Sie sind auf Seite 1von 22

MLD 102, 2015-2016

Getting Things Done:


Management in the Development Context
Instructor: Professor Matt Andrews
matt_andrews@hks.harvard.edu
Assistant: Stacy Hannell
Stacy_Hannell@hks.harvard.edu

Course Description$
There are many development initiatives, all over the world, attempting to improve poor
and transitional countries economies, social sectors, government structures, and more.
Many of these interventions have experienced success. But there are also notable limits
and gaps in achievement, that are unfortunately pervasive and predictable: laws are
written but not enforced, policies are drawn up but not executed, and more. Chances are
that you have seen some of these gaps, if you are an experienced development
practitioner or have been in a developing country even a few times.
These limits and gaps are often explained away as the result of poor implementation and
weak organizations. This course attempts to engage with such explanation and push
towards a better understanding of why many development initiatives have limited results,
and to reflect on ways of making results less limited.
It introduces students to concepts like capability traps and isomorphism in addressing the
reasons for limits, and to PDIA in discussing a way of closing gaps and going past limits.
PDIA stands for problem driven iterative adaptation and is an approach designed to
address complex problems, where we often see the development gaps. Students will learn
about the concepts behind PDIA, as well as some of the tools to apply PDIA. They will
work in teams to apply these concepts, mimicking the importance of creating multi-agent
structures to deal with complex problems.
Classes are mandatory, and blend different teaching methods and styles. Discussion is
encouraged, with the usual request that students come prepared in the materials of the
day, but also bringing their experience, patience and respect for others ideas.

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

1$

MLD 102, 2015-2016


Course Calendar$
Day
Weds
Fri
Mon
Weds
Mon

Date
Sep 2
Sep 4
Sep 7
Sep 9
Sep 14

Topic

Tue

Sep 15

Cross Registration and add/drop deadline

Weds

Sep 16

Mon

Sep 21

Better Understanding the Isomorphism Trap


Escaping$Capability$Traps$Through$PDIA

Mon

Sep 21

First individual assignment due in class$

Weds

Sep 23

Mon

Sep 28

When is PDIA Appropriate?*


Agency: Who is Needed to Get Things Done? Common Mistakes$

Weds

Sep 30

Agency: Who is Needed to Get Things Done in PDIA?

10

Mon

Oct 5

An Introduction to Team Work: A Key to GTD in Development

11

Weds

Oct 7

Teams, Contd. and the Importance of Forming

Mon

Oct 12

Columbus Day: No Class

12

Weds

Oct 14

Context: What Matters?

13
14

Mon
Weds

Oct 19
Oct 21

Taking Context Seriously


Constructing and Deconstructing Problems for Change, 1

15

Mon

Oct 26

Constructing and Deconstructing Problems for Change, 2

16

Weds

Oct 28

Other Ways of Thinking About Contextual Impediments to Change #####

Fri

Oct 30

First team assignment due at 5pm

17
18
19

Mon
Weds
Mon

Nov 2
Nov 4
Nov 9

Agency: Whose Problems Matter? (And How do teams work on this?)


Coalitions for Change: And the Importance of Problems that Bind*

20

Weds

Nov 11

Veterans Day (No Class)

Fri

Nov 13

Second team assignment due at 5pm

19

Mon

Nov 16

Solving Problems Through Iterative Experimentation, 2 (incl. team dynamics)

20

Weds

Nov 18

Learning: Balancing M&E and Experiential Learning*

Thur

Nov 19

21

Mon

Nov 23

Second individual assignment due at 5pm


Learning, Contd.: Managing Tensions, Recasting Failure as Learning, and Helping
Teams to Learn and Adapt to Their Own Lessons

22

Weds

Nov 25

Thanksgiving (No Class)

23

Mon

Nov 30

Agency: Who Needs to Be Engaged in Finding and Fitting?

24

Weds

Dec 2

Agency: Getting the Most Creativity from Teams, and Yourself

Dec 11

Third team assignment due by 5pm Dec 11

1
2
3
4

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

Implementation Gaps and the Rationale for the course


What does it mean to Get Things Done in Development?
Labor Day (No Class)
Dominant Management Strategies to Get Things Done
Capability Traps (Why Things Dont Get Done)

Solving Problems Through Iterative Experimentation, 1

2$

Grading; and team and individual work and participation


Team exercises:

50% of final grade

First two exercises

15% each

Final exercise

20%

Individual assignments (for individuals):


Two exercises
Class and team engagement:

30% of final grade


15% each
20% of final grade

Class participation

10%

Team engagement (by each class member)

10%

Rationale and Explanation


Team work is a very important part of the management and implementation challenge in
development. It is one of the challenges we can mimic in this class. That is why we have
a number of sessions focused (exclusively or in part) on team work (October 5, 7,
November 2, 16, 23, and December 2). There are also three team exercises (due dates
being October 30, November 13, and December 11). (Note that we do not start in the first
month, so that we can establish a common foundation for the class before initiating the
team work). The aim of all this work is to provide some ideas on how teams work, and
can work well, and to have each member of the class participate in (and struggle with) the
reality of a team assignment. This is never an easy part of the courseand, indeed, team
work is seldom an easy part of any management or implementation challenge. That is
why it takes a central place in both the teaching and assessment of this course.
Class participants will be placed into teams on October 5, by me (mimicking the reality
of forced team allocations in many organizations) and will work in those teams on a real
development challenge (as real as possible, given we are in Massachusetts!) for just over
two intense months. During this time each team will be required to meet as necessary to
complete tasks and experience what it is like to be in a team and to work together as a
team. This will be time consuming and challenging, and will require managing personal
logistics and more. These challenges are incorporated into the out-of-class dimension of
the course and are required of everyone (note that I have limited most readings to 30-40
pages to allow each participant time to engage in the practical group work, and not spend
all her time reading).
Team members will be assessed based on three exercises, worth 15%, 15% and 20% of
the final grade (as shown in above). My grading style is simple: I give every team that
MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

3$

does excellent work a B+ (what I expect). Where teams do work that has greater
creativity of insight than I expected, I give an A- or A grade (expect this to be about 15%
of all teams). Where teams miss the due date or do work with less excellence than I
expected, I allocate a B grade. If an assignment is more than a day late I assign a C grade.
So: Expect a B+ if you do everything right. I will use the following grading schedule for
the three assignments:
Assignments 1, 2:
14-15 points=A; 12-13 points=A-; 10-11 points=B+; 7-9 points=B; 5 points=C
Assignment 3:
19-20 points=A; 16-18 points=A-; 13-15 points=B+; 10-12 points=B; 6 points=C
Team work can be undone by the weak participation of one or more members. We
know this happens for a variety of reasons, including free-riding.
! Tools will be introduced to help deal with this kind of problem, requiring each
individual team member to rate the effort of other team members in assignments
and in the non-assignment team work (doing the things that are required to make a
team work well).
! These ratings will be used to ensure that assignment scores are reasonably
adjusted for over-contributing and under-contributing team members (so that the
former students score more than their fellow members, as a reward, and the latter
group score less, in keeping with their effort). More details will be provided on
October 5 and October 7.
! The ratings will also be used to determine a Team Engagement score (out of 10)
for each member of the class. More details will be provided on October 5 and
October 7.
I am assuming that all students will participate very well in their teams, and thus I am
expecting everyone to get an A or A minus in their final assessments by team members
(given the Team Engagement rating mechanism I will introduce on October 5 or October
7). Here, therefore, is the grading mechanism I will employ:
9-10=A; 7-8=A-; 5-6=B+; 3-4=B; 1-2=C
Beyond team work, we also want to capture individual performance. This gives each
student an opportunity to assess their own progress in understanding key concepts and
applying such to personal experience. There are two individual assignments (September
21 and November 19the same date when MPAID students will produce ideas on
administrative dimensions of their SYPA strategies). Students are expected to get a B+
for these assignments (as in team assignments) and will be rewarded for excellence and
MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

4$

penalized for late submission or low-effort work. The grading schedule is as follows (for
both individual assignments):
14-15 points=A; 12-13 points=A-; 10-11 points=B+; 7-9 points=B; 5 points=C
I will also be capturing attendance in classes, starting September 21 (the first Monday
after the add/drop deadline, which means I am following participation in 19 classes).
Class assistants will have class lists every class and each student needs to sign into the
class at the start. Note: I will not allow students to enter class more than 5 minutes after
starting time (8:45) and I will not allow students to leave class early.
I find it very difficult to grade the quality of participation in class, and dont usually like
giving people points simply because they attendbut given that we are having a major
teamwork component in the class it is vital that everyone is hearing the same content in
class to build on out-of-class work, and there are some folks who may not think that
attendance is mandatory. I am only allotting 5% to this, but here is the grading schedule:
5=A (18-19 classes); 3=B+ (15-18); 1=B (12-15); 0=C (less than 12 classes)
Final grades will be determined by the aggregated performance of students in all seven
dimensions of assessment (three team exercises, two individual exercises), and the two
participation assessments.

Classes, reading and other preparation


There is a core text for this course:
Andrews, M. 2013. The Limits of Institutional Reform in Development. Cambridge: New
York. Available at the COOP or Amazon (including kindle).

Class 1 Weds, Sep 2 Implementation Gaps and the Rationale for the course
Key questions to help class preparation
! We have made many advances in development: There are gaps, however.
o! Where are these gaps (according to Pritchett, Dasgupta, Agehrn)?
MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

5$

o! Do you have any experience of such gaps?


! How do we assess, think about, and overcome these gaps?
o! Ideas from the videos?
o! Your own views or experience?
! How do you hope the class will help you in addressing this challenge?
Videos to prepare with:
Lant Pritchett on The Big Stuck
The World Banks Ani Dasgupta on the Science of Delivery.
Albert Agehrn, of INSEAD, on patterns of change success and failure

Class 2 Fri, Sep 4 What does it mean to Get Things Done in Development?
Key questions to help class preparation
! Reflect on the videos, and make a list of what it means to be a successful sports team
(the Ben Shields interview), or a successful manager (the Brig Owens interview).
! Given this thinking, and reflecting on the case, who would you advise is fired?
!! Both=I would advise to fire both
!! Blum=I would advise to fire Blum only
!! Barnes=I would advise to fire Barnes only
!! Neither=I would advise that both be kept in their positions
o! Why do you provide this advice?
! From the article by Rainey, what can we learn about how organizations perceive
success? And what it means to Get Things Done?
o! Does this cause you to rethink who should be fired?
o! Why?
! Can you relate this to an area in which you have worked in the past?
o! Like education, health, road safety, economic growth?
!! What does it mean to get things done?
Case to prepare with:
A Tale of Two Managers (part 1 on the class site, part 2 to be handed out in class)
Reading to prepare with:

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

6$

Rainey, Hal. G. 2003. Organizational Goals and Effectiveness In Understanding and


Managing Public Organizations. New York: Jossey Bass. 127-150. (23 pages on the
class website)
Videos to prepare with:
Former Washington Redskins player Brig Owens speaks abut his past team managers,
Vince Lombardi and George Allen in Its All About Winning.
MITs$Ben Shields on winning in sports

Additional reading (not required, but useful for those who are interested):
Baker, K. and Branch, K. undated. Concepts Underlying Organizational Effectiveness:
Trends in the Organization and Management Science Literature
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/doe/benchmark/ch01.pdf

Key date: Mon, Sep 7 Labor Day (No Class)

Class 3 Weds, Sep 9 Dominant Management Strategies to Get Things Done


Key questions to help class preparation
! Theorists have been thinking about how to get things done for a while now:
o! Watching the Evolution of Management, please write down the different
ideas that have emerged, and the sequence of their emergence.
!! Why do you think there are so many ideas about management?
!! Which ideas do you think are correct?
o! Watching the Secret Formula video, please list the key
structures/practices/characteristics suggested as vital to effectiveness.
!! What would you add to or subtract from this list? Why?
o! Reading the chapters by Andrews, please reflect on the answers that have
emerged in development about how governments should be structured to Get
Things Done.
!! Make a list of the characteristics that dominate thinking?
!! Do you think these are relevant ideas for most developing countries?

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

7$

! Many management ideas and governance reforms have not worked in developing
countries. Reading the Andrews chapter, and reflecting on your own experience, do
you have any ideas why this is so?
Reading to prepare with:
Andrews, M. The Limits of Institutional Reform in Development. Chapter 1 and Chapter
2 (pages 1-34 in the softcover version of this text).
Videos to prepare with
Evolution of Management.
The Secret Formula for Management Effectiveness

Class 4 Mon, Sep 14 Capability Traps (Why Things Dont Get Done)
Key questions to help class preparation
! We see many efforts to introduce solutions faileven when they use different
management strategies or philosophies.
o! Starting with the two cases, please list all the ways in which you see each case
achieving success or succumbing to failure?
!! More precisely, what are the limits in each case?
o! After reading the article by Pritchett et al., can you give a label to either or
both of the situations described in the cases?
o! After reading the article and watching the video, can you write down your
version of the explanation provided as to why capability traps emerge?
Cases to prepare with:
Effective Revenue Collection in Nomburo (or not). HKS case 1934.0 and
Collecting Revenue in Zombeta (case provided online)

Reading to prepare with:


Pritchett, Woolcock, and Andrews. Capability Traps.
Videos to prepare with
Michael Woolcock on the Eco-system in which Things Get Done

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

8$

Key date: Tue, Sep 15

Class 5

Cross Registration and add/drop deadline

Weds, Sep 16 Better Understanding the Isomorphism Trap

Key questions to help class preparation


! We have ben introduced to the idea of isomorphism, and how it can be associated
with capability Traps.
o! Starting with the reading, can you describe exactly what isomorphism is?
o! In reflecting on the reading and the videos, can you explain why organizations
may become isomorphic, and a mimic?
!! Is Isomorphic mimicry always bad?
o! What kinds of organizations might be more isomorphic than others? Why?
!! Do you think this is likely to be a big challenge in development?
o! As a policymaker or potential change agent in development, what should you
be aware of to ensure you do not exacerbate bad isomorphic tendencies?
Reading to prepare with:
Andrews, Chapter 6 of Limits. (pages 110-127 of the paperback edition)
Videos to prepare with
Michael Woolcock on isomorphic mimicry in Uganda and Melanesia
Matt Andrews on isomorphic mimicry in Argentina
Lant Pritchett on different kinds of mimicry (dont worry about his thoughts on PDIA,
just on the way he breaks down the different kinds of mimicry and when mimicry makes
sense and when it does not make sense)

Class 6

Mon, Sep 21 Escaping Capability Traps Through PDIA

Key questions to help class preparation

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

9$

! We believe there are ways of overcoming capability traps, by doing development


differently. Our approach to this is called PDIA.
o! After reading the APW piece, and listening to the Pritchett video, can you
draw up a very simple list of the core characteristics of PDIA?
!! Can you identify how it differs to common ways of doing
development?
o! How do these characteristics overlap with the principles of Doing
Development Differently?
!! Why do the authors believe that PDIA will help in overcoming the
gaps that we commonly see in development interventions?
!! Is PDIA always the right approach?
In-class exercise (to be handed out in class):
Getting to Growth
Reading to prepare with:
Andrews, Pritchett and Woolcock (APW). Escaping Capability Traps.
The Doing Development Differently Manifesto
Videos to prepare with
Lant Pritchett on PDIA
Mind the Implementation Gap by the World Bank

Key date: Mon, Sep 21

First individual assignment due in class

I would like all members of the class (everyone is FINALLY registered by now) to
identify a challenge in the development arena that they want to focus on for the rest of the
semester. Please do this now, in a 500 word note.
If you are an MPAID, this could/should be the focus of your SYPA. Identify the
challenge, and ask yourself why you are interested in the topic: What gaps have you seen
in this area in the place you are looking at or in other places, and can you measure these
gaps? Reflect here on the Mind the Implementation Gap video). Do you think there are
Capability Traps causing these gaps? Explain why. Do you think PDIA would make
sense as an approach to address these gaps? Why or why not?

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

10$

Class 7

Weds, Sep 23 When is PDIA Appropriate?

Key activity to help class preparation


! We have already asked the question about where and when PDIA is relevant and
where and when it is not. In this session we will give more structure to this important
discussion, offering ways of classifying activities.
! Please think about the challenge you described in your individual assignment last
week, and go through the videos to determine whether your activity is transaction
intensive, locally discretionary, a service or an obligation, and with a known
technology?
o! Build a table to fill in your answers, and bring this table to class.
Reading to prepare with:
Pritchett, Woolcock and Andrews. Forthcoming. Chapter 2 of new book (to be added to
class web site).
Videos to prepare with:
Lant Pritchett on different kinds of activities
Is your activity transaction intensive?
Is your activity locally discretionary?
Is your activity a service or an obligation?
Is there a known technology for your activity?
Putting it all together

Class 8

Mon, Sep 28 Agency: Who is Needed to GTD? (Common Mistakes)

Key questions to help class preparation


! Agency (or people) are obviously important in reform or policy change initiatives.
But who is needed to get things done?
o! Read the case and chapter and make a list on the kinds of people who are
commonly identified as vital to get things done in reform.

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

11$

o! Which of these roles do you think is most important?


o! Who is left out in the case and the chapter, and what kind of impact does this
have on the chances to get things done?
! As with everything from now on, Id like you also to think about agency and the
challenge you have identified:
o! Which agents are commonly engaged in getting things done with the
policy/reform intervention you have identified?
o! Which agents are commonly left out?
o! How do agency omissions impact the chance to get things done?
Case to prepare with
Vian,$T.$and$Bicknell,$W.J.$2013.$Good$Governance$and$Budget$Reform$in$Lesotho$Public$
Hospitals:$Performance,$Root$Causes,$and$Reality.$Health'Policy'and'Planning,$January,$1Y
12.$$

Reading to prepare with:


Andrews, Chapter 5 of Limits. (pages 89-107 of the paperback edition)
Additional readings (for the really inspired):
Andrews, Why Distributed End Users Often Limit PFM Reform.

Class 9

Weds, Sep 30 Agency: Who is Needed to GTD in PDIA?

Key questions to help class preparation


! It is possible to come to the view that everyone needs to be involved in a change
process to ensure that Things Get Done, but this is not a very practical view. Given
this, one must ask who needs to be involved to make things happen. This class will
discuss two ways of thinking about who you need and how you need to engage with
these people:
o! The Andrews reading and videos focus on who you need in a strategic and
positive sense. Given these materials, make a list of the key types of agents
one needs to have engaged in the change process (what roles must be played?
!! Alongside every role you have identified, identify where you expect to
find this agent in any given network or social structure. (Are they
likely to be in central positions of power, more marginalized
peripheral positions, or even on the outside looking in?)

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

12$

!! Now re-visit the Lesotho case from last class and note which roles
were actually being played in the initiative and which were not. Where
were the biggest agency gaps?
!! Now Id like you to do this same exercise with the challenge you have
identified, identifying who you need (types of agents or specific
agents) and thinking about how would you identify and engage them
in practice?
o! The stakeholder analysis video offers another way of thinking about agency
engagement. Its focus is more on ensuring you have net support for what you
are trying to do.
!! Based on the video, Id like you please to make a list of ten potential
stakeholders impacted by the Lesotho reforms in the case, and then use
the stakeholder map to identify which quadrant each stakeholder fits
into.
!! Once you have done this, Id like you to identify strategies for each of
the agents in the map: how will you engage with them as you pursue
your policy or reform initiative?
Case exercise to prepare with:
The Lesotho case from last class (exercise described above).
Reading to prepare with:
Andrews, Chapter 9 of Limits. (pages 192-212 of the paperback edition)
Videos to prepare with
Who is the leader?
Multi-agent leadership in practice
Stakeholder analysis
Additional readings (for the inspired/masochistic)
Meijer, A.J. 2013. From Hero-Innovators to Distributed Heroism: An in-depth analysis of the
role of individuals in public sector innovation. Public Management Review.
Andrews, M. 2013. Who really leads development?

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

13$

Class 10 Mon, Oct 5 An Introduction to Team Work: A Key to GTD in Devt.


Key questions to help class preparation
! Saying that you need many agents to GTD is one thing; actually engaging them in a
collaborative way is totally different. You need some tools or structures to do that.
Teams are a very important example of such a tool or structure. But getting teams to
work well is extremely challenging.
o! Based on the Critical Role of Teams, please note the regularity of teams in
organizations. Now think about your past jobs and please note the kinds of
teams you were on.
!! Also reading the Critical Role article, note the kinds of team failures
that routinely happen. Once again, please reflect on these failures in
your own experience. What do you think causes teams to fall apart?
o! Now I would like you to reflect on the case (with video), Hackman article and
Science of Successful Teams video:
!! When does it make sense to have a team, and when do teams add
value?
!! Please draw up a two column table. In the first column, reflecting on
Hackman, make a list of the common mistakes made in setting teams
up? Now, in the second column, make a list of ideas you gleam from
the case (and from Hackman and the Science video) about how to
avoid or deal with these mistakes.
o! You will be placed into a team during this class: Please list three ideas you
could propose to help ensure the team works effectively between now and
December 11, when it submits a final assignment.
Case to prepare with:
Transforming the Ecuadorian Customs Service. (on the course web site)
Reading to prepare with:
The Critical Role of Teams
Transcript of discussion with Richard Hackman on why teams dont work
Videos to prepare with
The Science of Successful Teams.
Transforming the Ecuadorian Customs Service. (on the course web site)

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

14$

Class 11 Wed, Oct 7 Teams, Contd. and the Importance of Forming


Key questions to help class preparation (Please sit in your teams today).
! Tuckmans work suggested that teams go through different stages. In this class we
will discuss those stages and spend time in our teams discussing ways in which we
can effectively form ourselves. We will also be discussing what to expect in other
stages, and how to guard against threats to team effectiveness in these stages.
o! What are the stages?
o! What challenges happen in each stage?
o! What do teams need to do in the forming stage?
o! How do you guard against threats in other stages?
Reading to prepare with:
Stein, J. undated. Using the stages of team development. Online summary of Tuckmans work
on stages of team development.

Video to prepare with


The Stages of Team Development

Key date: Mon, Oct 12

Class 12 Weds, Oct 14

Columbus Day: No Class

Context and Development: What Matters?

Key questions to help class preparation


! You commonly hear people say that context matters. You also often hear people
saying that context did not welcome the policy or change that was introduced into it.
o! But, what is it about context that matters and that we should pay attention to
when we craft our policies and reforms?
o! Read the case and make a list of all the contextual factors that influenced the
crowdfunding reforms in the USA and led to it being limited in 2011/12.
o! Now think about the Andrews chapter and think about how the many factors
you listed would map onto Figure 3.1. Are we dealing with factors that are
easy to see or hard to see?

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

15$

o! Now think about how these factors might fit into the four categories
represented in Figure 3.2.
!! Do you think Figure 3.2 provides a useful, simplified way of thinking
about context?
!! Why do you think we often fail to take context seriously and assess
contextual readiness for change?
Case to prepare with:
Getting$new$regulatory$policy$done:$Crowdfunding$commercial$real$estate$in$the$USA

Reading to prepare with:


Andrews, Chapter 3 of Limits (pages 35 to 60 in paperback)

Class 13 Mon, Oct 19 Taking Context Seriously


Key questions to help class preparation
! If we want to take context seriously, it is one thing. Doing it is another.
o! How could the crowdfunding reformers have better assessed context?
o! Drawing on Andrews, what role is there for doing a lot of analytical work to
determine contextual constraints?
o! Why might problems provide a more effective way of engaging with context?
o! Drawing on the videos, what kinds of problems really help to provide
windows onto and into the context?
Case to prepare with:
Getting$new$regulatory$policy$done:$Crowdfunding$commercial$real$estate$in$the$USA,$contd.

Reading to prepare with:


Andrews, Chapter 7 of Limits (pages 128 to 154 in paperback)
Videos to prepare with
Real problems as entry points to change
Selling solutions or solving problems

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

16$

Class 14 Weds, Oct 21 Constructing and Deconstructing Problems for Change, 1


Key questions to help class preparation
! Working with problems can be tricky. It is important to know how to construct a
problem that gets attention and deconstruct and problem to direct action.
o! What do you understand by the term constructing problems?
!! How could you construct the problem in your personal challenge?
!! Please do this, and bring the problem statement to class.
o! What do you understand by the term deconstruct the problem?
!! How could you deconstruct the problem in your personal challenge?
!! Please do this and bring the deconstructed problem to class.
Reading to prepare with:
Andrews, Chapter 7 of Limits (pages 128 to 154 in paperback)again.
Videos to prepare with
Constructing problems to drive change
Deconstructing sticky problems

Class 15 Mon, Oct 26 Constructing and Deconstructing Problems for Change, 2


Key questions to help class preparation
! What do you think problem driven sequencing might involve?
o! Determine a problem driven sequence you might adopt moving ahead with
your individual challenge?
Reading to prepare with:
Andrews, Chapter 7 of Limits (pages 128 to 154 in paperback)again.
Videos to prepare with

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

17$

Problem driven sequencing

Class 16 Wed, Oct 28 Considering Contextual Impediments to Change*

Materials to be advised

Key date: Fri, Oct 30 First team assignment due at 5pm


Directions to be provided.

Class 17 Mon, Nov 2 Agency: Whose Problems Matter?


Key questions to help class preparation
! Who needs to be involved in defining, constructing and deconstructing problems?
o! Does it matter who is involved?
o! Can we think of any rules of thumb when determining who should and should
not be involved?
Case to prepare with:
To be provided.
Reading to prepare with:
To be provided.
Videos to prepare with
Stakeholder analysis and problems

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

18$

Class 18 Weds, Nov 4 Coalitions for Change: And Problems that Bind
Key questions to help class preparation
To be provided
Readings to prepare with
Heifetz, R. and Laurie, D. (1999) Mobilizing Adaptive Work: Beyond Visionary
Leadership. In J. Conger, et al. (Eds.), The Leaders Change Handbook. San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass, pp. 55-86.
Wolff, T. 2001. A practitioners guide to successful coalitions. American Journal of
Community Psychology, 29(2), 2001,
McDonough, J.E., Rosman, B., Phelps, F. and Shannon, M. The Third Wave of
Massachusetts Health Care Access Reform Health Affairs November 2006 vol. 25 no. 6
w420-431.

Class 19 Mon, Nov 9 Solving Problems Through Iterative Experimentation, 1


Key questions to help class preparation
! We identify problems to ultimately find solutions to the problems. How do we find
solutions to the problems?
o! Create a two column table, and write out the characteristics of the search for
solutions in Malaysia and Burkina Faso.
o! Given the readings and videos, how would you label the two different
approaches to solve problems?
o! What is the role of experimentation in PDIA and why is it considered
important? How are these experiments done?
o! How might you think of structuring these kinds of experiments in the personal
challenge you have identified?
Cases to prepare with:
Internal$audit$reforms$in$Malaysia$and$Burkina$Faso$(available$on$class$web$page)$

Readings to prepare with:


Andrews,$M.$Limits.$Chapter$4.$(pages$65Y84$in$paperback$edition)$
Andrews,$M.$Limits.$Chapter$$8$(pages$161Y172$in$paperback$edition).$$

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

19$

Videos to prepare with:


Learn, Iterate, Adapt
Additional readings (for those who really want to benefit!)
Hirschman,$A.O.$1967.$The$principle$of$the$hiding$hand.$

Key date: Weds, Nov11 Veterans Day (No Class)

Key date: Fri , Nov 13 Second team assignment due at 5pm


Directions to be provided.

Class 20 Mon, Nov 16 Solving Problems Through Iterative Experimentation, 2


Key questions to help class preparation
! The process of finding and fitting real solutions to problems has a number of
dimensions. We will explore those in this class, and break all of the dimensions
down.
o! Given the reading and the Iteration video, how would you define iteration?
How long should an iteration be and what should its key components look
like? Why do we want to iterate in PDIA?
o! Given the reading and the two crawling videos, can you explain what
crawling involves, why it is important, and what kinds of solution options
one might find when crawling the design space?
Class activity to be presented in class
$

Readings to prepare with:


Andrews.$2013.$Can$One$Retell$a$Mozambican$

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

20$

Videos to prepare with:


Iteration is Research in Action
Learning by Crawling
Crawling Together in Cambodia
Additional readings (to truly reward those who read them!)
Matta,$N$and$P.$Morgan.$2011.$Local$empowerment$through$rapid$results$Stanford'Social'
Innovation'Review,$$
$Marsh,$D.R.,$Schroeder,$D.G.,$Dearden,$K.A.,$Sternin,$J.$and$Sternin,$M.$2009.$The'Power'of'
Positive'Deviance.$$

Class 21 Wed, Nov 18 Learning: Balancing M&E and Experiential Learning*


Key questions to help class preparation
To be added
$

Reading to prepare with:


Pritchett,L.,$Samji,$S,$&$Hammer,$J.$2013.$Its$All$About$MeE.$Using$Structured$
Experiential$Learning$(e)$to$Crawl$the$Design$Space.$$

Key date: Thur,

Nov 19 Second individual assignment due at 5pm


Directions to be provided.

Class 22 Mon, Nov 23 Learning, Contd.: Managing Tensions, Failure as Learning


Key questions to help class preparation
To be added
$

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

21$

Reading to prepare with:


Rogers, P. 2005. Evaluating Complicatedand ComplexPrograms Using Theory of
Change The Evaluation Exchange. Volume XI, Number 2, Summer 2005.
Rogers, P. 2005. Using Programme Theory to Evaluate Complicated and Complex
Aspects of Interventions Evaluation Vol.14(1), 29-48.
Videos to prepare with:
Mushtaq Khan on the importance of tacit learning
$Amy Edmondson on Learning from Failure$

Tim Harford on Why Success Always Starts with Failure

Key date: Wed, Nov 25 Thanksgiving (No Class)

Class 23 Mon, Nov 30 Agency: Who Needs to Be Engaged in Finding and Fitting?
Class materials and details to be added
Class 24 Wed, Dec 2 Agency: Getting the Most Creativity from Teams, Yourself
Class materials and details to be added

Key date: Dec 11 Third team assignment due by 5pm

MLD$102$2015/16$Syllabus$

22$