You are on page 1of 76

tlt

SYSTEMS, STRATEGIES & RESEARCH FOR LUBRICATION PROFESSIONALS

AN

PUBLICATION | JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO G Y &
LU B R I C AT I O N
T E C H N O LO G Y

Predictive
Maintenance
How used-oil analysis can
extend the health (and life)
of your machine.
Career Coach
16 tips for
job seekers
Q&A
20 Minutes with
The Gear Doctor
Dont pour that oil!
Field strategies
for basic lubricant
identification
2011
Readers greatest
accomplishments

Digital TLT: Sponsored by Mnzing at www.stle.org.

MORE ACCESSIBLE
MORE INFORMATIVE
MORE INCLUSIVE
www.aftonchemical.com
NEW WEBSITE - NOW LIVE!

2011. Afton Chemical Corporation is a wholly owned


subsidiary of NewMarket Corporation (NYSE:NEU) www.aftonchemical.com

Contents

TLT / JANUARY 2012 / VOLUME 68 / NO. 1

ng
he
he
en
nt
ns
de
y.

17

20

26

FEATURES
LUBRICATION FUNDAMENTALS

STUDENT POSTER ABSTRACT

17

on tailoring the
nanocrystalline structure of
Zno to achieve low friction

26

used-oil analysis for


predictive maintenance
An arsenal of techniques allows
end-users to safely extend drain
intervalswithout jeopardizing
equipment.

Researchers are unraveling


the secrets of materials and
processes that have long
stumped the lubricants industry.

by hamidreza Mohseni,
benedict a. Mensah, niraj
gupta, srivilliputhur g.
srinivasan and thomas W.
scharf (advisor)

by Jean Van rensselar

by Dr. robert M. gresham

Extended abstracts written by


winners of the Student Poster
Competition held at STLEs 2011
Annual Meeting & Exhibition.

PEER-REVIEWED PAPER (EDITORS CHOICE)


BEST PRACTICES

28

basic lubricant
identication in the eld
This step-by-step plan
reduces the chances of mixing
incompatible products.

20 MINUTES WITH

20

old meets new at


international Joint
tribology conference

COVER STORY

34

Dr. Jack Zakarian

46

rheological properties of
extreme pressure greases
Measured using a process
control rheometer
by Julie a. glasscock and
robin s. smith

by stacy heston

Nicknamed the Gear Doctor,


this new-product specialist
examines energy-efficiency
trends in the gear-oil industry.
by karl M. phipps

34
W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

JANUARY 2012

Contents
EDITOR
Evan Zabawski
Fluid Life
Edmonton, Alberta, Canada

PUBLISHER/EDITOR-IN-CHIEF
Thomas T. Astrene

54

68

DEPARTMENTS
10

tech beat

59

Self-lubricating ominiphobic
surface; Bacteria crack ethanol
pipeline steel; More efficient
access to hydrogen as a fuel.

High-performance polyurethane
adhesive; Electric motor brush
holders; Water-soluble metalforming lubricants; High-flow
thermoplastic vulcanizate grades;
Low-pressure spin-on filter.

by Dr. neil canter

52

newsmakers
This months newsmakers
include Lubrizol, Analysts, Inc.,
POLARIS Laboratories, ASTM
and more!

54

63

advertisers index

65

resources
Keep up to date with the latest
technical literature available in
print and online.

sounding board
Readers list their greatest
professional achievements in
2011.

new products

67

stle local section


Meeting calendar
Check out a complete listing
of networking events and
technical meetings taking
place in your area.

presidents report

68

In praise of service

from the editor

70

on condition Monitoring
Complexity in oil analysis
information: Part II

headquarters report
Gateways to a rich technical
experience

career coach
Position yourself for growth

Three-Star Selection

JANUARY 2012

CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Dr. Neil Canter
Dr. Robert M. Gresham
Mike Johnson
Jean Van Rensselar
CIRCULATION COORDINATORS
Myrna Scott
Judy Enblom
DESIGN/PRODUCTION
Joe Ruck
ADVERTISING SALES
Tracy Nicholas VanEe
Phone: (630) 922-3459
Fax: (630) 904-4563
tnicholas@stle.org

TECHNICAL EDITORS
Dr. Fred W. Girshick
Infineum USA,
L.P.Linden, New Jersey

Sandra Mazzo-Skalski
ExxonMobil Chemical
Paulsboro, New Jersey

Dr. Martin Greaves


The Dow Chemical Co.
Freeport, Texas

Dr. Paul Michael


Milwaukee School
of Engineering
Milwaukee, Wisconsin

Dr. Ken Hope


Chevron Phillips
Kingwood, Texas
Walt Huysman
Trico Corp.
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
Frank Kroto
The Lubrizol Corp.
Wickliffe, Ohio

COLUMNS
4

MANAGING EDITOR
Karl M. Phipps

72

Worldwide
Preventing bearing failures
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

Mike Mayers
Analysts Inc.
Stafford, Texas

Mark Minges
Polaris Laboratories
Indianapolis, Indiana
Dr. Jun Qu
Oak Ridge National
Laboratory
Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Dan Vargo
Functional Products
Macedonia, Ohio

TRIBOLOGY AND LUBRICATION TECHNOLOGY (USPS


865740) Vol. 68, Number 1, (ISSN-1545-858), is published
monthly by the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication
Engineers, 840 Busse Hwy, Park Ridge, IL 60068-2376.
Periodicals Postage is Paid at Park Ridge, IL and at
additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address
changes to Tribology and Lubrication Technology,
840 Busse Hwy, Park Ridge, IL 60068-2376.

W W W. ST L E .O RG

presiDents report
Dr. Michael T. Dugger

In praise of service
By participating on
an STLE committee,
youll help the
societyand your
careergrow.
Many groups contribute to the success of a technical society like stle.
These groups include individual and corporate members, exhibitors and presenters at
our Annual Meeting and other conferences,
people who participate in education courses
and our certification programs and, of
course, our headquarters staff. All of these
people help fulfill the societys mission, To
advance the science of tribology and the
practice of lubrication engineering in order
to foster innovation, improve the performance of equipment and products, conserve
resources and protect the environment.
One subset of these people represents
the engine behind progress in our society,
and that is the members who volunteer to
serve on our various committees. With the
new year ahead and many people developing
New Years resolutions, I would like to acknowledge the important contributions of
our existing volunteers and encourage other
members to get involved.
STLE cannot function without volunteers.
Our headquarters staff does a terrific job
supporting the various activities of the society, but it is the volunteers who decide how
the organization will be governed and also
govern it. Whether it is making major policy
decisions, developing a conference program,
electing Fellows or giving awards, all of these
jobs and more are done by volunteers.
What happens to a member of an organization to transform him or her into a volunteer? I suspect that in most cases, volunteers
get involved with STLE because a colleague
asked them to help with a committee project.
After devoting significant time and creative
4

JANUARY 2012

STLEs most important products and services, including our annual meeting,
wouldnt be possible without the dedication and efforts of our committee
volunteers.
energy to an organization, we become emotionally vested in its success. This works
great for STLE, since volunteers who feel a
sense of satisfaction in what they have done
for the society become its biggest proponents.
Volunteers also receive from the society
as much or more than they give. I met many
of my closest professional colleagues by
serving on committees with them. There is
no denying that the largest tribology conference in the world, the STLE Annual Meeting &
Exhibition, is a great way to meet other professionals, catch up with old friends and discover prospective suppliers and customers.
But serving on a committee gives people a
shared sense of purpose and accomplishment. I also have found that serving on committees enabled me to meet people that I
would not have met during my normal business activities. One of our greatest assets is
our professional network, and committee
service is a great way to build or expand
yours.
Kara Lemar on our headquarters staff
has been working with other staff and volunteers to make committee service more effecT R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

tive and rewarding than ever. This project already has begun with two Webinars titled
Keys to Leading Productive Committees,
which, by the way, are available for free by
visiting www.stle.org. More content of this
type is planned in the coming months to help
potential volunteers understand various
committee assignments and get the most
out of a rewarding experience.
Please consider getting involved or taking on a new assignment on an STLE committee. Not only will you be doing an important
service for the society, your career will benefit as well.
Contact me, any of our board members
or our headquarters staff to find out what
types of assignments match your interests.
We are always looking for motivated volunteers, and, who knows, you might find yourself writing this column one day!
Mike Dugger is a Distinguished
Member of the Technical Staff
with Sandia National
Laboratories in Albuquerque,
N.M. You can reach him at
mtdugge@sandia.gov.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

Croda Lubricants
Leading the way naturally

Perfad
f d 5000

- Seal Conditioning Without Phthalates


O

Combats seal shrinkage caused by non-polar base oils

Passes ASTM D7216 engine oil compatibility test at 0.5% treat-rate

Enhanced swelling of fluoro - and polyacrylate materials

Swells nitrile rubber seals comparably to phthalates of similar molecular weight

Bio-based additive derived from 100% renewable materials

If you would like more information on any of our new products,


please contact us on 732-417-0800 or email marketing-usa@croda.com.

www.crodalubricants.com

froM the eDitor


Evan Zabawski

Three-Star Selection
What fueled hockeys iconic
postgame ritual?
for 75 years hockey fans have
enjoyed a postgame ritual where the
three best players in the contest are
recognized. This tradition is called
the Three-Star Selection, but not
many know its origin.
Its history traces back to a handshake agreement between Toronto
Maple Leafs owner Conn Smythe and
advertising agency owner Jack MacLaren. The agreement granted MacLarens client, General Motors, the
radio rights to Leaf games once the
construction of Maple Leaf Gardens
in Toronto was completed. The inaugural General Motors Hockey Broadcast subsequently aired on Nov. 12,
1931, with Foster Hewitt (best known
for coining the phrase he shoots, he
scores) calling a Toronto Maple
Leafs defeat by the Chicago Blackhawks.
By 1933 a 20-station hookup was
broadcasting games to nearly a million listenersabout 1 in 10 Canadians at the
time. In 1936 and 37, another MacLaren client, Imperial Oil, replaced General Motors as
sponsor when GM of Canadas new president, freshly transferred from the United
States, stated that he did not believe hockey would sell cars.
Imperial Oil wanted to promote its new
Three-Star Gasoline, a name based on the
three stars in the companys original logo,
by naming three stars in each game. Foster
Hewitts radio broadcast would conclude
with his personal selections, generally
based on the players high level of play. Each
selected player would skate an encore semicircle on the ice, amidst cheers or boos, depending on the outcome of the game.
6

Imperial Oil wanted to promote its new


Three-Star Gasoline.

On Jan. 1, 1937, the Canadian Broadcasting Corp. was launched and assumed national carriage of the program. Soon thereafter, the series became identified as
Hockey Night in Canada. Foster Hewitt continued making the selections for nearly 35
years before retiring, though many may remember Hewitt coming out of retirement for
the 1972 Summit Series and famously describing the goal heard around the world
by declaring Henderson has scored for
Canada!
In 1976 Imperial Oil ended its sponsorship. However, the tradition remained at
Hockey Night in Canada with Molson Breweries as the new sponsor. The three game
stars continued to be selected by a member
of the media. Players are awarded 30 points

as the first star, 20 points as the second star and 10 points as the third
star. At the end of each season, the
player with the highest tally on each
Canadian team is awarded a Molson
Cup.
The National Hockey League now
awards three stars during every
game, not limited just to those
broadcast on Hockey Night in Canada, with the selection made by media
representatives of the home team.
All professional, as well as many amateur and collegiate hockey leagues,
also award three stars.
Since Oct. 13, 2010, the Molson
Export Three Stars presented by
Bell are chosen by fans of the Montreal Canadiens voting with their mobile phones or on the Internet, signaling both an evolution in the
selection process and in branding.
The latest sponsor of the ThreeStar Selection is the software company Compuware. Peter Karmanos, Jr., CEO
of Compuware, is an avid hockey supporter
and owner of the Carolina Hurricanes (previously the Hartford Whalers).
Even though Imperial Oil has not sold
Three-Star-branded gasoline in more than
30 years, and no matter how many variations in sponsorship the Three-Star Selection has gone through, we still pay homage
to gasoline at the end of every hockey game.

Tribo-dictionary: poisea unit of measurement of absolute (or dynamic) viscosity.

Evan Zabawski, CLS, is the


senior reliability specialist for
Fluid Life in Edmonton, Alberta,
Canada. You can reach him at
evan@fluidlife.com.

FOCUSING ON SOLUTIONS.
FOR A WORLD IN MOTION.

F
ERATION O
NEXT GEN
DDITIVES
E
R
ESSU A
R
P
E
M
E
R
EXT
E NOW!
AVAILABL

During the last few years, there have been increased expectations in application requirements throughout the industrial lubricants
market as well as continuous changes in base oil properties and manufacturing equipment. Rhein Chemie has kept and continues to keep light colored sulfur carriers as one of our core technologies. We have taken on the new challenges brought forth by
the ever-changing market and are proud to introduce our Next Generation EP Additives. These additives fulfill the latest
requirements in the industry and offer customers a broader range of products. Rhein Chemie strives to be a truly global solutions
provider - keeping the world in motion.
Solutions for the rubber, lubricant and plastics industries.
Whatever requirements move your world:
We will move them with you. www.rheinchemie.com

f
Societygo
sts and
Tribolobriication
Lu

HEADQUARTERS REPORT
Edward P. Salek, CAE / Executive Director

Gateways to a rich
technical experience
Content from STLE conferences
and meetings is now available
online and free.
JANUARY IS THE TIME OF YEAR WHEN THE
STAFF AT OUR HEADQUARTERS OFFICE
starts thinking about May. Ample piles of
snow and nasty wind chills here in Chicago
are not the only reason. We actually are looking ahead to May 6-10 in the vibrant Midwestern city of St. Louis, Mo., host to STLEs 2012
Annual Meeting & Exhibition.
We hope that TLT readers also are marking the date now and watching their e-mail
for the meetings Technical Program Guide
and registration material which you should
receive very soon. The guide provides complete information on the rich technical experience that awaits the more than 1,500 participants from around the world who are
attending the meeting in St. Louis.
The technical program reects the dedicated work of hundreds of volunteer paper
solicitation chairs, education course instructors and company representatives exhibiting
new products and services at the STLE trade
show. Directing all this activity is the Annual
Meeting Program Committee, chaired by Dr.
Lewis Rosado of the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base in
Dayton, Ohio.
To get a head start on reviewing partial
program information, as well as on making
hotel reservations and securing meeting registration, you can visit the 2012 Annual Meeting pages on www.stle.org. Youll discover
that this years conference continues the
STLE tradition of providing an immense
amount of diverse technical content during
one very condensed time period.
8

JANUARY 2012

This brings me to good news about pr


STLE annual meetings. Its now possible
reference historical meeting content, a
through www.stle.org. Just move your cu
sor to the Events tab on the home page a
click on the drop-down menu item marked
Photos and Information from Past Events.
You can view a digital copy of the Program
Guide for the 2009, 2010 and 2011 STLE Annual
Meetings.
These guides provide technical presentation abstracts as well as the names and afliations of all paper presenters. Youll also nd
that the names and contact information for
all exhibitors is a great resource if you are
seeking a new product, service or business
partner in 2012. The site includes access to
similar content in the Program Guides for the
2010 and 2011 International Joint Tribology
Conferences.
The more than 1,500 abstracts are all
searchable by topic or presenter name,
which makes this new Web resource a valuable tool for the many STLE members who
would like to locate a presentation or nd a
presenter from prior years. This type of
search, which in the past took a considerable
amount of time and effort, is now quick and
easy.
Its also worth noting that the online program guide archive is a great way to become
familiar with meeting content if youve never
attended an STLE meeting or have been away
from the event for a few years. In addition to
viewing abstracts and attendance lists, the
guides acquaint you with such major aspects
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

d
logists anrs
o
ib
r
T
f
o
y
e
Societ rication Engine
Lub
tion
al Meeting
65th Annu
ide
Program Gu

& Exhibi

ts and
Tribologis
f
o
y
t
ie
c
o
S
rs
n EngineeIO N PR O G RA M G
io
t
a
ic
r
b
Lu
EX H IB IT
TI N G &
*"
EE
3(
NUAL M
5" ( &0
66 TH A N
"5 - " /
  


":
.

r Person

Plus: You

An incredible wealth of information


three years worth of technical
program guides for STLEs Annual
Meetings and IJTCsis available for
free at www.stle.org.
of the meeting as education courses, exhibits
and networking events.
Im looking forward to seeing you in a few
months at the annual meeting and to another year of volunteers, members and staff in
pursuit of the STLE mission:
To advance the science of tribology and
the practice of lubrication engineering in order to foster innovation, improve the performance of equipment and products, conserve
resources and protect the environment.

You can reach Certied


Association Executive Ed Salek
at esalek@stle.org.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

Making Sure Youre Good to Go.

Oil Analysis When and Where You Need It.


Unplanned equipment downtime and the
loss of productivity due to wrong oil choice,
degraded, or contaminated oil reduces prots.
As immediacy and up-time drive global industry
today, there is continuing pressure on equipment
owners and maintenance managers to ensure
uninterrupted service. Companies must be able
to obtain accurate and actionable information
about oil condition in real time and on-site to
make smart maintenance decisions quickly.

Fluidscan Q1000
1.4 Kg / 17 x 14 x 9 cm
3 lbs / 6.5" x 5.5" x 3.5"

Fluidscan Q1000, packed with


innovations in ip-cell design and
optics, uses infrared spectroscopy
to determine when synthetic and
petroleum based lubricants need
to be changed due to excessive
contamination or degradation.

Spectro changes the way you look at oil.


The portable SpectroVisc Q3000 and handheld
Fluidscan Q1000 are solvent free, lightweight,
battery operated instruments with lab grade
accuracy to make sure you are good to go
in the air, at sea, underground, and on the
factory oor, wherever continued maximum
performance of lubricants are critical.

The Q1000 has an extensive oil

Spectro oil measurement technology is now in


the eld for every industry where oil quality is
essential to continued, efcient operation.

touch screen guides the operator

library, easy to use navigation, and


it is solvent free.
SpectroVisc Q3000, with
a patented ip-cell design,
measures kinematic viscosity at
40C using a few drops of oil, and
it is solvent free. The easy to use
through the process.

SpectroVisc Q3000
1.8 Kg / 15 x 12 x 20 cm
4 lbs / 6.0" x 5.0" x 8.0"

Changing the way you look at oil.

SPECTRO, INC. s!YER2OAD ,ITTLETON -!53!s  sWWWSPECTROINCCOMsSALES SPECTROINCCOM!N)3/COMPANY

TECH BEAT
Dr. Neil Canter / Contributing Editor

Self-lubricating omniphobic surface


Researchers develop a synthetic material
that is repellent to oil and water.
ONE OF THE MAIN PROBLEMS IN WORKING
WITH SURFACES is guring out a way to
minimize the presence of contaminants. Water is an important contaminant that impacts most lubrication
systems. Several TLT articles have discussed the goal of developing a superhydrophobic surface that would repel
water. One of the articles describes
how researchers have detected the
presence of small air bubbles that contribute to the extreme water repellency
of a superhydrophobic surface.1
A second article describes work
done to develop a surface that repels
ice.2 The key feature was taking the
uorinated silicon material used to
prepare the surface and fabricating it
into various geometries such as honeycombs.
Nature has developed several ways

10

to prepare hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces that can effectively repel


specic materials. Dr. Tak Sing Wong,
Postdoctoral Fellow in the School of
Engineering and Applied Sciences at
Harvard University in Cambridge,
Mass., says, The lotus leaf is a good
example of a surface that repels water.
In the lotus effect, water is supported
on a thin layer of air trapped by the
textured structure of the leaf. This en-

capabilities in repelling materials other than ant oils. Inspired by these examples from nature, a synthetic surface that is truly repellent to most
materials has now been developed.

SLIPS
Wong, Sung Hoon Kang, a graduate
student in the School of Engineering
and Applied Surfaces at Harvard University, and other researchers working

The rst parameter is that the lubricating liquid should


not be miscible with the liquid that is being repelled.
ables the water to roll off the leaf.
Wong explains that the problem
with this approach, unfortunately, is
that the layer of air is very unstable,
which enables water to penetrate and
be trapped on the microstructure of
the leaf at slightly elevated pressure. A
second problem is that liquids with
lower surface tensions than water
(such as ethanol and hexane) can penetrate into the texture easily. This effect means the surface loses repellency.
A second plant that has a more effective repellent surface is the Nepenthes pitcher plant. Wong says, The
reason this surface is better at repelling
materials is that water acts as a slippery liquid to repel immiscible materials impinging on the surface of the
plant. As a result, an ant that has oils
on its feet will slide right off the surface of the plant.
But the pitcher plant has limited

with Dr. Joanna Aizenberg, Amy Smith


Berylson Professor of Materials Science at Harvard University, have developed materials known as slippery liquid-infused porous surfaces, also
known as SLIPS.
SLIPS are prepared by impregnating a lubricating liquid that is oil and
water repellent in a porous network of
polytetrauoroethylene nanobers, as
shown in Figure 1. The lubricating liquids used were peruorinated and include such examples as 3Ms Fluorinert FC-70 and DuPonts Krytox oils.
Kang explains the criteria used in
preparing SLIPS. He says, The rst
parameter is that the lubricating liquid
should not be miscible with the liquid
that is being repelled. A second criterion is that the liquid used in the lubricating layer must exhibit better wetting on the surface of the nanober
solid than the liquid being repelled.

STLE Podcast: Aerospace in Tribology with Vern Wedeven (Wedeven Associates, Inc.), available now! Details at www.stle.org.

Figure 1 | An omniphobic surface that repels both oils and water is prepared by impregnating a lubricating liquid in a porous network of
polytetrauoroethylene nanobers. (Courtesy of Harvard University)

The key performance feature is the


layer of lubricating uid that forms on
the surface of the nanober solid to
ensure that all materials interacting
with the surface will fall off rapidly.
Surface roughness or texture is important to ensure that the liquid lubricating layer forms a nice lm. Kang says,
The texture helps to hold the lubricating layer inside the solid and then
enables the liquid to form a nice lm.
Without the roughness, the lubricating layer will only form a droplet on
the surface.
The researchers conducted tilting
angle and contact angle hysteresis
analysis to evaluate the ability of SLIPS
to repel liquids. Kang says, The former analysis involves placing a drop of
the liquid to be tested on the surface
and then tilting the surface until the
drop slides away. In the latter, contact
angle hysteresis measures the difference between the maximum downhill
contact angle and the minimum uphill
contact angle of the surface as it is tilted. The lower the tilting angle and the
contact angle hysteresis, the better
SLIPS can repel liquids.
A variety of different water- and oilbased liquids were tested. Wong says,
From the water-based standpoint, we
evaluated salt solutions such as sodium chloride, acids such as hydrochloric acid and bases such as sodium hydroxide. Nonpolar hydrocarbons such
as mineral oil, octane and hexadecane
W W W. ST L E .O RG

were also tested as were polar organic


liquids such as ethanol.
In fact, Wong mentioned that the
researchers also evaluated a commercially available vacuum pump oil in

The only liquid that SLIPS


will not repel is uorinated
materials.
this study. Every liquid tried was repelled by SLIPS, which means that this
technology exhibits omniphobic characteristics.
The only liquid that SLIPS will not
repel is uorinated materials. Kang explains: Fluorinated materials are
miscible with the lubricating layer,
which means they cannot be repelled.
One other very interesting aspect
about SLIPS is that the lubricating lm
can act as a self-healing coating. Kang
says, If structural damage occurs in
the porous material, then the liquid
layer very quickly lls the voids in a
self-healing process.
There are a large number of potential applications for SLIPS. The researchers believe that their technology
can be used in applications such as oil
transport, self-healing coatings and
antifouling coatings for vessels. Wong
adds, SLIPS form transparent coatT R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

ings, so there is potential for using


them in optical applications such as
solar cells and also in insect-repellent
surfaces.
Future work entails evaluating the
ability of SLIPS to function under extreme temperature conditions and
over long operating periods. Wong
says, We are testing the ability of
SLIPS to operate at temperatures over
200 C and at temperatures below -30
C. We also are looking to optimize the
combination of lubricating liquid and
porous structures to increase the operating lifetime of the omniphobic material.
Additional information can be
found in a recent article3 or by contacting Dr. Tak-Sing Wong at tswong@seas.
harvard.edu.

REFERENCES
1. Canter, N. (2010), Presence of
Nanobubbles on Superhydrophobic Surfaces, TLT, 66 (8), pp.
14-15.
2. Canter, N. (2011), Ice Repellent
Surfaces, TLT, 67 (2), pp 12-15.
3. Wong, T., Kang. S., Tang, S.,
Smythe, E., Hatton, B., Grinthal,
A. and Aizenberg, J. (2011),
Bioinspired Self-Repairing Slippery Surfaces with Pressure-Stable
Omniphobicity, Nature, 477
(7365), pp. 443-447.

JANUARY 2012

11

TECH BEAT

Bacteria crack ethanol pipeline steel


These microbes present a major problem in the
transportation of ethanol, but a solution is in the works.
BACTERIA ARE ONE OF THE MAIN MICROBES
THAT DEGRADE LUBRICANTS. Much attention has been paid to how bacteria can
feed on the components in a metalworking uid, which eventually leads
to premature failure. In a previous TLT
article, STLE Fellow Dr. Fred Passman
outlined how bacteria can adversely
impact the performance of a MWF.1
One big concern about bacteria is
the generation of acidic byproducts
that reduce the pH of the MWF system, leading to the onset of corrosion.
Early detection of corrosion has become a very important objective. In a
previous TLT article, a new approach
using a molecular probe was incorporated into an epoxy coating.2 The
probe uoresces reversibly when chelating ferric ions in a process called
chelation-enhanced uorescence.

12

JANUARY 2012

One other area where corrosion


can have an impact is biofuels. Jeffrey
Sowards, metallurgist at NISTs Materials Reliability Division in Boulder,
Colo., says, Ethanol, in particular, is
expected to cause stress corrosion
cracking when in contact with steel alloys.

Sowards is concerned that pumping ethanol through steel pipelines


will lead to the onset of stress corrosion cracking caused by bacteria. A
just-conducted study conrms that
bacteria will, in fact, facilitate the fatigue cracking of pipeline steel alloys
that can be used to transport ethanol.

FATIGUE CRACK GROWTH RATE

U.S. production of
ethanol for use as a fuel
is increasing quickly,
reaching 13 billion
gallons in 2010.
This issue becomes more signicant because U.S. production of ethanol for use as a fuel is increasing
quickly, reaching 13 billion gallons in
2010. The infrastructure needed to
transport ethanol from its production
sites through such distribution channels as rail, truck and barge is becoming strained.
One option that is a more efcient
way to transport ethanol is a pipeline.
Sowards says, Pipelines could be a
potential way to move ethanol, but the
current literature suggests that problems will occur. Stress corrosion cracking has been found in steel storage
tanks containing fuel-grade ethanol.
The presence of water in ethanol leads
to an increase in the fatigue crack
growth rate of steel. Bacteria known to
accelerate corrosion also have been
identied in ethanol storage tanks.
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

Sowards and his associates conducted


a study to determine the impact of
bacteria in facilitating the growth of
fatigue cracking in pipeline steel alloys. He says, Our objective was to
evaluate the extent of Stage II fatigue
crack growth.
In Stage II fatigue crack growth, the
rate of the growth of a crack under a
specic load cycle is evaluated under
conditions of increasing load. This
phase is in between Stage I, which is
the initiation of fatigue crack, and the
ultimate fracture of Stage III.
The researchers used the standard
ASTM procedure (E647), which measures the fatigue crack growth rate versus the stress intensity factor range.
Sowards says, This latter parameter
measures the stress imposed on a
crack.
An environmental chamber is used
to evaluate the fatigue crack growth
using the two steel alloys X52 and
X70. Sowards says, Both of these alloys are commonly found in oil and
gas pipelines.
The bacteria selected for use in this
study were Acetobacter aceti, Desulfosporosinus sp. and Clostridium sp. The
former is aerobic and converts ethanol
W W W. ST L E .O RG

crease in stress corrosion


cracking, which accelerated
the fatigue cracking growth
rate. But the largest fatigue
cracking growth rate was
seen with the anaerobic bacteria due to a large amount of
hydrogen production and the
presence of high concentrations of suldes.
With bacteria contributing to an increase in fatigue
crack growth rate, the researchers decided to evaluate
the effectiveness of the biocide, glutaraldehyde, which
is widely used in oil and gas
operations. Sowards says,
We found in preliminary
testing that glutaraldehyde
prevented an increase in acidity, which means this biocide
shows promise as a means to
Figure 2 | This optical microscope image shows a crack forming in X52 pipeline steel after the
reduce fatigue crack growth
alloy was exposed to an aqueous ethanol solution containing bacteria for several days. (Courrate.
tesy of NIST)
Sowards indicates that his
facility has the unique ability
to evaluate the degradation of
into acetic acid. Both of the latter two
an aqueous solution containing 5%
materials through evaluation of their
bacteria are anaerobic, which means
ethanol. Sowards says. We chose to
mechanical properties in biofuel and
they reduce sulfate ions and oxidize an
use water in combination with a carmicrobiological environments. He is
organic food source or molecular hybon source in order to obtain the maxlooking to do further testing with indrogen.
imum response from the bacteria. At
dustry relevant systems.
high levels of ethanol, bacteria tend to
Further information can be found
hibernate in a spore mode, thereby not
from a recent presentation3 or by conaffecting the growth of the fatigue
tacting Sowards at jeffrey.sowards@nist.
cracks.
gov.
Increased fatigue crack growth
rates were observed in aqueous soluREFERENCES
tions of ethanol containing all three
1. Passman, F. (2009), Microbial
species of bacteria. Sowards says, We
Problems in Metalworking Fludetermined that the bacteria increased
ids, TLT, 65 (8), pp. 26-34.
the fatigue crack growth rate by 25
2. Canter, N. (2010), Early Corrofold as compared to running the exsion Detector, TLT, 66 (2), pp.
periments in air.
12-13.
Figure 2 shows an optical micro3. Sowards, J., Weeks, T., McColsscope image of cracking occurring in
key, J. and Fekete, J. (2011), EfSowards says, In collaboration
X52 steel after the alloy was subjected
fect of Ethanol Fuel and Microwith the Colorado School of Mines, we
to mechanical forces in an aqueous
biologically Inuenced Corrosion
found that these three species of bacteethanol solution containing Acetoon the Fatigue Crack Growth
ria are present in ethanol storage
bacter aceti for several days. As the
Behavior of Pipeline Steels,
tanks. We picked them because we felt
load increased, the fatigue crack
Presented at the DOD Corrosion
they should create problems.
growth rate also increased.
Conference 2011, La Quinta,
Testing was done with simulated
The acid and biolm generated by
Calif., Aug. 1, 2011.
fuel-grade ethanol (98.5% active) and
the aerobic bacteria led to a large in-

We determined that the


bacteria increased the
fatigue crack growth
rate by 25 fold as
compared to running the
experiments in air.

Just for laughs: 4 nickels = 2 paradigms.

13

TECH BEAT

More efcient access to


hydrogen as a fuel
A new ruthenium catalyst has been developed to convert
ammonia borane to hydrogen.
THE ABILITY TO USE HYDROGEN AS A FUEL
remains a challenge because of the difculty in nding a stable derivative
that can act as a storage medium. Hydrogen has a number of advantages
such as easy conversion to electricity
in a fuel cell and the fact that it contains no carbon so the conversion does
not generate such detrimental byproducts as carbon dioxide.
But hydrogen is highly ammable
and remains a very difcult fuel to
handle. Travis Williams, assistant pro-

14

JANUARY 2012

fessor of chemistry at the University of


Southern California in Los Angeles,
says, Being a gas, hydrogens biggest
problem is that it can only be stored in
high-pressure or cryogenic tanks.
In a previous TLT article, a potential aluminum hydride (alane) was
found to be potentially very useful as a
hydrogen storage material because this
derivative contains 10% by weight.1
Researchers were able to develop an
electrochemical process that generates
alane from sodium aluminum hydride.
The alane can then be converted to hydrogen under elevated temperature
conditions such as the heat produced
in an automotive internal combustion
engine.
Another storage material that has
attracted attention is ammonia borane,
also known as AB. Williams says, AB
is a solid material, not a gas. This compound has a high hydrogen density of
19.6% that is four times larger than the
density of the gasoline. AB also can
easily be converted to hydrogen under
mild thermal and catalytic conditions
through a process known as catalytic
dehydrogenation.
In contrast, Williams points out
that diesel, gasoline or methanol must
be reacted at high temperatures with
the use of a catalyst to release hydrogen.
One of the problems with efciently converting AB to hydrogen is that a
competitive catalytic hydrolysis process also can occur to convert AB to
hydrogen. Williams says, The issue
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

There are catalysts


that go very quickly but
do not produce more
than one equivalent
of hydrogen.

with catalytic hydrolysis is that ammonia formed is poisonous to a fuel cell.


Other byproducts include borax that
can be reduced under severe high temperature conditions, which is energy
intensive and very expensive.
Various catalysts have been tried to
convert AB to hydrogen but have suffered from two limitations. Williams
explains, There are catalysts that go
very quickly but do not produce more
than one equivalent of hydrogen. Other catalysts produce sufcient levels of
hydrogen (above one equivalent), but
they are all pretty water sensitive. This
means they will only work during a
single pass.
A more attractive approach to producing hydrogen from AB is through
an anhydrous dehydrogenation process. Such an approach has now been
developed.

RUTHENIUM CATALYST
Williams and his research associates
have developed a new ruthenium catalyst that is very effective at converting
W W W. ST L E .O RG

AB to hydrogen. Equally important,


the catalyst is able to facilitate dehydrogenation in air and is sufciently
durable to be reused multiple times.
A crystal structure of the ruthenium catalyst is shown in Figure 3. The
researchers found that reacting AB in
the presence of the ruthenium catalyst
at 70 C led to the production of more
than two equivalents of hydrogen.
Williams says, AB is a solid, which
meant that we needed to add the solvent diglyme so that it could be reacted as a slurry with the consistency of
oatmeal. As the reaction proceeds, hydrogen gas comes off and the slurry is
converted into a gum eraser, which
consists of the boron, hydrogen polymer polyborazylene.
The choice of the reaction conditions was arbitrary. He adds, If we increase the temperature above 70 C, the
reaction moves faster. At lower temperatures, the process is slower.
Further work by the researchers
shows the durability of the ruthenium
catalyst. A sequence of four runs made
over six hours each produced greater
than two equivalents of hydrogen. Additional solvent needed to be added to
keep the viscosity of the reaction mixture manageable.
The mechanism for how the ruthenium catalyst is so effective is not
known at this point. Williams says,

If we increase the
temperature above 70 C,
the reaction moves faster.
At lower temperatures, the
process is slower.

Based on isotope studies, we know


that boron-hydrogen and nitrogen-hydrogen bonds of AB are involved in a
transition state with the ruthenium
catalyst. The bridging site connecting
the ruthenium atom with the boron
W W W. ST L E .O RG

Figure 3 | A new ruthenium catalyst shown here can catalyze the dehydrogenation of
ammonia borane to hydrogen multiple times and in air. This process may lead to a
more effective way to use hydrogen as a fuel. (Courtesy of the University of Southern
California)

species in the catalyst is also suspected


to contribute to the catalysis. Substitution of a hydroxyl group for a carboxyl
group improves the effectiveness of
the catalyst.
Applications will involve preparing
fuel cartridges containing AB and the
catalyst that can be plugged into electronic devices such as golf carts, scooters and radios. Williams says, We envision that the low-weight prole of
AB will make it useful in small electronic applications. The main problem
will be nding stations where spent
cartridges can be regenerated.
Future work will focus on how the
catalyst can be regenerated in a costeffective manner as possible. Additional information about the ruthenium
catalyst can be found in a recent publication2 or by contacting Williams at
travisw@usc.edu.
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

REFERENCES
1. Canter, N. (2009), Aluminum
Hydride: Potential HydrogenStorage Material, TLT, 65 (11),
pp. 14-15.
2. Conley, B., Guess, D. and Williams, T. (2011), A Robust,
Air-Stable, Reusable Ruthenium
Catalyst for Dehydrogenation of
Ammonia Borane, Journal of the
American Chemical Society, 133
(36), pp. 14212-14215.

Neil Canter heads his own


consulting company, Chemical
Solutions, in Willow Grove, Pa.
Ideas for Tech Beat can be
submitted to him at
neilcanter@comcast.net.
JANUARY 2012

15

contacto@coquilub.com

stuDent poster abstract

on Tailoring the nanocrystalline


Structure of Zno to achieve low friction
Hamidreza Mohseni, Benedict A. Mensah, Niraj Gupta, Srivilliputhur G. Srinivasan and Thomas W. Scharf (Advisor)
Department of Materials Science and Engineering & Institute for Science and Engineering Simulation
(ISES), University of North Texas, Denton, Texas
editors note: For a closer look at Hamidrezas poster abstract, be sure to check out his short
video presentation in the January digital version of TLT (available at www.stle.org).

working
f in the
g at the
as been
opment
cations
nclude
oscopy.
.edu.

Hamidreza Mohseni is a doctoral


candidate working under the guidance of professor Thomas W. Scharf in
the Department of Materials Science
and Engineering at the University of
North Texas in Denton, Texas. He has
been involved in various projects
for design and development of solid
lubricants for high temperature applications since August 2008. His
research interests include tribology,
surface engineering and electron microscopy. You can reach him at hamidrezamohseni@my.unt.edu.

aBSTRacT
Cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) inside worn surfaces coupled
with density functional theory (DFT)
calculations reveal atomistic origins of
low friction and nanocrystalline plasticity when sliding on ZnO {0002}-textured nanocolumnar grains. The
atomic layer deposited (ALD) subW W W. ST L E .O RG

stoichiometric ZnO film was structurally tailored to achieve low surface energy and low growth stacking fault
energy basal planes. Sliding on this
defective ZnO structure resulted in an
increase in both partial dislocation and
basal stacking fault densities through
intrafilm shear/glide of partial dislocations on the {0002} planes. This shear
accommodation mode mitigated friction and brittle fracture frequently observed in microcrystalline and single
crystal ZnO. These results have potentially broad implications to other defective nanocrystalline ceramics.

InTRoducTIon
ALD ZnO/Al2O3/ZrO2 nanolaminates
are good candidates for providing low
friction and wear and potentially high
thermal (oxidation) resistant surfaces
and interfaces in moving mechanical
assemblies such as carbon-carbon
composite (CCC) bushings that experience fretting wear.1,2 Significant reduction in the sliding wear factor
(2.3x10-5 to 4.8x10-6 mm3/Nm) and
friction coefficient (0.22 to 0.15) was
achieved compared to uncoated CCC
[2]. This improvement was attributed to intrafilm shear (slip) of partial
dislocations along the {0002} basal
stacking faults in nanocrystalline
grains of ZnO by a dislocation glide
process. To further elucidate the
underlying crystal structure-dependent deformation mechanisms responsible for this tribological improvement, ALD ZnO with nanocrystalline
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

{0002}-textured grains were compared


to samples of ZnO with nanocrystalline randomly orientated grains and
ZnO single crystal with {0001}-basal
plane orientation.

eXPeRImenTal
The processing of ALD trilayer ZnO
(~100nm thick)/Al2O3 (~20nm thick)/
ZrO2 (~100nm thick) nanolaminates
infiltrated into CCC has been reported
elsewhere.2 ZnO is the topmost layer
deposited on amorphous Al2O3, which
determines the ZnO {0002} growth
texture, and ZrO2 is the bottom, load
bearing layer. The friction coefficient
for the ZnO samples was determined
in unidirectional sliding against a stationary Si3N4 ball under a normal load
of 0.98 N (initial mean Hertzian contact stress of ~0.6 GPa). The linear
sliding speed was 2.1 cm/s and the total sliding distance was 190 m. Tests
were conducted at ambient temperature and relative humidity of ~40 to
50%. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that the ZnO layer was
sub-stoichiometric (Zn0.54O0.46). This
oxygen deficiency for ALD ZnO has
been linked to oxygen vacancies.3
Condensation of vacancies, causing
the introduction of a missing or extra
ZnO (0002) plane into the lattice,
along with incoherent boundaries between adjacent nanocolumnar grains,
are sources for ALD ZnO growth basal
stacking faults (BSF). Partial dislocations (PD) border the BSF as discussed
next.
JANUARY 2012

17

IlluSTRaTIve ReSulTS

Figure 1 illustrates that at the end of sliding


ON
the lowest friction
coefficient
of ~0.15for
was
are good
candidates
3/ZrO2 nanolaminates
for ALD
ZnO withhigh
nanocrystalline
riction andobserved
wear and
potentially
thermal
{0002}-textured
grains. In in
contrast,
ZnO
istant surfaces
and interfaces
moving
single
crystal
with
the
same
basal
plane
mblies such as carbon-carbon composite (CCC)
{0001}-orientation
exhibited a much
higher
reduction
xperience fretting
wear.1,2 Significant
-5
-6
3
coefficient
of ~0.53.
noisyand
fricear factorfriction
(2.3x10
to 4.8x10
mmThe
/Nm)
tion
coefficient
values
for
this
single
crystal
ent (0.22 to 0.15) was achieved compared to
ZnOimprovement
sample is likely related
to severe struc[2]. This
was attributed
to
tural
deformation
occurring
during
wear,
(slip) of partial dislocations along the {0002}
which will be discussed
In addition,
faults in nanocrystalline
grains later.
of ZnO
by a
the ZnO with nanocrystalline randomly oriprocess. To further elucidate and validate the
entated grains also exhibited a higher friccrystal
structure-dependent
deformation
tion coefficient of ~0.4, confirming that the
sponsible for this tribological improvement,
{0002}-textured grains of ALD ZnO are imnanocrystalline {0002}-textured grains were
portant in achieving low friction. The same
mples of ZnO with nanocrystalline randomly
{0002}-growth texture was responsible for
s and ZnO single crystal with {0001}-basal
low friction in pulsed laser deposited ZnO
n.
films.4
To elucidate the underlying structural

AL
mechanisms responsible for this observed
of ALD ZnO
trilayer
ZnO
(~100nm
thick)/Altrans2O 3
friction
behavior,
cross-sectional
ZrO2 (~100nm
thick)
nanolaminates
infiltrated
mission
electron
microscopy (XTEM)
anal2
been reported
elsewhere.
ZnO
is
the
yses were performed inside the topmost
worn surdetermines
the
on amorphous
Al2O32, which
faces. Figure
(a) shows
an SEM planar
owth texture,
is the
image and
insideZrO
the2 wear
trackbottom,
center ofload
ALD
he frictionZnO/Al
coefficient
for
the
ZnO
samples
was
O /ZrO2 coated CCC after 190 m of
2 3
nidirectional
sliding
against
a stationary
3N 4
sliding
(Figure
1). The
wear trackSishows
ormal loadevidence
of 0.98of Na sliding-induced
(initial mean Hertzian
highly def ~0.6 GPa).
Thelayer
linear
sliding
was
2.1 2
formed
(HDL)
on thespeed
surface.
Figure
otal sliding
190
m. inside
Teststhe
were
(b)distance
is a XTEMwas
image
taken
wear
bient temperature
andinrelative
of is~40
track shown
Figure humidity
2 (a). There
eviphotoelectron
revealedof that
dence spectroscopy
that the HDL consists
CCCthe
and
stress-induced (plastically deformed) nanocrystalline ALD coating material. However,
the deeper subsurface CCC pores that were
infiltrated with the nanolaminate were undeformed (denoted by red arrow in Figure 2
(b)). In addition, Figure 2 (b) shows that
the HDL does not exhibit uniform thickness
in the wear track, which is not surprising
given the heterogeneous appearance of the
wear track surface in Figure 2 (a). Energy
dispersive spectroscopy revealed no Si x-ray
lines indicating no Si3N4 ball transfer to the
wear track and making up part of the HDL.
Figure 2 (c) shows a higher magnification
image of the HDL and a trilayer from the
box location in Figure 2 (b). There is also
evidence that part of the trilayer exhibited
integranular fracture, which suggests occurrence of combined plastic deformation and
fracture processes inside the wear track.
Based on these images, the tribologically
18

coefficient values for this single crystal ZnO sample is likely


related to severe structural deformation occurring during wear,
which will be discussed later. In addition, the ZnO with
nanocrystalline randomly orientated grains also exhibited a
1.0

Friction Coefficient

ittle fracture frequently observed in higher


ystalline and single crystal ZnO. These results
y broad implications to other defective
ceramics.

Single Crystal ZnO {0001}


Randomly oriented ZnO nanocrystalline grains
ALD textured ZnO {0002} nanocrystalline grains

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0.0

50

100

150

200

Sliding Distance (m)


Figure 1. Friction coefficient as a function of sliding
distance
for coefficient
ALD textured
ZnO
{0002}
nanocrystalline
Figure
1 | Friction
as a function
of sliding
distance
for ALD textured ZnO
grains,
single crystal
orientation,
and and
randomly
{0002}
nanocrystalline
grains, ZnO{0001}
single crystal ZnO
{0001} orientation,
randomly orioriented
ZnO nanocrystalline
grains.
ented
ZnO nanocrystalline
grains.

deformed layer (HDL) on the surface. Figure 2 (b) is a XTEM


image friction
taken inside
the wear
in Figure
2 (a).
There
higher
coefficient
of track
~0.4, shown
confirming
that the
{0002}textured grains of ALD ZnO are important in achieving low
friction. The same {0002}-growth texture was responsible for
low friction in pulsed laser deposited ZnO films.4
To elucidate the underlying structural mechanisms
responsible for this observed ZnO friction behavior, crosssectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) analyses
were performed inside the worn surfaces. Figure 2 (a) shows an
SEM planar image inside the wear track center of ALD
ZnO/Al2O3/ZrO2 coated CCC after 190 m of sliding (Figure 1).
The wear track shows evidence of a sliding-induced highly

Figure

2.

(a)

SEM

image

inside

the

ALD

trilayer

O3/ZrO
wear ZnO/Al
track
after
190 m of
ZnO/Al
2 nanolaminate
Figure
2 | 2(a)
SEM image
inside the ALD trilayer
O /ZrO
nanolaminate
wear
2 3
2
sliding.
S.D.
sliding
The rectangular
etrack
after 190
m of= sliding.
S.D.direction.
= sliding direction.
The rectangular bar
bar isise-beam
beam evaporated
Pt SEM
deposited
in surface
the SEM
protectXTEM
theimevaporated
Pt deposited in the
to protect the
duringto
FIB-milling.
surface
FIB-milling.
images
(b) (c)inside
the
ages
(b) insideduring
the wear track
showing HDLXTEM
and undeformed
trilayer,
HDL taken
from
wear
track inshowing
anddeformed
undeformed
trilayer, (c)
HDL
the
box location
(b), and (d) HDL
plastically
ZnO {0002}-orientated
grain
taken
taken
from
thein (c).
boxThelocation
plastically
from
the box
location
arrows pointinto (b),
a high and
density(d)
of sliding
(shear)-indeformed
ZnOfaults
{0002}-orientated
grain
taken from the box
duced
basal stacking
inside a nanocrystalline
ZnO grain.

location in (c). The arrows point to a high density of sliding


(shear)-induced
basal
stacking
faults
inside
a
Want to become an STLE Featured Member? Tell us your story and connect with your peers. Details at www.stle.org.
nanocrystalline ZnO grain.

small
HDL
exten
plasti
inside
there
ZnO
DFT
Vienn
{000
therm
faults
ALD
BSF/
lower
are in
In
mech
locali
the s
cleav

(cleavage) fracture. Here, for the first


time, we provide evidence of localized
nanocrystalline plasticity in ALD ZnO
wherein only basal slip is active. This
provides enhanced solid lubrication
due to intrafilm shear (slip) of partial
dislocations along the ZnO {0002}
basal stacking faults likely occurring
via dislocation glide.

acknowledgmenTS
The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the U.S.
Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL,
ISES Contract No. FA8650-08-C-5226)
and the National Science Foundation
(Grant No. CMMI-0700828).
Figure 3 | XTEM images inside the wear track of a {0001}-ZnO single crystal. Insets show HDL
and cleavage cracks along the ZnO basal and prismatic planes.
RefeRenceS
stress-induced HDL is a contributing
factor to the improvement in the friction of the ALD ZnO/Al2O3/ZrO2 nanolaminate. Also, the ZnO in the intact
trilayer and HDL likely play an important role in friction. Figure 2 (d), taken
from the box location in Figure 2 (c),
shows an intact ZnO layer that has not
fractured into smaller nanocrystalline
grains, i.e., it is not part of the above
HDL. Nevertheless, this ZnO layer
does show evidence of extensive plastic deformation through subsurfaceinduced plastic shear. ZnO {0002}
BSF were observed (white arrows) inside the ZnO grain and at the grain
boundary suggesting that there is discernible localized plasticity in the
nanocolumnar ZnO grains. This is a
type-I intrinsic BSF (ABAB|CBCB).
The DFT calculation of the stacking
fault energy (SFE) using Vienna Abinitio Simulation Package (VASP)5
confirmed that {0002}-basal plane
stacking faults with SFE of ~24 mJ/m2
are thermodynamically preferred over
{1-100}-prismatic stacking faults with
SFE of ~427 mJ/m.2 Therefore, solid
lubricity of ALD ZnO is attributed to
localized dislocation glide along BSF/
PD that promotes intrafilm shear/slip
and consequently lowers the friction.
More details of this process and mechanism are in.2
W W W. ST L E .O RG

In dramatic contrast to ALD ZnO,


the deformation mechanism in {0001}
ZnO single crystal did not involve any
localized plasticity, since XTEM analysis of the features below the surface
HDL (nanocrystalline ZnO) exhibited
extensive cleavage fracture (Figure 3).
The cleavage cracks along basal (0002)
and prismatic (10-10) and (11-20)
planes are responsible for brittle fracture and higher friction coefficient.
Since there are no grain boundaries,
there are no preexisting BSFs/PDs nucleating at low angle grain boundaries
(as in ALD ZnO) to provide low friction pathways via intrafilm shear/slip.
This severe deformation process accounts for the high and noisy friction
coefficients in Figure 1. Lastly, the
ZnO with nanocrystalline randomly
orientated grains has multiple, interacting slip systems operative, which
can lead to localized hardening, and
consequently to a larger interfacial
shear (friction), as indicated in Figure
1. In contrast, ALD ZnO has the most
energetically favorable, single basal
orientated slip system active during
sliding.

SummaRy
The overall damage mechanism for
bulk microcrystalline and single crystal ceramics is well-known to be brittle
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

1. Mohseni, H. and Scharf, T.W.


(2010), Tribological Improvement of Carbon/Carbon Composites by Infiltration of ZnO/Al2O3/
ZrO2 Solid Lubricant Coatings,
TLT, 66 (8), pp. 20-21.
2. Mohseni, H. and Scharf, T.W.
(2011), Atomic Layer Deposition of ZnO/Al2O3/ZrO2 Nanolaminates for Improved Thermal
and Wear Resistance in CarbonCarbon Composites, J. Vac. Sci.
Technol. A. (accepted for publication).
3. Kuo, F.L., Lin, M.-T., Mensah,
B.A., Scharf T.W., and Shepherd,
N.D. (2010), A Comparative
Study of the Photoluminescence
and Conduction Mechanisms of
Low Temperature Pulsed Laser
Deposited and Atomic Layer Deposited Zinc Oxide Thin Films,
Phys. Status Solidi A, 207, pp.
24872491.
4. Zabinski, J.S., Sanders, J.H.,
Nainaparampil, J., and Prasad,
S.V. (2000), Lubrication using
a Microstructurally Engineered
Oxide: Performance and Mechanisms, Tribology Letters, 8 (2-3),
pp. 103116.
5. Kresse, G. and Hafner, J. (1993),
Ab initio Molecular Dynamics for Liquid Metals, Physical
Review B, 47, pp. 558-561.

JANUARY 2012

19

20 Minutes With

dr. Jack Zakarian


By Karl M. Phipps / Managing Editor

Nicknamed the The Gear


Doctor, this new-product
specialist examines trends
involving energy efficiency
in the gear-oil industry.
Jack Zakarian
The Quick File:
Jack Zakarian went to work for the chevron research co. in
1979 after graduating with a doctorate in chemical engineering from the university of california-berkeley. for 32
years he has worked for chevrons lubricants business in
the area of lubricants and base oil research and development.
currently, Jack serves as the global manager for driveline technology and leads a team of people in chevrons technology center
in richmond, calif. Jack and his team are responsible for developing new and improved formulations for automatic and manual
transmission fluids, light- and heavy-duty axle oils, tractor hydraulic fluids, power transmission fluids for construction equipment, power steering fluids and aftermarket fuel additives.
on the personal side, Jack and his wife, Marie, have four children. outside of work, Jack enjoys long-distance running and
ballroom dancing. Jack also has a side hobby of composing and
singing humorous songs concerning all aspects of corporate life
and lubrication, in particular. his colleagues have advised him to
keep his day job.
Work Experience
from 1979 to 1991, Jack focused on r&D for base oil manufacture.
he was involved in all of the process development for chevrons
lube oil plant in richmond, calif., which was started up in 1984 as
the worlds rst all-hydroprocessing lube manufacturing plant. in
addition, Jack was a major contributor to chevrons catalytic processes for lube hydrocracking (isocracking), hydronishing
and isoDeWaxing. after completing the process r&D, he spent
15 years in the richmond renery as a startup engineer for the
newly built lube plant.
since 1991 Jack has worked on the nished products side of
chevrons lubricant business. his focus area started with gear
oils but has since grown to include all driveline lubricant applica20

JANUARY 2012

tions, as well
as fuel-system cleaning additives (e.g., chevron techron). since the chevron-texaco
merger in 2001, Jack has been responsible for formula development of all chevron-texaco-caltex driveline products worldwide.
Education
Doctorate, chemical engineering university of california-berkeley, 1979
Masters of science, chemical engineering & chemistry
university of california-berkeley, 1976
bachelors of science, Mathematics & chemistry,
Massachusetts institute of technology, cambridge, Mass.,
1973
Industry Afliations and
Professional Achievements
Memberships: stle, acs, astM and sae.
active with the stle northern california section and has
given several technical presentations to various local
sections over the years.
served on a number of sae and astM industry committees, particularly with respect to technical standards and
new-performance category development.
author of 17 technical papers and has received nine u.s.
patents.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

TlT: How did you get the nickname


The gear doctor?

Zakarian: After I obtained my doctorate


from the University of
California-Berkeley
in
1979, I received a wide variety of job opportunities
and had the difficult decision of deciding which offer
to accept. Coincidentally,
during the job interview
process, the United States
was under an oil embargo
imposed by the new revolutionary Iranian government.
At the time, I distinctly recall
sitting in a long line at a gas
station, surrounded by frustrated motorists, waiting to fill up.
On the radio, President Jimmy
Carter was giving a speech stating that the U.S. must reduce its
dependence on foreign oil. We
needed to become not only more
energy efficient but also self-sufficient. After listening to Carters
speech, I decided that the importance of that task outweighed my
other job offers, and I accepted a
job at the Chevron Research Co.
My decision to work at Chevron
also was helped greatly by the fact that
I had served as a summer intern with
the company in 1976 and was impressed with the friendliness and quality of their technical staff. When I
started work in November 1979, I was
given the choice of a number of exciting projects, one of which was doing
the catalyst process research for a new
lube manufacturing plant that Chevron was considering. I chose the lube
job, and I have remained in Chevron
Lubricants ever since (32 years and
counting). Incidentally, my project
was commercialized in 1984 as Chevrons Richmond Lube Oil Project
(RLOP), the worlds first all-hydroprocessing base oil facility.
Throughout my career Ive realized
the longer you work somewhere, the
more things go around in circles. Right
now, Chevron is constructing its second all-hydroprocessing lube manufacturing plant in Pascagoula, Miss.

Zakarian: After spending the first 13


years of my career doing lubricants
manufacturing process research, I
wanted to get exposure to the finished
product side of the business. I transferred to the Chevron Engine Oil team
because I knew that was a high impact,
high priority product line for us.

Gear oil trends are


dictated by trends in the
automotive OEM and gear
manufacturing industries.

Shortly thereafter, Chevron asked if


I wanted to transfer to gear oil-product
development, replacing a key person
who retired. I accepted the offer, and
one of my many tasks was to deliver
technical product training four to five
times a year to our marketers and distributors. In an effort to make the

training more interesting and memorable, I did one class where I explained
how gears work and then I set off an
alarm signaling a gearbox emergency. I
dressed up with a gear doctor lab coat
and medical kit and responded to the
emergency with proper lubrication
while singing a song I wrote called
The Gear Doctor. The students loved
it and, as they say, the rest is history. I
have repeated the performance in all
my training classes and have added a
number of lubrication-related songs to
my repertoire.

TlT: what do you see are the major


trends in the gear-oil industry?
Zakarian: Gear oil trends are dictated
by trends in the automotive OEM and
gear manufacturing industries. Today,
the biggest trend is energy efficiency
or fuel economy for automotive gear
lubricants.
Gearboxes are getting smaller and
lighter, while delivering a lot more
torque with lower lubricant levels.
The OEMs are doing this to improve
energy efficiency, however, the gear
lubricant is experiencing a much
more severe operating environment as
a result. For example, the new Class 8
trucks have so much aerodynamic

Throughout his 32-year career, Jack has worked in the area of lubricants and
base oil research and development for Chevron Lubricants.

What instrument is normally found in very large reservoirs to determine the oil level in the reservoir.

(Answer: Sight glass)

TlT: How did you get started in your


career?

21

styling that there is a big reduction in


cooling air flowing past transmissions
and axles in the truck underbody.
This results in a large increase in gearbox temperature and a big stress on
gear lubricant oxidative and thermal
stability.
The major areas of our research
now focus on improving efficiency and
reducing environmental impact by a
number of means: (1.) lower viscosity
lubricants, which offer equal or better
equipment protection, (2.) more thermally stable lubricants and lubricants
with lower friction coefficients and
(3.) improved film thickness under
boundary and elastohydrodynamic
conditions.

TlT: How will the push toward energy efficiency impact the future use
of lubricants?
Zakarian: In addition to the items I already mentioned, improved energy efficiency can result in significant changes to the current business. Electric cars,
for example, use much less lubricant
than current vehicles. The efficiency of
polyglycols in industrial worm gearboxes could lead to the eventual replacement of conventional mineral oils
with polyglycol synthetics. Many of
those products are water-soluble and
not oil-soluble (although there are oilsoluble versions available), and this results in a very different operating and
maintenance situation.

Finally, the refill period of lubricants is likely to decline in most gearboxes because of the emphasis on extended oil drains and the consequent
reduction in maintenance and disposal
costs.

TlT: are there any standards or


regulatory issues that will have an
impact on transportation gear oils?
Zakarian: The Obama administration
has recently proposed doubling fuel
efficiency standards by 2025. In my
contacts with truck and auto builders,
I have seen a high priority placed on
developing more fuel-efficient vehicles. Lubricants offer a relatively easy
way for OEMs to obtain small increas-

Jack Zakarian consults with tribologist David Castro, as the two analyze
a SEM picture in Chevrons tribology laboratory in Richmond, Calif.

22

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

New EPA, FDA and NSF Approved Biocide


For Lubricant Applications
Biocide for lubricant applications The FDA has approved
PREVENTOL CMK PRESERVATIVE as a Food Contact
Substance with intended use at levels up to 1 percent as an
antimicrobial preservative in lubricants that may have incidental
contact with food. Additionally the EPA and NSF have approved
this product for use in industrial lubricants. For customers requiring
these approvals, this is a new choice for a lube preservative that
is effective against bacteria, yeast, and mold fungi.
Biocides for metalworking fluids effective and economical fluid control. LANXESS Material Protection offers
biocides based on PCMC, OPP, IPBC, BIT and Bronopol.

%FFECTIVE ECONOMICALBIOCIDESBASEDON0#-#

PREVENTOL CMK 40
PREVENTOL CMK 30
PREVENTOL CMK Preservative

,!.8%33#ORPORATIONs-ATERIAL0ROTECTION0RODUCTS
2)$#0ARK7EST$RIVE 0ITTSBURGH 0!
0HONE  ,!.8%33s&AX  
%MAILMPP INFO LANXESSCOMsWWWMPPUSLANXESSCOM
35(9(172/LVDUHJLVWHUHGWUDGHPDUNRI/$1;(66'HXWVFKODQG*PE+

Corrosion inhibitors for aqueous and non-aqueous metal


working fluids. LANXESS corrosion inhibitors are based on tolyltriazole and benzotriazole. They offer thermal stability, resistance to
atmospheric oxidation, low toxicity and non-irritation to skin.
LANXESS Material Protection Flexible solutions you
can always trust

The Obama Administration


has recently proposed
doubling fuel efciency
standards by 2025.
es in efciency, so there is a lot of work
going on.
For example, in the past 10 years,
we have seen a dramatic shift in the
average fresh viscosity of both engine
oils and automatic transmission uids.
The key is to lower viscous drag without compromising equipment protection. In my work as a global product
developer, I have seen major initiatives
on the part of the Europeans and Japanese to reduce CO2 emissions. This, of
course, involves burning less fuel and,
thereby, increasing efciency.

Earlier I mentioned President Carters call for reduced dependence on


foreign oil. Since that time, the U.S.
has increased its dependence on imported oil and has not yet agreed on a
long-term energy policy.

TLT: Where do you think the


lubricant industry should be
focusing their future efforts?
Zakarian: When I rst joined Chevron,
my graduate student friends wondered
why I would consider employment in
such a dinosaur low-tech eld. What
most of the public does not realize is
the amazing and impressive amount of
new science and discovery involved in
the lubricants business.
As already noted, increased efciency for both automotive and industrial lubricants is a high priority, and
we have made a lot of progress with
new developments. In addition to reducing viscous drag and friction, there

is a need for better additives to provide


protection in the boundary lubrication
regime. There is encouraging progress
with nanoparticles and, in fact, Chevron has marketed for many years gear
lubricants made with solid, submicron
borate particles dispersed in oil. There
is a need to improve the surface fatigue
performance of gears under high
stress, particularly in wind turbines,
which suffer from micropitting damage.
Finally, much of the developing
world is using much poorer quality lubricants compared to those used in
North America. There is a strong need
to educate people in many parts of the
world about the value in using highquality lubricants, even though they
are initially more expensive.

You can reach Jack Zakarian at


JAZA@chevron.com.

Looking for better performance?

Choose Inolex for high purity synthetic esters.


':1.7$';06*'6+%
56'4#5'+.5(14U
s Chain Lubricants (H1 available)
s Greases
s Compressor Fluids
s Hydraulic Fluids
s Metalworking Additives

THE INTELLIGENT CHOICE


For more information:

UEgLNNgIFEgMLME

' U.7$'+0(1u+01.':T%1/
190.1#&1742#2'410;06*'6+% 56'45U

http://www.inolex.com/pdfs/whitepaper.pdf

24

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

What are exhibitors saying


about STLEs trade show?
Theyre saying its a great way to introduce products and
services. And generate sales leads. And network with some
1,200 potential buyers. And enhance their corporate image as
a major player at the lubricant industrys premier event.
In fact, exhibitors are so happy that 98% of them displaying at
the last two STLE trade shows say they met or exceeded their
marketing expectations, according to post-show surveys.
Here is what exhibitors had to say:
stles exhibition is the place to network with the
industrys players.
the surge in attendance at the last two events was most
welcome and denitely paid off for our company.

STLEs Annual Meeting & Exhibition combines five days


of education, technical sessions, networking and career
development. With an international audience, this unique
industry event combines the best of tribology research and
lubrication engineering best practices.
The 2012 STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition is May 6-10 at the
Renaissance Grand and Americas Center in St. Louis, Missouri
(USA). We offer both standard-sized 10x10-foot booths and
Supersized 20x20-foot booths.
To learn more about STLEs 2012 exhibition or reserve
your space, contact Tracy Nicholas VanEe at 630-922-3459,
tnicholas@stle.org. Or log on to www.stle.org.
Well look forward to hearing what you
have to say about the show!

We reached quite a good number of visitors, both from


the industrial sector and from research labs.
stles annual Meeting & exhibition is a great way to
connect with key members of our market.
We had not done the stle show for a couple of years
because of the economy. When we came back we were
pleasantly surprised by the sheer number of people and
the quality of our sales leads.
exhibiting at stle works for our business. We have
received many new leads and customers from this event.
thank you, stle!

Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers


840 Busse Highway, Park Ridge, IL 60068
P: 847-825-5536 F: 847-825-1456 E-mail: info@stle.org Web: www.stle.org

lubrication funDaMentals
Dr. Robert M. Gresham / Contributing Editor

old meets new at


International Joint
Tribology conference
Researchers are unraveling the secrets of materials and processes
that have long stumped the lubricants industry.
like Many of you, I attended the
International Joint Tribology Conference, co-sponsored by ASME and
STLE, last October in Los Angeles.
It was a good conference with great
presentations and a large and fully engaged audience.
Several themes dominated the conference. First, there was another round
of papers related to wind energy, led
off by keynote speaker Dr. Mike Rob-

inson, deputy center director of the


National Renewable Energy Laboratorys National Wind Technology Center and chief technology officer for
the Dept. of Energys Wind and Water
Power Program. Among the many issues Robinson highlighted were the
daunting technical problems that have
yet to be solved with these machines.
As those in STLE and ASME are
keenly aware, many of the bearings

key concePTS
The IJTC gives tribology researchers a platform to unveil the technologies
that will lead to tomorrows lubricant products.
Conference highlights included presentations on how to improve the
performance of lubricants for wind turbine gearboxes.
Other papers further developed our understanding of the steady-state and
slip-stick frictional responses.

26

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

and gears in a wind turbine gearbox


fail prematurely, on the order of 3-7
years, instead of the desired design
criteria of 20-30 years. Also, there are
problems associated with building and
installing megasized wind turbines in
the ocean, both on floating and permanent platforms. Finally, there is the
problem of the antiquated power grid
and the fact that people and the grid
are not located where there is sustainable wind. Yet, at this stage we are
ahead of our goals for electricity generation from wind sources.
Additionally, the conference highlighted sessions devoted to machine
component tribology, biotribology,
nanotribology, particle tribology, biometrics and green tribology. I was
struck by how rapidly we are now
moving forward to characterize and
control tribofilms and interacting surfaces at the atomic level.
In my day we knew there were important triboprocesses taking place,
W W W. ST L E .O RG

A key question
examined at the IJTC
was how to keep wind
turbine gearboxes,
which are designed to
last 20-30 years, from
failing after 3-7 years.

but we could not get a handle on them.


As the 2011 IJTC showed, we are now
learning a lot about these triboprocesses and structures at the molecular
level, issues that were only a dream
earlier in my career. These advances
are possible because of our enhanced
ability to make complex modeling
calculations and simulations, surface
texturing, atomic force microscopes
and related testing at essentially the
nanoscale. Further, we also can perform much more sophisticated failure
analysis of machine components.
I didnt get to as many technical
sessions as I would have liked, but
following are some examples of IJTC
papers I found particularly interesting.
Ive always been intrigued by the
process of slip-stick. A number of
people working with Dr. Mike Lovell
with the University of WisconsinMilwaukee provided an analysis of
steady-state and stick-slip motion as
a function of surface texture, surface

roughness, normal load, hardness,


crystal structure and lubrication. During my era, macrosurface roughness,
normal load, hardness and macrolubrication were about it.
Mike and the other researchers concluded that the coefficient of friction
is controlled by the surface texture of
the harder mating surfaces. Two kinds
of frictional response, steady-state and
stick-slip, were observed during sliding. Steady-state frictional response
was observed for the face-centered cubic metals, alloys and materials with
higher hardness. Stick-slip frictional
response was observed for the soft
metals having a limited number of
slip systems such as body-centered tetragonal and hexagonal close-packed
structures.
They further concluded that the
stick-slip frictional response was dependent on the normal load, lubrication, hardness and surface texture
of the counterpart material and that
roughness of the surface affected neither the average coefficient of friction
nor the amplitude of stick-slip oscillation significantly. That was all pretty
much news to me, or at least a newer
and more in-depth way to look at the
process of stick-slip.
I was especially intrigued by a
NASA paper that gives us an idea of
the true merits of a new-old materialnickel-titanium-based superelastic materials, which are emerging as
candidates for rolling element bearing
applications. When properly prepared
(and thats important) these unique intermetallics are hard, exhibit excellent
tribological properties and are intrinsically corrosion immune.
These superelastics can endure
much higher levels of recoverable elastic strain during compressive deformation. This behavior enables bearings
that are more resilient to load-induced
damage such as raceway denting and
from the ingestion of hard particles.
Thats a pretty significant development. I certainly hope NASA can push
this forward for real-world practical
applications.
Returning to wind turbines, there

were presentations describing in


greater detail gearbox failure modes,
development of a low-cost, in-line
vibrational viscometer for gearboxes
and metallic debris sensors, which
can go a long way toward resolving
the problem of condition monitoring
maintenance in the field where the
distances are great and locations are
remote. I also was intrigued by a paper
on the characterization of white etch
areas in microcracks found in failing
bearings, providing further insight
into how these failure modes manifest
themselves.
Given my history in solid film lubricants, I was keenly interested in a
presentation by Dave Burris and Harmandeep Khare, both of the University of Delaware, on work-horse molybdenum disulphide. While in my
day we could only look at macrolevel
properties, Burris and Khare studied
the nano level, describing surface film
formation in both dry and humid conditions. These were effects we knew
happened but didnt understand.
Then there was a paper by Emil
Sandoz-Rosado and ElonTerrell, both
from Columbia University, on graphene, one of the mechanically strongest materials ever measured as a
nano-level protective coating and as a
lubricant. Dan Dickerell from the University of Florida described nanoscale
surface film characterization and engineered plastics for both engineering
applications and joint replacements.
I could go on and on with great examples of the shattering of older roadblocks to our understanding, but the
point of all this is that the scope and
scale of the conference was outstanding. All you had to do was watch the
body language of the participants to
feel the energy and excitement as both
old and new questions are being answered and meaningful discoveries are
happening on a regular basis.

Bob Gresham is STLEs director


of professional development.
You can reach him at
rgresham@stle.org.

STLE Webinar: Food Grade Lubrication Fluid Lubricants, Feb. 15. Details at www.stle.org.

27

BEST PRACTICES
Stacy Heston

Basic lubricant
identication in
the eld
This step-by-step plan reduces the chances
of mixing incompatible products.

IDENTIFYING LUBRICANTS IN THE FIELD,


from determining the method for
identication to the physical tasks of
installing the identiers on the components, can be a daunting task. In addition, any identication system has to
be complex enough to individually
identify lubricant requirements and

28

JANUARY 2012

ensure that incompatible or incorrect


lubricants are not introduced into a
component. The level of complexity
depends on the number and types of
lubricant on site.
In one plant, for example, there
were approximately eight identied
oils on site. Two of these were used as
gear oils. This site identies lubricants
by type and color codes them.
The identied gear oils are color
coded red; however, one is an ISO 460
antiwear gear oil and the other an ISO
68 rust and oxidation gear oil. These
two gear oils have different applications, and their additives packages are
potentially incompatible. This single
level of lubricant identication increases the possibility of cross contamination or the installation of the improper lubricant if a lubricant
technician were to grab the wrong red
container.
Lets examine key properties that
should be identied and their importance to the overall lubrication program.
Lubricant formulators look at sevT R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

eral different types of tests and specications when designing a lubricant in


order to ensure basic properties inherent to a lubricant type are met, such as
the 4-Ball Wear Test, Foam Sequence
or Copper Strip Corrosion. While
these are important properties for a lubricant, they are not commonly used
to select a lubricant for an application
or to identify it. Key properties for lubricant selection and identication begin with:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Lubricant type
Viscosity
Base oil type
Additive package.

For greases, the thickener type also


should be considered.
These four characteristics should
be reviewed for each lubricant on site
as they act as the starting point for
identifying lubricants in the eld to
ensure incompatible lubricants are not
installed. If duplications in lubricant
information exist, then a consolidation of lubricants may be necessary.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

vIScoSITy
Viscosity is generally defined as a lubricants resistance to flow and is categorized into absolute and kinematic.
For selection purposes, the kinematic
viscosity using ASTM D445 provides
the lubricants resistance to flow under
gravity.
Flow under gravity is important
during the operation of a component
as the components speed affects the
required viscosity. If the ISO classification is not reported on the lubricants
product data sheet, look for the viscosity reported in centistokes (cSt) at 100
C for automotive lubricants or 40 C
for industrial lubricants.
Viscosity for any given component
should be selected based on speed,
load and operating temperature. These
four factors affect the formation of the
lubricant film. If the viscosity is inadequate for the operating circumstances
due to lubricant mixing, the component may experience a lubricant film
that is too thin, causing metal-to-metal
contact, or a film that is too thick,
causing overheating.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

General rules of thumb: the slower


the speed, the higher the viscosity requirement; the heavier the load, the
higher the viscosity requirement. Specific viscosity requirements should be
calculated using appropriate techniques for the component type.

addITIveS
Additive packages are another primary
concern when identifying lubricants
in the field. Of the many additives that
are used to formulate lubricants, the
additives identified specifically with
the lubricant type or names are the
ones to pay close attention to: antiwear, rust and corrosion inhibitors
and extreme pressure.
The three additive types are designed to be adsorptive or chemically
reactive with the component surfaces,
meaning they form protective layers
on the component surfaces. Unlike
other lubricant property additives,
such as pour point depressants or viscosity index improvers, these additives
do not impart lubricant properties per
se, but, rather, they are heterogeneous
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

and separate from the oil to form films


on the surface due to the polarity and
reactivity of the molecules.
Rust and corrosion inhibitors typically adhere to a surface to impede
contact of water or the environment
with the component surfaces. These
additives can be oil- or water-soluble
with the amount of rust and corrosion
prevention dependent on the interaction between the adsorbed film, oxygen in the system, heat and mechanical processes.
Antiwear additives also are adsorbed to component surfaces and are
activated by temperature. Zinc dithiophosphates are the most commonly
used antiwear additives and have oxidation inhibitor and corrosion inhibitor properties. However, the primary
function is antiwear, and this limits
the compatibility with rust and oxidation inhibitors which are typically sulfonates or oxidates.
Extreme pressure additives perform the same general function as antiwear additives but operate under a
high load. These additives are activated by high temperature in conjunction
with high pressure. Extreme pressure
and antiwear additives are designed to

Viscosity is generally
defined as a lubricants
resistance to flow and is
categorized into absolute
and kinematic.
provide protection from adhesive wear
during the boundary and mixed film
phases of lubrication during component operation. Typical extreme pressure additives include disulfides, polysulfides, phosphites and phosphoric
acids.
Mixing lubricants that are designated as antiwear, extreme pressure or
rust and oxidation lubricants can
cause issues with the adsorption of the
films. While most lubricants exhibit
JANUARY 2012

29

Table 1
Lubricant Type

Rust and Oxidation


Inhibitor

Circulating Oil

Compressor Oil

Gear Oils

Hydraulic Oil

Turbine Oil

all of these properties, the chemistry


used to achieve them is different based
on the designation. The adsorptive
films do not form during the initial introduction of oil but build up over
time. When a conflicting film type is
introduced into a system, it interferes
with current film and begins creating a
new film type that may not meet the
needs of the application. For component applications where specific films
are required, mixing of lubricant additive packages can have disastrous effects.

BaSe oIl
Base oil is the foundation of a lubricant making up approximately 70%99% of the final product. It dictates the
fluids viscosity and the specific formulation of additives or inhibitors that
can be used. There are three general
types of base oil groups: mineral, synthesized hydrocarbons and synthetics.
Compatibility of the base oils focuses
on the molecular structure that makes
up these fluids.
Mineral oils are further broken
down into API Group I, II and III, but
these base oils are generally compatible. The variation in the groups revolves around the specific refining
process used, as well as the general
molecular chemistry. In some cases,
Group III base oils are considered synthesized hydrocarbons due to the hydrocracking process to which these
oils are exposed.
Synthesized hydrocarbon, or API
Group IV, base oils are derived from
crude oils and have a consistent molecular structure that imparts proper30

Anti-wear

Extreme Pressure

ties of shear strength, oxidation stability, high viscosity index, etc., that
exceeds that of a typical mineral oil.
Common Group IV base oils include
polyalphaolephins (PAO) and alkylated aromatics whose basic molecular
structure mimics that of a mineral oil.
These base oils are generally compatible with mineral base oils.
Synthetic base oils, or Group V, are
more variable in their content and are
derived from a variety of compounds,
organic acids (in the case of esters)
and ethylene and propylene oxides (in
the case of polyglycols). These compounds lead to molecular structures
not necessarily seen in the other API
groups. General compatibility guidelines exist for these fluids. However, it
is important to verify the compatibility
of specific products because of the
chemical variability within Group V
and with the other groups. Group V
synthetic base oils include esters,
polyglycols and phosphate esters.
Within the ester category are diesters and polyol esters. These base oils

are typically seen in compressor and


jet engine oils, with polyol esters commonly used in refrigeration applications. Esters are compatible with mineral base oils, but polyol esters may
react with component seals and coatings. Although mixing an ester with a
mineral oil may not cause an issue
with the oil, a risk of component seal
damage could result. If various base
oils are in use for compressors, the
base oil should be identified.
Polyglycols are commonly used in
hydraulic fluids, as well as gear and
bearing oils, but lack compatibility
with mineral base oils and the additives compounds used in mineral base

Base oil is the foundation


of a lubricant making up
approximately 70%-99%
of the final product..
oils. This base oil type is common in
applications where a high flash point
is required. Phosphate esters are
known for their fire resistance and typically are used in hydraulic systems
and turbine lubrication systems. Their
compatibility to mineral base oils varies,
but they lack miscibility (see Table 2).

develoPIng a Plan
Once lubricants have been identified
by lubricant type, viscosity, base oil

Table 2
Compatibility with
Mineral Oil

Compatibility with
Seals/Paints

API Group

Mineral

yes

none

i, ii, iii

Polyalphaolephins

yes

slight

iV

Alkylated Aromatics

yes

slight

iV

Diesters

yes

problematic

Polyglycols

no

problematic with
paint

poor to good

problematic

Base Oil Type

Phosphate Esters

Book Deals: STLE members can receive a 20% discount on featured CRC Press books. Details at www.stle.org.

Arch Preservatives for Metalworking =


Sustainable, Formaldehyde-Free Products

$UFKXQGGHUVWDQGVWKHLPSRUWDQFHRIEHLQJ
$UFKXQGHUVWDQGVWKHLPSRUWDQFHRIEHLQJ
D JRRG FRUSRUDWH FLWL]HQ DQG PLQLPL]LQJ
RXUHQYLURQPHQWDOLPSDFW
7KDWV ZK\ IRU RYHU IRXU GHFDGHV RXU SRUWIROLR KDV
FRQWDLQHGDQHYHULQFUHDVLQJQXPEHURIIRUPDOGHK\GH
IUHH SURGXFWV VXFK DV 3UR[HO *;/ DQG 3UR[HO %'
3UHVHUYDWLYHV'HQVLO'1DQG'HQVLO'*$QWLPLFURELDOV
DQG 6RGLXP 2PDGLQH  DQG 6RGLXP 2PDGLQH
)XQJLFLGHV

&RQWDFW XV WR OHDUQ PRUH DERXW KRZ ZH DUH


IXUWKHU SURJUHVVLQJ WR EHFRPH D UHVSRQVLEOH
SDUWRI\RXUHQYLURQPHQWDOO\SUHIHUUHGVROXWLRQ

$UFK RIIHUV FRVWHIIHFWLYH VROXWLRQV IRU EULQJLQJ \RXU


SURGXFWV XS WR WRGD\V VXVWDLQDELOLW\ VWDQGDUGV DQG
WKH SURWHFWLRQ \RXYH FRPH WR UHO\ RQ DJDLQVW PLFUR
ELDOVSRLODJH
2XUSURGXFWIHDWXUHVLQFOXGH
%URDGVSHFWUXPDFWLYLW\
/RQJWHUPSURWHFWLRQ
&RPSDWLELOLW\ZLWKQXPHURXVLQJUHGLHQWV
(DV\LQFRUSRUDWLRQDWDQ\VWDJH

7HO
(PDLOPLFURELDOFRQWURO#ORQ]DFRP
8VHELRFLGHVVDIHO\
$OZD\VUHDGWKHODEHODQGSURGXFWLQIRUPDWLRQEHIRUHXVH
$UFK%LRFLGHVLVDEXVLQHVVXQLWRI$UFK&KHPLFDOV,QF
6RPH$UFKELRFLGHVPD\QRWEHUHJLVWHUHGRU
UHJLVWHUHGIRURQO\FHUWDLQXVHVLQ\RXUFRXQWU\

ZZZDUFKELRFLGHVFRP

type and additives, a system for identifying lubricants required for a component needs to be developed. Some approaches include the use of shapes,
colors and/or text to identify the required lubricant characteristics for the
component. Identifying lubricants on
a component by product name should
be avoided to minimize confusion if
lubricant suppliers should change.
General lubricant requirements for a
component do not change.
For a site with a complex number
of lubricants, the following outlines an
approach that utilizes color coding
and text.

Table 3
Lubricant Type

Color Code

Applies to:

yellow

all viscosity grades


Mineral & synthetic

light blue

all viscosity grades


all formulations
fixed & mobile plant

brown

all viscosity grades


Mineral & synthetic
Diesel & gasoline engines

light green

all viscosity grades


Mineral & synthetic
gearbox & differential oils

red

all viscosity grades


Mineral & synthetic
automatic & manual transmission fluids & oils

Compressor Oil

purple

all viscosity grades


Mineral & synthetic
all compressor types

Electrical

orange

all transformer & other electrical oils


electric motor bearing grease

Other

grey

all other lubricants not covered by the above

Waste

black

all waste lubricants & materials

Industrial Gear Oil


Hydraulic Oil

Engine Oil

Automotive Gear Oil

Transmission Fluid

coloR codIng
Color coding is an efficient way to initially identify the lubricants on site. In
cases where a site has a small number
of lubricants, identification can stop
with color coding. Table 3 outlines
some basic color associations.

TeXT IdenTIfIcaTIon
Text identification is necessary for
characteristics with multiple options
that may be too cumbersome to identify with color, shapes, symbols, etc. Viscosity, base oil type and, in some instances, additives fall into that category.
Viscosity identification is straight
forwardthe ISO classification or other standard classification as determined
by the specific fluid type should be expressed in text form. For example: 22,
32, 46, 100 or 220 for ISO; 10W, 20W
or 30W for SAE engine oils; or 80W,
85W or 90W for SAE gear oils.
Base oil types should be identified
using an abbreviated nomenclature
that is clear and concise for the lubricants on site. Table 4 outlines some
basic and common abbreviations for
base oil types.
Additive identification is best identified with test, as well. Although there
are three general additives that should
be identified, additional additives
might require identification in specialized instances. As was mentioned earlier, rust and corrosion, antiwear and
extreme pressure should be identified
as a minimum. However, additional
32

JANUARY 2012

additives or performance properties


might require identification to prevent
specialized lubricants from being used
in situations where they exceed the requirements for a component and are
not economical for use.

decal SHaPeS
Although not explicitly outlined, decal
shapes can add an additional layer of
identification, especially to distinguish
between grease and oil. Shapes also
can provide a different approach from
distinguishing between oils that are
otherwise similar except for one key
characteristic such as food grade versus non-food grade.

organizations with multiple plant


sites, it may be advantageous to develop such a coding system at the corporate level and, in turn, develop a single-source lubricant supplier.
Once lubricant information has
been gathered to identify the lubricants, color codes need to be assigned
based on lubricant type. If no overlap
of color exists, then the development
of the lubricant-identification system
for the site can stop here. If multiple

Table 4
Base Oil Type

Abbreviation

PuTTIng IT TogeTHeR

API Group I

Once the four main characteristics of a


lubricant (lubricant type, viscosity,
base oil type and additives) have been
identified for all lubricants on site, the
development of the coding system can
begin. The amount of specifics required varies from plant to plant based
on the number of lubricants. In large

API Group II

II

API Group III

III

Phosphate Ester

PE

Polyalkelene Glycols

PAG

Polyalphaolephin

PAO

Polyol Ester

POE

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

Table 5
Additive/Property

Abbreviation

Anti-Wear

AW

Extreme Pressure

EP

Rust and Corrosion (Rust and Oxidation)


inhibited

RO

Biodegradable

BIO

Compounded

CMPD

Environmentally Friendly

ENV

Fire Resistant

FR*

Food Grade

FG (if necessary, further identified as H1,


H2 or H3)

Zinc Free

ZNF

*ISO standard 12922 Lubricants, Industrial Oils and Related Products (Class L) Family H (Hydraulic Systems) Specifications for Categories HFAE, HFAS, HFB, HFC, HFDR and HFDU provides abbreviation for further differentiation between fire-resistant hydraulic fluids, if required. Otherwise, it is recommended to keep with simplified abbreviations
to limit the possibility of confusion.

lubricants share a color assignment,


then additional information must be
included.
After lubricant type color coding
has been assigned, viscosity should be
identified in the form of text identification on a color-designated decal. At
this point, the code needs to be re-

viewed to identify duplications. If


multiple lubricants share a color assignment and viscosity, then further
identification will be required.
Next, add in the appropriate designation for the base oil type. If no differentiation is provided through this
step because all lubricants are mineral-

Figure 1
Figure 1.
Example
Identification tags
Tags
exaMple
iDentification

The examples
the varying
text for two
The examples
showshow
the varying
text
gear oils, as well as two shape examples.
for two gear oils, as well as two shape
examples.
The square identification indicates an extreme

based, then this step can be skipped.


However, if any differentiation is provided, regardless of lubricant type,
then the inclusion of the base oil type
should be done for all lubricants.
Finally, additives and properties
should be added to the coding. Although the coding should be kept to a
minimum, specific additives or property requirements should be included
to ensure that required characteristics
are made known. This concept also
applies to the identification of the base
oil type. If a particular hydraulic system requires a zinc-free fluid but it is
the only hydraulic fluid on site, the
zinc-free notation should be included
to minimize risk of a zinc-additized lubricant from being used later. Similarly, if a particular base oil type such as a
PAO is required due to operating conditions, it should be identified (see
Figure 1).

concluSIon
Understanding the minimum characteristics and why they should be identified is the first step in the development of a lubricant-identification
system. Identifying these key characteristics minimizes the possibility of
cross contamination with incompatible or improper lubricants. The level
of identification should be customized
to reflect the needs of the site. However, the more detail provided, the less
risk of losing key performance and lubricant property requirements as time
goes on.

pressure, synthetic (polyalphaolephin) gear oil

with a identification
viscosity of 320.indicates
The square
The square
anshape could
easily be utilized as a decal or hang tag.
extreme pressure, synthetic (polyalphaolephin)The
gear
oil identification
with a viscosity
of 320.
round
denotes
a rust and
oxidation
inhibited,
gear
oil with a
The square
shape
could mineral
easily be
utilized
viscosity of 320. If created to an appropriate
as a decal
or hang tag.
size, a round shape decal with a void in the
middle can be used to identify the specific fill
The round
a rust
pointidentification
by installing thedenotes
decal with
the fill point
extendinginhibited,
through themineral
decal void.
and oxidation
gear oil

with a viscosity of 320. If created to an


appropriate size, a round shape decal
with a void in the middle can be used to
identify the specific fill point by installing the decal with the fill point extending
through the decal void.

CONCLUSION

Stacy Heston is a lubrication subject matter expert


and provides reliability-centered lubrication
program development services and training to a
wide variety of customers. Among her professional credentials are STLEs CLS and OMA I
certifications and the International Council of
Machine Lubrications Machinery Lubrication
Technician I & II certifications. You can reach her
at heston.stacy@gmail.com.

Understanding the minimum characteristics and why they should be identified is the first step in

of a lubricant-identification system.
W W W . S Tthe
L E .development
ORG
T R IIdentifying
B O L O G Y & these
L U B Rkey
I C A characteristics
TION TECHNOLOGY
minimizes the possibility of cross contamination with incompatible or improper lubricants. The
level of identification should be customized to reflect the needs of the site. However, the more

JANUARY 2012

33

An arsenal of techniques allows


end-users to safely extend drain
intervalswithout jeopardizing
equipment.

Among other findings, a 2008 study


conducted by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control
(DTSC) concluded that end-users
should follow manufacturers recommendations for oil change intervals
and institute routine oil analysis programs to extend oil change intervals.
In fact, the fleet manager survey, a
part of the study, confirmed that the
average oil change interval is considerably shorter than the maximum suggested by oil condition-based analysis
results. The conclusion reads in part as
follows:
The oil analyses showed that oil
drain intervals can be extended for all
vehicle types studied. Oil sampling results indicate that in many cases, oil
drain intervals can be extended beyond the maximum level recommended by the vehicle manufacturer.
For fleets that have already extended their oil drain intervals to the
maximum recommended by the manufacturer, many can further extend oil
change intervals by using better oil and
by establishing oil analysis programs to
determine the optimum drain interval.
Routine oil analysis is an important
tool that ensures good oil condition
and provides safety for the engine.
In some cases, oil sampling alone
can be used to extend drain intervals.
A basic oil analysis program including
physical and chemical parameters, like
viscosity, TBN, oxidation, nitration
and common oil contaminants, like
water, dirt and wear metals, would be
sufficient to ensure oil condition and
satisfy fleet managers.1
This comes as no surprise to the
companies that have been relying on
oil analysis programs for many years
and have seen the benefitsmainly
substantial cost savings and increased
equipment reliability. But others still
Evaluation of High Efficiency Oil Filters in
the State Fleet. In the study, researchers were
able to use oil analysis to quantify the drain
extension allowed by HE filters. The study is
located at: http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/
Publications/Usedoil/2008020.pdf.
1

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

JANUARY 2012

35

need convincing.
Aside from the real possibility of
being able to extend drain intervals,
oil analysis can be a powerful predictive maintenance tool that can:
Increase equipment reliability
Reduce unscheduled downtime
Reduce overall maintenance
expense
Pinpoint abnormal conditions
and wear trends
Streamline maintenance
procedures
Optimize repair parts inventory
Document warranty claims
Improve repair scheduling
Identify human error and
neglect

No two pieces of equipment are alike and no two pieces of equipment operate
in exactly the same conditions using the same horsepower.

Extend equipment life.


Predictive maintenance determines
the condition of in-service equipment
in order to forecast maintenance. This
leads to cost savings over other methods because maintenance intervals are
usually extended. Corrective maintenance can be scheduled when its convenient without risking equipment
failure.
The predictive aspect of predictive
maintenance results from forecasting
future conditions using trend analysis.
This approach relies on established
statistical process-control principles to
determine exactly when and what
maintenance is necessary. Most predictive maintenance inspections are performed while equipment is running,
minimizing operational disruption.

PREDICTIVE VERSUS
PREVENTATIVE
Most people dont know the difference
between predictive and preventative
maintenancethinking theyre the
same thing. Not so. Preventive maintenance occurs on a predetermined calendar or run-time schedule, while predictive maintenance is based on the

1. To maintain the production


equipment and plant utility systems equipment in the best possible operation condition.
2. To have all equipment ready to
start up with as little unplanned
downtime as possible.
3. To complete all work on a regularly scheduled basis without
exceeding the point of diminishing returns on investment for
the labor, tools and materials
required to perform the work.2
A simple analogy is an automobile.
Owners have two choices when it
comes to determining oil change intervals. They can either follow the manufacturers recommendations or those of
the neighborhood oil-change facility.
Most people opt for the former because the manufacturer has more credibility and oil change intervals are usually longer.

However, what if, instead of bringing the car into the dealer for an oil
change, owners brought it in regularly
to have the oil tested instead? After a
few tests the dealer would be able to
establish a trend for that particular car
and tell the driver exactly when the oil
needs changing.
This would have obvious advantages such as reducing the need for
oil changesless cost, less hassle for
the driver. But in this case, the cost
of paying for the oil analysis would
offset paying for fewer oil changes.
However when it comes to expensive
and critical commercial equipment,
its a different ballgame. For commercial equipment there are many
other considerationsmost notably
the cost of shutting down equipment
for routine preventative maintenance
or the cost of shutting down an entire production linein the event of
equipment failure.
It takes about 30 minutes to change
the oil in your car, but it can take
hours to change the oil in a large piece
of plant machinery. During that half
hour, youre reading a newspaper and
sipping coffee. During those hours,

Preventive & Predictive Maintenance, by Ken Staller. Full text available at: http://www.danielpenn.com/articles/article-preventive(1).htm.

36

True or False: Polyoxadiazole is not an anti-misting additive.

(Answer: True)

actual condition of the equipment.


The differences are significant, but the
two types of maintenance have the following three goals in common:

The ALS Tribology Difference

Genuine Global Coverage...


tOne stop shop for high quality lubricant, fuel and coolant analysis
t18 company owned and managed locations worldwide (8 in North America)
tAll ALS Tribology client and sample data is centralized in a single database
tWeb based program for clients to view data with 24/7 access
from any worldwide location with internet access
tFully branded service availability
tTraining and consulting by industry experts
tPart of ALS Group with 300 laboratories in 40 countries

  

XXXBMTHMPCBMDPN


'PSNPSFJOGPSNBUJPOBCPVUPVSQSPEVDUTBOETFSWJDFT QMFBTFDPOUBDUVTBU
1.877.835.8437PSFNBJMBUOBJOGP!BMTUSJCPMPHZDPN

t"GSJDBt"TJBt"VTUSBMJBt&VSPQFt/PSUI"NFSJDBt4PVUI"NFSJDBt

one or more plant operations are


downvery expensive.

PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE
BENEFITS
When comparing reactive, preventive
and predictive maintenance, its not
surprising that studies consistently
show that, regardless of the industry,
reactive maintenance is the least cost
effective. In the electric power industry, detailed case studies and an associated 2006 Plant Maintenance Cost
Justification study were generated in
the U.S. by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and these show
the following results:3
Comparative maintenance Costs (total
maintenance expense/hP Used Per Year)
1. Reactive: $17.
2. Preventive: $13 (= 24% reduction from reactive maintenance).
3. Predictive: $9 (= 47% reduction
from reactive maintenance).
The EPRI studies show that, when
compared with the reactive approach,
an overall maintenance cost reduction
of 47% is generally obtained by using
predictive maintenance techniques.
In addition, Pat March, a senior
mechanical engineer at the Tennessee
Valley Authority (TVA) Engineering
Laboratory, prepared the following
summary based on the results of a
multi-industry survey of firms that
had used or were using predictive
maintenance techniques:4
Benefits of Predictive maintenance
Maintenance cost reduced 50%
to 80%.
Machinery breakdowns reduced
50% to 60%.
Spare parts inventories reduced
20% to 30%.
Total machine downtime re-

duced 50% to 80%.


Overtime expenses reduced
20% to 50%.
Machine life increased 20% to
40%.
Overall productivity increased
20% to 30%.
Profit increased 25% to 60%.
From 1970-2003, U.S. aircraft carrier maintenance planners have used a
machinery condition analysis program
(that included oil analysis) to determine the specific condition of more
than 400 pieces of rotating machinery
on each carrier. This information has
been used to make decisions on
whether equipment should be repaired
or overhauled and if maintenance
could be safely deferred. In all, they
conducted 5,659 machine tests at an
average cost of $161 per machine.
The cost benefit ratio broke down
as follows:5



Year: 1977 cost benefit 18.8/1


Year: 1988 cost benefit 19.0/1
Year: 2000 cost benefit 19.5/1
Year: 2001 cost benefit 20.0/1

Year: 2002 cost benefit 20.9/1


Year: 2003 cost benefit 23.0/1
This information made the maintenance and repair planning process more
accurate and cost effective and reduced
the incidence of failures and unscheduled repairs for these machines.

TREND ANALYSIS VERSUS


INDIVIDUAL REPORTS
No one would argue that its always
best to analyze used-oil data based on
regular samples taken over time. Trend
analysis is the core component of predictive maintenance. Its important to
establish a baseline and a strategic interval to extract oil samples from the
engine.
STLE-member Jason Papacek, data
analysis manager for POLARIS Laboratories in Indianapolis, explains,
The real value of oil analysis is not in
reacting to individual reports but to
trends that are identified through regular sampling. An individual report
represents one moment in time. Trending documents the entire journey up
to that point and provides much more
information as to why or how you got

Four types oF maiNteNaNce approaches


according to stLe-member evan Zabawski, senior reliability specialist for Fluid Life in
edmonton alberta, canada, when it comes to equipment maintenance, there are four basic approaches.
1. reactive maintenance. example: your tire goes flat (fails) and you fix the leak or
replace the tire. action based on reaction.
2. Preventive maintenance. example: you replace a complete set of tires based on
time or mileage only. action based on schedule only.
3. Predictive maintenance. example: you replace a tire or set of tires based on
measuring tread depth. action based on measurement.
4. Proactive maintenance. example: you check your tire pressure routinely
because you know from past failures that this action prolongs the life of the tire.
you still check tread depth for signs of failure, and you are vigilant when the
mileage approaches the equivalent mileage of your last set of tires. action based
on learning from past failures, i.e., never let it fail for the same reason twice.

Information from The Benefits of a Pro-Active Approach using Preventive and Predictive Maintenance Tools and Strategies Actual Examples and Case Studies,
2006: http://www.wwindea.org/technology/ch03/en/3_4_3.html.
4
Ibid
5
Ibid
3

38

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

there and can greatly affect how you


react to the results.
While specific limits are noted by
all engine manufacturers, trending toward those limits may indicate that a
problem is developing in the engine
before the limit is reached. For example, upward movement of both viscosity and acid numbers over time is an
indication of thermal degradation or
oxidation. For every 18 degrees above
160 F, the oxidation rate of an oil doubles.
Analysis of wear metals is important to monitor the condition of the
individual wearing components of a
system. In engines you are looking at
many componentspistons, rings,
liners, bushings, bearings, camshafts,
crankshafts, gear train, etc. An absolute limit in wear metals is not nearly
as useful as the rate of wear or upward
or downward trend of wear metals.
This metals-trend monitoring identifies slowly progressing damage that
would not be obvious in a single sample. Papacek posed the following examples:
example 1. You suspect a problem
and take a sample. The report shows
particle count is unusually high. Your
first instinct may be to change the oil
to fix the problem. Had you been
trending results over a period of time,
a sudden jump in particle count
wouldnt necessarily be reason for panic. You would be more inclined to ask
questions as to why there was such an
abrupt change. Did someone new take
the sample? Was it taken from a different sample point? Did the contamination occur after the sample was taken?
Your reaction would be different and
could prevent unnecessary maintenance action.
example 2. You get an abnormal vibration reading and a sample is taken.
The report shows elevated silicon
(dirt) and iron (wear metal) levels, indicating that wear is occurring, likely
due to dirt contamination. If the same
unit was sampled regularly, dirt ingression could have been detected earlier
and identified a deteriorating seal before a wear condition developed. DamW W W. ST L E .O RG

a study by the electric power research institute revealed that predictive maintenance reduced total maintenance costs 47% compared to reactive maintenance.

age to the unit could have been minimized or prevented altogether.


Trending is absolutely necessary
for a successful condition-based maintenance program because youre making maintenance decisions based on
the health of the lubricant and the
component, Papacek says. For example, lets say the preventative maintenance on a compressor is every 1,000
hours. This could be too long to wait if
a serious contamination issue arises
and is not detected. It could be too
early if the component is well-maintained and the oil is suitable for use
beyond 1,000 hours.
Oil analysis can pinpoint sudden
changes and help you determine if an
oil change should be made prior to the
scheduled preventative maintenance
or if it can safely be extended beyond
it, saving additional lubricant costs
and labor, Papacek adds.

EXTENDING DRAIN INTERVALS


Most original equipment manufacturers recommend or specify oil drain intervals and the type of oil. These recommendations are often specified in
the warranty. And while they provide a
good baseline for maintenance, these
recommendations dont take into account all operating conditions and applications.
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

For example, taking into account


the operating length (in terms of miles
and/or hours) on both the oil and the
engine is key to determining the most
accurate drain interval recommendation. The ability to compare these
measurements with the test results allows the analyst to accurately and safely pinpoint an optimum drain interval.
Also remember that no two pieces of
equipment are alike and no two pieces
of equipment operate in exactly the
same conditions using the same horsepower.
Theres really only one way to know
if the OEMs drain intervals are optimal for a particular piece of equipmentregular independent oil analysis. End-users can feel confident that
they are extending drain intervals safely if they take into consideration the
OEMs specifications, their own oil
analysis results and independent laboratory recommendations.
Monitoring total base number
(TBN) along with both oxidation/nitration and viscosity trends and tracking contamination and wear is the best
way to optimize diesel engine drain
intervals. The bottom line is that you
should always consult with the OEM,
the lubricant supplier and the laboratory analyst before exceeding the
OEMs specified drain interval.
JANUARY 2012

39

Lubricant consumption and labor


costs can be greatly affected by extending drain intervals, Papacek says.
For example, take a plant with four
compressors that are scheduled for
monthly oil changes. Sump capacity
for each is 150 gallons. Changed
monthly, this totals 7,200 gallons per
year. Assuming compressor oil costs
range $15-$25 a gallon, the annual lubricant cost will range from $108,000$180,000. Oil analysis has the potential to reduce the number of oil
changes to four times a year, reducing
lubricant costs to between $36,000
and $60,000an annual savings of
$72,000 to $120,000.
He continued, Take this a step further and lets say each oil change takes
a technician an hour to an hour and a
half. Twelve per year, per compressor,
represents 48 to 72 hours in labor. Reducing the number of oil changes from
12 to 4 per year, per compressor, is 16
to 24 hours in labora savings of 32
to 48 hours in labor per year that
maintenance personnel can use to focus on other issues.

INDUSTRY APPLICATIONS
Why is predictive analysis more important in some industries than in others? There are a number of considerations:
The purchase and replacement
cost of the equipment.
The machines degree of criticalitywhat happens if it goes
down?
The physical difficulty of changing the oil.
The scale and cost of the oil and
filters.
Two industries that deal with all
four of these factors are the power generation (particularly wind turbine) industry and the aggregates industry.
Power generation. When it comes to
power generation, theres very little
margin for error. With few exceptions
such as medical devices, equipment

doesnt get much more critical than


this. On Dec. 8, 1998, a massive power
outage that affected more than 350,000
customers in the San Francisco area
occurred when a utility worker tried to
place a substation online while it was
still grounded for maintenance (which
likely included an oil change). This
drew so much power from the transmission lines that 25 other substations
in the area automatically and immediately shut down. Power was out from 8
a.m. to 4 p.m. Considering that the
power outage spanned almost an entire workday in a major metropolitan
area and that this happened in the era
before widespread implementation of
data disaster recovery, its surprising
that total losses were estimated only in
the tens of millions.
Then there are wind turbines.
Think its fun to change the oil about
400 feet above a raging sea in an offshore turbine? If ever there was an industry that could benefit from safely
extending oil change intervals, wind
turbineswith extremely expensive
equipment and highly difficult to access mechanical parts such as gearboxes and generatorsis it.
Any company in any industry dealing with one or both of these issues
should take notice of an exhaustive
study and 2006 report cited by the
World Wind Energy Association. After
running through seven cost-benefit
case studies, the report concludes the
following: The above case studies
clearly show the direct economic benefits of using predictive maintenance
strategies and highlight the special importance of using such strategies in
the context of wind turbines, where
their unique operational considerations create additional abnormal
stresses and strains.6
Aggregates. Its not hard to imagine

that the aggregates industry is heavily


dependent on oil analysis and predictive maintenance. Much of the equipment involved is large, relatively expensive and critical to operations.
Keith Pittman, equipment manager
for Aggregates USA in Macon, Ga., is
responsible for 13 quarries. He says
that while his company budgets for
maintenance at regular industry-established intervals, regular oil sampling
and the information it provides allows
them to delay major rebuilds and significantly extend repairs.
Weve gradually been moving
away from a preventive maintenance
program toward a predictive maintenance program, he explains. Oil
sampling analysis provides insight
into what is going on with each component on the machine. It gives us the
opportunity to make educated decisions on rebuild intervals. We currently budget repairs at 25% longer life
than manufacturer-recommended intervals, and oil analysis allows us to
push these out even further.
He added that because of its aggressive oil analysis program, Aggregates
USA has moved all oil-change intervals past 500 hours. Pittman believes
the three most important requirements
for a successful oil analysis program
are:
1. education: educating the
mechanics taking the samples.
2. trend analysis: taking enough
samples to establish a trend.
3. follow-up: repairing the machine when analysis indicates a
problem.
Pittman explains that Aggregates
USA saves resources, time and money
through its oil-sampling initiative.
Our environmental-compliance people like it for obvious reasons, opera-

Information from: http://www.wwindea.org/technology/ch03/en/3_4_3.html.

40

What potential carcinogen is formed when nitrites combine with secondary amines?

(Answer: Nitrosamines)

Studies consistently show that, regardless of the industry,


reactive maintenance is the least cost effective.

Your Global Additives Supplier

Servicing the industry for over 35 years

Over 25 Distributors Worldwide

Our customer driven technical team combines years of


practical application with a global understanding of the
demands our customers face in this competitive industry.
Maxlube Multifunctional Lubricant Additives
Maxhib Corrosion Inhibitors
Chemax Specialty Emulsifiers and Polymeric Esters
Chemfac High Performance Phosphate Esters
Maxbase Soluble Oil Additive Packages

Block Polymers
Alkoxylated Alcohols
Ethoxylated Amines
Phosphate Esters
Castor Ethoxylates
Fatty Acid Esters & Ethoxylates
Sorbitan Esters

At PCC Chemax we dont


simply sell products...
we sell solutions.
1.800.334.6234
Piedmont, SC USA Location

Duisburg, Germany Location

www.pcc-chemax.com

tions likes it because of the increased


equipment up-time weve experienced,
mechanics like it because they can
spend more time troubleshooting issues and less time servicing machinery, and the bean-counters like it because we spend less money on
unneeded services.

OIL DEGRADATION STANDARDS


Following are a few standard and newer tests, in addition to viscosity index
and total acid number (TAN), that labs

Sidebar 1:

most often use. The specific tests and


frequency vary from lab to lab and
company to company.
fourier transform infrared Analysis
(ftir). ASTM D7418 Infrared Spectroscopy (Fourier Transform Infrared
Analysis or FTIR) is a method for measuring the chemistry of organic molecular components. FTIR monitors
additive depletion, organic degradation byproducts and a host of possible
contaminants. It can verify the level of
oil degradation by the identification of

the functional groups (e.g., ketones,


carboxylic acids) in molecules. It is an
excellent test to measure chemistry
changes of the fluid basestock in addition to identifying what is responsible
for the fluid degradation.
The new ASTM standard for FTIR
is a significant improvement over
E2412. There are also several other
specific methods that have been created:
d7214-07a: Standard Test Method for Determination of the Ox-

7
7
RECOMMENDED OIL
DRAIN
INTERVAL
EXTENSIONS
Recommended
Oil
Drain
Interval
Extensions

Evaluation of High Efficiency Oil Filters in the State Fleet. In the study, researchers were able to use oil analysis to quantify the drain
extension allowed by HE filters. The study is located at: http://www.calrecycle.ca.gov/Publications/Usedoil/2008020.pdf.
7

42

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

idation of Used Lubricants by


FTIR Using Peak Area Increase
Calculation
d7412-09: Standard Test Method
for Condition Monitoring of
Phosphate Antiwear Additives
in In-Service Petroleum and Hydrocarbon-Based Lubricants by
Trend Analysis Using Fourier
Transform Infrared (FTIR)
Spectroscopy.
d7414-09: Standard Test Method
for Condition Monitoring of
Oxidation Antiwear Additives
in In-Service Petroleum and Hydrocarbon-Based Lubricants by
Trend Analysis Using Fourier
Transform Infrared (FTIR)
Spectroscopy.
d7415-09: Standard Test Method
for Condition Monitoring of
Sulfate Antiwear Additives in
In-Service Petroleum and Hydrocarbon-Based Lubricants by

Trend Analysis Using Fourier


Transform Infrared (FTIR)
Spectroscopy.
Ultracentrifuge test. This test uses
gravity to extract and settle any oil
contaminantsbasically it isolates all
insolubles. The sediments are compared with established sedimentation
rates in order to determine the oil degradation. In the lab, the sample spins
at 20,000 rpm in a centrifuge for 30
minutes. The minimum value of 1 represents no to low-total insoluble levels. The maximum value of 8 represents a critical level of insolubles. One
of the limitations is that the process
also can remove additives such as VI
improvers, dispersants and sulfonates.
membrane Patch Colorimetry test
(mPC). This test, designed to pinpoint
soft contaminants, identifies the varnish potential rating and is based on
colorimetric analysis. A direct correlation is made from the color and inten-

sity of the insolubles to oil degradation. This test is highly sensitive and
reliable. The procedure is currently
going through an ASTM round robin
to determine the precision of the
method in an effort to publish a standardized test procedure.
STLE-member Greg Livingstone,
chief marketing officer for Fluitec International in Rutledge, Ga., explains
that MPC is a combination of well-established patch testing methodologies
that have been used for decades for
fuel and lubricant contaminant analysis and research done by STLE Fellow
Dr. Akira Sasaki on colorimetric testing. The method has been optimized
for testing in-service turbine oils and
assessing the fluids potential to develop deposits.
Most other oil analysis tests will
not detect the accumulation of degradation products in a fluid that may
lead to sludge and varnish, Sasaki
says. MPC is currently being used

Small and Affordable


Low Solvent/Sample Volume

New Heated
Sample Options
Available!
2139 High Tech Road State College PA 16803
814-353-8000 800-676-6232 Fax 814-353-8007

cannon@cannoninstrument.com www.cannoninstrument.com

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

JANUARY 2012

43

trend analysis is the core component of predictive maintenance.

around the world to measure varnish


potential in turbine oils and has proven to be indispensable as an early
warning indicator of a fluids deposit
tendencies.
gravimetric Analysis. This test determines the level of oil degradation by
measuring the weight of residual components.
rotating Pressure Vessel oxidation
test (rPVot) Astm d2272. Oxidative
stability is an important property of lubricating oil. The RPVOT test is a controlled, accelerated oxidation test that
measures the performance of remaining antioxidant additives. Results are
evaluated and compared to new oil
levels.
Linear sweep Voltammetry (LsV).
ASTM D6971 LSV (also known as
RULER) determines the oxidative
health of a lubricant by measuring the
primary antioxidants it contains. LSV
is a patented process of identifying the
type and relative concentration of primary antioxidants in lubricants and
greases. Its currently in five ASTM
procedures and provides deeper in44

JANUARY 2012

sight into the health and remaining


useful life of the fluid. Alternative
methods of measuring primary antioxidants rely on indirect measurements, such as determining the oxidative stability of the fluid through stress
tests like RPVOT. Although there is
value in performing oxidative stress
tests in many situations, LSV has proven advantageous in monitoring in-service fluids used in oxidative environments because of the tests higher
precision and faster results.
Livingstone explains, MPC and
LSV tests are complimentary in nature
and are often coupled together when
performing analysis on in-service turbine oils. LSV is also applicable in a
wide range of other lubricants used in
oxidative environments ranging from
diesel engine oils and helicopter jet
turbines to specialized synthetic fluids
used in offshore wind power.

EDUCATING USERS
According to STLE-member Cary
Forgeron, national sales manager for
Analysts, Inc., in Hawthorne, Calif.,
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

there are three common user pitfalls


regarding predictive maintenance programs.
1. thinking that one technology is
enough. A common misconception
many inexperienced practitioners
have is that one technology can tell
them everything, Forgeron says.
There are limits to every technology.
Utilizing a single technology leaves
the practitioners vulnerable to potential problems that are not detectable by
that technology. For example, oil analysis cannot identify a misaligned bearing until sufficient damage has occurred. Not knowing what tool to
utilize in your predictive toolbox can
leave you blind.
2. doing too much too soon. A predictive maintenance program requires
a lot of planning and education before
it can get off the ground, Forgeron
says. I have been to many facilities to
help review their oil analysis programs. The first question I always ask
is, Why are you doing oil analyses.
While the responses vary, a common
answer is, I dont know.
Forgeron says that not knowing
what you want to accomplish makes it
hard to determine what you should be
doing. He adds that starting with a
clear and measureable objective (i.e.,
reducing the number of bearing failures) is the best way to begin. From
there users can choose the predictive
tool most applicable to accomplishing
those goals. He suggests starting small
with 5-10 critical pieces of equipment
and expanding from there.
3. not understanding the sampling
process. The biggest drawback I see
for an inexperienced practitioner, as it
relates to my field of oil analysis, is understanding the sampling process,
Forgeron says. Oil analysis is a science, and the tests are only as accurate
as the sample they are performed on.
Improper oil sampling can lead to a
false positive, which results in shutting down equipment unnecessarily.
Even worse, it can lead to a false negative, which can lead to an unidentified
equipment failure. The person taking
the sample is just as important as the
W W W. ST L E .O RG

Not knowing what you want


to accomplish makes it hard
to determine what you
should be doing.
person interpreting the results, but insufficient training often leads to the
sample taker being the weakest link in
the predictive maintenance chain.
The objective of oil analysis is to
provide early detection of incipient lubricant degradation, identify contaminant ingression and monitoring machine health by trending the addition
of wear metals.
Lubricant analysis can be considered in two ways: from a mechanical
perspective and a chemical perspective, Livingstone says. Seldom do we
see someone have a strong aptitude in
both fields. The first sign of fluid deg-

W W W. ST L E .O RG

radation is detectable by chemistry


changes in the lubricant, making oil
analysis such a strong predictive tool
for reliability engineers. Eventually, as
the fluid degrades it impacts the mechanical functioning of the equipment. At this point however, the plant
is forced to take much more resourceintensive, reactive maintenance actions.
He adds, In order for oil analysis
to be an adequate predictive tool, the
correct tests must be done at appropriate intervals. Although this sounds obvious, far too often we see valueless
tests being done at inappropriate intervals in order for the program to provide significant predictive value. The
biggest challenge that we have as oil
analysis practitioners, however, is
translating laboratory results into realworld knowledge that allow plant operators to assess the risk of taking action versus not taking action.
Ultimately, this requires the marriage
of chemical and mechanical knowl-

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

edge. However, plants that bridge


these two disciplines gain tremendous
value and competitive advantage by
using oil analysis to increase the profitability of their operations.
If performed correctly by an experienced lab and experienced technicians, predictive maintenance is one of
the most cost-effective equipment
maintenance procedures around for
many types of equipment. The key to a
successful program that consistently
yields a significant return on investment is choosing the right equipment
and the right lab.

Jean Van Rensselar heads her own


communications firm, Smart PR Communications,
in Naperville, Ill. You can reach her at
jean@smartprcommunications.com.

JANUARY 2012

45

Peer-reViewed

Rheological Properties of Extreme


Pressure Greases Measured Using a
Process Control Rheometer
Julie A. Glasscock and Robin S. Smith
CSIRO Industrial Physics, Lindfield, Australia

Published in STLE Tribology Transactions,


(Vol. 48, No. 4/Oct.-Dec. 2005, pp. 464-468)
Final manuscript approved May 10, 2005
Review led by Lois Gschwender
Copyright STLE

KEYWORDS
Grease, Non-Newtonian Lubricants, Non-Newtonian Behavior, Viscosity, Viscoelasticity

ABSTRACT
A new process control rheometer (PCR) designed for use in industrial process flows has been used to measure the rheological
properties of three extreme-pressure greases. The rheometer is a
robust yet sensitive instrument designed to operate in an industrial processing environment in either in-line or on-line configurations. The PCR was able to measure the rheological properties
including the elastic modulus, viscous modulus, and complex
viscosity of the greases which in an industrial flow application
could be used as variables in a feedback system to control the
process and the quality of the product.

INTRODUCTION
Greases are viscoelastic fluids and knowledge of their rheological behaviour is essential to process control and quality control and to determine the flow properties of the final
product. Greases are rheologically complex as they are required to provide a protective barrier under extreme operating conditions.1 The rheological properties of three extremepressure greases from the Shell Retinax range, labelled LX2,
HDX2 and SD2, were measured using the process control
rheometer (PCR). For the purpose of this study the greases
will be referred to as LM, LCM and LC, respectively. LC and
LCM are lithium/calcium greases whereas LM is a lithium
complex grease. Both LCM and LM have molybdenum di46

sulphide added (in fine-powder form) to the base grease to


improve the load-carrying and shock-loading protection provided by the grease.1
The National Lubricating Grease Institute (NLGI) has
developed a grading system to quantify the consistency or
hardness of greases. The greases investigated in this study
are graded as NLGI No. 2, which corresponds to a worked
penetration depth of 265 x 10-1 295 x 10-1 mm at 25 C.
The penetration is measured using a conical penetrometer,
which is a standard procedure for quantifying the structure
of a grease.2 This technique and others such as the Lincoln
Ventmeter pumpability test are single-point measurements
that can be indirectly related to the viscosity of the grease.3
However, these tests are unable to fully characterise the rheological behavior and hence the performance of the grease.1
It is often not possible (or meaningful) to correlate the data
from penetrometers with that obtained using a rheometer.
Penetrometer data is a convolution of rheological (and other) properties and is unlikely to correlate well with viscosity or any other single rheological property. However, a good
correlation was seen when the PCR was compared with a
controlled strain rheometer.4 The PCR uses a patented multifrequency oscillation5 to measure the rheological properties
of a fluid over a range of frequencies in a very short time.
Lithium\calcium and lithium complex greases have been
measured previously by others using controlled stress rheometers6,7 and compressional rheometers.1,3 These instruments are laboratory based; that is, they operate off-line and
measure at a single shear rate (or frequency) at a time. The

Just for laughs: 1,000 milliliters of wet socks = 1 literhosen.

Figure 1 | schematic of the pcr construction.


Figure
1. Schematic of the PCR construction.
PCR described in this paper can be operated in an in-line
(mounted within the main process flow) or on-line (on a
diverted side flow) environment.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

measurement is complete, the plates are separated and the


old sample is flushed out by the process flow. The movement
of the plates to capture and release a sample is controlled
pneumatically and a testing sequence can be selected via the
software. A measurement takes only one second, but in practice 20 measurements are made and averaged to increase the
signal-to-noise ratio. A full measurement cycle, including
capturing and releasing samples, takes under one minute.
The simple parallel-plate geometry and the automated plate
separation allows easy sample loading and cleaning.
To make a measurement, a piezoelectric actuator applies
a multi-frequency oscillatory displacement to the upper plate
and the force transmitted through the sample material is
measured using a load cell located beneath the bottom plate.
The displacement and force data are used to calculate rheological properties such as the storage modulus G, the loss
modulus G, and the complex viscosity *, at each frequency. Details of these calculations can be found in previous
publications.9,10,11,12 The storage modulus (or elastic modulus) is a measure of the elasticity of the sample whereas the
loss modulus (or viscous modulus) is a measure of the viscous flow properties of the material. The complex viscosity
is calculated from the storage modulus and the loss modulus
and hence incorporates information about both the viscous
and elastic flow properties.
All samples were measured with the PCR in a static mode
(no flow) due to the inability to pump such materials with
the current laboratory equipment. The rheometer has been
tested under flow conditions (simulating an in-line installation) and has been shown to operate well. Data and discussion of these experiments can be found in a previous

The design and operation of the PCR has been detailed in a


previous publication8 and will be discussed only briefly here. The form of
this instrument is shown schematically in Figure 1, where the process
flow would be into the page. All parts
of the rheometer in contact with the
flow are stainless steel, making the
instrument very robust and able to
withstand harsh industrial cleaning
procedures. The parallel-plate measurement system is located within
a stainless steel housing that can be
bolted into a process pipe system.
The rheometer can be mounted in an
in-line or on-line configuration depending on the requirements of the
application.
The parallel plates are normally
spaced 2-3 cm apart, to allow flow
between the plates, and are brought
together (to a predefined gap dependent on the fluid under investigaFigure 2. Recovery of the greases as shown by the storage modulus G at
tion) to trap a sample of process fluid
recovery ofof
thetime
greases
as shown
by the the
storage
modulus G
60 hz as aLCM,
function()
60 HzFigure
as a2 |function
after
loading
sample:
()at grease
and make a measurement. Once the
of
time
after
loading
the
sample:
()
grease
Lcm,
()
grease
Lc,
and
()
grease
Lm.
grease LC, and () grease LM.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

JANUARY 2012

47

60 Hz as a function of time after loading the sample: () grease LCM, ()


grease LC, and () grease LM.

publication.8 All measurements


were made at a standard laboratory
temperature of 21 0.2 C. The
reference fluid used to calibrate the
rheometer was standard oil S8000
(Cannon Certified Viscosity Standard) with a dynamic viscosity of
34.1 Pas at 21 C. The reference
fluid was measured 20 times and
averaged to increase the signal-tonoise ratio over a frequency range
from 1 to 80 Hz, and saved as a reference file. Unless otherwise stated
all the results reported here are for
the frequency range 1 to 80 Hz.
Greases often exhibit time-dependent behavior, known as thixotropy.3 When some viscoelastic
materials are sheared the internal
structure can be deformed; when Figure
3. 3Storage
Gtheofthree
the grease
threesamples
grease
a function
Figure
| storagemodulus
modulus G of
as asamples
function ofas
frequency:
() of
the shear strain is removed the frequency:
grease Lcm,
grease Lc,
and ()
Lm. LC, and () grease LM.
()()
grease
LCM,
()grease
grease
structure rebuilds and the material recovers over time (some
materials require hours to fully recover). In the case of the PCR the
grease is sheared when the plates
are moved together and apart. The
recovery of the three greases LCM,
LC and LM is shown in Figure 2
in the form of the storage modulus G at 60 Hz plotted as a function of time. The storage modulus
has been chosen to compare the
thixotropic recovery because it is
the rheological parameter that is
the most sensitive to the changes
imposed by the shearing.3 A single
frequency was chosen to simplify
graphing but the data at 60 Hz is
representative of the recovery at all
frequencies. Over the 60-minute
recovery period the storage modulus increased as the structure re- Figure
Figure
4 | Lossmodulus
modulus G of
samples
as a samples
function of frequency:
() grease
4. Loss
Gtheofthree
thegrease
three
grease
as a function
of
Lcm, ()()
grease
Lc,
and
()
grease
Lm.
built. The storage modulus of the frequency:
grease LCM, () grease LC, and () grease LM.
Table 1 | rheological properties G, G and * at a frequency of 80 hz of the three grease samples Lm, Lc and Lcm.

48

Name of Grease

storage modulus G at 80 hz (pa)

Loss modulus G at 80 hz (pa)

complex Viscosity
* at 80 hz (pas)

Lm

27200

23700

71.7

Lc

16100

19300

50

Lcm

13000

15800

40.6

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

Heavy Metal
Goes Green.

If you are looking to make your metalworking


fluids greener with vegetable oil-based formulations,
Huntsmans new SURFONIC MW-100 additive can help.
SURFONIC MW-100 is a single component emulsifier
designed to enhance the metalworking properties of
vegetable oil-based lubricants. MW-100 is inherently low
foaming, compatible with phosphate esters, and can be
used to formulate very stable macro or micro emulsions. In
addition, MW-100 has a low pour point for easy handling

www.huntsman.com/metalworking
North America +281.719.6000
Europe +44.1946.694108
Asia Pacific +65.6390.0371

and features low toxicity.


For more information, contact a Huntsman representative and
learn how SURFONIC MW-100 can turn heavy metal green.

SURFONIC is a registered trademark of Huntsman Corporation or an affiliate thereof in one or more, but not all, countries.

frequency: () grease LCM, () grease LC, and () grease LM.

grease LCM increased by 8.68%,


grease LC increased by 9.58% and
that for grease LM increased by
12.02%. Over an hour after the
samples were loaded between the
plates of the rheometer very little
change in the storage modulus was
observed. The data used in the following analysis were measured 75
minutes after the samples were
loaded to ensure that the grease
structure had recovered. In practice, measurements could be made
after much smaller time intervals,
as long as the time between trapping a sample and the measurement is constant, so that the grease
has recovered to the same extent.
Given that relative changes in the
Figure 5. Complex viscosity * of the three grease samples as a function of process fluid are of interest in a
Figure 5 | complex viscosity * of the three grease samples as a function of frequency: ()
grease
LCM,
() grease
grease
frequency:
()()
production environment, recovery
grease Lcm,
grease Lc,
and ()
Lm. LC, and () grease LM.
of the sample does not pose a problem as long as the recovery time is
constant. A recovery experiment
was undertaken in this case to
ensure measurement consistency
(to accurately compare the three
greases) because the instrument
was being operated manually.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


The rheological properties of the
three greases as measured using
the PCR have been plotted as a
function of frequency and are discussed in this section. The storage modulus G, loss modulus G
and complex viscosity * of the
extreme-pressure greases as measured using the PCR are shown
in Figures 3, 4 and 5, respectively.
Data for the three greases appear
Figure
6 | complexviscosity
viscosity * of
grease samples
as samples
a function ofas
frequency
Figure
6. Complex
*the
of three
the three
grease
a function of on the same graphs in order to
plotted on
a logarithmic
() grease Lcm,
() grease
Lc, and ()
grease
compare their rheological behavfrequency
plotted
on ascale:
logarithmic
scale:
() grease
LCM,
()Lm.
grease LC,

and () grease LM.

Table 2 | Fit coefficients for the rheological properties G, G and * of the three grease samples Lm, Lc and Lcm.
G Fit coefficients

G Fit coefficients

* Fit coefficients

Name of
Grease

R2

R2

R2

Lm

0.209

11056

0.982

0.364

4707

0.984

-0.745

1851

0.999

Lc

0.233

5919

0.974

0.437

2795

0.990

-0.683

983

0.997

Lcm

0.211

5280

0.972

0.411

2603

0.985

-0.702

886

0.997

50

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

ior. For further comparison the values of the rheological


parameters at 80 Hz are shown in Table 1. The PCR could
easily distinguish the greases on the basis of their rheological properties. Grease LM has considerably higher values of
elasticity and viscosity, whereas greases LC and LCM have
increasingly lower values. Without having more information with respect to the composition of and additives to
the three greases, it is difficult to explain the differences in
the rheological properties. The aim of this body of work is
to show an example of a potential application of the PCR
rather than characterize the greases.
Nonlinear regression analysis has been applied to the
rheological data in order to calculate a line of best fit. The
storage modulus, loss modulus, and complex viscosity data
can all be fitted using a power law as given by y = axn, where
y is the dependent variable (rheological parameter in this
case), x is the independent variable (the frequency in this
case) and a and n are constants known as the fit coefficients.13 The curves were fit using data in the frequency
range of 1 Hz to 80 Hz. The fit coefficients a and n along
with an R2 value for each grease are shown in Table 2, where
R2 is a measure of how well the model fits the data.13An R2
value of 1 indicates a perfect fit. The power law model fits
the rheological data of the greases very well as indicated by
R2 values between 0.972 and 0.999. Power-law models are
often used to fit the rheological data of polymeric liquids
and other viscoelastic materials.14 Power-law behavior can
be easily observed by plotting the data on a logarithmic
scale which then yields a straight line. The complex viscosity of the three greases as a function of frequency plotted
on a logarithmic scale is shown in Figure 6. The rheological data measured below 10 Hz can have significant error
due to the small forces generated at these frequencies (and,
hence, a small signal-to-noise ratio). A material whose viscosity decreases with increasing shear rate or frequency is
known as a shear thinning material. Shear thinning is an
essential characteristic of greases in order to facilitate lubrication at high shear rates during the movement of the
surface. When the surfaces are at rest, the viscosity of the
grease increases, providing a protective barrier.1,3

CONCLUSION
The new PCR has the ability to measure the flow properties of a process fluid over a wide range of frequencies in
a very short-time, making it an ideal tool for process and
quality control. The rheometer has been used to measure
the rheological properties of three extreme-pressure greases, highlighting a potential application of this instrument.
The greases have high elasticity and viscosity values, which
were easily measured using this instrument due to its robust and stiff design. It is clear that the PCR described here
could be incorporated in a grease production plant and
used to control the process and the quality of the product
and, thus, lead to a reduction in both costs and product
wastage.

REFERENCES
1. Whittingstal, P. and Costello, B., (1999), A New Compressional Rheometer for the Measurement of Viscoelasticity, in Proc. of the 66th Annual Meeting of NLGI.
2. Shell Canada (2003), Lubricants Handbook,http://www.
shell.ca/code/products/commerical/lubricants/handbook/
handbook_files/handbook.pdf, (assessed May 28, 2004).
3. Whittingstall, P., (1997) Controlled Stress Rheometry as
a Tool to Measure Grease Structure and Yield at Various
Temperatures, NLGI Spokesman, 61, (9), pp. 12-23.
4. Smith, R.S. and Glasscock, J.A., (2004), Measurements of
the Rheological Properties of Standard Reference Material
2490 Using an In-line Micro-Fourier Rheometer, KoreaAust Rheol. J., 16, (4), pp. 169-173.
5. OBrien, V.T, (2002), Fluid Property Evaluation System
e.g. for Paints, Gels, Measures Output Motion from Test
Cell in Response to Vibration Motion Applied on Parallel
Plates in Test Cell, U.S. Patent 2004173017-A1.
6. Yeong, S.K., Luckman, P.F. and Tadros, T.F., (2000), A
Systematic Characterization of the Rheological Properties
of a Grease, in Proc. of the 13th International Congress on
Rheology, Cambridge.
7. Mezger, T. and Wollny, K., (1999) Characterization of
Lubricating Greases, Application Notes: Anton-Paar
Physica.
8. Glasscock, J.A., Smith, R.S., Vanajek, J. and Winter, J.G.,
(2003), An In-Line Micro-Fourier Rheometer, Rev. Sci.
Instrum., 74, (11), pp. 4925-4929.
9. Phan-Tien, N., (1980), Small Strain Oscillatory Squeezing Flow of Simple Fluids, J. Aust. Math. Soc. B, 32, p. 22.
10. Field, J.S., Swain, M.V. and Phan-Tien, N., (1996), An
Experimental Investigation of the Use of Random Squeezing to Determine the Complex Modulus of Fluids, J.
Non-Newt. Fluid Mech., 65, pp. 177-194.
11. Phan-Tien, N., Field, J.S. and Swain, M.V., (1996), MicroFourier Rheometer: Inertial Effects, Rheol. Acta, 35, pp.
410-416.
12. See, H., (2001), Advances in Measuring Linear Viscoelastic Properties Using Novel Deformation Geometries and
Fourier Transform Techniques, Korea-Aust. Rheol. J., 13,
(2), pp. 67-81.
13. James, R.C., (1960), Mathematics Dictionary, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.
14. Macosko, C.W., (1994), Rheology: Principles, Measurements, and Applications, Wiley-VCH, New York.

STLE is now accepting student poster abstracts for its 2012 annual meeting in St. Louis. Deadline: March 1. Details at www.stle.org.

51

newsmAKers
TOP STORIES
LUBRIzOL ACqUIRES ChEMTOOL
the Lubrizol Corp. has agreed to purchase Rockford, Ill.-based Chemtool
inc., a leading global manufacturer and
supplier of custom-formulated greases
to the lubricants industry.
The acquisition expands Lubrizols
Additives Custom Solutions business,
strengthening its ability to meet the
needs of its global customers.
Chemtool offers a wide variety of
lubricating greases to meet customer
needs in markets ranging from aviation to transportation. The company
provides its customers with innovative technologies and services that
improve performance, extend service
life, support process improvements
and reduce the overall cost of running
their facilities.
This is an exciting time and significant milestone for Chemtool. Our
customers will continue to receive the
same level of excellent service provided by Chemtool but now with the added technology, investment resources
and global reach available from Lubrizol, says Jim Athans, Chemtool owner and president.
According to Lubrizol, Chemtool
continues to operate independently
and has retained its company name.

ANALYSTS INC. EXPANDS ATLANTA


LAB AND WORKFORCE
Los Angeles-based Analysts inc., a leading oil analysis testing company, is
doubling its workforce and relocating
the companys laboratory in Norcross,
Ga., near Atlanta, to a 12,000 squarefoot facility in Suwanee, Ga.
According to Analysts, the Norcross lab employs around 24 people
and plans to add another 20 jobs in the
next year. In addition, the company is
expanding its portfolio of testing services. The laboratory is one of Analysts five regional testing facilities in
the U.S., joining Hawthorne, Calif.,
Chicago, Louisville and Houston, as
well as labs in Tokyo, Japan, and Monterrey, Mexico.
Analysts serves several industries
52

JANUARY 2012

including manufacturing, power generation, marine, heavy construction,


mining, trucking and aviation.

ASTM FORMS STRATEGIC


PARTNERShIP IN LATIN AMERICA
Astm international has signed a letter of
cooperation with the Alliance for training and research infrastructure for the
development of mexico (Alliance fiidem).
ASTM will work with FiiDEM to
strengthen and upgrade scientific information on issues related to infrastructure through cooperation with
the public and private sectors in the
form of discussions and events.
The alliance also will report ASTMrelated news in Spanish via an electronic bulletin and cover relevant issues for industries such as concrete,
additives, petroleum and steel, in addition to scientific events related to various sectors.
Alliance FiiDEM is a not-for-profit
organization that includes members
from government, business, professional associations and business chambers. Members include engineers, architects and university representatives.

TOTAL AND AMRYRIS PARTNER


ON RENEWABLE FUELS PROjECT
total and Amyris, inc., have sign agreements to expand their current R&D
partnership and form a joint venture
to develop, produce and commercialize a range of renewable fuels and
products.
Total and Amyris are expanding
their ongoing R&D collaboration to
accelerate the development of Biofene and develop renewable diesel
based on this molecule produced from
plant sugars. The ambitious R&D program, launched in 2010 and managed
jointly by researchers from both companies, aims to develop the necessary
stages to bring the next-generation renewable fuels to market at commercial
scale. Total has committed to contribute $105 million in funding for an existing $180 million program.
In addition, Total and Amyris have
agreed to form a 50-50 joint venture
company that will have exclusive
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

rights to produce and market renewable diesel and jet fuel worldwide, as
well as non-exclusive rights to other
renewable products such as drilling
fluids, solvents, polymers and specific
biolubricants. The venture is set to begin operations during the first quarter
of 2012.

hONORS & AWARDS


POLARIS TOPS INC. 5,000 LIST
FOR ThIRD YEAR IN A ROW
PoLAris Laboratories has been named
to Inc. magazines 2011 List of 5,000
Fastest Growing Privately Held Companies in America for the third year in
a row.
POLARIS ranked 3,243 in 2011. In
2010 and 2009, the company ranked
3,579 and 3,400. POLARIS revenue
has increased by more than 55% from
2007 to 2010, and the number of employees has grown from 130 in 2009 to
185 today.
The hard work and commitment
of each employee makes this type of
recognition possible, says Bryan Debshaw, CEO of POLARIS. Reliable,
high-quality test results, actionable
maintenance recommendations and
user-friendly tools for managing data
across multiple locations have kept us
at the forefront of the industry. In todays challenging economy, continuing
success is a substantial accomplishment, and we are honored to be recognized for that.

hARVEY NIXON NAMED PRODUCT


ENGINEER OF ThE YEAR
STLE-member harvey nixon has been
named by meritor, inc., as the companys 2011 Product Engineer of the Year.
Meritor is a leading global supplier
of drivetrain, mobility, braking and aftermarket solutions for commercial
vehicle and industrial markets.
Harvey earned the award in the category of Distinguished Contributions
to the Advancement of Bearing Knowledge in the Technical and Non-Technical Organizations.
Harveys impact on the global
W W W. ST L E .O RG

harvey nixon

bearing team has been substantial,


says Joe ElBehairy, vice president, engineering and quality, for Meritor. His

knowledge and creativity helped us move


from being heavily reliant on a single supplier
to having a network of
reliable suppliers we
can call on when needed.
Harvey joined Meritor in 2008 after spending more than 38 years
with The Timken Co.,
where he played an integral role in the companys bearing development efforts.
Harvey joined STLE
in 1987 and has been
involved at both the local and national levels.
He served as chair of
two STLE local sections:
Cleveland
(1998-1999) and Canton (20032005). On the national level, Harvey
served as a director on the board and

also as a Regional Vice President. In


addition, he served as chair (20002001) for the Bearings and Bearing Lubrication Technical Committee, as
well as helped facilitate the creation of
STLEs Surface Engineering Technical
Committee (2004).
Harvey is a recipient of STLEs Walter D. Hodson (2007) and P.M. Ku
Meritorious Awards (2011).

Want to be recognized in TLT?


TLT is interested in hearing from our
readers. Let us know whats happening in your company. If you have news
about a new employee or if someone
in your company has been recognized
with an award or any other interesting
items, let us know. Please send us your
news releases and photos for publication in Newsmakers to TLT Magazine,
Attn: Karl Phipps, 840 Busse Highway,
Park Ridge, IL 60068, kphipps@stle.
org.

When you want a certain additive, chances are weve got it right
in stock. We maintain a huge inventory of quality products from
the best names in the business and we get them to you FAST!
Antioxidants
Biocides
Chelating Agents
Chlorinated Paraffins
Corrosion Inhibitors
Defoamers
Emulsifiers
Esters
Ether Amines
Ethoxylated Alcohols
Fatty Acids
Fatty Alcohols
Lard Oils

Lubricant Additive Components


Lubricant Additives Packages
Petrolatum
Polyalkylene Glycols
Polyalphaolefins
Primary Amino Alcohols
Rust Preventatives
Sulfonates
Sulfurized Compounds
Synthetic Lubricants
Vegetable Oils
Waxes
White Oils

YOU ALSO GET SEA-LANDS WINNING TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND DEPENDABLE SERVICE.
821 Westpoint Parkway Westlake, OH 44145

440-871-7887

www.sealandchem.com E-mail: sealand@sealandchem.com

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

C H E M I C A L C O.

JANUARY 2012

53

soUnding BoArd

What was your most significant


professional accomplishment in 2011?
The appeal of STLEs Certified Lubrication Specialist credential just keeps growing. Obtaining
the CLS was far and away the No. 1 answer when
readers listed their 2011 greatest achievements,
and nearly as many identified it as their top pro-

Consolidated lubrication efforts that


reduced the total amount of lubricants needed in the facility.
Due to corporate redeployment, I
made the transition from architecture
to tribology, then from tribology back
to architecture...servicing the plant in
a different capacity.

fessional goal for 2012. Also cited by many readers as a top 2011 accomplishment was earning
one of the societys two Oil Monitoring Analyst
certifications. Looking beyond certification, many
members said business picked up significantly
last year, a goal they hope
continues in 2012. Others
said they were still fighting to hang on to their jobs
in a still-uncertain economy. Many survey respondents mentioned the successful introduction of
new product lines and
landing new accounts.
Several readers said their
top 2012 objective is to
better educate their customers about lubricants
and related best practices.
Thats a worthwhile objective for every year.

We had a product which, under


some very unusual conditions, stained
machines yellow. After thousands of
dollars in research and countless manhours in the lab, we figured out the
problem, removed the culprit chemical and replaced it with a cheaper and
more effective alternate. Since then,
no more complaints.

Signed a five-year supply contract


with a major customer.
Obtained approval for my formulation by a major OEM.
Learned about automotive oil blending and testing.

Development of lubricated contact


models.

Delivering my first technical presentation at STLEs Annual Meeting.

Added two new huge pieces of business, one of which required a number
of new products to be developed.

Tribocorrosion behavior of carbonbased coating in AISI 316L steel.

I cant discussits a trade secret!

Trained a colleague replacement.

We actually grew our lubricant


business by 10%without a stimulus
package.

I gave a presentation at the 4th Metal


Removal Fluids Symposium in Barcelona, Spain.

Passed STLEs OMA-I certification


exam.
54

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

Do you expect the


lubricants industry to
grow, shrink or stay
about the same in 2012
compared to 2011?
grow
shrink
stay the same

45%
4%
51%

Based on results from some 13,000 TLT readers.

Stewarding the implementation of the


ILSAC GF-5 motor oil reformulations
for my company across Asia Pacifi c,
from the technical support aspect.

Industrial gear oil application in


wind turbines.

Obtained new filtration account.

To be frank, the fact that I passed the


CLS exam administered by the STLE.

Found a job in a down economy.


I opened three big accounts.
Developed a process to repair open
gears in kilns and mills, on-site and in
operation.
PAO in synthetics lubricants, engine
and gears.

Implemented a new CMMS in 50%


of the companys plants.
Added a new sulfur additive line.
I introduced a completely new product from lab scale to production, selling more than 100 tons in full scale.
Retained my job!
Attained ISO 9001 and AS 9100
certification.
I doubled my departments revenue
over last year, which was previously
our record year.

Started my own business.

Reduced power consumption and


cycling by about a third in an air
compressor by adding a 400-gallon
accumulator to an 84-cfm compressor
and increasing the pressure band from
10 psi to 20 psi.
Received an offer for a new job. Im
currently working at a temp job outside the lube industry.
Weve grown our business 25% without doing an acquisition.
Achieved my CLS and OMA certifications and grew my distribution of
fi nished lubricants by 11%.

Growing our company by 70% in the


MWF division.
Profitable commercial operation of
the IPP that I have been working in
before joining my current organization.
Optimal design of face-hobbed spiral
bevel gears.
As a consultant I was involved in
finishing the development of a new
propeller shaft bearing system for
large ships.
Worked on energy efficiency of different oils, something that makes a
impact, though small, on the amount
of energy consumed in different
equipments.
Retaining key staff.

Moved back to Minnesota after being


in Alaska for 27 years.
Designed, implemented and standardized a world-class lube room.
Commissioning/implementation
of a new laboratory.
Vehicle dyno fuel economy test for
determining fuel economy retention
over an extended drain.
Completed several special projects
during the year, each of which drew
upon my particular knowledge and
experience.
Nearing $4 million in personal sales.
Testing of a new semisynthetic gas
engine oil.

STLE Webinar: Prospecting in the Digital Age Using New Media to Generate More (and Better) Leads, Feb. 22. Details at www.stle.org. 5 5

soUnding BoArd
Wrote and submitted for publication a review of fuel and fuel system
biodeterioration developments since
1980.

ing the e-newsletters, TLT and getting


informed on lubrication, greases, etc.

Gaining back first- and second-quarter lost lube gallons in the third and
fourth quarters.

Conversion of the CLS exam to


multiple-choice format.

Tripled sales and commissions.

Engaged in STLE exercises by read-

What is your No. 1 professional objective for 2012?


Promotion to director.
Earn my CLS certification.
I plan to get a good 50% raise and a
promotion by utilizing some carefully
planned strategies that will make the
company millions.
Constant learning and, if possible, a
certification.

Reach a job related to materials


engineering in a multinational of
renewables.
Devote some time to catching up on
stagnated projects that provide good
opportunities for growth. The crazybusy 2011 year did not allow me to
spend time developing.

Installing a new oil room complete


with upgraded oil delivery methods.

Find avenues to teach Basic Lubrication 101 so that our current and
future customers are wiser in the
purchasing and use of lubricants.

Purchase another lube company to


increase our market share.

Obtain ISO 9001-2008 auditor qualification.

Get a promotionits been a long


time!

Improve my knowledge through an


STLE course and earn an MBA.

To become a lubricant application


consultant, thus helping to sensitize
industries about the pros and cons
of lubricants in equipment and also
provide professional solutions/advices
on critical situations.
Continue learning about lubrication
as well as complete another STLE
course toward CLS certification.
Obtain STLEs OMA II certification.
Stay employed.
Consolidate on the knowledge
reinforced while studying for the CLS
exam.
Finish my B.S. degree in business
with an emphasis on sales and marketing.
To be appointed to a major federal
health and safety advisory committee.
To develop a low-friction lubricant.
Keep my job.
To negotiate a more competitive
compensation package, somewhere
around 30% more than my current
salary.
Raise awareness for large mechanical
equipment operators about our onsite surface treatment.

56

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

Grow the commercial and industrial


division of our business by 30%.
Survive.
Publish two high-quality technical
papers.
Become knowledgeable and proficient (in a product technical support
sense) across the spectrum of industrial lubricants my company markets. I recently moved into the area
of industrial lubes after many years
working in a solely automotive lubes
technical role.
Commercialization of a new product for surface metal treatment.
Making myself indispensible in my
new position.

Start planning to build a fourth


plant in 2012.

The biggest professional goal for


2012 is to increase product sales to
mills, especially high-speed wire rod
mills.

Continue our organic growth of


lubricants so we dont get gobbled up
by some large equity firm.

Publish the special edition of International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation. I am the guest editor.

Expand territory and lube gallons by


25%. Increase education to distributor
sales representatives by way of sales
and training meetings.

Recapture lost business and hang on


to what we have now.

Spend more time with family.

Six Sigma green belt course.

Improve my English and obtain


STLE certifications.
Start a new job.
I retired from the university four
years ago, so I have no specific professional goals for 2012.

Editors Note: Sounding Board is based on an e-mail survey of 13,000 TLT readers. Views expressed are those of the respondents and do not reflect the opinions of
the Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers. STLE does not vouch for the technical accuracy of opinions expressed in Sounding Board, nor does inclusion
of a comment represent an endorsement of the technology by STLE.

+LJK3HUIRUPDQFH
*HDU2LOV
DV(DV\DV
6WDUWZLWK
1$/8%(.56(5,(6
$ON\ODWHG1DSKWKDOHQH
6\QWKHWLF%DVH2LOV



)RUPXODWLQJ*HDU2LOV
)RUPXODWLQJ*HDU2LOV

,QFRUSRUDWH
1$/8%(1$68/
DQG.&255
+LJK3HUIRUPDQFH$GGLWLYHV



7U\1HZ
1$/8%(%/
$VKOHVV5 23DFNDJH
LQFRPELQDWLRQZLWK1HZ
.;(3$:%RRVWHU



ZZZNLQJLQGXVWULHVFRP

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

JANUARY 2012

57

Education Your Way. Focused. Flexible. Accessible.

WEBINARS
Jan. 11, 2012 Noon-1 p.m. (With optional Q&A session, 1 p.m.-1:30 p.m.) (Central Time)

VOC Emissions from


Metalworking Fluids
The South Coast Air Quality Management District is the
local air pollution regulatory agency serving the South Coast
Air Basin, consisting of portions of Los Angeles, Riverside,
Orange and San Bernardino counties in California. The
air quality in the Basin has been designated as extreme
non-attainment by the EPA. For that reason, AQMD is at
the forefront of the nations emission reduction efforts. As
part of these efforts, AQMD has been investigating volatile
organic compounds (VOC) emissions from metalworking
fluids. One of the primary challenges has been to find
a reliable test method to determine VOC content. This
presentation will feature an overview of a joint cooperation
project between ILMA and AQMD which developed a
thermogravimetric test method that mimicked the results
from a six-month, low temperature evaporation study of
naphthenic oils.
*Cost to attend: $39 (STLE member), $59 (Non-member)
* Course cost includes reading and/or reference materials, presentation
slides, the recording of the event and the Q&A session summary.
Register before Monday, Jan. 9 at www.stle.org or call (847) 825-5536.

Presenters: Michael Morris & Uyen Uyen T. Vo


South Coast Air Quality Management District
Diamond Bar, Calif.

MikeMorris
Morris
Mike
BIOGRAPHY
Mike Morris is an air-quality specialist, writing regulations and evaluating emerging technologies for the
South Coast Air Quality Management District
(AQMD). The AQMD is the air pollution control district for Southern California, the smoggiest region of
the U.S. Mikes current projects with the AQMD includes paint and lacquer thinners, consumer products and metalworking fluids. Previously, Mike was
program manager at the Institute for Research and
Technical Assistance, conducting research and development of low- and
Uyen-Uyen
T. Vo
non-solvent
technologies.
Uyen-Uyen T. Vo
Uyen-Uyen Vo is an air-quality chemist in the Compliance Section of AQMDs Laboratory Services Division. Uyen-Uyen has been at AQMD for three years
and is currently working on comparing various analytical instruments and methods for volatile organic
compound (VOC) test methodologies. Uyen-Uyens
analytical experience includes gas chromatography
(GC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), total organic
compound (TOC) analysis, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry, ultraviolet/visible (UV-Vis) spectrometry and fourier courier transform
infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.

Jan. 18, 2012 Noon-1 p.m. (With optional Q&A session, 1 p.m.-1:30 p.m.) (Central Time)

Using NEADS Analysis to


Get to Yes in Industrial Sales
Weve all heard about the importance of identifying your customers needs as
a crucial part of the sales process. But how can you ask the right questions
to uncover those needs? What should you do with that information once
youve acquired it? And, perhaps most important of all, how can knowing a
customers needs help you close more deals?
These questions and more will be answered by the application of NEADS
analysis to your sales process. NEADS analysis is a system of questions and
methods that will help you guide prospects through the sales process and
convert them into loyal clients.
*Cost to attend: $39 (STLE member), $59 (Non-member)
* Course cost includes reading and/or reference materials, presentation slides, the recording of
the event and the Q&A session summary. Register before Monday, Jan. 16 at www.stle.org
or call (847) 825-5536.

Presenter: Jerry L. Kennedy


Inside Out Business Solutions
Sacramento, Calif.
BIOGRAPHY
After a decade in the petroleum industry, working for
various distributors throughout California, Jerry Kennedy started Inside Out Business Solutions in 2005, a
sales and customer service training organization. The
name of his company is a direct reflection of one of
Jerrys core beliefs about business: that real change
can only come from the inside. Whether its change on
an organizational or individual level, Jerry helps salespeople tap into their inner HERO by cultivating the
qualities of humility, ethical behavior, responsibility
and optimism.

Visit www.stle.org/university for more information, or visit the STLE Store to reserve your seat!
Both webinars are worth 1.0 Education Credits (ECs), which may be applied to recertification.
For more information and requirements for recertification, visit us at www.stle.org/university

new ProdUCts
POLYUREThANE ADhESIVE SUITS WIND BLADES
AND TURBINE ASSEMBLIES

SYNThETIC LUBRICANTS FOR


DRAWING, STAMPING FERROUS
AND NONFERROUS METALS
houghton international introduces
two synthetic, water-soluble metalforming lubricants. drAwsoL wm 110
is formulated for drawing and stamping ferrous and nonferrous metals. The
oil-free formula minimizes smoke, mist
and odors during forming and does not
stick to metalworking tools, according
to Houghton. The lubricant also eliminates the corrosion of metal and tooling. drAwsoL wm 4740 is a heavy-duty
lubricant recommended for a variety of
metal-forming applications. Suitable for
ferrous, stainless and aluminized alloys,
the lubricant protects dies and cutting tools and provides excellent weldthrough properties. Both lubricants remain stable when extended with water,
which helps decrease lubricant costs at
the press. Dilution reduces drag-out and
improves housekeeping due to the fact
that water-soluble materials are more
easily cleaned from presses, manufacturing areas and formed parts.
houghton international
Valley Forge, Pa.
(610) 666-4000
www.houghtonintl.com

W W W. ST L E .O RG

henkel Corp. introduces a new high-performance polyurethane adhesive that prevents crack
propagation on wind blades and delivers excellent long-term structural integrity on turbine
assemblies. The first-ever Germanischer Lloyd (GL)-approved polyurethane adhesive, macroplast UK 1340, cures rapidly at room temperature, reduces production costs and shortens
production cycles by 15% to 30%. Macroplast UK 1340 demonstrates a tensile shear strength
exceeding 20 MPa at -40 C to +80 C and a Tg of 65 C and higher. The adhesive demonstrates
superior dynamic fatigue strength, which allows wind blades to handle deflection, dynamic
load and stress on the adhesive bond line and reduces the risk of stress cracking. Macroplast UK 1340 is a two-part adhesive consisting of a resin and a hardener. When mixed, the
adhesive cures in just 60 to 80 minutes at low reaction temperatures up to 75 C. The adhesives cure speed can be adjusted
for the needs of the manufacturer,
allowing faster blade production
and greater yield per mold (1 MPa
in four hours at 20 C). It requires
no heat cure process or tempering
and minimizes energy consumption, helping to control energy
costs for blade manufacturers.
henkel Corp.
Rocky Hill, Conn.
(860) 571-5100
www.henkel.com

ELECTRIC MOTOR BRUSh hOLDERS MINIMIzES BRUSh NOISE


etCo inc. introduces the companys custom-manufactured carbon brush boxes for
electric motor OEMs that are designed to reduce brush noise and extend motor life. ETCO
carbon brush boxes are custom engineered to meet OEM design requirements for holding
brushes ranging from 0.031 inches to 0.75 inches. Made from bass and other materials
in sizes from 0.008 inches to 0.090 inches thick, tolerances can be held to 0.002 inches
across all critical-formed surfaces,
depending upon material. Custom
designed with multiple-formed
surfaces to provide an optimum
commutation system, ETCO carbon
brush boxes incorporate base extrusions and eliminate rivets. They
are formed in a high-speed progressive die, which dramatically
reduces the per part price, according to ETCO.
etCo inc.
Bradenton, Fla.
(941) 756-8426
www.etco.com

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

JANUARY 2012

59

new ProdUCts

send us your new product news with color photos to: tLt magazine, attn: Karl phipps, 840 Busse highway, park ridge, iL 60068, kphipps@stle.org

hIGh-FLOW ThERMOPLASTIC
VULCANIzATE GRADES
exxonmobil Chemical announces the release of the companys santoprene
121-XXm200 tPV high-flow thermoplastic vulcanizate (tPV) grades for
automotive parts requiring improved appearance and easier processing, such
as glass encapsulated weatherseals for quarter lights and side-fixed glass applications. Santoprene 121-XXM200 TPV grades exhibit a low dynamic viscosity,
which results in enhanced flow over a wide range of shear to produce molded
seals with excellent surface appearance and no flow marks. Processability is
improved as the injection pressure can be reduced by about 30%-40%, injection temperatures can be lowered by 10 C (50 F) and shorter cycle times are
possible, depending on part size and wall thickness. This may lead to sustainability benefits through less glass breakage and lower energy consumption,
along with the fact that TPVs are also fully recyclable. In addition, cost savings
are possible due to simplified processing and reduced cycle times. Available in
two hardness levels, 60 Shore A and 75 Shore A, Santoprene 121-XXM200 TPV
can be used as a drop-in replacement for existing materials.
exxonmobil Chemical Co.
Houston, Texas
(281) 870-6000
www.exxonmobilchemical.com

LOW-PRESSURE, TOP-PORTED
SPIN-ON FILTER
schroeder industries, a recognized leader in filtration and fluid conditioning products, introduces the companys spin-on filter, sAf1
series for return line applications. Certain hydraulic applications require components to be manufactured solely out of steel for increased
strength and a greater safety factor. The SAF1 Spin-On Filter was created
to meet these needs with its all-steel housing design. The SAF1 is suitable for mining, machine tool, power generation, forestry and paper
mill applications and features a machined steel head. Currently, offered
with the porting option SAE 3/4-inch straight thread, but other threading options are available upon
request. An integrated bypass
valve with optional Dirt Alarm
indicators enables operators to
identify the appropriate time to
change the element. The SAF1
comes with the Schroeder standard P size Spin-On Element in
10- and 25-micron Excellement
Z-Media or in 10-micron cellulose
media.

Formulate Green
With Fruits & Beans
Palm Based Oleochemicals & Derivatives:
Fatty Acids
Glycerine
Fatty Alcohols
Fatty Acid Esters
Fractionated Methyl Esters
(C610, C8, C10, C12, C1214, C14, C16, C1618, C18)
Castor Oil & Derivatives:
12 Hydroxy Stearic Acid
Hydrogenated Castor Oil
Methyl 12 Hydroxy Stearate

Visit our New Website: www.acme-hardesty.com


Call us for a free Oils & Fats Composition Chart

Acme-Hardesty Co.

schroeder industries
Leetsdale, Pa.
(800) 722-4810
www.schroederindustries.com
60

JANUARY 2012

CO Fatty Acid
Ricinoleic Acid
Sebacic Acid

450 Sentry Parkway East


Blue Bell, PA 19422
866.226.3834

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

JANUARY 2012 VOL. 68, NO. 1

TLT ADVERTISERS INDEX


Company

Page

Contact

Phone

e-mail

web

acme-hardesty co.

60

Bryan huston

(215) 591-3610

bhuston@acme-hardesty.com

www.acme-hardesty.com

afton chemical co.

iFc

Lauren ereio

(804) 788-6081

lauren.ereio@aftonchemical.com

www.aftonchemical.com

aLs tribology

37

Fran christopher

(281) 599-1242

fran.christopher@alstribology.com

www.alstribology.com

aspex corp.

64

molly caruso

(724) 468-5400

mcaruso@aspexcorp.com

www.aspexcorp.com

cannon instrument co.

43

patricia argiro

(814) 353-8000 ext. 267

pargiro@cannoninstrument.com

www.cannoninstrument.com

coquilub

16

estefani soto

+01(55) 58673941
ext. 103

e.soto@coquilub.com.mx

www.coquilub.com.mx

croDa

suresh swaminathan

(302) 429-5275

suresh.swaminathan@croda.com

www.croda.com

huntsman petrochemical corp.

49

sam Branco

(281) 719-4704

sam_branco@huntsman.com

www.huntsman.com

inolex chemical co.

24

sarah murphy

(215) 271-0800

smurphy@inolex.com

www.inolex.com

2012 international Joint


tribology conference

62

merle hedland

(630) 323-7212

mhedland@stle.org

www.stle.org

J.a.m. specialty products

65

John Filak

(713) 844-7730

jfilak@jamdistributing.com

www.jamdistributing.com

King industries inc.

57

Bob Burk

(203) 866-5551

bburk@kingindustries.com

www.kingindustries.com

LaNXess corp.

23

cindy Williams

(412) 809-3550

cindy.williams@lanxess.com

www.lanxess.com

Lonza inc.

31

Damali Noel

(770) 814-8275

damali.noel@lonza.com

www.lonza.com

the Lubrizol corp.

Jeffrey rhoades

(440) 347-1871

jeffrey.rhoades@lubrizol.com

www.lubrizol.com

mitsui chemicals

61

Gregory t. Bushman

(914) 251-4202

lucant@mitsuichem.com

www.mitsuichem.com

monson co.

45

Doug hiple

(609) 773-0031

dhiple@monsonco.com

www.monsonco.com

mnzing

oBc

alicia colacci

(973) 279-1306

acolacci@munzing.us

www.munzing.com

Nceed enterprises inc.

67

rolly enderes

(888) 726-3114

rolly@chemceed.com

www.nceed.com

pcc-chemax, inc.

41

melissa carson

(864) 422-6679

mcarson@pcc-chemax.com

www.pcc-chemax.com

pilot chemical

66

tom mcalpin

(513) 326-0636

tjmcalpin@pilotchemical.com

www.pilotchemical.com

rheinchemie

Julie Bradler

(440) 285-3547

julie.bradler@rheinchemie.com

www.rheinchemie.com

r.t. Vanderbilt co., inc.

iBc

Glenn Foster

(203) 853-1400 ext. 485

gfoster@rtvanderbilt.com

www.rtvanderbilt.com

sea-Land chemical co.

53

Joseph clayton

(440) 871-7887

joseph.clayton@sealandchem.com

www.sealandchem.com

spectro, inc.

robin palermo

(978) 431-1129

rpalermo@spectroinc.com

www.spectroinc.com

25, 69

Judy enblom

(847) 825-5536

information@stle.org

www.stle.org

58

Kara Lemar

(847) 825-5536

klemar@stle.org

www.stle.org

stLe 2012 annual meeting


stLe university

tlt

SYSTEMS,

STRATEGIES

& RESEARCH

FOR LUBRICATIO

AN

NALS

PUBLICATIO

N | JANUARY

2012

sis
oil analy
life)
How used- health (and
the
extend
ine.
mach
of your

Spread the word with TLT!


put the strong marketing power of tLts print and digital editions behind your sales message.
your ad will reach more than 13,000 leading lubricant industry professionals, including
manufacturers, additive suppliers and end-users. For more information on our competitive ad
rates, contact: tracy Nicholas Vanee, National sales manager, (630) 922-3459, tnicholas@stle.org.

N PROFESSIO

ive
Predict ance
en
Maint
can

G Y &
O LO
T R I B
T I O N
R I C A O G Y
LU B
L
H N O
T E C

r Coach

Caree

for
16 tips
rs
job seeke
Q&A
es with
20 Minut
r
Docto
The Gear
oil!
pour that
Dont
gies
Field strate
nt
lubrica
for basic
cation

identifi
2011

st
rs greate
Reade
ents
plishm
accom

.
tle.org

red by

Digital

TLT: Sponso

g at www.s

Mnzin

Tweet with us: Subscribe to STLEs twitter page at www.twitter.com/stle_tribology for the latest news, announcements and much more! 6 3

A SPE X AQC SYS TEM

The Power to Perceive is

The Power to Control


With an ASPEX AQC System, you can begin to control contamination by
evaluating the size, shape, and elemental composition of all particles present
in a fluid sample faster and more economically than ever before. You can detect,
analyze, classify and document up to 10,000 particles an hour automatically!
Our unique combination of SEM and EDS technologies gives you analytical
power at any point in the process whether its the lab or the manufacturing
floor. In minutes you can identify the presence of foreign particles and their
elemental composition data that can help you pinpoint the likely source in
the process. ASPEX AQC System providing the power to identify particles
and control process purity with confidence.
EXPERIENCE THE POWER TO PERCEIVE WITH A FREE ANALYSIS AT:

www.aspexcorp.com/tribology

175 Sheffi eld Drive Delmont, PA 15626-1723 USA


1.800.573.7736 www.aspexcorp.com

resoUrCes
TEChNICAL BOOKS

harmony with the natural environment through closure of


material cycles. In this second edition, the books structure
of basics, thermodynamic analysis of processes, case studies
and sustainability has been unaffected, but a few additions
have been made. New and updated information includes:

EFFICIENCY AND SUSTAINABILITY IN ThE ENERGY


AND ChEMICAL INDUSTRIES: SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES
AND CASE STUDIES, SECOND EDITION
Authors: Krishnan Sankaranarayanan, Hedzer J. van der Kooi
and Jakob de Swaan Arons
Publisher: CRC Press
Using classic thermodynamic principles as the point of departure, this new
edition of a popular resource supplies
the understanding and tools required
to measure process efficiency and sustainability with much improved accuracy. Exploring the driving forces in
the chemical and power industries, Efficiency and Sustainability in the Energy
and Chemical Industries: Scientific Principles and Case Studies, Second Edition investigates why losses occur and explains
how to reduce such losses. Numerous case studies, examples
and problems illustrate the thermodynamic analysis of process performance to explain how to effectively analyze and
optimize work flow and environmental resources. The authors compare the present industrial society with an emerging one in which mass production and consumption are in

A new chapter dedicated to the increasing levels of


CO2 emissions, with special attention to the removal
and storage of CO2.
A new chapter on the rapidly emerging hydrogen
economy.
An extended chapter on lifecycle analysis that examines the fate of the quality of energy during the lifecycle.
Increased focus on integrating the environment into
the thermodynamic analysis of the systems or processes considered.
New problem sets and exercises.
Complete with the keys to a quantification of process efficiency and sustainability, this cutting-edge resource is the
ideal guide for those engaged in the transition from fossilbased fuels to renewable and sustainable energy sources
using low-waste procedures. Available at www.crcpress.com.
List Price: $159.95 (USD).

Performance and service that are

LEADING EDGE
People and specialty products
you can count on.

SpectraSyn Ultra High VI


Polyalphaolefin Base Oils Group IV

Synesstic Alkylated Naphthalene Group V


Ultra-S Base Oils Group III

SpectraSyn Plus Base Oils Group IV Pure Performance Base Oils Group II
SpectraSyn Polyalphaolefin
ConoPure Process Oils
Base Oils Group IV
Esterex Esters Group V

Global Sales and Service

7010 Mykawa Houston, Texas 77033 800.228.3848 www.jamdistributing.com


Esterex, SpectraSyn, SpectraSyn Ultra and Synesstic are trademarks of Exxon Mobil Corporation. Ultra-S is a trademark and Pure Performance and ConoPure are registered by ConocoPhillips Company.

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

JANUARY 2012

65

resoUrCes
NEW ON ThE WEB
TIMKEN CREATES MOBILE APP FOR
AUTOMOTIVE & hEAVY TRUCK AFTERMARKET
the timken Co. has gone mobile with the companys
online auto-aftermarket catalog site (www.timkeninfo.
com) by releasing new applications designed for the
iPhone, Android and Blackberry smartphone devices.
The development of these mobile applications
enhances the ability of professional technicians and
do-it-yourselfers to do the job right the first time.
Through these applications, users can search for Timken products by year, make, model, part number or
even an industry part number. In addition, the app
offers convenient access to torque specifications for
Timken products, which were added to www.timkeninfo.com in 2011. Available torque specs cover axle
nuts, flange bolts and wheel studs.
Our customers tell us training and easy access
to information are two of the most important things
we can provide beyond quality products themselves,
says Barry Harris, Timkens manager of global strategy, marketing and cataloging. We want Timken to be
the trusted source for professional technicians to find
technical information about todays toughest bearing
and seal questions.

66

JANUARY 2012

STLE ChICAGO SECTION TO hOST


EDUCATION SEMINAR
the stLe Chicago section is offering a two-day education technical seminar titled, introduction to Lubrication, March 1415, at Ashton Place in Darien, Ill., near Chicago.
This training seminar is being offered for end-users and
newcomers to the field of lubrication. Scheduled topics include gears and gear lubrication, hydraulics 101, greases, steel
mill lubrication, diesel engine lubrication, wind turbines and
food grade lubricants. The seminar features speakers from
several world-class industrial and lubricant companies such
as Caterpillar, Afton Chemical Corp., ExxonMobil, Fuchs,
John Crane Inc., Arcelor/Mittal, Infineum, among others.
The cost for the two-day course is $275 (STLE members)
and $325 (non-members). Breakfast and lunch for both days
are included in the price of admission. In addition, an optional dinner is available on March 14 to attend the Chicago
Sections monthly meeting, which features STLE President
Dr. Michael T. Dugger of Sandia National Laboratories as the
guest speaker.
To register online, visit the STLE Chicago Section Web
site: www.chicagostle.org or contact Karen Harrington, program chair, at (708) 458-8450 ext. 225, karen.harrington@aftonchemical.com.

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

W W W. ST L E .O RG

STLE LOCAL SECTION MEETING CALENDAR


jANUARY 2012
10 stLe Cleveland section: ni-ti superelastic material Ball Bearings (speaker: Chris dellaCorte, nAsA) 4:30 p.m.-7 p.m., 100th
Bomb Squadron Restaurant, 20920 Brookpark Road, Cleveland. Contact: Joe Maimone, (216) 338-7391, stleclevelandsection@yahoo.com.

17 stLe hamilton section: Air-oil Lubrication: the Better Choice


(speaker: tim fawcett, hastec engineering) 5:15 p.m.-8:15
p.m., The Scottish Rite Club of Hamilton, 4 Queen Street
South, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Contact: Chris Webb,
(905) 536-4402, cwebb@hydrafab.com.

19 stLe Chicago section: Back to Basics: reliability through


Precision maintenance, Lubrication & Parts handling (speaker:
darrin Clark, Arcelormittal UsA) 5:15 p.m.-8:15 p.m., Ashton
Place, 341 75th Street, Willowbrook,
Ill. Contact: Rita Mickle, mobyrr@sb1-888-726-3114
cglobal.net.

11 stLe houston section: (speaker and topic tBd), 11 a.m.-1


p.m., Bradys Landing Restaurant, 8505 Cypress Street, Houston. Contact: Sunny Lopez, sunny.g.lopez@conocophillips.com.

www.nceed.com

$OZD\V
&RQQHFWHG

23 stLe Alberta section: data interpretation, the Power of Context


(speaker: evan Zabawski, fluid Life)
6 p.m.-8:30 p.m., Cedar Park Inn,
5116-103 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Contact: Stefanie Pepin,
(780) 468-3659, stefanie.e.pepin@
esso.ca.
26 stLe oklahoma section: (Plant
tour: A truck maintenance facility) For
further details and to register, contact: Alan Perry, allan.w.perry@conocophillips.

FEBRUARY 2012
7 stLe Cleveland section: regulatory status on Chlorinated Paraffins
(speaker: tom Kelly, dover Chemical),
4:30 p.m.-7 p.m., Great Lakes Brewery, 2516 Market Avenue, Cleveland.
Contact: Joe Maimone, (216) 3387391,
stleclevelandsection@yahoo.
com.

(YHU\WKLQJ\RXQHHGZLWKWKHFOLFNRIDEXWWRQ
$V\RXUVXSSOLHURIFRUURVLRQLQKLELWRUVDQGFDVWRUEDVHGSURGXFWV
ZHQRZPDNHLWHDV\IRU\RXWRVWD\LQWRXFKZLWKXVDQGJHW
DQVZHUVIDVWHU9LVLWXVRQOLQHWRYLHZRXUSURGXFWOLVWVSURGXFW
VSHFLILFDWLRQVDQGUHTXHVW06'6V

LQIR#QFHHGFRP

W W W. ST L E .O RG

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

8 stLe houston section: (speaker and


topic tBd), 11 a.m.-1 p.m., Bradys
Landing Restaurant, 8505 Cypress
Street, Houston. Contact: Sunny
Lopez, sunny.g.lopez@conocophillips.
com.
13 stLe toronto section: education
day seminar: specialty industrial Lubricants, tomorrows needs today
(Course starts @ 8 a.m.) The Old
Mill, 21 Old Mill Road, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. For more information:
call (800) 305-2806 (ask for Liz).
JANUARY 2012

67

CAreer CoACh

the career journey is not a


solo mission and involves
consistent collaboration.

Ken pelczarski

Position yourself
for growth
Are you doing all you can on a regular basis to advance your career?
eACh of Us hAs oUr own CAreer goALs,
which can vary greatly from one individual to
the next. Examples of goals include:

Manage other professionals


Advance into upper management
Climb a technical ladder
Work on cutting edge technology
Start a business
Become an industry-recognized
expert
Make a lot of money
Work for an industry-leading
company
Change industries or careers.

Several of these career goal examples do


not necessitate a job change, while others
may require that you consider opportunities
with a new company.
It does not matter if you are happy with
your current employer, unemployed, running
your own business or working outside your
primary field or in a part-time or temporary
role. The same principles for positioning
yourself for career advancement apply regardless of your employment situation.
Listed below are excellent ways to position yourself for career growth.
network. Whether or not you are searching for a new career opportunity, engage
regularly in this crucial activity to tell others
who you are, your career status and your interests and capabilities. Effective networking
involves a two-way exchange of ideas, information and assistance. Avoid asking directly
for a job.
Build relationships. Cultivate as many
close industry relationships as possible for
mutual support down the road. Show that
you can work with difficult people. Avoid
burning bridges.
68

JANUARY 2012

Be visible. Attend technical meetings,


trade shows, annual meetings, industry social functions and other events. Display industry involvement and dedication.
Create a personal branding statement. Compose a short, powerful marketing
statement about yourself describing talents
and benefits that you have to offer. Promote
your personal brand on a business card,
cover letter, resume and social networking
sites, as well as in professional conversations
and interviews.
Build a successful track record. Do
what it takes to succeed at whatever you endeavor. Take on difficult projects. Go the extra mile to meet a deadline. Stress to others
your motivation to achieve at a high level.
Be a team player. Assist, delegate and
give credit to team members. Help others to
be successful. Refrain from being on your
own mission.
Volunteer. Help within your company,
industry societies and professional organizations. Obtain recognition for giving something back. Build new relationships and acquire new learning in the process.
Build solid references. Ideally former
superiors but also peers, subordinates, customers and fellow volunteers. References
should be able to vouch for work record, success history, character, work ethic and attitude. Request written recommendations if
possible, including through LinkedIn.
Publish and present papers. Showcase
your talents, capabilities and willingness to
share your knowledge by writing for industry
publications and by speaking at local and national industry meetings.
Advance learning. Improve your knowledge and training by attending industry
seminars, technical presentations, online
STLE education courses and college-level
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

courses or by pursuing an advanced degree.


Become certified. Improve your credentials, prove your industry knowledge and
stand out in a crowded field by acquiring an
industry certification such as STLEs CLS,
OMA and CMFS credentials.
Keep a current resume. Be prepared for
opportunities even if you are not actively
looking for a new position. Keep track of
dates, responsibilities and accomplishments
along the way instead of trying to remember
information at a later time.
maintain complete background records. Documents that may come in handy
in employment situations include resume,
cover letter, education transcripts, list of references, recommendation letters, performance reviews, writing samples, list of publications and presentations, non-compete and
confidentiality agreements, awards, rankings
and earnings history.
Career management is not a scientific
process but one that requires constant evaluation and attention to increase the odds
that you will reach personal goals throughout your career. The journey is not solo and
involves consistent collaboration with other
professionals in your field.
You may already be doing well with most
of the points listed above, but it might pay to
review these points since we can all use a
career tune-up once in a while.
Heres wishing you a smooth career journey!
Ken Pelczarski is owner and
founder of Pelichem Associates,
a Chicago-based search firm
established in 1985 and
specializing in the lubricants
industry. You can reach Ken at
(630) 960-1940 or at
pelichem@aol.com.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

67th STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition


Technical and professional
development you cant
get anywhere else!
When it comes to advancing
your career and upgrading
your technical knowledge,
STLEs Annual Meeting
& Exhibition is a unique
event in the lubricants
industry.

1,200 of your
peers in the lubricants
community are expected
to participate in STLEs 67th
Annual Meeting & Exhibition.
Please join us in St. Louis for a
unique experience that blends the
best of industry education, technical
training, professional certification and
new technologies.
400 Technical Presentations
10 Industry-specific Education
Courses
70-exhibitor Trade Show
Commercial Marketing Forum
Networking
New Products
Professional Certification
Peer Recognition
Emerging Technologies

May 6-10, 2012


Renaissance Grand &
Americas Center
St. Louis, Missouri
(USA)

Student Posters
Business Planning

Visit www.stle.org for regular program updates and to register.


Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers
Phone: 847-825-5536 Fax: 847-825-1456 info@stle.org
www.stle.org

Follow Us @

on Condition monitoring
Jack poley

Complexity in

We now come to the crux of oil samplingthe evaluation.


dUring the eArLY 1960s I was interviewed by a writer for Popular Science
magazine. It was when I fi rst became
involved in oil analysis (OA) working
for the first commercial lab that used a
UV spectrometer for measuring wear,
contaminant and additive metals. This
was the beginning of commercial OA
as we currently know it, where the machine took precedence over the oil,
and condition monitoring began
though it didnt have a name then.
That would come 25 years later.
In the interview I simply explained
what we did, how we did it and why it
worked. The writer cleverly suggested
the analogy of going to a physician, for
example, submitting to a blood sample
and then discussing the results with
the doctor to arrive at a decision as to
possible treatment. Indeed, the medical analogy was perfect, if a bit haugh70

JANUARY 2012

ty. OA in those days had very little sophistication except for the multielement, semiautomated UV spectrometer invented by Walter Baird that
enabled cost-effective testing for most
oil-wetted systems. The interview was
indelible because that same analogy
was in the text of the articlewith the
quote attributed to me!

TESTING PROCEDURES
So is OA (including fuels and coolants) now sophisticated enough to be
compared to the blood work analogy?
With some leeway, yes. The rub, however, is that the physician is, and has
always been, in last position in this arbitrary scenario.
OA has been around as a commercial offering for more than six decades.
Millions upon millions of samples are
submitted for analysis these days.
T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

Contracts are based on testing to be


performed. Nowhere is it stipulated
that an evaluation (interpretation, data
analysis, etc.) of any kind will be performed. It is unfortunate that the most
critical aspect of OA (what to do?) is
taken for granted and otherwise
shunted off to the side. Admittedly, in
captive private systems, the needed
(and usually effective) evaluation may
be available via personnel onsite.
Based on my experience, this is exceptional and not the norm.
The correct analogy for OA and
medicine, therefore, is that the components blood sample is tested and a
comment may or may not be included
and may or may not be relevant or
complete. OA is sold by the test, not
the opinion. So opinions are free and,
in a lot of cases, thats what theyre
worth.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

oil analysis information Part II


Times are, in fact, changing, but
old habits and procedures dont simply
disappear or get replaced with better
habits and procedures overnight. In
the case of testing itself, procedures
are constantly being changed and improved (some of that depends on how
well these procedures are followed),
but evaluation has lagged until fairly
recently. Whats changed? Computerization and purpose-specific software.
We rely increasingly more on computers to perform tasks better than we
do. Sometimes the computer is misapplied, but the point is valid. OA Evaluation (OAE) is one of the tasks that
can now be relegated to software.
What has emerged is the development
of Expert Systems (exsys) and Intelligent Agents (a more sophisticated exsys that likely includes pattern recognition) that can perform qualified
OAE with relentless consistency. Isnt
consistency what we need in any OAE?
Certainly, as long as its not consistently incorrect (but when it is, we can
correct it system-wide, resulting in a
permanent fix). An intelligent agent
that is properly managed can constantly be improved as fresh knowledge and
experience are appropriately injected
to and absorbed by the software trampling valid algorithms already in place.
Following are three primary areas
in the rendering of an OA report:
1. Rating data for severity and rate
of change (trend)
2. Assessing the data ratings ensemble and providing an opinion for:
a. Machine Condition (wear,
primarily)
b. Lube Condition (degradation, contamination, incor-

Oil analysis testing procedures are constantly


being changed and improved with computerization
and software programs.
rect product, etc.)
c. Follow-up Action or not
(lube/filter maintenance, accelerated sampling, diagnostics, teardown/inspection,
etc.)
3. Rendering a report that is easy
to understand for people not directly involved in the OA processthe report recipient (there
could be a CMMS in the middle).

RATING DATA
This is actually not a difficult task on
the surface, but there are caveats and
nuances to consider. Given one has a
sufficient statistical quantity of like or
similar data, a statistical algorithm can
be applied to yield data thresholds for
notable, abnormal, high and severe ratings. Here are some of those nuances:
Component type and parameters.
Like data can have several levels of conformity. If we say hydraulic, what does that really
mean? It means any machine
that performs a (mostly) hydraulic function. In a large
plant, there could be numbers
of hydraulic systems, but they
could have vastly different mechanical characteristics. Consider types of hydraulic pumps:
vane, gear, axial-piston, centrifugal, e.g. Each is a specific type
of pump that has parameters
not related to its neighbor. It

would be foolish to lump all


these types of hydraulic pumps
into a single statistical analysis,
then expect good data ranges to
work with.
Manufacturers and models. Given
that we are meticulous in isolating each differing component
type (the first key and essential
information in performing an
evaluation), we should now
look to see if we have different
manufacturers involved with
each component type. If so, and
there are sufficient samples
(usually, at minimum, 30-50
samples from at least 4-10
unique components), we can
carry our statistical process
down to the manufacturer level.
Logically, we can go the model
level, as well, given the data are
available in sufficient quantity.
In the next column, well continue
our discussion on application considerations, along with comment rendering and report delivery.

Jack Poley is managing partner


of Condition Monitoring
International (CMI), Miami,
consultants in fluid analysis.
You can reach him at jpoley@
conditionmonitoringintl.com.
For more information about
CMI, visit www.condition
monitoringintl.com.

Tribo-dictionary: Rheologythe study of the deformation and flow of matter in terms of stress, strain, temperature and time.

71

worLdwide
r. David Whitby

Preventing bearing failures


Use this eight-step analysis to detect problems early.
when BALL or roLLer BeArings
fAiL, machine downtime usually
leads to high costs and lost production time. Fortunately, catastrophic
failures of bearings are rare. Most
often, distinct symptoms indicate
that bearing damage occurs long before the bearing actually fails. More
important, a methodology that addresses the symptoms of bearing
damage should be implemented as
soon as possible.
Experience has shown that damage to, and subsequent failure of, a
bearing is seldom due to faults in the
bearing. It is more often due to the
treatment the bearing received or
the use to which it was put.
inspection of a bearing is usually not enough to
The first sign of damage is frepinpoint the precise cause of damage.
quently indicated by unusual operating behavior such as uneven running,
reduced working accuracy, unusual
tions on the bearing. This can take the form of
running noises or any combination of
indentations caused by rolling elements, corthe three. It is critical to record these early
rosion or fractures. It can be recognized most
indicators, as information gained in this early
easily using a combination of vibration and
period of degradation can be very useful in
lubricant monitoring. Vibration methods reliidentifying the root cause of a problem. As a
ably detect fatigue damage at any early stage
bearing becomes more damaged, root cause
but are not suitable for detecting lubrication
analysis becomes increasingly difficult.
problems.
The key to detecting early signs of a probWidespread damage is often the result of
lem is effective condition monitoring. For
an insufficient supply of clean lubricant. Failmany applications, monitoring by the maures of this type can be detected by monitorchine operator is usually sufficient to detect
ing the lubricant supply. Oil flow can be moniunusual noises at an early stage. In situations
tored for pressure, flow and cleanliness. A
where downtime is critical or hazardous,
magnetic plug in the lubricant supply system
more formalized monitoring might be regives a crude indication of lubricant condiquired, for example, assessing lubricant
tion, while a spectrophotometric or ferrocleanliness and measuring bearing temperagraphic analysis can be used to provide a
ture and vibration analysis.
more precise check.
The type of condition monitoring used deTemperature can be monitored using
pends on the experience of previous failures
thermocouples and gives a very reliable indiand the production environment in which the
cator of impending bearing problems. Norbearing is used. Bearing damage can genermally a system reaches a steady-state temally be classified as localized or widespread.
perature and shows a sudden rise when there
The first is usually restricted to specific loca72

JANUARY 2012

T R I B O LO GY & LU B R I CAT I O N T EC H N O LO GY

is a lack of lubricant. The temperature typically rises unevenly over


time if the grease is deteriorating.
When a damaged bearing has to
be removed, the cause must be established to avoid future failures. Inspection of the bearing alone is not
usually enough to pinpoint the precise cause of damage.
Following are eight systematic
procedures for removing, securing
and inspecting the bearing:
1. Determine bearing operating data
and check the bearing environment for external influences and
other damage.
2. Evaluate records and charts from
any bearing-monitoring devices.
3. Take lubricant samples.
4. Assess the bearing in its mounted
condition.
5. Mark the mounting position and then
dismount the bearing.
6. Mark the bearing and its parts.
7. Check the bearing seats.
8. Assess the complete bearing.
This methodology is comprehensive, but
its usefulness declines if the level of damage
is excessive. The earlier a bearing can be dismounted, the more effective the assessment
process. Examination of the failure mode can
reveal the true cause of failure but can be
complicated by the fact that one failure mode
may initiate another.

David Whitby is chief executive


of Pathmaster Marketing Ltd.
in Surrey, England.
You can contact him at
pathmaster@dial.pipex.com.
W W W. ST L E .O RG

In a world of what ifs


180 years of problem solving

Defoamers
FOAM BAN
Metalworking Fluids
Non-Aqueous Lubricants
Industrial Cleaners
Surface Treatment

At Mnzing, we can handle any "what if" that comes our wayand weve been solving foaming issues
for longer than any other additives company. In addition to offering an exceptional product line, our expert
formulators can duplicate your problem and then create, test and recommend a balanced defoamer for
almost every system. Mnzing: its where innovation and technology meet.

To try our FOAM BAN defoamers and take advantage


of our unlimited technical service, call 973-279-1306.

www.munzing.com I info@munzing.us