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College Objective Chemistry-I

Chapter # 02

Long Questions

THE THREE STATES OF MATTER


GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

MATTER
Q.1

What is matter ? How many states of matter ? Write down the properties of Gases,
Liquids and Solids ?

Anything which has mass and occupies space is called matter.

Structure of Matter
Modern physics has revealed successively deeper layers of structure in ordinary matter. Matter is composed, on a
tiny scale, of particles called atoms. Atoms are in turn made up of minuscule nuclei.

State of Matter:
Matter exists in four states. The smallest structural unit of all these states
of matter is molecule.
(1)
Gas
(2)
Liquid
(3)
Solid
(4)
Plasma

1. Properties of Gas:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

2. Properties
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)
(vi)

Shape:
A gas has no shape of its own but it acquires the shape of the container.
Volume: It has no volume. It can be compressed or expanded.
Diffusion: The gas molecules can be diffused from one place to another place easily.
Compression: It can be compressed due to large space between the gases molecules.
Expansion: It can be expanded. This is because they are lighter particles than others.
Motion: They move freely from one place to another.
of Liquid:
Shape:
A liquid has no shape of its own but it acquires the shape of the container.
Volume: It has fixed volume. It is slightly compressible.
Diffusion: The molecules of liquids move away from each other. It can be diffused slowly
Compression: It can be compressed to negligible extent.
Expansion: It can be expanded by heating.
Motion: The molecules of liquids move away from each other.

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3. Properties of Solid:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)
(v)

Shape:
A solid has definite shape of the container.
Volume: It has definite volume. It cannot be compressed but appreciably by high pressure.
Diffusion: The diffusion in solid is negligible.
Compression: It cannot be compressed but appreciably by high pressure.
Motion: They cannot move away from each other and they vibrate to and fro about their
mean position.

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES


Q.2

Write down the main postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases.

Introduction:
Kinetic molecular theory of gases deals with the study in which particles of
liquid in random motion and collide with each other and with the walls of
container. They possess special type of energy known as Kinetic energy.
Maxwell and Boltzmann discussed the distribution of velocities and
energies among the molecules. The summary of the behaviour of gases is
called Kinetic molecular theory of gases. It is given in the form of following
postulates.

Postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory of Gases:


Main postulates of kinetic molecular theory of gases are as under:
(1) Composition of Molecules:
A gas consists of very small microscopic particles called 'molecules'. Depending upon the nature of gas each gas
molecule may consist of an atom or group of atoms.
(2) Size of Molecules:
The distance between the gases molecules is small. They occupy negligible volume as compare to total volume of
the vessel.
(3) Motion between Molecules:
The gases molecules travel in random direction. The average distance between two collisions in gas molecules is
known as Mean free path.
(4) Intermolecular Distance:
The gases molecules are widely separated from another and having negligible volume and may be compressed
easily due to large empty space.
(5) Collision between Molecules:
The gases molecules collide with each other and walls of container. During these collisions they change the
directions. They have elastic collision. Elastic collision is that in which they neither lose nor gain energy.
(6) Attraction and Repulsion:
There is no force of attraction or repulsion among the molecules of gases.
(7) Effect of Temperature:
When temperature is applied on gases molecules, the average kinetic energy of gases molecules is also increased.
So average kinetic energy of molecules is proportional to temperature.
(8) Effect of Pressure:
When gas pressure is increased the collision between gases molecules is also increased.
(9) Kinetic Energy of Molecules:
The average kinetic energy of gas molecules is directly proportional to absolute temperature. At a given
temperature, the molecules of all gases have the same kinetic energy.

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KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF LIQUIDS


Q.3 Write down the main postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids.
Postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquids:
Main postulates of kinetic molecular theory of liquids are as under:
(1) Particles of liquids (like gases) are randomly arranged.
(2) These particles consist of clusters in which they are close to each other. Thats why they much more difficult
to compress than gases.
(3) The particles of liquid are free to move, and so liquid can flow, can be poured and assumes the shape of its
container.
(4) Hence they have no definite shape but of its container.

KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF SOLIDS


Q.4

Write down the main postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory of Solids.

Postulates of Kinetic Molecular Theory of Solids:


Main postulates of kinetic molecular theory of solids are as under:
(1) Particles of solids are arranged in regular three dimensions and have less empty space
than gas molecules.
(2) The particles in solid are very close packed to each other due to strong attractive force
between them.
(3) They are unable to move freely because the have little space between them.
(4) They cannot be compressed but by appreciably pressure so they possess definite shape
and volume.

Q.5 What do you know about the following terms ?


1) Definition of Pressure:
The force exerted by gaseous particles per unit area is called Pressure.
Formula:
Force
Pressure =
Area
Units of Pressure:
Force
Newton
Pressure =
=
Area
m2
2
Kg.m /S
Kg
Pressure =
=
m2
mS2

2) Definition of Temperature:
The degree of hotness and coldness of body is called Temperature.
Unit of Temperature:
The S.I unit of temperature is degree Absolute (A0) or K0.

3) Definition of Volume:
The space occupied by substance is called Volume.
Unit of Volume: The S.I unit of volume is cubic decimeter (dm3).

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4) Definition of Diffusion:
The spreading out of the gases molecules throughout the vessel is called Diffusion.
OR
The spontaneous mixing of molecules of different gases by random motion and collisions to form a
homogenous mixture is called Diffusion.
OR
The spontaneous flow of molecules from a region of higher concentration to a region of low concentration
is called Diffusion.
Explanation:
If there are two gases NO2 and O2, when separated by partition are allowed to mix by removing the partition, then
they diffuse into each other. They generate a homogenous mixture.

5) Definition of Effusion:
The passage of gas molecules one by one without collisions through a pin hole in their container into an
evacuated space is called Effusion.
OR
The process in which a gas passes through the pores or tiny holes in the vessel is called Effusion.

Explanation:
The reality is that the molecules of the gas are habitual in colliding with the walls of the vessel. When they reach
the wall and find a hole in that then they pass through the hole.

6) Definition of Compressibility:
The decrease in volume with a rise of pressure is called Compressibility.

7) Definition of Expansibility:
The increase in volume with the decrease of pressure is called Expansibility.

GASEOUS STATE
Q. 6

Explain the behaviour of Gaseous State.

The gases molecules are widely separated from each other. They have more kinetic energy than liquid and solid.

(1) Volume of Gases Molecules:


The gases molecules are widely separated from each other and travel in random direction. Therefore all the gases
acquire the volume of the container, in which they are placed.

(2) Diffusibility:
According to Kinetic Molecular Theory the gases molecules have large space between them. Due to space they
move freely and mixed with each other and spread out easily the space available in the container. For example
ammonia gas is liberated in room; its odour soon spreads through out the room.
(3) Compressibility:
The large empty spaces are present between the molecules of gases in gaseous state. Therefore when a gas is
subjected to compress by pressure these empty spaces reduced.

(4) Effect of Temperature:


When temperature is applied on gases molecules, the volume increased is called Expansion and decreased is called
Contraction.

(5) Effect of Pressure:


The force per unit area is called Pressure. According to Kinetic Molecular Theory when pressure is applied on
gases molecules the volume is decreased. Pressure is developed by the collision of molecules of gas on the wall of
container.

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LIQUID STATE
Q.7

Explain the behaviour of Liquid State.

The behaviour of liquid can be explained by following.

(1) Diffusibility:
According to Kinetic Molecular Theory the liquid molecules are in cluster form, they are very close to one
another. They are obtained by strong intermolecular force. The intermolecular distance is smaller and collision
frequency is higher as a result, the diffusion.

(2) Expansion:
According to Kinetic Molecular Theory when temperature is applied on the liquid the kinetic energy increases as a
result, their motion increase and the attraction between them weaken, then they can expand.
(3) Contraction:
According to Kinetic Molecular Theory when liquid is cooled, it contracts and solidifies. This is because its kinetic
energy is lowered.

(4) Compressibility:
When pressure is applied on liquid molecules they can be compressed from little space between the molecules.

(5) Volume and Temperature:


According to Kinetic Molecular Theory when temperature is applied on the liquid molecules like gases, the volume
of liquid molecules increases. Because kinetic energy if liquid molecules increases. Therefore the volume of liquid
is increased.

ABSOULTE SCALE / ABSOLUTE ZERO OF TEMPERATURE


Q.8

Explain Absolute Scale / Absolute Zero of temperature with examples.

There are different scales for the measurement of temperature


such as Celsius C and Fahrenheit C. Similarly another scale
known as absolute scale or Kelvin scale is determined on the
basis of Charle's law.
On the basis of Charle's law we known that the volume of the
gas changes to 1/273 times of its original volume for each 1 C
change of temperature. It suggests that the volume of a gas
would theoretically be zero at -273C. But this temperature has
never been achieved for any gas because all the gases condense
to liquid at a temperature above this point. So the minimum
possible temperature for a gaseous system is to be -273C. This
temperature is referred as absolute zero or zero degree of the
absolute scale or Kelvin scale.
To form an absolute scale thermometer if the equally spaced
divisions of centigrade thermometer are extended below zero
and when the point -273C is marked then this point is called as
absolute zero and the scale is called as absolute scale. It shows
that for the conversion of centigrade scale into Kelvin scale 273
is added to the degrees on the centigrade scale.

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BOYLES LAW
Q.9

State and explain Boyles Law. How Boyles Law can be represented graphically
and mathematically ?

Introduction:
Boyles law is a quantitative relationship between volume and pressure of a gas at constant temperature.

Statement:
"The volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to pressure if temperature remains constant ".

Explanation:

According to Boyles Law if pressure is increased of a gas at constant temperature then the volume of a given mass
is decreased and at constant temperature if pressure is double on a gas its volume decreases to one-half. If pressure
is reduced to half the volume of gas will be double.

Example:
Take three vessels and provided with moveable piston. Now introduce equal volume and applying pressure on gas
by keeping different weights on each of the pistons.

We have observed the vessel No:3 has small volume due to more pressure i-e time when vessel No:2 has greater
volume than vessel No:3 when vessel No:1 has larger volume due to small pressure. It has verified V is inversely
proportional to P.

Mathematical representation of Boyles law:


According to Boyles law
V 1/P (When n and T are constant)
V= k (1/P)
PV= k
Where k is the proportionality constant and n is the number of moles of gas. The value of k is different
amounts of the same gas. It also depends upon the pressure and quantity of the gas. According to equation (1)
Boyles law has got another statement.

Statement:
The product of pressure and volume of a fixed amount of a gas is a constant quantity at constant temperature.
Let the initial pressure and initial volume are P1 and V1. final pressure and final volume are P2 and V2.
Since

P1V1 = k ------------------ (1)


P2V2 = k ------------------(2)
Comparing (1) & ( 2)
P1V1 = P2V2

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Experimental Verification of Boyles Law:


Boyles Law can be verified by following:
Take a gas in a cylinder with moveable piston which is attached with a manometer to record the pressure. The
volume V1 of the given quantity of a gas at pressure P1=1 atm. is reduced in proportion to the increase in pressure,
when the temperature is kept constant. When the piston is pressed twice the pressure becomes two atmospheres.
When this piston is pressed three times, then the pressure becomes three atmospheres. If the initial volume at two
atmospheres is 1dm3, then it becomes 0.5 dm3 and then 0.33 dm3, respectively with increasing pressures. The value
of the product of pressure and volume remains same at same temperature.

Graphical Representation of Boyles Law:


In order to explain the Boyles law we can plot a graph between pressure of the gas on x-axis and volume of the gas
at y-axis at constant temperature. The amount of gas also remains constant.

V
volume V1

P1V1

V2

P2 V2

Pressure

1/p

If the volume of a gas is plotted against the pressure a parabolic curve is obtained showing the decrease in volume
with increase in pressure. If the volume of a gas is plotted against 1/p a straight line is obtained.

Explanation of Boyles Law in term of Kinetic Molecular Theory:


According to Kinetic Molecular Theory if the temperature remains constant and volume is decreased, the average
velocity of the gas molecules remains constant they collide more frequently with the walls of smaller vessel. The
more frequent collision cause higher pressure.

Limitation of Boyles Law:


This law is not obeyed by gas under condition conditions of high pressure and low temperature.

CHARLESS LAW
Q. 10 State and explain Charless Law. Explain. How Charless Law can be represented
graphically and mathematically ?
Introduction:
It is quantitative relationship between volume and absolute temperature of a gas at constant pressure.

First Statement:
The volume of the given mass amount of the gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature when the
pressure is kept constant.

Second Statement:
"The volume of a given mass of a gas increases or decreases by 1/273 times of its original volume at 0 0C for
every degree fall or rise of temperature at given pressure."

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Explanation:
According to Charless law the variation in volume takes
place due to temperature. When pressure of the given mass
of gas kept constant, if more temperature is provided to
system or gas the volume is increased and if temperature is
low then its volume would be small.

Mathematical representation:
Let the volume of a gas at T Kelvin is V
Then according to Charless law
V T (Pressure and number of moles are constant)
V=k T
V/T=k
Where k is the proportionality constant. Its value is different for different amounts of the same gas. The value of k
also depends upon the temperature maintained.

Third Statement:
The ratio of the volume to the absolute temperature of a fixed amount of gas remains constant
at constant pressure
V1/T1 = k ---------------(1)
V2/T2 = k ---------------(2)
Thus
V1/T1 = V2/T2

Experimental Verification of Charless Law:

In order to verify this law, let us consider a fixed amount of gas enclosed in a cylinder with a movable piston. Let
the initial volume is V1 at temperature T2. When the cylinder is heated the volume and temperature of the gas will
rise. During this change pressure is kept constant because the piston moves upwards and final volume and
temperate are V2 and T2.

Explanation of Charless Law in term of Kinetic Molecular Theory:

According to Kinetic Molecular Theory a decrease in temperature, the decreases the average kinetic energy of the
gas molecules, that is, average molecular velocity decreases. At constant pressure, the decreased velocity causes the
sample of gas to shrink and occupy a smaller volume.
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AVOGADROS LAW
Q.11 State and explain Avogadros Law.
Introduction:
In 1811 Avogadro gave a relationship between volume and number of molecules of gas is called Avogadros Law.

Statement:
Equal volume of all gases at same temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.

Explanation:
According to Avogadros law, 1 cubic meter of oxygen at STP contains the same number of particles as 1 cubic
meter of nitrogen at STP. Restated, Avogadro's law says that one mole of any gas at STP occupies a volume of 22.4
liters. A mole is 6.02 1023 basic particles (atoms or molecules) of a substance. The extremely large number
6.02 1023 is called Avogadro's number.

1 mole H2 at S.T.P
Volume= 22.4dm3
Mass = 2gm

1 mole N2 at S.T.P
Volume= 22.4 dm3
Mass = 28gm

1 mole O2 at S.T.P
Volume= 22.4 dm3
Mass = 32gm

1 mole He at S.T.P
Volume= 22.4 dm3
Mass = 4gm

Examples:
1 mole of N2 = 22.4 dm3 at S.T.P
= 28gm of N2
= 6.02 x 1023 molecules.

Mathematical Representation:
It can be represented as
V n
Where v is volume and n is number of moles at constant temperature and pressure.

Uses of Avogadros Law:


It is used to calculate the number of molecules.
It is used to calculate the number of atoms.
It is used to calculate the mass of substance.

GENERAL GAS EQUATION (IDEAL GAS EQUATION)


Q.12 Derive Ideal Gas Equation and General Gas Equation.
Ideal Gas Equation:
When three gases laws Boyles law, Charless law and Avogadros law are combined and formed an equation is
called ideal gas equation.
According to Boyles Law :
Volume of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to pressure if temperature remains constant
V 1/P (When T and n are constant)-------------------(1)

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According to Charless law:
Volume of a given mass of a gas is directly proportional to absolute temperature if pressure remains constant.
V T (When P and n are constant) ----------------------(2)
According to Avogadros law:
Volume of a gas is directly proportional to no of moles.
V n (When P and T are constant) -----------------------(3)
Combining 1,2,and 3
nxT
V
P
nxT
V =R
P
PV = nRT
Here, R= Universal gas constant. Value of R is equal to 0.0821 dm3.atmosphere/mole.k
R has different values in different systems of unit. This is the equation of state of a gas (Ideal Gas Equation)

General Gas Equation for one mole of gas:


When the gas is one mole, n=1
PV = RT
Let us have one mole of a gas at two different conditions. At temperature T1, volume V1 and pressure P1, we have
P1V1 = RT1
R
= P1V1 / T1 ------------------ (1)
When the conditions are changed as T2, V2 andP2 for one mole of the same gas, then
P2V2 = RT2
R
= P2V2 / T2 ----------------- (2)
Combining equation (1) & (2)
P1V1 = P2V2
T1
T2

NUMERICAL VALUES OF GAS CONSTANT R


Q.13 Derive the numerical values of gas constant R in atmosphere dm3/mole k and in
joule / mole k.
The numerical values of R depends upon the units in which P,V,T and the masses of gas are expressed.
(1) Value of R in atm.dm3/mole.k :
Consider one mole of an ideal gas at S.T.P.
As we know that at S.T.P. one mole of any gas occupies 22.4dm3 volume.
Data:
T = 0 0C + 273 = 273K , P=1 atm , n =1 mole, V =22.4 dm3
R=?
According to ideal gas equation
PV = nRT
R = PV/nT
R =1atmp x 22.4 dm3/1 mole x 273K
R = 0.0821 atm . dm3/mole .

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(2) Value of R in Joules / mole . k:


Consider one mole of an ideal gas at S.T.P
Data:
P=1.01 x 105 N/m2 , T = 0 0C + 273 = 273K0
n =1 mole , V =22.4 dm3 = 22.4/1000=0.0224 m3
R =?

According to ideal gas equation


PV = nRT
R=PV/nT
R = 1.01 x 105 x 0.0224/ 1x 273
R = 8.31 J/mole K

GRAHAMS LAW OF DIFFUSION


Q.14 State and explain Grahams Law of Diffusion.
First Statement:
The rate of diffusion or effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of density

Second Statement:
The comparative rates of diffusion of two gases are inversely proportional to the square root of their densities.

Explanation:
Graham established a relationship between the rate of diffusion of gases and their densities. Intermixing of two or
more gases to form a homogeneous mixture without any chemical change is called "DIFFUSION OF GASES".
Diffusion is purely a physical phenomenon. Gases diffuse very quickly due to large empty spaces among
molecules. Different gases diffuse with different rates (velocities).
Graham's law is a quantitative relation between the density and rate of diffusion of gases.

Mathematical Representation:
Consider two gases A and B having mass densities d1 and d2 and their rates of diffusions are r1 and r2 respectively.
According to Graham's law of diffusion:
For gas A:

OR
For gas B:

OR
Dividing equation (i) by equation (ii)

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Since the molecular mass of a gas is directly proportional to its density therefore we may use molecular mass
instead of densities.
Hence.STssqwsdqwdATEMENT

Where M1 and M2 are the molecular masses of the two gases.

Applications of Grahams Law:


There are following applications:
To determine the molecular weight and density of gas.
To separate different isotopes of gas from one gas to another.
To minimizing toxic effect.

Explanation of Grahams Law in term of Kinetic Molecular Theory:


According to Kinetic Molecular Theory lighter particles move faster than the heavier particles because the average
velocity of lighter particles is greater than heavier particles.

DALTONS LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE


Q.15 State and explain Daltons Law of Partial Pressure. How it can be explained in term
of kinetic molecular theory ?
First Statement:
The total pressure exerted by the mixture of gases is equal to sum of individual partial pressure
at given temperature.

Second Statement:
The sum of partial pressure of all the different gases in a mixture is equal to the total pressure of the mixture.

Explanation:
In a mixture of different gases which do not react
chemically each gas behaves independently of the
other gases and exerts its own pressure. This
individual pressure that a gas exerts in a mixture of
gases is called its partial pressure.
Based on this behaviour of gases, JOHN DALTON
formulated a basic law which is known as "The
Dalton's law of partial pressure".
Whenever ideal gases are mixed, they collide on the
walls of the container independently so the total
pressure is contributed by all the gases.

Example:
Air is a mixture of several gases ,like N2 = 78 %, O2
= 21% , Ar = 0.93%, CO2 = 0.03% and many other
gases. The total pressure of the atmosphere is equal
to the sum of individual partial pressure.

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Mathematical Representation:
Consider a mixture of three non-reacting gases a , b and c .Partial pressures of these gases are Pa ,Pb and Pc
According to Dalton's law of partial pressure, their total pressure is given by:

Ptotal = Pa + Pb + Pc
Where P is total pressure exerted by all gases and Pa, Pb and Pc are partial pressure exerted by each gases a, b and c
respectively. According to General gas equation:
PV = nRT
P1V = n1RT
P2V = n2RT
P3V = n3RT
Adding above three equations
V (P1 + P2 + P3) = (n1 + n2 + n3) RT

Calculation of Partial Pressure:

Dividing PV =nRT by P1V = n1RT we get


P1V / PV = n1RT / nRT
P1 / P = n1 / n
P = P1 x n1 / n
Where n is number of mole of gas and P is partial pressure
So
Total Pressure x number of mole of gas
Partial Pressure =
Total Moles

Explanation of Daltons Law of Partial Pressure in term of Kinetic Molecular Theory:


According to kinetic molecular theory of gases there is no force of attraction or repulsion among the gas molecules.
Thus each gas behaves independently in a mixture and exerts its own pressure.
In terms of KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY, Dalton's law of partial pressure can be explained as:
"In a non-reacting mixture of gases, each gas exerts separate pressure on the container in which it is confined due to
collision of it's molecules with the walls of container. The total pressure exerted by the gaseous mixture is equal to
the sum of collisions of the molecules of individual gas.

IDEAL GASES AND REAL GASES


Q.16 What are Ideal and Real Gases ? What are the conditions under which gases
deviate from their ideal behaviour ?
Ideal Gases:
The gas laws (PV = nRT) and whose behaviour can be predicated by kinetic molecular theory is called Ideal gas.

Real Gas OR Non-Ideal Gas:


A gas , which does not obey the gas laws is called Non-ideal gas or Real gas.
Actually there is no gas, which is perfectly ideal. All the actual gases, like H2, O2, CO2 etc are non-ideal gases
because these do not obey gas laws.

Conditions under which deviation from Ideal Gas:


There are following two conditions at which gases show deviation from their ideal behaviour.
(1) At very high pressure
(2) At very low temperature

Cause of deviation from ideal gas:


Actually two postulates of the kinetic molecular theory of gases is faulty. It means that general gas equation is
faulty. Those two postulates of kinetic theory of gasses are as follows:
(1) There are no forces of attraction among the molecules of gases.
(2) The actual volume of gas molecules is negligible as compared to the volume of the vessel.

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VISCOSITY
Q.17 Define and explain Viscosity. What the factors which affect on Viscosity of
molecules ?
Definition:
The measure if internal resistance of liquid to its flow is called Viscosity.
OR
Internal friction present between two layers of a liquid which resists the flow of liquid is commonly
known as Viscosity.

Explanation:
Unlike gas, liquid molecules having property to flow due to Vander Waals force, which is weak temporary force of
attraction between liquid molecules.
A liquid in a tube is considered as made of a series of molecular layers. The layers of liquid in contact with the
walls of tube remain stationary. The layer in the center of the tube has high velocity.
A liquid with high viscosity is thick and flows slowly when a liquid with low viscosity is thin and flows quickly.
Different liquids have different viscosities.

Units of Viscosity:
Most common unit is "POISE"
Small unit is "CENTI POISE" 1Centipoise = 10-3 NS/m2 or 0.001 NS/m2
In S.I system unit is N.S/m2

Factors affecting Viscosity:


(1) Size of Molecules:
Viscosity is directly proportional to its molecular weight. Liquids, which have bigger molecular size, are more
difficult to move than the smaller molecular size so Viscosity of a liquid having large molecules is high whereas the
viscosity of those liquids that have small molecules is low.

(2) Shape of Molecules:


Spherical molecules provide resistance but oval shaped, elongated or disc like molecules provide greater resistance
in the flow of liquid. Thats why viscosity of liquids having spherical molecules is low.

(3) Inter-molecular Force:


Intermolecular force means the force of attraction between two or more molecules. If greater the intermolecular
attraction in liquid, greater will be viscosity of the liquid therefore if the molecular size and shape of two liquids are
the same , then the liquid with stronger intermolecular attractive force will be more viscous than other.

(4) Temperature:
Viscosity of liquid decreases with increase in temperature. Because an increase in temperature, reduces the forces
of attraction between molecules.

Explanation of Viscosity in term of Kinetic Molecular Theory:


According to Kinetic Molecular Theory the kinetic energy of molecules of liquids decreases on cooling which
causes a decrease in the velocity of molecules. As a result the volume taken by each molecule deceases on cooling
it results in the contraction of liquid.

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SURFACE TENSION
Q.18 Define and explain Surface Tension. What the factors, affecting on surface
tension?
Definition:
"Perpendicular force acting on the unit length of the surface of a liquid is called Surface Tension
Surface Tension = Force / Length
OR
Energy per unit area on the surface of liquid is called Surface Tension

Explanation:

= energy /area

In order to understand surface tension, consider a


liquid in a beaker. The molecules well inside the
liquid are surrounded by like molecules and
therefore are equally attracted by all four sides as
compared to molecules lying on the surface of
liquid.
In the above figure A is surrounded by four
directions as compared to B Which only is
surrounded by three sides so A molecules lying on
surface will be attracted inwardly similarly all the
molecules on the surface will be subjected to an
inward pull.

Unit of Surface Tension:


N/m (in S.I system)

Dyne/cm (in C.G.S system)


Joule/m2 (in S.I system)

Erg/cm2 (in C.G.S system)


Factors affecting Surface Tension:
(1) Temperature:
Surface tension of a liquid decreases with the increase in temperature because an increase in temperature, reduces
force of attraction between molecules. So temperature is inversely proportional to the temperature.

(2) Hydrogen Bonding:


The liquid in which Hydrogen bond formation takes place, will have more surface tension than other liquids such as
water, have high values of surface tension.

(3) Intermolecular Force:


If force of attraction between molecules is high then surface tension will also be high. There are following two
types of intermolecular force.
(i) Cohesive Force:
The force of attraction among the particles of liquid are called Cohesive force or Cohesion.
(ii) Adhesive Force:
The force of attraction between a liquid and another surface are called Adhesive Force.

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CAPILLARY ACTION
Q.19 Write down the short note on Capillary Action.
Definition:
The rise of liquid in a capillary tube against the force of gravity or fall of liquid due to force of gravity
is called Capillary Action.
OR
The rise of liquid in a small capillary tube is called Capillary Action.

Explanation:
It is the common property of all liquids.
The fall
or rise of liquid in capillary tube is called capillary
action. If capillary tube is placed in liquids which
wet the walls of container, the surface area of liquid
is decreased by rising in the tube because of surface
tension, such liquids will rise in the capillary tube
until the upward force due to the surface tension is
balanced by downward gravitational pull.

Factors affecting Capillary Action:


(1) Diameter of Capillary Tube:
If the diameter of capillary tube is smaller, then it would be greater the height of the liquid.

(2) Surface Tension of Liquid Molecules:


If the surface tension of liquid is greater , then it would be greater the height of the liquid.

VAPOUR PRESSURE
Q.20 Define and explain Vapour Pressure. What the factors affecting on Vapour
Pressure ?
Definition:
Pressure exerted by the vapour of a liquid at equilibrium is called Vapour Pressure of liquid.
OR
Pressure exerted by the vapours of a liquid when rate of evaporation and the rate of condensation becomes
equal is called Vapour Pressure.

Explanation:
There are two types of liquids. Volatile
and non-volatile liquids. Volatile liquids
evaporate quickly, having high vapour
pressure.
Consider a liquid closed in a container at
a certain temperature. High energy
molecules leave the surface of liquid and
gather above the surface in the empty
space in the form of vapours.

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These molecules collide with the walls of the container as well as with the surface of liquid. In this way, they lose
some of their kinetic energy and there is a chance that these molecules are recaptured by the liquid surface. This
process is known as Condensation. Both the processes of condensation and evaporation continue till the rates of
both processes become equal. This state is called dynamic equilibrium. The pressure exerted by the vapours at this
state on the liquid surface at a particular temperature is called vapour pressure.
Units of Pressure:
It is expressed in mm of Hg, atmosphere, torr or Newton.

Factoring affecting on Vapour Pressure:


(1) Inter-molecular Force:
Liquids having stronger intermolecular force have low vapour pressures while liquids with weaker intermolecular
forces have high vapour pressures. Hence, there is very close relationship between strength of intermolecular
attractive force and vapour pressure.

(2) Temperature:
Temperature is directly proportional to vapour pressure because at higher temperature, the kinetic energy of the
molecules is increased. Molecules of higher kinetic energy will escape from the liquid more quickly. Thus it causes
increase in the vapour pressure.

(3) Nature of Liquid:


Liquids having low boiling points will show high vapour pressure while liquid with high boiling point will have
low vapour pressure.

BOILING POINT
Q.21 Define and explain Boiling Point. What is Normal Boiling Point ?
Definition:
Temperature at which the vapour pressure of liquid becomes equal to atmospheric pressure is called Boiling
Point.

Explanation:

When the liquid is heated, bubbles begin to form throughout its volume. The bubbles contain vapours, which begin
lighter than the liquid rise to the surface and burst there. The vapour pressure in the bubbles will be equal to the
atmospheric pressure. At this, all the bubbles contain in vapours will rise to the surface of liquid and burst there
and it appears that water is boiling. Boiling point of liquid varies with atmospheric pressure. If atmospheric
pressure is less then 760 torr then the boiling point of a liquid will decrease from its standard boiling point. Boiling
point of a liquid decreases with the decrease in pressure and vice versa. Boiling point of liquid varies with
atmospheric pressure.

Normal Boiling Point:


Boiling point of a liquid when atmospheric pressure is 1.00 atmp or 760 torr is referred to as Normal Boiling Point.

CLASSIFICATION OF SOLIDS
Q.22 What are solids ? How are they classified ? Write down the fundamental properties
of Crystalline and Amorphous Solids ?
Solids substances are hard, rigid having definite shape and volume. In solid state atoms, molecules or ion are very
closely packed and have well-ordered arrangement.
Solids are classified into two types:
(1) Crystalline Solids.
(2) Amorphous Solids.

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(1) Crystalline Solids:


Definition: The solids in which atoms, molecules or ions are arranged in regular repeating three dimensional
well-ordered patterns are known as Crystalline Solids.
Examples: NaCl, AgNO3, Copper Sulphate (CuSO4), NiSO4, Diamond, Graphite, NaCl, Sugar etc etc. .
Crystalline solids have the following fundamentals properties.
(i) Geometrical Shape: They have characteristic geometrical shape. The have well-ordered three-dimensional
arrangement of particles in space.
(ii) Melting Point: They have sharp melting point. They can be identified on the basis of their definite melting
point.
(iii) Cleavage Planes: Crystalline Solids can be break into fixed plane. When they break into smaller particles of
identical particles are called cleavage plane.
(iv) Anisotropy: The variation of certain physical property in different directions is known as anisotropy. They
show anisotropy. For example Graphite has variable intensity of electrical conductivity in different directions.
(v) Symmetry: The repetition of force and angles of crystal as it is rotated by 360 0 along its axis is called
symmetry. Crystalline solids show symmetry.

(2) Amorphous Solids:


Definition: The solids in which atoms, molecules or ions are arranged in random non-repeating threedimensional ill-ordered patterns are known as Amorphous Solids.
Examples: Glass, rubber, Plastics, glue, etc
Amorphous solids have the following fundamentals properties.
(i) Geometrical Shape: Unlike crystalline solids, they have irregular geometry due to random arrangement.
(ii) Melting Point: They do not have sharp malting melting point. This is because they have different
intermolecular force at different places.
(iii) Cleavage Planes: Unlike crystalline Solids they cannot break into fixed plane.
(iv) Anisotropy: They are isotropic and do not possess anisotropy.
(v) Symmetry: They do not possess symmetry..

What is Crystal Lattice OR Space Lattice ?


The pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal is called Crystal Lattice.
OR
The array of points representing atoms, ions and molecules of a crystal arranged at different sites in three
dimensional patterns in space is called Crystal Lattice.

What is Units Cell ?

The smallest part of in the crystal lattice which shows all the characteristics of the entire crystal is known as unit
cell.

What is Crystal Habit ?


It is the shape of crystal in which it usually grows is called Crystal Habit

What is Face ?
The arranged particles in solids are bounded by plane surface called Face.

TYPES OF CRYSTALS
Q.23 How many types of crystals ? Write down the characteristics of each type.
Introduction:
Crystalline solid is made up of atoms, ions or molecules which are held together by various types of cohesive
forces. These cohesive forces may be chemical bonds or interaction between particles. These interactions are
between atoms, ions or molecules of crystalline solid.
(1) Metallic Crystals
(2) Ionic Crystals
(2) (3) Covalent Crystals
(4) Molecular Crystals

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(1) Metallic Crystals OR Atomic Crystals:


Definition:
The crystalline solids in which metal atoms are held together by metallic bonds are known as Metallic Crystals.
The force of attraction that binds positive metal ion to the number of electron within its sphere of influence is called
metallic crystal.
Examples: Sodium and Iron.

Characteristics of Metallic Crystals:

They have shiny surface.


They are malleable and ductile.
They have high melting point and boiling point.
They are good conductor of heat and electricity.
They have high heat of fusion and lattice energies.

(2) Ionic Crystals:


Definition:
The crystalline solids in which positively and negatively charged ions are held together through ionic bond or
electrostatic force of attraction is called ionic Crystals.
Examples: NaCl, CuSO4, CaCl2, KNO3 etc.

Characteristics of Ionic Crystals:

They are hard, brittle and possess ionic bond.


They have high melting point and boiling point.
They are bad conductor electricity but good in molten state in the form of solution.
They have high values of lattice energy and heats of fusions.
They are not ductile and cannot be drawn into sheets.

(3) Covalent Crystals:


Definition:
The crystalline solids in which atoms of similar or different elements are held together in a network of covalent
bonds are known as Covalent Crystals.
Examples: Graphite, Diamond, Silica etc.

Characteristics of Covalent Crystals:

They are non-conductor of electricity.


They also have high melting point and boiling point.
They have high values of lattice energy and heat of fusion.
They are hard so energy required to break them is high.
They are less metallic than metallic and ionic crystals.

(4) Molecular Crystals:


Definition:
The crystalline solids in which the polar or non-polar molecules or atoms are held together by dipole-dipole or
vander Waals force of attraction are called Molecular Crystals.
Examples: Ice, Sugar, Iodine, Sulphur and carbon dioxide.

Characteristics of Molecular Crystals:

They are soft, volatile and easily compressed, due to very weak force of attraction.
They have low melting point and boiling point.
They are bad conductor of electricity.
They have low values of heat of fusion and lattice energy.

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ISOMORPHISM
Q.24 What is Isomorphism ? Write down its characteristics.
Definition:
The phenomenon in which two different substances exit in the same crystalline
form is known as Isomorphism.
OR
The substances, which have same type of chemical formula and crystalline with same lattice are Isomorphous
and this phenomenon is called as Isomorphism.

Characteristics of Isomorphism:
Different substances having same crystalline shape are called isomorphic.
They have different chemical and physical properties but same empirical formula.
Isomorphism found in various compounds is mostly due to same atomic ratio.

Examples:
(1) Both NaNO3 and CaCO3 have Isomorphous and exits in rhombohedral form and ratio of 1:3
(2) ZnSO4 and NiSO4 have cubic crystal and ratio of 1:4

POLYMORPHISM
Q.25 What is Polymorphism ? Write down its characteristics.
Definition:
The phenomenon in which a compound exits in more than one crystalline form is called Polymorphism.
OR
When a single substance is crystallized in two or more forms under different conditions is called Polymorphous
and this phenomenon is called Polymorphism.

Characteristics of Polymorphism:
They have same chemical formula but different structural arrangement of particles.
They do not grow together in al proportions.

Examples:
(1) AgNO3 exit in rhombohedral and orthorhombic forms.
(2) Silica (SiO2) exits in the forms of quartz and tridymite.

MELTING POINT
Q.26 Define and Explain Melting Point.
Definition:
The temperature at which both liquid and solid phases or states co-exist at equilibrium.

Explanation:
The particles of solid weakly vibrate back and forth al all temperature. When the solid is heated, its particles vibrate
more vigorously about their average position and their kinetic energy is increased. When heating is continued
vibration of molecules becomes much more vigorous until the force between molecules becomes weak. Hence
molecules at the surface of crystal begin to disengaged themselves from their neighbour that is solid begins to melt.

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LATENT HEAT OF FUSION


Q.27 Define Latent Heat of Fusion.
Definition:
The amount of heat required to melt unit mass of solid substance at its melting point.
It is denoted by Hf.
Unit: Its unit is J/Kg , erg/gm
Formula: Q=m x Hf (where m is mass of solid and Q is amount of heat)

TYPES OF CRYSTALS SYSTEM


Q.28 How many types of Crystals System ? Explain with examples.
A crystal system may be identified by six parameters. Their parameters are three edges a,b,c and three angles
There are seven types of crystal system.

(1) Cubic Crystal System:


In cubical crystal system, all the edges are equal
a=b=c
Angle between the edges are equal i.e. 90
= =
Examples: Sodium chloride (NaCl), Zinc sulphides, (ZnS) Diamond etc.

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(2) Tetragonal Crystal System:
In tetragonal crystal system, two sides are equal but third side is different.
a = b c
Angles between the edges are equal i.e 90
= =
Examples: SnO2 , BaSO4 .4H2O
(3) Orthorhombic Crystal System:
In orthorhombic crystal system, all the edges are different.
a b c
Angle between the edges are equal i.e 90o
= =

Long Questions

Example: FeSO4.7H2O , ZnSO4.7H2O , KNO3


(4) Trigonal Or Rhombohedral Crystal System:
In this system, all the edges are equal
a=b=c
Angles are equal but not equal to 90o. Angles are between 90 and 120
= = 90
Examples: NaNO3 , AgNO3
(5) Hexagonal Crystal System:
In this system, two sides are equal but third side is different.
a = b c
Two angles between the edges are equal to 90o but third angle is equal to 120.
= = 90, = 120
Examples: Graphite
(6) Monoclinic Crystal System:
In monoclinic crystal system, all the edges are different
abc
Two angles are equal to 90 but third angle is not equal to 90
= = 90
90
Examples: . CuSO4. 5H2O , Sugar etc
(7) Triclinic Crystal System:
In this system, all the edges are different
abc
Angles between the edges are not equal to 90
90
Examples: 1. CuSO4. 5H2O 2. K2Cr2O7

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