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Chemistry Project Report on Rusting of Iron

Declaration
I, Sagar Gupta student of XI-B is doing project report entitled Rusting of Iron being
submitted to our Chemistry Teacher Mr. N.K. Sharma is an original piece of work done by
me.

(Signature)

Rusting of Iron
INTRODUCTION

Ironisoneofthewidelydistributedelementsinthenature.Oneofits
strikingcharacteristicsisthatitundergoesrustingoncombiningwith
water,air&carbondioxideduetowhichitssurfacegetscoveredwith
aredbrownflakecoatingcalled"RUST".RUSTisaffectedbymoisture,
oxygen&carbondioxide.RUSTissoftandporousanditgradually
fallsofffromthesurfaceofironmaterial.Itisacontinuousprocessand
itgraduallyeatsupironduetowhichanironobjectlosesitsstrength.
Itisverywastefulprocessandshouldbeprevented.Itisveryveryslow
process.

Theory - Rusting of Iron


Whenapieceofironmetalisexposedtohumidatmosphere,itsgets
coveredwitharedbrownsubstancecalled"Rust".Rustingofironcan
beexplainedonthebasisofelectroCHEMICALTHEORYasfollows:
1.Watervapoursonthesurfaceofthemetaldissolvedcarbondioxide
andoxygenfromtheair.Thusthesurfaceofmetaliscoveredwiththe
solutionofcarbondioxidewithwater,i.e.carbonicacid:
H2O+CO2======>H2CO3(i)
Thisactsasanelectrolyticsolutionofthecell.Thecarbonicacidand
waterdissociatetoasmallextentasfollows:
H2CO3<======>2H++CO32
H2O<======>H++OH(ii)
2.IronincontactwiththedissolvedCO2andO2undergoesoxidationas
follows:
Fe=========>Fe+++2e(iii)
Asaresultironisconvertedintoferrous(Fe++)ion.
3.TheelectronslostbyironaretakenupbytheH+ionspresentonthe
surfaceofmetalwhichwereproducedbythedissociationofH2CO3and
H2O.ThusH+ionsareconvertedintoHatoms.
H++e=======>H(iv)

ThusHatomseitherreactwiththedissolvedoxygenoroxygenfromair
tofromwater.
4H+O2======>2H2O(v)
Thecompletereactionmaybewrittenas:
O2+4H++4e======>2H2O(vi)
ThedissolvedoxygenmaytakeupelectronsdirectlytofromOHions
asfollows:
O2+2H2O+4e======>4OH(vii)
Theoverallreactionoftheminiaturecellwillbe:
2Fe(s)+O2(g)+4H+(aq)===>2Fe++(aq)+2H2O(l)
4.Theferrousionsformedreactwiththedissolvedoxygenoroxygen
fromairtofromferricoxidasfollows:
4Fe+++O2+4H2O======>2Fe2O3+8H+(aq)

FerricoxidethenundergoeshydrationtoformRUSTasfollows:
Fe2O3+xH2O=======>Fe2O3xH2O
Hydratedferricoxide(RUST)

Requirements
Apparatus:
i)Boilingtubes
ii)Rubberstopper
iii)Ironnails
iv)Burner
v)Testtube,Holder&Stand
Chemicals:
i)DistilledWater
ii)DiluteHCL
iii)DiluteNaClSolution
iv)AnhydrousCalciumChloride
v)Cotton
vi)MustardOil
Procedure - Iron Rusting
i)TakefivedrytesttubesandmarkthemA,B,C,DandE.Take10
piecesofironnailsfreefromrust.
ii)Moisttwoironnailswithdistilledwaterandslideitinthetesttube
markedAclosethemouthofthetube.
iii)InthetesttubeBtake5mlofwaterandboilitsoastoremove
dissolvedair.Slidetwonailsinthistesttubeandfewdropsofmustard
oilsoastocoverthesurfaceofH2O.

iv)InthetesttubeCtake5mlofdiluteNaClsolution.Slidetwonails
andcloseit.
v)InthetesttubeOaddtwopiecesofhydrouscalciumchlorideand
coveritwiththinlayerofcotton.Againslide3nailsandcloseit.
vi)leavethesetesttubesassuchfor45daysandobservecarefullyin
whichofthetubesrustisformed.

Observations
i)ItisobservedthatrustingtakesplaceinthetesttubeAandCwhere
asnotinB,D,andE.
ii)Moisture,oxygenandcarbondioxidepresentinairareresponsible
forrusting.

iii)Itappearsthatduringacompoundofironisformedbythe
combinationofironoxygen,carbondioxideandwater.
iv)Itisobservedthatwhentheprocesswasprolongedinthepresence
ofmoistairandacids,rustingspreadsquickly.

Methods of Prevention
i)

Rustingofironcanbepreventedbycoveringitssurfacewith
paints,greaseandlacquers.

ii)Galvanisation:Thisisoneofwidelypracticalmethodsusedforthe
preventionofrusting.ThelayerofZinconthesurfaceofiron,when
comesincontactwithmoisture,oxygenandcarbondioxideinair,
ferrousaprotectiveinvisiblethinlayerofbasiczinccarbonateZnCO3.
Zn(OH)2duetowhichthegalvanisedironsheetslosetheirlustureand
alsotendstoprotectitfromfurthercorrosion.
iii)Rustingofironcanalsobepreventedbycoatingitssurfacewith
iron(II,III)oxideFe3O4oriron(III)phosphateFePo4.

Conclusions

(i)Rustisformedbyprolongedactionofwateroxygenandcarbon
dioxideonanironunderothersuitableconditions.
(ii)Moisture,Oxygenandcarbondioxidepresentinair,allresponsible
forrusting.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to


my teacher Mr. N.K. Sharma who gave me the golden
opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic
Rusting of Iron ,
which also helped me in doing a lot of research and i
came to know about so many new things. I am really
thankful to him.

Secondly i would also like to thank my parents who

helped me a lot in finalizing this project within the limited


time frame.