management by exception
E. maximizing
satisficing

Managers who optimize their decisions will attempt to


choose
A. the first minimally acceptable alternative.
B. among those alternatives with variable results.
C. the least expensive alternative.
D. that alternative that produces the least conflict.
E. an alternative that achieves the best possible balance
among several goals.
an alternative that achieves the best possible balance among
several goals

To maximize is to
A. realize the largest possible production benefit.
B. involve as many people affected by the decision as
possible in its design.
C. achieve the best possible outcome.
D. utilize groupthink as individual decisions.
E. generate many alternatives for evaluation.
achieve the best possible outcome

Eduardo Gonzalez of Perfect Time Manufacturing Co. needed


to purchase a new safe for his most expensive watches that
was high in quality and durability, yet low in price. The safe
he decided upon was neither the highest quality available,
nor the lowest in price available, yet it had a good
combination of attributes. Eduardo's choice illustrates
A. maximizing.
B. satisficing.

C. optimizing.
D. minimizing.
E. programmed.
optimizing

Implementing a decision must be planned carefully.


Adequate planning most often requires which of the following
steps?
A. Determining how things will look before the decision is
made.
B. Order the steps necessary to achieve a fully operational
decision.
C. Be sure the CEO agrees with the implementation decision.
D. Allow employees to take on responsibility once the
implementation has begun.
E. Encourage vigilance.
order the steps necessary to achieve a fully operational
decision

The final stage in the decision-making process is


A. anticipating the results.
B. diagnosing the problem.
C. evaluating alternatives.
D. criteria analysis.
E. evaluating the decision.
evaluating the decision

Negative feedback received during the final evaluation of the


decision best indicates
A. the decision was a controversial one.
B. implementation will require less resources.
C. the manager will not be allowed to have a second chance
with the decision.
D. the decision was a bad one.
E. the problem was defined incorrectly
the decision was a bad one

Vigilance in decision making means


A. the manager closely watches over those responsible for
implementation.
B. the manager has carefully and conscientiously completed
all stages in the decision making process.
C. the manager has been monitored during the decision
making process.
D. the employees monitor the implementation carefully.
E. the employees have been monitored relative to the utility
of the decision.
the manager has carefully and conscientiously completed all
stages in the decision making process

Managers' faulty thought processes that can lead companies


to failure include

A. I must consult others for decision making.


B. e-commerce is expensive and difficult.
C. we must make a profit at any cost to survive.
D. I must weigh short-term costs and benefits more heavily
than long-term costs and benefits.
E. it is important to consider the long-term effects of the
decisions I make today.
i must weigh short-term costs and benefits more heavily than
long-term costs and benefits

Which of the following is an example of subjective bias that


many corporate executives exhibit?
A. Groupthink
B. Satisficing
C. Goal displacement
D. Framing effects
E. Minimizing
framing effects

Psychological bias in decision making refers to


A. the effect that a person's psychological capabilities have
upon the decisions they must make under pressure.
B. what happens when a decision maker must balance the
preferences of many interested parties, diluting
effectiveness.
C. the conflict that results from too many people involved
with making a decision.
D. the inability to be objective when gathering, evaluating
and applying information for decision making.
E. the fact that people are motivated by a need for power
which clouds their decision making capabilities.
the inability to be objective when gathering, evaluation and
applying information for decision making

The psychological bias known as "illusion of control" refers to


a
A. belief that you have ultimate control and cannot make a
poor decision.
B. belief that you can influence events even when you have
no control over what will happen.
C. belief that you have no control and so you don't put any
effort into the decision.
D. belief that some unknown person actually has the control
and is waiting for you to make a poor decision.
E. lack of confidence in your ability to gain control.
belief that you can influence events even when you have no
control over what will happen

Gambling is an example of which of the following


psychological biases?
A. Illusion of control
B. Framing effects
C. Discounting the future

D. Time pressure
E. Social realities
illusion of control

Illusion of control, discounting the future and framing effects


are all examples of
A. social realities.
B. psychological biases.
C. rationality.
D. vigilance.
E. time pressures
psychological biases

The way in which the alternatives to a decision are stated or


phrased may have an impact on which alternative is chosen.
Varying alternatives can be presented in a more favorable or
less favorable way, affecting the decision. This is referred to
as
A. framing effects.
B. phrasing effects.
C. biasing effects.
D. illusional effects.
E. discounted effects.
framing effects

Discounting the future refers to


A. valuing longer-term benefits and costs more heavily than
shorter-term benefits and costs.
B. overestimating the long-term effects of the decision.
C. underestimating the short-term effects of the decision.
D. valuing short-term benefits and costs more heavily than
longer-term benefits and costs.
E. making quick decisions with whatever information is at
hand.
valuing short-term benefits and costs more heavily than
longer-term benefits and costs

The band Pearl Jam made a public statement that they had
decided not to book any concerts through Ticketmaster as an
objection to the virtual monopoly Ticketmaster had on the
industry. The initial strong public support was followed by
fewer concerts, lower revenues, less overall public exposure
and more hassles for the band. In retrospect, the band's
decision seems to have
A. been improperly framed.
B. been socially irresponsible.
C. discounted the future.
D. used psychological conflict.
E. involved too many conflicting groups.
discounted the future

Students who don't study, dieters who sneak dessert and


working people who take the afternoon off when they really
need to work are all examples of which psychological bias?
A. Illusion of control
B. Framing effects
C. Discounting the future
D. Time pressures
E. Social realities
discounting the future

Tactics that are used to make decisions quickly while


maintaining the high quality of such decisions include
A. taking a realistic view of the conflict.
B. involving people in the decision who are experts and can
be trusted.
C. focusing on real-time information.
D. involving people more effectively and efficiently.
E. doing all of the above.
doing all of the above

Real-time information is information that


A. is obtained with little or no delay.
B. is based on past performance.
C. represents a realistic forecast.
D. is based on adjusted predictions.
E. is discounted for the future
is obtained with little or no delay

The CEO of OfficeMax begins each morning by logging onto a


computer-based conference with all of the chain store
managers. The previous day's experiences and challenges
are discussed so that problems can be quickly and
effectively resolved or even avoided. OfficeMax is utilizing
__________ to retain a competitive edge.
A. social realities
B. real-time information
C. psychological biases
D. framing effects
E. quality initiatives
real-time information

It was time for the annual performance reviews, which James


dreaded each year. His company had only the barest of
performance standards and worse still, if his employees did
not like their review, they simply went over James's head to
his boss who often overturned James's decisions! The
interpersonal factors described here that decrease the
effectiveness of the organization's decisions are best
described as
A. time pressures.
B. gut feelings.
C. the illusion of control.

D. a lack of control.
E. social realities.
social realities

The basic philosophy behind group decision making is that


"two heads are better than one." But does this statement
hold true in an organizational setting?
A. Yes, always
B. Yes, potentially
C. No, two does not constitute a group
D. No, never
E. Sadly, an answer for this cannot be determined
yes, potentially

Shady Acres, a very large tree farm in the western United


States, is looking for ways to reduce waste and improve its
profit margins. One of the first things the managers did was
to interview the front-line staff to get their opinions and
ideas on how to solve this problem. In the end all of the staff
was invited to participate in the process to decide which
ideas to move forward. This enabled the staff members to be
aware of the various options that were available and why the
options to be implemented were chosen. In this scenario
involving the staff most likely helped them to
A. dominate the discussions.
B. use groupthink.
C. please everyone completely.
D. displace the goals in favor of new ones.
E. understand the decisions.
understand the decisions

Advantages in using a group for decision making include


A. intellectual stimulation
B. domination by one member for leading the discussion
C. groupthink
D. satisficing
E. goal displacement
intellectual stimulation

A potential disadvantage of group decisions include which of


the following?
A. Goal displacement
B. Larger pool of information, which causes confusion
C. Intellectual stimulation, which takes up much more time
and delaying the decision
D. Too many approaches and perspectives on the problem
E. People understand the decision and because of this are
highly critical of it
goal displacement

Which of the following statements about group decision


making improves the chances that the decision will be

implemented successfully?
A. More information is available when several people are
making the decision.
B. Different approaches to solving the problem are available.
C. People who participate in a group discussion are more
likely to understand why the decision was made.
D. Group discussion provides an opportunity for intellectual
stimulation.
E. A group member dominates the discussion.
people who participate in a group discussion are more likely to
understand why the decision was made

Allowing one person to control a discussion or decision is


referred to as
A. groupthink.
B. satisficing.
C. domination.
D. displacement.
E. esprit de corps.
domination

A phenomenon that occurs in decision-making when group


members avoid disagreement as they strive for consensus is
A. goal displacement.
B. domination.
C. intuition or judgment.
D. groupthink.
E. esprit de corps.
groupthink

A condition that occurs when a decision-making group loses


sight of its original goal and a new, possibly less important,
goal emerges is
A. goal displacement.
B. groupthink.
C. conflict.
D. domination.
E. group alternatives.
goal displacement

Shannon left the meeting, frustrated as usual. The group


really needed to make some decisions regarding next year's
marketing campaign. Tony rammed all his ideas through;
they were good, but nobody else dared to speak up or
contribute. This group experienced
A. groupthink.
B. domination.
C. satisficing.
D. intellectual stimulation.
E. goal displacement.
domination

When a group accepts an alternative that seems to please


the members of the group, but the group has not taken the
time or effort to explore many options, the group has
A. exercised groupthink.
B. stimulated its intellect.
C. satisficed.
D. allowed domination to occur.
E. participated in goal displacement
satisficed

Groupthink is
avoiding disagreement while striving for consensus

Groups that operate under a condition known as groupthink


are most likely
A. creative.
B. unconfident.
C. overcritical.
D. concerned with maintaining a positive team spirit.
E. unclear about the decision at hand.
concerned with maintaining a positive team spirit

When new goals emerge in the process of a group making a


decision and the original goal is forgotten or replaced,
__________ has occurred.
A. domination
B. goal displacement
C. groupthink
D. satisficing
E. synergy
goal displacement

Leaders of decision-making groups should


A. discourage conflict.
B. encourage groupthink.
C. help the group satisfice.
D. pay close attention to the group process.
E. dominate the discussion.
pay close attention to the group process

Issue-based differences in perspectives or judgments are


A. compromises.
B. affective conflicts.
C. cognitive conflicts.
D. satisfactory conflicts.
E. dialectic conflicts
cognitive conflicts

Emotional disagreements directed toward other people are


known as
A. compromises.
B. affective conflicts.

C. cognitive conflicts.
D. satisfactory conflicts.
E. dialectic conflicts.
affective conflicts

Of the suggestions below, the most constructive type of


conflict is ______________ conflict.
A. no
B. emotional
C. cognitive
D. affective
E. dialectic
cognitive

. In an effort to combat groupthink and an overall lack of


creativity, the group leader assigned Tiffani to the task of
criticizing ideas throughout the meeting. In this example,
Tiffani was playing the role of
A. conflict manager.
B. devil's advocate.
C. dialectic leader.
D. conflict antagonist.
E. affective leader.
devil's advocate

Two of your employees consistently disagree with each other


to the point of developing anger and bitterness, which
impacts the work group. This situation is best described as
A. cognitive conflict.
B. affective conflict.
C. dialectic conflict.
D. alliant conflict.
E. comprehensive conflict
affective conflict

Which of the following best describes the requirements of


the dialectic method?
A. People present contrary arguments in order to force
investigation of the alternative under consideration.
B. A debate between two conflicting courses of action is
held.
C. Conflict generated within the group must be minimized.
D. Conflict generated within the group must be maximized.
E. The leader performs the role of peacekeeper.
a debate between two conflicting courses of action is held

In an attempt to make a conflict between two employees


less personal and emotional, their manager assigns each of
them to approach a problem from a different viewpoint than
their original one. This is an example of using the
____________ approach.
A. cognitive conflict

B. affective conflict
C. devil's advocate
D. dialectic approach
E. groupthink
cognitive conflict

Which of the following statements about encouraging


creativity is true?
A. The fundamental unit of value in the creative revolution is
artistic ability.
B. You are being creative if you join two previously unrelated
things.
C. To be creative you need to be a top student.
D. Your employees will be more creative if you set a tight
deadline for them.
E. People are much more likely to be creative if they work
alone.
you are being creative if you join two perviously unrelated
things

A process in which group members generate as many ideas


about a problem as they can; and criticism is withheld until
all ideas have been proposed is called
A. brainstorming.
B. forecasting.
C. satisficing.
D. cooperation.
E. innovation.
brainstorming

In order to be creative, a brainstorming session must


A. be free of criticism.
B. be held in private.
C. be done professionally.
D. be done face-to-face.
E. involve industry experts.
be free of criticism

____________ is the concept that decision makers cannot be


truly rational because decisions are complex and complete
information is unavailable.
A. Bounded rationality
B. Incremental decision making
C. Cognitive rationality
D. Coalitional decision making
E. Affective rationality
bounded rationality

The ______________ model of decision making arises when


people disagree on goals or compete with one another for
resources.
A. bounded rationality

B. incremental
C. cognitive rationality
D. coalitional
E. affective rationality
coalitional

The _______ model of decision making occurs when decision


makers make small decisions and move in piece-meal
fashion toward a bigger solution.
A. bounded rationality
B. incremental
C. cognitive rationality
D. coalitional
E. affective rationality
incremental

Contessa as the manager of a medium-sized research team


of engineers found herself in the midst of a battle between
coalitions, each with its own solution to the problem the
team faced. Based on this information, Contessa would be
best served to follow which of the following courses of
action?
A. Contessa should begin with the information both sides
have and decide herself which is the best approach.
B. Contessa should ask representatives from both sides to
solve the problem in whatever way they can.
C. Contessa should find a mediator to solve the problem.
D. Contessa should encourage both teams to engage in
affective conflict to solve the problem.
E. Contessa should use a collaborative method in which she
establishes a goal around which the entire group can rally.
contessa should use a collaborative method in which she
establishes a goal around which the entire group can rally

Which of the following statements about decision making in


a crisis is true?
A. In crises, managers should make decisions after taking all
of the details into account so the decision they make is the
correct one.
B. Crisis management can be best handled as the crisis
occurs.
C. Unfortunately tracking systems for early warning signals
of a crisis are not available so decisions must be made using
bounded rationality.
D. An effective plan for crisis management is essential for
the management agenda.
E. Crises can never provide benefits to a company.
an effective plan for crisis management is essential for the
management agenda

Which of the following is an element of an effective plan for


crisis management?
A. A communication plan indicating that the company is in

complete control
B. Competitive actions
C. Psychological and cultural actions
D. React first, then consider the next steps needed
E. Distance the company from the crisis
psychological and cultural actions

136. Suppose the owner tells you that the reason he makes
every decision himself is because he believes that he can
control what happens in the business. This unrealistic view is
called
A. framing effects.
B. discounting the future.
C. time pressures.
D. the illusion of control.
E. disillusionment.
discounting the future

If, in the beginning of your work with the company, your


differences with the owner were purely based on differences
in judgment, but have now deteriorated to the point that
your differences are more emotional and directed personally
toward one another, it can be said that you initially
experienced _______________ but now are experiencing
________________.
A. satisficing; maximizing
B. cognitive conflict; affective conflict
C. affective conflict; cognitive conflict
D. maximizing, satisficing
E. uncertainty; certainty
cognitive conflict; affective conflict

Jeremy opened the meeting by suggesting to the group that


he had put a lot of thought into the problem and that
perhaps they should use his ideas to solve the problem. He
spent the meeting explaining why this should occur. Jeremy
was practicing
A. satisficing.
B. groupthink.
C. domination.
D. goal displacement.
E. intellectual stimulation.
domination

Since the first meeting didn't go very well, Jeremy read


several management books on working with groups and
thought perhaps a longer meeting would allow for time to
explore several points of view. He chose a Friday afternoon
so everyone could go home afterward and not have to rush
off to other work appointments. To his surprise, the first idea
he suggested was accepted by the group and the meeting
was over in no time! The group was most likely engaging in
__________ so they could end the meeting and go home

early.
A. groupthink
B. satisficing
C. goal displacement
D. domination
E. intellectual stimulation
satisficing

Jeremy decided to try another meeting because the project


deadline was drawing closer and he was beginning to feel
pressure to get something done with his group. He put the
agenda out early and felt he was ready to lead the meeting.
Shortly after the meeting began, one of his colleagues asked
a question that didn't seem to relate to the issue at hand.
Nonetheless, trying to be a good leader, Jeremy began to
discuss the issues around this new question. Soon the group
was in a heated discussion with each side seeming to stop at
nothing to "win" the argument. In this meeting the group
was engaged in
A. groupthink.
B. satisficing.
C. goal displacement.
D. domination.
E. intellectual stimulation.
goal displacement

The President of Effectively Organized, Inc. responds most


positively to the model that is the most cautious. She
explains that the budget process is the easiest decision for
her because she breaks it into smaller pieces and builds the
decisions as she goes. The President seems to prefer which
model?
A. Bounded rationality
B. The incremental model
C. The garbage can model
D. The coalitional model
E. The crisis model
the incremental model

The Vice President of Human Resources believes that the


most important model of decision making is the one which
acknowledges that decision makers cannot be truly rational.
He tells the group that he sees many situations with
managers who don't have enough time to process all the
relevant information and who regularly face very complex
problems. He seems to prefer which model of organizational
decision processes?
A. Bounded rationality
B. Incremental model
C. Garbage can model
D. Coalitional model
E. Crisis model
bounded rationality

The Vice President of Production tells the group that in his


area of the company, many managers don't even agree
about what their goals are and certainly cannot agree on
what action to take. His managers are using which model of
decision making?
A. Bounded rationality
B. Incremental model
C. Garbage can model
D. Coalitional model
E. Crisis model
garbage can model

The Vice President of Marketing declares that her people


disagree on goals and have now formed groups to advocate
for their own interests. Her managers are using
A. bounded rationality
B. incremental model
C. garbage can model
D. coalitional model
E. crisis model
garbage can model