CLOUD ADOPTION

Cloud Adoption in
Malaysia: Trends,
Opportunities, and
Challenges
Saeid Abolfazli, Zohreh Sanaei, Ali Tabassi, and Steven Rosen, YTL Communications
and Xchanging, Malaysia
Abdullah Gani, University of Malaya
Samee U. Khan, North Dakota State University

Global cloud adoption creates opportunities and challenges. This article
surveys opportunities and challenges the Malaysian Government faced in
adopting cloud to inspire and encourage cloud adoption.

60

loud computing’s unique features,
including the low capital investment,
reduced total cost of ownership,
high availability, elastic scalability,
and lower complexity compared to
traditional high-performance computing models, have made it the predominant ICT
platform over the last few years. The cloud is rapidly
being adopted in numerous domains worldwide, including education, healthcare, commerce, tourism,
and scientific computing.
Leading technological and industrial countries
are rapidly adopting the cloud to not only shrink
their computing costs but also to expedite and opti-

mize computing processes and time to market. However, many factors, including enabler technologies,
IT friendliness, financial wealth, geographical location, and political stability, impact cloud adoption
worldwide, leaving various countries with noticeably
different cloud adoption rates. BSA|The Software
Alliance analyzed cloud readiness rates across the
globe to gain insights into adoption rates, challenges, and possible solutions to expedite cloud adoption in different countries.1 In 2011, the Asia Cloud
Computing Association (ACCA) began analyzing
and publishing an annual cloud readiness index of
14 countries in Asia—Japan, New Zealand, Australia, Singapore, Hong Kong, South Korea, Taiwan,

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000 teachers and administrators. Among Asian countries. Search results from Malaysia closely follow those of other countries worldwide.2 The aim is to identify the potential and challenges of cloud adoption and suggest solutions to the problem with the help of major cloud vendors. indicating a similar interest in the cloud. Thailand. The mobile lab cart shown in I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G 61 . A decreasing trend in Google search results after mid-2011 suggests pervasive penetration of cloud computing into various aspects of human life. Malaysian government cloud stakeholders and public and private institutes have recently initiated efforts to promote adoption of cloud services in government organization and small and medium enterprises (SMEs). especially after mid-2010.000 CPU cores to enable ubiquitous access of a variety of cloud-based education services to a large number of users. but it’s growing rapidly. Indonesia. Emerging Trends and Landscape In Malaysia. deploying cloud-based ICT solutions has become the most important trend and is expected to grow from US$43 million in 2012 to about US$900 million by 2020. which indicates that Malaysian interest in the cloud is similar to that of countries worldwide. 5 million students. Malaysia. Asia has significant potential for adopting cloud technology. A comparative view of the results suggests a close match between Malaysia and global cloud comJ A N U A R Y/ F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 5 puting. Results from a Google search for “cloud computing” in Malaysia and worldwide.000 schools via a 4G wireless network. and 4. government cloud stakeholders. Philippines. China.3 The cloud market in Malaysia isn’t mature.5 million parents nationwide. and Vietnam. According to the BSA cloud readiness report. Malaysia ranks 13th among 24 countries in readiness to adopt cloud technology. India.1 It could also secure eighth place among the 14 Asian countries studied by ACCA. The 1BestariNet infrastructure includes 1. As the largest and most heavily populated continent with giant movements toward technology adoption. and the 1BestariNet datacenter. including approximately 500. decision makers. 1BestariNet 1BestariNet is a cloud-based education platform initiated by the Malaysian Ministry of Education and implemented by YTL Communications. The preferred and default interacting device is a Samsung Chromebook bundled with the Yes 4G network provided by YTL Communications.100 Malaysia searches Global searches 80 60 40 20 0 Aug Dec Mar Jul Nov Mar Jul Nov Mar Jul Nov Mar Jul Oct Feb Jun 2009 2009 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2013 2013 2013 2014 2014 FIGURE 1. and cloud consumers. monitoring screens. Educational materials are available to more than 10. Figure 2 presents a glimpse of cloud-based interactive devices. although other options are also available. Malaysia has shown noticeable interest in adopting cloud computing in various sectors to not only become a leading country in this paradigm shift but also to rapidly meet increasing computing demands in various sectors. Figure 1 shows the results of a search for “cloud computing” related to Malaysia and to the entire globe for the period January 2011 to August 2014.

and similar cloud platforms that will be available to students this figure contains 41 Chromebooks and is the world’s first 4G embedded Chromebook cloud-based interactive devices manufactured by Samsung and offered by Yes for daily classroom sessions in Malaysian schools. finance. from any device with the aim of raising the quality of the national education system in Malaysia. Such emerging markets are expediting cloud adoption in Malaysia.O RG /CLO U D CO M P U T I N G . It’s cold electronics you cannot draw on the iPad like you do with printed textbook. and many of them with finite budgets Research and Development Public universities and research institutes in Malaysia are also leveraging cloud service adoption to undertake efficient research and development efforts. anytime. the government is enhancing the quantity and quality of Malaysian-made software products to increase local jobs and national revenues. SME Cloud Computing Adoption Program The SME Cloud Computing Adoption Program is a government-led nationwide program under Malaysia’s National ICT initiative that aims to expedite cloud adoption in Malaysia among local SMEs and to elevate the competitiveness and efficiency of local SMEs in doing business. They believe. The smell of the paper. “you don’t have the feel of reading the book. Digital Textbook Initiative The DTI is another government initiative introducing cloud-stored digital textbooks to enable ubiquitous access of study materials to students. 62 I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G W W W. particularly ownership of ICT infrastructures and software systems. enterprise resource planning (ERP). However. SMEs are rapidly emerging in Malaysia.CO M P U T ER . where cloud vendors play a key role by providing utility-based infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and software as a service (SaaS) to SMEs. content management systems (CMS).”4 struggle to compete with large enterprises because of their high capital and operation costs. The SME cloud adoption program introduces annual incentives of about US$250 to encourage SMEs to adopt SaaS cloud services. DTI follows a self-education notion in which students can access textbooks anywhere. it might not progress as expected because some lecturers hesitate to accept paperless digital books as the primary study material. Enterprises that have adopted the cloud can keep pace in their operational costs as their businesses grow with almost no capital investment in ICT. customer relationship management (CRM). e-learning. the University of Malaya has already built a cloud datacenter based on Open Stack.CLOUD ADOPTION FIGURE 2. 1BestariNet leverages a nationwide cloud-based learning platform with the Yes 4G network and the world’s first 4G-embedded Samsung Chromebook. and cloud-based mobile applications provided by local SaaS vendors. Among Malaysian public universities. the flipping of the pages. Microsoft Azure. As a secondary aim. including accounting.

Transportation and Automotive Industries Considering Malaysia’s key role in regional transportation and its huge number of short. However. foreign patients can ask their home hospitals to share medical history with Malaysian caregivers. the cloud potential in this sector remains to be discovered. It also needs good practices for effective and efficient cloud adoption. MyTeksi is a new urban taxi navigation system that provides convenient taxi booking via a cloud-based mobile reservation system. a SaaS cloudJ A N U A R Y/ F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 5 based healthcare system. and fairness of healthcare delivery regardless of geographical limitations. Therefore. started in 2010. nationally distributed healthcare institutes require real-time sharing of medical information across entities and with other players of the domain when people are capable of moving from one area to another. and maintenance in the healthcare sector and delivers unique features such as cloud-based disaster recovery. allowing Malaysian hospitals to access tourists’ medical records and insurance details in case of medical emergency. students. and entrepreneurs). effectiveness. For example. However. low natural disaster risk. a reliable energy source. Speedy cloud adoption in Malaysia needs government support. high literacy. Political stability. In the following sections. including education. it’s very slow in heavily regulated ones such as financial services. For instance. effective adoption of cloud services requires thorough revision of networking policies in such institutes and requires competent staff to run and maintain such a virtually unified cluster of resources. operational cost. aim to achieve a global logistics and freight transportation hub by 2030. most of which involve data sovereignty (as a global concern). and reliability. such a virtually unified/integrated medical cloud system requires information sharing and a change in the international scale to enhance quality of diagnostic medicine and service delivery scope. and relatively low operational costs compared to neighboring countries are some of the unique characteristics that make Malaysia the main cloud hub in the region.and long-term visitors (such as tourists. The healthcare industry requires a highly reliable. IBM Malaysia recently announced the development of a nationwide cloud healthcare infrastructure for a private healthcare service provider in Malaysia to deliver seamless healthcare services to more than 2. cloud adoption can substantially contribute to successful realization of this aim. utilizing an integrated middleware that can provide real-time access to distributed medical clouds is unavoidable. management. 1Gov*Net is a secured nationwide ICT network infrastructure that will soon be integrated with healthcare services to fulfill the computing resource needs of e-healthcare systems. Here. and the automotive industry. banking. accessibility.5 million patient across 20 hospitals per year. and hospitals in Malaysia nationwide. tourism. On-premise cloud infrastructures can best satisfy the security and privacy concerns of sensitive medical data. quality.6 However. Although cloud adoption growth is fast in less regulated sectors. doctors. eKlinik. agriculture. which it’s likely to receive given initiatives such as 1BestariNet. I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G 63 . we briefly highlight some of the immediate opportunities and best practices in adopting cloud services in Malaysia. Several government efforts are set to begin in the near future to provide cloud-based services to the healthcare industry. The potential for cloud adoption is applicable to a wide range of domains. Several ongoing projects. government support and flexibility. and insurance companies to realize expedient ubiquitous information sharing both nationally and internationally. The best practice for cloud-based healthcare systems demands federation of on-premise medical clouds and enabling access to off-premise cloud resources for real-time medical information sharing. Healthcare Healthcare is one sector in which cloud adoption can significantly enhance system efficiency. the transportation and logistics industry is one of the most important industries to look to after cloud adoption. English proficiency. Opportunities and Best Practices Malaysia is one of several countries that are candidates to become a major cloud hub in Southeast Asia if it can overcome current hurdles.5 In a similar move. through which the government has shown a positive attitude toward relaxing regulations for cloud adoption. Consolidation and integration of medical services using futuristic cloud-adopted healthcare platforms in Malaysia can refine efficiency. Effective cloud-adopted systems can significantly improve the quality of healthcare delivery to tourists visiting Malaysia. scalable. and pervasive platform to connect healthcare providers. Cloud computing significantly reduces the capital investment. aims to deliver real-time healthcare information to patients. Medical tourism is another initiative by the Ministry of Health that will be rewarded by cloud adoption. patients. Furthermore. healthcare.and researchers in the near future.

David experiences a heart attack in the park. The cloud-based intelligent transportation system helps the ambulance find the shortest and least congested route to David. doctors can get on-time notification and provisioning of essential steps to save David after his heart attack. His smartphone receives medical information from the cardiac defibrillator he wears and forwards this information to the medical cloud while concurrently contacting an ambulance. and entertainment to effectively compete in the region and throughout the world. efficiency. Successful cloud adoption in this industry demands seamless integration of cloud resources. medical. cloud adoption is slightly different from adoption for immobile users.CO M P U T ER . Employing clouds and vehicular clouds in developing highly standard complex design. Because vehicles are capable of generating electricity for their own consumption. enabling the cloud in the automotive industry for car and motorcycle manufacturers. On the ambulance. however. However. The best practice would be deployment of federated scattered heterogeneous. the practitioner accesses David’s medical history via the cloud and updates his records for the diagnostic center’s use. I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G W W W. granular cloud datacenters to tackle long WAN latency. Figure 3 is an example of a cloud-based pervasive healthcare ecosystem that demonstrates how incorporation of cloud with transportation. and pervasive devices scattered in urban and rural areas.O RG /CLO U D CO M P U T I N G . on-road infrastructures. An exemplary cloud-based pervasive healthcare system: enhancing quality of life by incorporating cloud with transportation. and testing systems and inventing new intelligent transportation systems and in-vehicle infotainment can significantly boost safety and enhance the passenger’s experience.CLOUD ADOPTION Cloud-based pervasive medical ecosystem 1 6 Wearable cardiac defibrillator Middleware Radiological research center Heterogenous cloud computing resources Heart attack information 5 2 David’s mobile M-Health artifacts Emergency alert!!! 4 Diagnosis center 3 Cloud-connected ambulance FIGURE 3. is critical to realizing enhanced safety. In this scenario. Perodua. energy poverty of 64 car-mounted computers is less important. Using a realtime integrated cloud-based medical system. For the large multiplicity of users and their mobility in transportation systems. WAN latency in accessing distant clouds is a major issue. and DRB-HICOM. and mobile computing sectors can enhance quality of life by handling emergency situations. leading to growth in market share. Moreover. more work is expected in this industry to set regulation and ensure that manufacturers comply. medical. such as Proton. and mobile computing sectors. with carmounted computers. manufacturing.

and pests are among the major reasons for this constant drop.7 Factors such as climate change. which reduces time to market and improves user satisfaction. particularly older ones. to monitor and maintain their farms anywhere. However. However. Such nationwide tourist service providers can use cloud technologies to run J A N U A R Y/ F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 5 their businesses with minimal capital and operation costs. dictionaries. long WAN latency (mostly due to numerous intermediate hops12) for accessing cloud resources is a serious threat that remarkably decelerates cloud adoption for mobile users. which is 7.10 People Sector Another niche area for cloud adoption is the people sector. While Malaysia has merely grown in number of tourists and their receipts since 2010 (about 4 percent). the most popular cloud services for users is storage. from US$20 million to US$42. The best practice for the first use is to promote online businesses to implement pay-as-you-go cloud resources and offer miscellaneous pervasive services to tourists. Using cloud-based resources. Currently. Tourism Industry Another promising industry for cloud adoption is tourism. Cloud-based agriculture and farming spans numerous activities. It’s worth mentioning that preserving smartphone resources. which is about 67 percent growth. notepads. Thailand’s yearly tourism income has grown more than 100 percent since 2010. given the aging of farmers in Malaysia. particularly the battery. resulting in efficient irrigation and effective pest fighting. Cloud-based tourism could use cloud resources to encourage tourists to visit hot spots in Malaysia as well as to provide location-based and contextaware pervasive services for tourists while they’re in the country. The government has already proposed several new initiatives such as Connecting 1Malaysia to accelerate adoption of new online IT services and cloud technology to increase the number of online individuals/businesses in Malaysia. cameras. and remote monitoring of yields. aging of farmers. The best practice for cloud-based agriculture is to integrate cloud with wireless sensors and pervasive mobile devices. the labor-intensive nature of Malaysia’s farming. videos. statistics show constant decrements since 2000. Pervasive mobile farming infrastructures enable farmers. and audio files. music players.Agriculture Industry Malaysia’s agricultural revenue in 2012 is reported to be as much as $250 million.3 percent of the year’s gross domestic product (GDP). Such facilities not only provide convenience to farmers. real-time farming information dissemination. making significant contributions toward smart farming that can significantly decrease the farming burden and increase revenue. consideration must be given to mitigating temporal and energy overheads by leveraging lightweight solutions such as hybrid pervasive MCC. Thailand could significantly increase its market share from 16 million visitors in 2010 to more than 26 million tourists a year. such as Dropbox and Google Drive. convergence of mobile and pervasive computers with the cloud—that is. and to perform computations that are far more complex than their mobile device can support. Smartphones have become dominant service-delivery points for tourists and are currently used as GPS. optical character recognition (reading text in local language). is crucial for tourists. MCC enables efficient delivery of real-time resource-intensive computations such as voice translators (speaking in native languages). including agricultural agility. mobile cloud computing (MCC)9 —can be adopted. where people store their photos. mobile users can run their resource-hungry applications outside their phones to save computing resources. Cloud adoption can significantly improve agriculture’s profitability and GDP share in Malaysia. MCC can also realize location-based and context-aware tourist services. Malaysia and Thailand have gained solid positions in the global and regional tourist markets in the last few years8 and are considered the most competitive tourism markets in Southeast Asia. whereas Malaysia’s tourism income has grown 16 percent. and location-based services to help tourists traveling in Malaysia. To realize the second use. and translators. road navigation.11 However. where individual users utilize cloud services mainly through their mobile devices. from US$18 to US$21 million. particularly battery power. While developing cloudbased mobile tourist systems. The first use requires that online enterprises and individuals from all over the country engage in this industry. and its services can augment the computing capabilities of mobile devices as well as personal computers. One way to expedite cloud adoption for mobile users in Malaysia (as well as in the rest of the world) is to reduce the number of intermediate hops between mobile and cloud by leveraging proximate I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G 65 . the cloud has huge potential in mobile computing. but also reduce labor costs and encourage farmers to manage several plots of land with varied types of products concurrently. anytime without the need to physically visit the site.

Reportedly. 20 percent of Malaysian users haven’t heard of cloud computing.”2 Governments usually enforce data sovereignty to limit cross-border storage of (sensitive) data. inconsistencies. where should multinational companies store their data? Who has access to and possesses the data? What data is sensitive to cross-border storage? How does data sovereignty impact cloud federation? Answering these questions and clarifying misunderstandings around data sovereignty promote better cloud adoption. Domain-Specific Technologies Developing domain-specific technologies whose cloud integration can enable efficient and effective I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G W W W. Erascan is a whiteboard eraser that scans and digitizes what’s written on the board as it erases.CLOUD ADOPTION Although such jurisdictions benefit local entrepreneurs by protecting them from international competition and decelerating the emergence of giant and reputable cloud service providers in local cloud markets. Data Sovereignty Data sovereignty “is the respect for the rights associated with data—based on where the entity that has control of the data resides. impact on social relationships. but knowledge is limited. whereas external services can be more efficient and affordable. health and safety hazards such as the impact of using a smartphone for several hours on a child’s eyesight. particularly desktops and smartphones. In the ACCA report on the impact of data sovereignty on cloud adoption in Asia.13 Thus. Gaining insight into the advantages. and lack of transparency have impacts on successful cloud adoption in Malaysia. some important challenges hinder its speedy adoption in Malaysia. Results from recent interviews with parents and school teachers undertaken in a few schools in Sabah (northeast Malaysia) that are using the 1BestariNet educational platform suggest that parents aren’t prepared to transition from traditional learning to cloud-based e-learning because they believe computers are for entertainment rather than education. existing complexities.O RG /CLO U D CO M P U T I N G . Malaysia could secure eighth position among the 14 Asian countries studied. and nonintuitive interaction technology) that must first be overcome. is a significant need. and implications of adopting the cloud for stakeholders. One way to do so is to train parents by demonstrating the potential and usefulness of supervised cloud-based educational materials and informing them about successful experiences in other countries. decision makers. and leading universities and academic institutes must take the lead in educating and training on cloud computing concepts and application. For instance. developing varied technical programs and hands-on workshops for technical staff. It’s one example of a domain-specific technology innovation that’s facilitating cloud adoption. the number of mobile users is increasing at a significantly faster pace. FIGURE 4. 66 Competence and Awareness One of the most vital hurdles in cloud adoption in Malaysia is the lack of competent cloud engineers. including lawmakers and service consumers. knowledgeable cloud lawmakers.2 The report reveals that Malaysian lawmakers enforce data sovereignty because they’re concerned about data security and loss of control over the data stored outside the country. which limits organizations to exploiting local datacenters only. disadvantages.14) resources.4 The interview revealed a series of hurdles (for example. Challenges Despite the promise of cloud computing in these areas. Some Malaysians might be familiar with the concept of utility computing. (Photo courtesy of Mimos Berhad. and service consumers. essential training.11 Although the profit of mobile application execution in cloud-based resources might be lower compared to desktop users. and lawmakers in addition to cloud-awareness programs for public users needs quick momentum in Malaysia.CO M P U T ER .

. report. 8. and Trust Security and privacy are major concerns impeding cloud deployment in Malaysia that can also impact global cloud adoption.com/tech/ cloud-computing/malaysian-cloud-investment -could-touch-us900m-by-2020. 2013. Insights. information disclosure from government agencies is another challenge that decelerates cloud adoption. hardware resources. Department of Statistics. no.pdf. 1 Nov. Security. Z.my/pdf/blueprint/Transportation-Blueprint . such on-demand elastic computing resources pave J A N U A R Y/ F E B R U A R Y 2 0 1 5 the way for emergence of big data analytics for improving areas such as utility services. Privacy. “Cloud-Based Augmentation for Mobile Devices: Motivation. it’s nontrivial to enforce the risk of letting contents stay in a third-party premises. 2013 BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard. Abolfazli et al. 7. tech. 2014.15 Efforts to ensure safety of user property on the vendor’s premises.ibm. vol. L. Acknowledgments This work was funded by the Malaysian Ministry of Higher Education under the University of Malaya High Impact Research Grant UM. Surveys & Tutorials. www-03. Erascan (see Figure 4) digitizes content as it’s erased from the class whiteboard. www. 9. Although data owners have full control over the infrastructure. Sanaei et al. pp. and software systems with their traditional physical servers or on-premise clouds. 6.statistics. vol. Moreover. 2013. 2014. 1. “Hybrid Pervasive Mobile Cloud Computing: Toward Enhancing Invisibility. report.. 11. 2013. “Malaysian Cloud Investment Could Touch US$900m by 2020.my/portal/download_Agriculture/ files/Selected_Agricultural_Indicators_Malaysia _2013..14 Inventing such domain-specific and cost-effective technologies across domains is the key to successful cloud adoption worldwide.” ComputerWorld Malaysia. References 1.wss. 11. The Impact of Data Sovereignty on Cloud Computing in Asia. Taxonomies. I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G 67 . one problem in cloud-based educational systems is the lack of efficient interaction between trainees and e-learning systems that inhibits development of writing skills among students.gov. In addition to security threats from cyberattacks and privacy violations. 3.C/625/1/HIR/ MOE/FCSIT/03. such as 1BestariNet. http://www.bsa. and security on a national scope.org/2013/assets/PDFs/BSA _GlobalCloudScorecard2013. and directing user privacy issues are critical to cloud adoption in Malaysia. Yin. Kumar. tech report.com/press/us/en/pressrelease/ 43896. S.S.pdf. Media Studies. report. IBM Malaysia. Iskandar Regional Development Authority. 4. 1.pdf.iskandarmalaysia . 369–392. Google positively responded to a majority of about 27. Sanaei et al. “IBM and KPJ Healthcare Berhad Build Nationwide Cloud Infrastructure for Improved Medical Services. business intelligence. Transportation Blueprint 2010–2030 for Iskandar Malaysia. 12 May 2014. (ACCA). Z.” Malaysian J.” Information—An Int’l Interdisciplinary J. For example. UNWTO Tourism Highlights. and Feasibility. pp. “Digitalizing the Malaysian Classroom: Barriers. and expectations. 2013. principles. minimizing security risks. 2013.utilization of cloud-based resources among users requires a great deal of research and development in Malaysia and the rest of the world. vol. 2. www. BSA|The Software Alliance.com/products) is a domain-specific technology that can be integrated into cloud-based education systems. The Apen A3 Smart Pen (www .477 information disclosure requests by the US government. 15. The most significant issue is comprehending and then minimizing the risks associated with cloud deployment.org/ content/r13521/fulltext. 2011. Selected Agricultural Indicator. 8145–8156.” press release. the data owner has limited access to monitor his or her property in the virtual servers in the absence of advanced and detailed cloud-monitoring tools. In this situation. UN World Tourism Organization. 75–90. Malaysia. report.pdf. 16. tech. to improve interaction and learning effectiveness among students.e-unwto. “Heterogeneity in Mobile Cloud Computing: Taxonomy and Open Challenges. no.apenusa. 10. Successful cloud adoption requires delivery of cloud-based services to a range of users with different skill sets. Asia Cloud Computing Assoc. www . 5.” IEEE Comm. 16.. 2013: http:// cloudscorecard.com. everal of the cloud adoption initiatives and the benefits discussed in this article can be a driving force for other regional and global countries to deploy cloud technology to not only shrink their capital ownership and maintenance expenses but also to expedite the deployment process. This problem is more significant in off-premise clouds. where contents are stored on the cloud vendor’s premises.cio-asia. no. Last year. A. pp.

(MICC 13). Riyadh.my/w p-content /uploads/2013/08/ MIMOS _AnnualReport2011. and big data. www. He’s a senior member of IEEE. 16. His professional interests include the development.mercurynews. Hajivali. Gani has a PhD in computer science from the University of Sheffield. power systems. 99.” San Jose Mercury News. 2014. Contact him at samee. SAEID ABOLFAZLI is a technical lead and data scientist at YTL Communications. Selected CS articles and columns are also available for free at http://ComputingNow. Contact him at abolfazli@ieee. She’s a member of IEEE.CLOUD ADOPTION and Open Challenges. ZOHREH SANAEI is a technical lead and data scientist at YTL Communications. wired and wireless networks.edu.. and a visiting professor at King Saud University. cluster and big data computing. Surveys & Tutorials. Malaysia. no. F.edu. Malaysia. His research interests include mobile and cloud computing. Contact him at abdullah@um. O. 2013. SAMEE U. Yahoo Report Government Data Demands.O RG /CLO U D CO M P U T I N G . Abolfazli et al. integration.htm 68 I EEE CLO U D CO M P U T I N G W W W. no. ABDULLAH GANI is a professor of computer science at the University of Malaya. wireless-related networks. “Google.F. Tabassi has an MBA in electrical engineering and mathematics. He’s a senior member of IEEE.org. Bailey. banking. smart grids. Consumer Electronics. networking. Sanaei has a PhD in computer science from the University of Malaya. “A Survey for Effectiveness and Influence Rate of Cloud Computing Services in Malaysia. “An Experimental Analysis on Cloud-based Mobile Augmentation in Mobile Cloud Computing. and serviceoriented computing. STEVEN ROSEN is director of IT at YTL Communications and the chief information officer at Xchanging. IEEE 11th Malaysia Int’l Conf. For submission information and author guidelines. www. Malaysia. pp.org/internet/author. Arlington.com/business/ci_25434657/ google-yahoo-report-government-data-demands. lightweight mobile cloud computing. 2014. and insurance and capital markets business sectors. and operation of wireless solutions in the telecommunications. B. 13. Contact him at steven. 2014.khan@ndsu.1. and Xchanging Asia Pacific.” IEEE Trans.computer. 14. 2011. ALI TABASSI is the chief operating officer at YTL Communications. 283–286. S. KHAN is an associate professor of electrical and computer engineering at North Dakota State University. vol. and applications implemented through the Internet to support a worldwide computing environment. Comm. robustness. director of the Center for Mobile Cloud Computing Research. please visit www.mimos .rosen@ytlcomms. Karimi. Khan has a PhD in computer science from the University of Texas. grid.my. and optical networks. Contact her at sanaei@ieee. Malaysia. 27 Mar. 1. Moghaddam. vol.CO M P U T ER . 1–9. pp. Her research interests include heterogeneity in mobile and cloud computing. Annual Report 2011. 337–368. His research interests include self-organized systems. technologies. pp. Abolfazli has a PhD in computer science and IT from the University of Malaya. Engineering and Applying the Internet IEEE Internet Computing reports emerging tools.” Proc. MIMOS. social networks.org.computer. and M. His research interests include optimization. He’s a member of IEEE. where she leads scientific R&D activities. His professional interests include architecting and leading technology teams and managing datacenter operations in the healthcare. where he leads R&D activities in wireless networking and mobile computing. 12. 15. and IP industries.my. and Xchanging Asia Pacific. and security of cloud. reinforcement learning. wireless computing.” IEEE Comm.org.pdf.