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Physiology 1
LECTURE 3 NOTES
By Dr. Tom Madayag
Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, Cell Function, and
Cell Reproduction
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zwibgNGe4aY

Genes in the cell nucleus control protein synthesis


Genes are attached in a double stranded helix

Basic building blocks of DNA


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1YDTOcAVJrE

Nucleotides
o Organized to form two strands of DNA
o Ten pairs of nucleotides are present in each full turn of the helix
o Components
1. Phosphoric acid
2. Sugar called deoxyribose
3. Four nitrogenous bases
Adenine
Guanine
PURINE
Thymine
Cytosine
Pyrimidin
4. Hydrogen bonds hold two respective DNA strands
Each purine base always bonds with a pyrimidine base
1. ADENINE TO THYMINE
2. GUANINE TO CYTOSINE
3. Remember: Apple to Tree; Car to Garage
Genetic Code
o IF DNA is split, purine & pyrimidine project to each side
o These projecting bases form the genetic code
o Genetic code consist of triplets of bases
o The DNA code in the cell nucleus is transferred to the RNA code in the
cell cytoplasm in the process called transcription
o The RNA in turn diffuses to the cytoplasmic compartment where it
controls protein synthesis
o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zFVH9SqtJCM

RNA is synthesized in the Nucleus from a DNA


Template
The two strands of the DNA molecule separate temporarily
The code triplets in the DNA cause formation of complimentary code
triplets (CODONES) in the RNA
o Codons control the sequence of amino acids to be synthesized in the
cell cytoplasm
Basic Building Blocks of RNA
o Same as DNA except
1. Sugar deoxyribose not used. Instead Ribose is used
2. Thymine is replaced by Uracil
Formation of RNA Nucleotides
o Same as in DNA
o Adenine, Guanine
o Cytosine, Uracil
Activation of the RNA Nucleotides
o Enzyme RNA polymerase
Transcription
o
o

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pNVPB6NFIZU

o
o
o

In the DNA strand immediately ahead of the gene to be transferred is


the PROMOTER
The RNA polymerase attaches to the promoter; causes unwinding and
separating of the two strands
When the RNA polymerase encounters the chain-terminating
sequence, RNA and polymerase separate from the DNA strand
1. DNA rebinds with its complimentary strand
2. RNA chain forced away from the DNA an released to
nucleoplasm
Different types of RNA
1. Precursor messenger RNA (pre-mRNA) - immature single strand
RNA. Contains introns (removed by process called splicing) and
exons (retained in the final RNA)
2. Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) directs the splicing of pre-mRNA to
form mRNA
3. Messenger RNA (mRNA)) carries the genetic code to the
cytoplasm
4. Transfer RNA (tRNA)- transports activated amino acids to the
ribosomes to be used in assembling the protein molecule.
Contains anticodons
5. Ribosomal RNA- form ribosomes (where protein molecules are
actually assembled)

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6. Micro RNA (miRNA)- single stranded RNA molecules of 21 to 23
nucleotides that can regulate gene transcription and translation

Translation

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8dsTvBaUMvw

o
o

Formation of proteins on the ribosomes


Ribosome reads the codons

CELL REPRODUCTION
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JcZQkmooyPk

Begins with replication (duplication) of DNA


These replicas become the DNA in the two new daughter cells
DNA nucleotides are proof-read; when a mistake is mademutation
Chromosomes & their Replication
Human cell contains 46 chromosomes, arranged in 23 pairs
Protein HISTONES packages DNA tightly
Newly formed chromosomes attached at a point called centromeres
The duplicated but still attached chromosomes are called chromatids
Cell Mitosis
Process by which the cell splits into two
Steps: Shortly before mitosis, two pairs of centrioles begin to move
apart from each other forming spiny star-shape (ASTER). Some spines
penetrate the nuclear membrane. Together with the spindle, they form
the mitotic apparatus.
1. Prophase
Spindle is forming
Chromosomes become condensed into well-defined
chromosomes
Pro-metaphase
o Fragmentation of the nuclear membrane
o Microtubules from aster attach to chromatids at
center
o Tubules pull one chromatid toward cellular pole and
partner to opposite pole
2. Metaphase
Actin slides the spines in a reverse direction along each
other
Chromatids pulled to form the equatorial plate
Remember this stage by thinking of M as in middle

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3. Anaphase
Two chromatids of each chromosome are pulled apart at
the centromere
The 46 pairs of chromatids are separated forming two
separate sets of 46 daughter chromosomes
Remember this stage by remembering A representing
AWAY
4. Telophase
Two sets of daughter chromosomes are pushed
completely apart
Mitotic apparatus dissolves
New nuclear membrane develops around each set of
chromosomes
Cell pinches in two caused by formation of aa contractile
ring (composed of actin and myosin)
Remember this stage by remembering T representing
TWO
Control of Cell Growth and Cell Reproduction

Some cells reproduce all the time (blood-forming cells of bone marrow, skin)
Some cells do not reproduce (except during fetal life)
o Neurons
o Most striated muscle cells
Insufficiency of some cells cause them to grow
o Example: liver--- transplant
Control of cell growth
o Growth factors
o Contact inhibition- stop growing when there I no space
o When own secretions of the cells collect (negative feedback control)
Telomeres
o Region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromatid
o Serve as protective caps that prevent chromosome from deteriorating
during cell division
o With each cell division, the copied DNA loses nucleotides at the
telomere region
o Explanation of aging
o Telomere erosion can also be caused by diseases
o Telomerase activity adds bases to allow more generations of cells can
be produced (stem cells of bone marrow, skin)
Apoptosis
o Programmed cell death
o When cells are no longer needed or become a threat to the organism

Cancer
o
o

Caused by mutation or by abnormal activation of cellular genes that


control cell growth and cell mitosis
Proto-oncogenesnormal genes

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o
o
o

Oncogenes- cancer causing


anti-oncogenes (tumor suppressor genes)- suppresses activation of
specific oncogenes
What causes mutations
Ionizing radiation
Chemical substances
Physical irritants
Heredity tendency
Certain viruses
Invasive Characteristics of the Cancer Cell
Does not respect usual cellular growth limits
Far less adhesive to one another
Angiogenesis: formation of new blood vessels supplies nutrients

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8LhQllh46yI