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Relion 670 series

Transformer protection RET670 2.0 IEC


Technical manual

Document ID: 1MRK 504 139-UEN


Issued: July 2016
Revision: B
Product version: 2.0

Copyright 2014 ABB. All rights reserved

Copyright
This document and parts thereof must not be reproduced or copied without written
permission from ABB, and the contents thereof must not be imparted to a third party,
nor used for any unauthorized purpose.
The software and hardware described in this document is furnished under a license and
may be used or disclosed only in accordance with the terms of such license.
This product includes software developed by the OpenSSL Project for use in the
OpenSSL Toolkit. (http://www.openssl.org/)
This product includes cryptographic software written/developed by: Eric Young
(eay@cryptsoft.com) and Tim Hudson (tjh@cryptsoft.com).

Trademarks
ABB and Relion are registered trademarks of the ABB Group. All other brand or
product names mentioned in this document may be trademarks or registered
trademarks of their respective holders.

Warranty
Please inquire about the terms of warranty from your nearest ABB representative.

Disclaimer
The data, examples and diagrams in this manual are included solely for the concept or
product description and are not to be deemed as a statement of guaranteed properties.
All persons responsible for applying the equipment addressed in this manual must
satisfy themselves that each intended application is suitable and acceptable, including
that any applicable safety or other operational requirements are complied with. In
particular, any risks in applications where a system failure and/or product failure
would create a risk for harm to property or persons (including but not limited to
personal injuries or death) shall be the sole responsibility of the person or entity
applying the equipment, and those so responsible are hereby requested to ensure that
all measures are taken to exclude or mitigate such risks.
This document has been carefully checked by ABB but deviations cannot be
completely ruled out. In case any errors are detected, the reader is kindly requested to
notify the manufacturer. Other than under explicit contractual commitments, in no
event shall ABB be responsible or liable for any loss or damage resulting from the use
of this manual or the application of the equipment.

Conformity
This product complies with the directive of the Council of the European Communities
on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to electromagnetic
compatibility (EMC Directive 2004/108/EC) and concerning electrical equipment for
use within specified voltage limits (Low-voltage directive 2006/95/EC). This
conformity is the result of tests conducted by ABB in accordance with the product
standard EN 60255-26 for the EMC directive, and with the product standards EN
60255-1 and EN 60255-27 for the low voltage directive. The product is designed in
accordance with the international standards of the IEC 60255 series.

Table of contents

Table of contents
Section 1

Introduction.....................................................................41
This manual...................................................................................... 41
Intended audience............................................................................ 41
Product documentation.....................................................................42
Product documentation set..........................................................42
Document revision history........................................................... 43
Related documents......................................................................44
Document symbols and conventions................................................44
Symbols.......................................................................................44
Document conventions................................................................ 45
IEC 61850 edition 1 / edition 2 mapping......................................46

Section 2

Available functions......................................................... 55
Main protection functions..................................................................55
Back-up protection functions............................................................ 57
Control and monitoring functions......................................................60
Communication.................................................................................64
Basic IED functions.......................................................................... 68

Section 3

Analog inputs..................................................................71
Introduction.......................................................................................71
Function block.................................................................................. 71
Signals..............................................................................................72
Settings.............................................................................................74
Monitored data..................................................................................79
Operation principle........................................................................... 80

Section 4

Binary input and output modules....................................83


Binary input.......................................................................................83
Binary input debounce filter......................................................... 83
Oscillation filter............................................................................ 83
Settings........................................................................................83
Setting parameters for binary input modules..........................83
Setting parameters for binary input/output module................ 84

Section 5

Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI ..........................85


Local HMI screen behaviour.............................................................85
Identification................................................................................ 85
Settings........................................................................................85
Local HMI signals............................................................................. 85
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Identification................................................................................ 85
Function block............................................................................. 85
Signals.........................................................................................86
Basic part for LED indication module............................................... 86
Identification................................................................................ 86
Function block............................................................................. 87
Signals.........................................................................................87
Settings........................................................................................88
Monitored data.............................................................................88
LCD part for HMI function keys control module................................88
Identification................................................................................ 88
Function block............................................................................. 89
Signals.........................................................................................89
Settings........................................................................................89
Operation principle........................................................................... 90
Local HMI.................................................................................... 90
Display....................................................................................91
LEDs.......................................................................................93
Keypad................................................................................... 94
LED..............................................................................................96
Functionality .......................................................................... 96
Status LEDs........................................................................... 96
Indication LEDs...................................................................... 97
Function keys............................................................................ 105
Functionality ........................................................................ 105
Operation principle............................................................... 105

Section 6

Differential protection................................................... 109


Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and T3WPDIF ........ 109
Identification.............................................................................. 109
Functionality ............................................................................. 109
Function block........................................................................... 111
Signals.......................................................................................112
Settings......................................................................................115
Monitored data...........................................................................120
Operation principle.................................................................... 121
Function calculation principles............................................. 122
Logic diagram.......................................................................144
Technical data........................................................................... 148
1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF .....................149
Identification.............................................................................. 149
Functionality.............................................................................. 149
Function block........................................................................... 150
Signals.......................................................................................150

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Settings......................................................................................150
Monitored data...........................................................................151
Operation principle.................................................................... 151
Logic diagram.......................................................................152
Technical data........................................................................... 153
Low impedance restricted earth fault protection REFPDIF ........... 154
Identification.............................................................................. 154
Functionality.............................................................................. 154
Function block........................................................................... 155
Signals.......................................................................................155
Settings......................................................................................156
Monitored data...........................................................................156
Operation principle.................................................................... 157
Fundamental principles of the restricted earth-fault
protection..............................................................................157
Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance
differential protection............................................................ 159
Calculation of differential current and bias current............... 160
Detection of external earth faults..........................................161
Algorithm of the restricted earth-fault protection.................. 163
Technical data........................................................................... 164
Additional security logic for differential protection LDRGFC ..........164
Identification.............................................................................. 164
Functionality.............................................................................. 164
Function block........................................................................... 165
Signals.......................................................................................166
Settings......................................................................................166
Monitored data...........................................................................167
Operation principle.................................................................... 168
Technical data........................................................................... 172

Section 7

Impedance protection...................................................173
Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral characteristic
ZMQPDIS, ZMQAPDIS, ZDRDIR................................................... 173
Identification.............................................................................. 173
Functionality.............................................................................. 173
Function block........................................................................... 174
Signals.......................................................................................175
Settings......................................................................................177
Monitored data...........................................................................179
Operation principle.................................................................... 180
Full scheme measurement................................................... 180
Impedance characteristic..................................................... 180
Minimum operating current...................................................184
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Measuring principles............................................................ 184


Directional impedance element for quadrilateral
characteristics...................................................................... 187
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................190
Technical data........................................................................... 193
Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle
FDPSPDIS......................................................................................194
Identification.............................................................................. 194
Identification......................................................................... 194
Functionality.............................................................................. 194
Function block........................................................................... 195
Signals.......................................................................................195
Settings......................................................................................196
Operation principle.................................................................... 197
Phase-to-earth fault..............................................................199
Phase-to-phase fault............................................................ 201
Three-phase faults............................................................... 203
Load encroachment..............................................................203
Minimum operate currents....................................................208
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................208
Technical data........................................................................... 214
Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for series
compensated lines ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS, ZDSRDIR.................. 214
Identification.............................................................................. 214
Functionality.............................................................................. 215
Function block........................................................................... 215
Signals.......................................................................................216
Settings......................................................................................218
Monitored data...........................................................................221
Operation principle.................................................................... 222
Full scheme measurement................................................... 222
Impedance characteristic..................................................... 222
Minimum operating current...................................................226
Measuring principles............................................................ 226
Directionality for series compensation..................................229
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................231
Technical data........................................................................... 234
Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho characteristic ZMHPDIS .. 235
Identification.............................................................................. 235
Functionality.............................................................................. 235
Function block........................................................................... 236
Signals.......................................................................................236
Settings......................................................................................237
Operation principle.................................................................... 238
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Full scheme measurement................................................... 238


Impedance characteristic..................................................... 239
Basic operation characteristics.............................................240
Theory of operation.............................................................. 242
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................251
Technical data........................................................................... 255
Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for earth faults
ZMMPDIS, ZMMAPDIS.................................................................. 255
Identification.............................................................................. 255
Functionality.............................................................................. 256
Function block........................................................................... 257
Signals.......................................................................................257
Settings......................................................................................259
Operation principle.................................................................... 260
Full scheme measurement................................................... 260
Impedance characteristic..................................................... 260
Minimum operating current...................................................262
Measuring principles............................................................ 263
Directionality.........................................................................265
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................267
Technical data........................................................................... 270
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic and
additional distance protection directional function for earth faults
ZDMRDIR, ZDARDIR..................................................................... 270
Identification.............................................................................. 270
Functionality.............................................................................. 271
Function block........................................................................... 271
Signals.......................................................................................271
Settings......................................................................................272
Monitored data...........................................................................273
Operation principle.................................................................... 274
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic
ZDMRDIR.............................................................................274
Additional distance protection directional function for
earth faults ZDARDIR...........................................................276
Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC................................278
Identification.............................................................................. 278
Functionality.............................................................................. 279
Function block........................................................................... 279
Signals.......................................................................................279
Settings......................................................................................280
Operation principle.................................................................... 280
Fault inception detection...................................................... 280
Faulty phase identification with load encroachment FMPSPDIS....282
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Identification.............................................................................. 282
Functionality.............................................................................. 282
Function block........................................................................... 282
Signals.......................................................................................283
Settings......................................................................................283
Operation principle.................................................................... 284
The phase selection function................................................284
Technical data........................................................................... 295
Distance protection zone, quadrilateral characteristic, separate
settings ZMRPDIS, ZMRAPDIS and ZDRDIR................................ 296
Identification.............................................................................. 296
Functionality.............................................................................. 296
Function block........................................................................... 297
Signals.......................................................................................297
Settings......................................................................................299
Operation principle.................................................................... 301
Full scheme measurement................................................... 301
Impedance characteristic..................................................... 302
Minimum operating current...................................................306
Measuring principles............................................................ 306
Directional impedance element for quadrilateral
characteristics...................................................................... 309
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................312
Technical data........................................................................... 315
Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle
FRPSPDIS......................................................................................316
Identification.............................................................................. 316
Functionality.............................................................................. 316
Function block........................................................................... 317
Signals.......................................................................................317
Settings......................................................................................318
Operation principle.................................................................... 319
Phase-to-earth fault..............................................................321
Phase-to-phase fault............................................................ 323
Three-phase faults............................................................... 324
Load encroachment..............................................................325
Minimum operate currents....................................................330
Simplified logic diagrams......................................................331
Technical data........................................................................... 336
High speed distance protection ZMFPDIS..................................... 336
Identification.............................................................................. 336
Functionality.............................................................................. 336
Function block........................................................................... 338
Signals.......................................................................................338
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Settings......................................................................................341
Monitored data...........................................................................345
Operation principle.................................................................... 345
Filtering.................................................................................345
Distance measuring zones................................................... 346
Phase-selection criteria........................................................ 347
Directional criteria.................................................................348
Fuse failure...........................................................................349
Power swings....................................................................... 349
Measuring principles............................................................ 349
Load encroachment..............................................................352
Simplified logic schemes...................................................... 353
Technical data........................................................................... 359
High speed distance protection ZMFCPDIS ..................................359
Identification.............................................................................. 359
Functionality.............................................................................. 359
Function block........................................................................... 361
Signals.......................................................................................362
Settings......................................................................................364
Monitored data...........................................................................370
Operation principle.................................................................... 370
Filtering.................................................................................370
Distance measuring zones................................................... 371
Phase-selection element...................................................... 372
Directional element...............................................................373
Fuse failure...........................................................................374
Power swings....................................................................... 374
Measuring principles............................................................ 374
Simplified logic schemes...................................................... 377
Technical data........................................................................... 384
Power swing detection ZMRPSB ...................................................384
Identification.............................................................................. 384
Functionality.............................................................................. 384
Function block........................................................................... 385
Signals.......................................................................................385
Settings......................................................................................386
Operation principle.................................................................... 387
Resistive reach in forward direction..................................... 388
Resistive reach in reverse direction..................................... 389
Reactive reach in forward and reverse direction.................. 390
Basic detection logic.............................................................390
Operating and inhibit conditions........................................... 392
Technical data........................................................................... 393
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Power swing logic PSLPSCH ........................................................ 393


Identification.............................................................................. 393
Functionality.............................................................................. 394
Function block........................................................................... 394
Signals.......................................................................................394
Settings......................................................................................395
Operation principle.................................................................... 395
Communication and tripping logic........................................ 395
Blocking logic....................................................................... 396
Pole slip protection PSPPPAM ......................................................398
Identification.............................................................................. 398
Functionality.............................................................................. 398
Function block........................................................................... 399
Signals.......................................................................................399
Settings......................................................................................400
Monitored data...........................................................................401
Operation principle.................................................................... 401
Technical data........................................................................... 405
Out-of-step protection OOSPPAM..................................................405
Identification.............................................................................. 405
Functionality.............................................................................. 405
Function block........................................................................... 406
Signals.......................................................................................406
Settings......................................................................................407
Monitored data...........................................................................408
Operation principle.................................................................... 408
Lens characteristic............................................................... 411
Detecting an out-of-step condition........................................413
Maximum slip frequency.......................................................414
Taking care of the circuit breaker ........................................ 415
Design.................................................................................. 417
Technical data........................................................................... 418
Phase preference logic PPLPHIZ...................................................418
Identification.............................................................................. 418
Functionality.............................................................................. 418
Function block........................................................................... 418
Signals.......................................................................................418
Settings......................................................................................419
Operation principle.................................................................... 420
Under impedance protection for generators and transformers
ZGVPDIS........................................................................................423
Identification.............................................................................. 423
Functionality.............................................................................. 423
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Function block........................................................................... 424


Signals.......................................................................................424
Settings......................................................................................425
Monitored data...........................................................................426
Operation principle.................................................................... 426
Operation principle of zone 1............................................... 428
Operation principle of zone 2............................................... 430
Operation principle of zone 3............................................... 434
Load encroachment..............................................................434
Under voltage seal-in........................................................... 435
Technical data........................................................................... 436

Section 8

Current protection.........................................................437
Instantaneous phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output
PHPIOC .........................................................................................437
Identification.............................................................................. 437
Functionality.............................................................................. 437
Function block........................................................................... 437
Signals.......................................................................................437
Settings......................................................................................438
Monitored data...........................................................................438
Operation principle.................................................................... 438
Technical data........................................................................... 439
Four step phase overcurrent protection 3-phase output
OC4PTOC ..................................................................................... 439
Identification.............................................................................. 440
Functionality.............................................................................. 440
Function block........................................................................... 441
Signals.......................................................................................441
Settings......................................................................................443
Monitored data...........................................................................448
Operation principle.................................................................... 449
Second harmonic blocking element...........................................453
Technical data........................................................................... 454
Instantaneous residual overcurrent protection EFPIOC ................ 455
Identification.............................................................................. 455
Functionality.............................................................................. 455
Function block........................................................................... 455
Signals.......................................................................................455
Settings......................................................................................456
Monitored data...........................................................................456
Operation principle.................................................................... 456
Technical data........................................................................... 457

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Four step residual overcurrent protection, (Zero sequence or


negative sequence directionality) EF4PTOC .................................457
Identification.............................................................................. 457
Functionality.............................................................................. 458
Function block........................................................................... 458
Signals.......................................................................................458
Settings......................................................................................459
Monitored data...........................................................................465
Operation principle.................................................................... 465
Operating quantity within the function.................................. 466
Internal polarizing................................................................. 467
External polarizing for earth-fault function............................468
Directional detection for earth fault function......................... 468
Base quantities within the protection....................................468
Internal earth-fault protection structure................................ 469
Four residual overcurrent steps............................................469
Directional supervision element with integrated
directional comparison function............................................470
Second harmonic blocking element..................................... 473
Switch on to fault feature......................................................474
Technical data........................................................................... 476
Four step directional negative phase sequence overcurrent
protection NS4PTOC .....................................................................477
Identification.............................................................................. 477
Functionality.............................................................................. 477
Function block........................................................................... 478
Signals.......................................................................................478
Settings......................................................................................479
Monitored data...........................................................................484
Operation principle.................................................................... 484
Operating quantity within the function.................................. 484
Internal polarizing facility of the function.............................. 485
External polarizing for negative sequence function..............486
Internal negative sequence protection structure.................. 486
Four negative sequence overcurrent stages........................ 486
Directional supervision element with integrated
directional comparison function............................................487
Technical data........................................................................... 490
Sensitive directional residual overcurrent and power protection
SDEPSDE ..................................................................................... 490
Identification.............................................................................. 490
Functionality.............................................................................. 491
Function block........................................................................... 492
Signals.......................................................................................493
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Settings......................................................................................494
Monitored data...........................................................................496
Operation principle.................................................................... 496
Function inputs..................................................................... 496
Technical data........................................................................... 502
Thermal overload protection, one time constant, Celsius/
Fahrenheit LCPTTR/LFPTTR.........................................................503
Identification.............................................................................. 504
Functionality.............................................................................. 504
Function block........................................................................... 505
Signals.......................................................................................505
Settings......................................................................................506
Monitored data...........................................................................507
Operation principle.................................................................... 508
Technical data........................................................................... 512
Thermal overload protection, two time constants TRPTTR ........... 512
Identification.............................................................................. 512
Functionality.............................................................................. 512
Function block........................................................................... 513
Signals.......................................................................................513
Settings......................................................................................514
Monitored data...........................................................................515
Operation principle.................................................................... 515
Technical data........................................................................... 519
Breaker failure protection 3-phase activation and output CCRBRF 519
Identification.............................................................................. 519
Functionality.............................................................................. 519
Function block........................................................................... 520
Signals.......................................................................................520
Settings......................................................................................521
Monitored data...........................................................................522
Operation principle.................................................................... 522
Technical data........................................................................... 525
Pole discordance protection CCPDSC........................................... 525
Identification.............................................................................. 525
Functionality.............................................................................. 526
Function block........................................................................... 526
Signals.......................................................................................526
Settings......................................................................................527
Monitored data...........................................................................527
Operation principle.................................................................... 527
Pole discordance signaling from circuit breaker...................530
Unsymmetrical current detection..........................................530
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Technical data........................................................................... 530


Directional underpower protection GUPPDUP............................... 531
Identification.............................................................................. 531
Functionality.............................................................................. 531
Function block........................................................................... 532
Signals.......................................................................................532
Settings......................................................................................533
Monitored data...........................................................................534
Operation principle.................................................................... 534
Low pass filtering..................................................................536
Calibration of analog inputs..................................................537
Technical data........................................................................... 538
Directional overpower protection GOPPDOP ................................539
Identification.............................................................................. 539
Functionality.............................................................................. 539
Function block........................................................................... 540
Signals.......................................................................................540
Settings......................................................................................541
Monitored data...........................................................................543
Operation principle.................................................................... 543
Low pass filtering..................................................................545
Calibration of analog inputs..................................................545
Technical data........................................................................... 546
Broken conductor check BRCPTOC ............................................. 547
Identification.............................................................................. 547
Functionality.............................................................................. 547
Function block........................................................................... 547
Signals.......................................................................................547
Settings......................................................................................548
Monitored data...........................................................................548
Operation principle.................................................................... 548
Technical data........................................................................... 550
Capacitor bank protection CBPGAPC............................................ 550
Identification.............................................................................. 550
Functionality.............................................................................. 550
Function block........................................................................... 551
Signals.......................................................................................551
Settings......................................................................................552
Monitored data...........................................................................553
Operation principle.................................................................... 554
Measured quantities............................................................. 554
Reconnection inhibit feature.................................................557
Overcurrent feature.............................................................. 558
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Undercurrent feature............................................................ 558


Capacitor harmonic overload feature................................... 559
Capacitor reactive power overload feature...........................561
Technical data........................................................................... 562
Negativ sequence time overcurrent protection for machines
NS2PTOC ......................................................................................563
Identification.............................................................................. 563
Functionality.............................................................................. 563
Function block........................................................................... 564
Signals.......................................................................................564
Settings......................................................................................565
Monitored data...........................................................................566
Operation principle.................................................................... 566
Start sensitivity..................................................................... 568
Alarm function...................................................................... 568
Logic diagram.......................................................................569
Technical data........................................................................... 569
Voltage-restrained time overcurrent protection VRPVOC.............. 570
Identification.............................................................................. 570
Functionality.............................................................................. 570
Function block........................................................................... 571
Signals.......................................................................................571
Settings......................................................................................572
Monitored data...........................................................................573
Operation principle.................................................................... 573
Measured quantities............................................................. 573
Base quantities.....................................................................573
Overcurrent protection..........................................................573
Logic diagram.......................................................................575
Undervoltage protection....................................................... 575
Technical data........................................................................... 576

Section 9

Voltage protection........................................................ 579


Two step undervoltage protection UV2PTUV ................................579
Identification.............................................................................. 579
Functionality.............................................................................. 579
Function block........................................................................... 580
Signals.......................................................................................580
Settings......................................................................................581
Monitored data...........................................................................583
Operation principle.................................................................... 583
Measurement principle......................................................... 584
Time delay............................................................................584
Blocking................................................................................590
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Design.................................................................................. 591
Technical data........................................................................... 593
Two step overvoltage protection OV2PTOV ..................................593
Identification.............................................................................. 593
Functionality.............................................................................. 594
Function block........................................................................... 594
Signals.......................................................................................594
Settings......................................................................................595
Monitored data...........................................................................597
Operation principle.................................................................... 597
Measurement principle......................................................... 598
Time delay............................................................................598
Blocking................................................................................604
Design.................................................................................. 604
Technical data........................................................................... 606
Two step residual overvoltage protection ROV2PTOV ................. 607
Identification.............................................................................. 607
Functionality.............................................................................. 607
Function block........................................................................... 607
Signals.......................................................................................607
Settings......................................................................................608
Monitored data...........................................................................610
Operation principle.................................................................... 610
Measurement principle......................................................... 610
Time delay............................................................................610
Blocking................................................................................616
Design.................................................................................. 616
Technical data........................................................................... 617
Overexcitation protection OEXPVPH ............................................ 618
Identification.............................................................................. 618
Functionality.............................................................................. 618
Function block........................................................................... 618
Signals.......................................................................................619
Settings......................................................................................619
Monitored data...........................................................................620
Operation principle.................................................................... 620
Measured voltage.................................................................623
Operate time of the overexcitation protection.......................624
Cooling................................................................................. 627
Overexcitation protection function measurands................... 627
Overexcitation alarm............................................................ 628
Logic diagram.......................................................................629
Technical data........................................................................... 629
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Voltage differential protection VDCPTOV ......................................630


Identification.............................................................................. 630
Functionality.............................................................................. 630
Function block........................................................................... 630
Signals.......................................................................................630
Settings......................................................................................631
Monitored data...........................................................................632
Operation principle.................................................................... 632
Technical data........................................................................... 633
Loss of voltage check LOVPTUV .................................................. 634
Identification.............................................................................. 634
Functionality.............................................................................. 634
Function block........................................................................... 634
Signals.......................................................................................634
Settings......................................................................................635
Operation principle.................................................................... 635
Technical data........................................................................... 637

Section 10 Frequency protection....................................................639


Underfrequency protection SAPTUF ............................................. 639
Identification.............................................................................. 639
Functionality.............................................................................. 639
Function block........................................................................... 639
Signals.......................................................................................640
Settings......................................................................................640
Monitored data...........................................................................641
Operation principle.................................................................... 641
Measurement principle......................................................... 641
Time delay............................................................................641
Voltage dependent time delay..............................................642
Blocking................................................................................643
Design.................................................................................. 643
Overfrequency protection SAPTOF ...............................................644
Identification.............................................................................. 644
Functionality.............................................................................. 645
Function block........................................................................... 645
Signals.......................................................................................645
Settings......................................................................................646
Monitored data...........................................................................646
Operation principle.................................................................... 646
Measurement principle......................................................... 646
Time delay............................................................................647
Blocking................................................................................647
Design.................................................................................. 647
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Technical data........................................................................... 648


Rate-of-change frequency protection SAPFRC .............................649
Identification.............................................................................. 649
Functionality.............................................................................. 649
Function block........................................................................... 649
Signals.......................................................................................649
Settings......................................................................................650
Monitored data...........................................................................650
Operation principle.................................................................... 650
Measurement principle......................................................... 651
Time delay............................................................................651
Blocking................................................................................651
Design.................................................................................. 652
Technical data........................................................................... 653

Section 11 Multipurpose protection................................................ 655


General current and voltage protection CVGAPC.......................... 655
Identification.............................................................................. 655
Functionality.............................................................................. 655
Function block........................................................................... 656
Signals.......................................................................................656
Settings......................................................................................658
Monitored data...........................................................................665
Operation principle.................................................................... 665
Measured quantities within CVGAPC...................................665
Base quantities for CVGAPC function..................................668
Built-in overcurrent protection steps.....................................668
Built-in undercurrent protection steps...................................673
Built-in overvoltage protection steps.................................... 674
Built-in undervoltage protection steps.................................. 674
Logic diagram.......................................................................674
Technical data........................................................................... 679

Section 12 System protection and control......................................683


Multipurpose filter SMAIHPAC....................................................... 683
Identification.............................................................................. 683
Functionality.............................................................................. 683
Function block........................................................................... 683
Signals.......................................................................................683
Settings......................................................................................684
Operation principle.................................................................... 684
Filter calculation example.......................................................... 688

Section 13 Secondary system supervision.....................................691


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Current circuit supervision CCSSPVC............................................691


Identification.............................................................................. 691
Functionality.............................................................................. 691
Function block........................................................................... 691
Signals.......................................................................................692
Settings......................................................................................692
Operation principle.................................................................... 692
Technical data........................................................................... 694
Fuse failure supervision FUFSPVC................................................694
Identification.............................................................................. 694
Functionality.............................................................................. 695
Function block........................................................................... 695
Signals.......................................................................................696
Settings......................................................................................697
Monitored data...........................................................................698
Operation principle.................................................................... 698
Zero and negative sequence detection................................ 698
Delta current and delta voltage detection.............................700
Dead line detection...............................................................703
Main logic............................................................................. 704
Technical data........................................................................... 707
Fuse failure supervision VDSPVC..................................................707
Identification.............................................................................. 707
Functionality.............................................................................. 707
Function block........................................................................... 708
Signals.......................................................................................708
Settings......................................................................................709
Monitored data...........................................................................709
Operation principle.................................................................... 710
Technical data........................................................................... 711

Section 14 Control..........................................................................713
Synchrocheck, energizing check, and synchronizing SESRSYN...713
Identification.............................................................................. 713
Functionality.............................................................................. 713
Function block........................................................................... 714
Signals.......................................................................................714
Settings......................................................................................716
Monitored data...........................................................................719
Operation principle.................................................................... 719
Basic functionality.................................................................719
Logic diagrams..................................................................... 720
Technical data........................................................................... 731
Interlocking .................................................................................... 732
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Functionality.............................................................................. 732
Operation principle.................................................................... 732
Logical node for interlocking SCILO ......................................... 735
Identification......................................................................... 735
Functionality......................................................................... 735
Function block...................................................................... 736
Signals..................................................................................736
Logic diagram.......................................................................736
Interlocking for busbar earthing switch BB_ES .........................737
Identification......................................................................... 737
Functionality......................................................................... 737
Function block...................................................................... 738
Logic diagram.......................................................................738
Signals..................................................................................738
Interlocking for bus-section breaker A1A2_BS.......................... 738
Identification......................................................................... 739
Functionality......................................................................... 739
Function block...................................................................... 740
Logic diagram.......................................................................741
Signals..................................................................................742
Interlocking for bus-section disconnector A1A2_DC ................ 743
Identification......................................................................... 744
Functionality......................................................................... 744
Function block...................................................................... 744
Logic diagram.......................................................................745
Signals..................................................................................745
Interlocking for bus-coupler bay ABC_BC ................................ 746
Identification......................................................................... 746
Functionality......................................................................... 747
Function block...................................................................... 748
Logic diagram.......................................................................749
Signals..................................................................................751
Interlocking for 1 1/2 CB BH ..................................................... 754
Identification......................................................................... 754
Functionality......................................................................... 754
Function blocks.................................................................... 755
Logic diagrams..................................................................... 757
Signals..................................................................................762
Interlocking for double CB bay DB ........................................... 766
Identification......................................................................... 766
Functionality......................................................................... 766
Logic diagrams..................................................................... 768
Function block...................................................................... 771
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Signals..................................................................................773
Interlocking for line bay ABC_LINE .......................................... 776
Identification......................................................................... 776
Functionality......................................................................... 776
Function block...................................................................... 777
Logic diagram.......................................................................778
Signals..................................................................................783
Interlocking for transformer bay AB_TRAFO ............................ 785
Identification......................................................................... 785
Functionality......................................................................... 786
Function block...................................................................... 787
Logic diagram.......................................................................788
Signals..................................................................................789
Position evaluation POS_EVAL.................................................791
Identification......................................................................... 791
Functionality......................................................................... 791
Function block...................................................................... 791
Logic diagram.......................................................................792
Signals..................................................................................792
Apparatus control APC................................................................... 792
Functionality.............................................................................. 792
Operation principle.................................................................... 793
Error handling............................................................................ 794
Bay control QCBAY................................................................... 797
Functionality......................................................................... 797
Function block...................................................................... 797
Signals..................................................................................797
Settings................................................................................ 798
Operation principle............................................................... 798
Local/Remote switch LOCREM................................................. 800
Function block...................................................................... 800
Signals..................................................................................801
Settings................................................................................ 802
Operation principle............................................................... 802
Switch controller SCSWI........................................................... 803
Functionality ........................................................................ 804
Function block...................................................................... 804
Signals..................................................................................804
Settings................................................................................ 806
Operation principle............................................................... 806
Circuit breaker SXCBR..............................................................811
Functionality ........................................................................ 811
Function block...................................................................... 811
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Signals..................................................................................812
Settings................................................................................ 813
Operation principle............................................................... 813
Circuit switch SXSWI.................................................................817
Functionality ........................................................................ 817
Function block...................................................................... 817
Signals..................................................................................818
Settings................................................................................ 819
Operation principle............................................................... 819
Bay reserve QCRSV..................................................................823
Functionality......................................................................... 823
Function block...................................................................... 823
Signals..................................................................................824
Settings................................................................................ 825
Operation principle............................................................... 825
Reservation input RESIN...........................................................827
Functionality......................................................................... 827
Function block...................................................................... 827
Signals..................................................................................828
Settings................................................................................ 829
Operation principle............................................................... 829
Voltage control................................................................................831
Identification.............................................................................. 831
Functionality.............................................................................. 832
Automatic voltage control for tap changer TR1ATCC and
TR8ATCC ................................................................................. 832
Operation principle............................................................... 832
Tap changer control and supervision, 6 binary inputs
TCMYLTC and TCLYLTC .........................................................844
Operation principle............................................................... 844
Connection between TR1ATCC or TR8ATCC and
TCMYLTCor TCLYLTC............................................................. 848
Function block........................................................................... 852
Signals.......................................................................................855
Settings......................................................................................862
Monitored data...........................................................................870
Operation principle.................................................................... 871
Technical data........................................................................... 872
Logic rotating switch for function selection and LHMI
presentation SLGAPC.................................................................... 873
Identification.............................................................................. 873
Functionality.............................................................................. 873
Function block........................................................................... 874
Signals.......................................................................................874
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Settings......................................................................................876
Monitored data...........................................................................876
Operation principle.................................................................... 876
Graphical display..................................................................877
Selector mini switch VSGAPC........................................................878
Identification.............................................................................. 878
Functionality.............................................................................. 879
Function block........................................................................... 879
Signals.......................................................................................879
Settings......................................................................................880
Operation principle.................................................................... 880
Generic communication function for Double Point indication
DPGAPC........................................................................................ 881
Identification.............................................................................. 881
Functionality.............................................................................. 881
Function block........................................................................... 881
Signals.......................................................................................881
Settings......................................................................................882
Operation principle.................................................................... 882
Single point generic control 8 signals SPC8GAPC........................ 882
Identification.............................................................................. 882
Functionality.............................................................................. 882
Function block........................................................................... 883
Signals.......................................................................................883
Settings......................................................................................883
Operation principle.................................................................... 884
AutomationBits, command function for DNP3.0 AUTOBITS.......... 884
Identification.............................................................................. 884
Functionality.............................................................................. 885
Function block........................................................................... 885
Signals.......................................................................................885
Settings......................................................................................886
Operation principle.................................................................... 901
Single command, 16 signals SINGLECMD.................................... 901
Identification.............................................................................. 901
Functionality.............................................................................. 901
Function block........................................................................... 902
Signals.......................................................................................902
Settings......................................................................................903
Operation principle.................................................................... 903

Section 15 Scheme communication............................................... 905


Scheme communication logic for residual overcurrent protection
ECPSCH ........................................................................................905
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Identification.............................................................................. 905
Functionality.............................................................................. 905
Function block........................................................................... 905
Signals.......................................................................................906
Settings......................................................................................906
Operation principle.................................................................... 907
Blocking scheme.................................................................. 907
Permissive under/overreaching scheme.............................. 908
Unblocking scheme.............................................................. 909
Technical data........................................................................... 910
Current reversal and weak-end infeed logic for residual
overcurrent protection ECRWPSCH...............................................910
Identification.............................................................................. 910
Functionality.............................................................................. 911
Function block........................................................................... 911
Signals.......................................................................................911
Settings......................................................................................912
Operation principle.................................................................... 913
Directional comparison logic function...................................913
Fault current reversal logic................................................... 913
Weak-end infeed logic..........................................................914
Technical data........................................................................... 915

Section 16 Logic.............................................................................917
Tripping logic common 3-phase output SMPPTRC .......................917
Identification.............................................................................. 917
Functionality.............................................................................. 917
Function block........................................................................... 917
Signals.......................................................................................918
Settings......................................................................................919
Operation principle.................................................................... 919
Logic diagram.......................................................................920
Technical data........................................................................... 924
Trip matrix logic TMAGAPC........................................................... 924
Identification.............................................................................. 924
Functionality.............................................................................. 925
Function block........................................................................... 925
Signals.......................................................................................925
Settings......................................................................................927
Operation principle.................................................................... 927
Technical data........................................................................... 928
Logic for group alarm ALMCALH....................................................928
Identification.............................................................................. 928
Functionality.............................................................................. 929
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Function block........................................................................... 929


Signals.......................................................................................929
Settings......................................................................................930
Operation principle.................................................................... 930
Technical data........................................................................... 930
Logic for group warning WRNCALH...............................................931
Identification.............................................................................. 931
Functionality.............................................................................. 931
Function block........................................................................... 931
Signals.......................................................................................931
Settings......................................................................................932
Operation principle.................................................................... 932
Technical data........................................................................... 933
Logic for group indication INDCALH...............................................933
Identification.............................................................................. 933
Functionality.............................................................................. 933
Function block........................................................................... 933
Signals.......................................................................................934
Settings......................................................................................934
Operation principle.................................................................... 934
Technical data........................................................................... 935
Basic configurable logic blocks.......................................................935
AND function block AND........................................................... 936
Function block...................................................................... 936
Signals..................................................................................937
Technical data...................................................................... 937
Controllable gate function block GATE......................................937
Function block...................................................................... 937
Signals..................................................................................937
Settings................................................................................ 938
Technical data...................................................................... 938
Inverter function block INV........................................................ 938
Function block...................................................................... 938
Signals..................................................................................938
Technical data...................................................................... 939
Loop delay function block LLD.................................................. 939
Function block...................................................................... 939
Signals..................................................................................939
Technical data...................................................................... 939
OR function block...................................................................... 939
Function block...................................................................... 940
Signals..................................................................................940
Technical data...................................................................... 940
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Pulse timer function block PULSETIMER..................................940


Function block...................................................................... 941
Signals..................................................................................941
Settings................................................................................ 941
Technical data...................................................................... 941
Reset-set with memory function block RSMEMORY.................941
Function block...................................................................... 942
Signals..................................................................................942
Settings................................................................................ 942
Technical data...................................................................... 942
Set-reset with memory function block SRMEMORY................. 943
Function block...................................................................... 943
Signals..................................................................................943
Settings................................................................................ 943
Technical data...................................................................... 944
Settable timer function block TIMERSET.................................. 944
Function block...................................................................... 944
Signals..................................................................................944
Settings................................................................................ 945
Technical data...................................................................... 945
Exclusive OR function block XOR............................................. 945
Function block...................................................................... 945
Signals..................................................................................946
Technical data...................................................................... 946
Configurable logic blocks Q/T.........................................................946
ANDQT function block............................................................... 947
Function block...................................................................... 948
Signals..................................................................................948
Technical data...................................................................... 948
Single point indication related signals combining function
block INDCOMBSPQT.............................................................. 948
Function block...................................................................... 949
Signals..................................................................................949
Technical data...................................................................... 949
Single point input signal attributes converting function block
INDEXTSPQT............................................................................949
Function block...................................................................... 950
Signals..................................................................................950
Technical data...................................................................... 950
Invalid logic function block INVALIDQT.....................................950
Function block...................................................................... 951
Signals..................................................................................951
Technical data...................................................................... 952
Inverter function block INVERTERQT....................................... 952
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Function block...................................................................... 953


Signals..................................................................................953
Technical data...................................................................... 953
ORQT function block................................................................. 953
Function block...................................................................... 954
Signals..................................................................................954
Technical data...................................................................... 954
Pulse timer function block PULSETIMERQT.............................954
Function block...................................................................... 955
Signals..................................................................................955
Settings................................................................................ 955
Technical data...................................................................... 955
Reset/Set function block RSMEMORYQT.................................956
Function block...................................................................... 956
Signals..................................................................................956
Settings................................................................................ 957
Technical data...................................................................... 957
Set/Reset function block SRMEMORYQT.................................957
Function block...................................................................... 957
Signals..................................................................................958
Settings................................................................................ 958
Technical data...................................................................... 958
Settable timer function block TIMERSETQT............................. 958
Function block...................................................................... 959
Signals..................................................................................959
Settings................................................................................ 959
Technical data...................................................................... 959
Exclusive OR function block XORQT........................................ 959
Function block...................................................................... 960
Signals..................................................................................960
Technical data...................................................................... 960
Extension logic package.................................................................961
Fixed signals FXDSIGN..................................................................961
Identification.............................................................................. 961
Functionality.............................................................................. 961
Function block........................................................................... 962
Signals.......................................................................................962
Settings......................................................................................962
Operation principle.................................................................... 962
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion B16I.......................................... 963
Identification.............................................................................. 963
Function block........................................................................... 963
Signals.......................................................................................963
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Monitored data...........................................................................964
Settings......................................................................................964
Operation principle.................................................................... 964
Technical data........................................................................... 965
Boolean 16 to Integer conversion with logic node representation
BTIGAPC........................................................................................965
Identification.............................................................................. 965
Functionality.............................................................................. 966
Function block........................................................................... 966
Signals.......................................................................................966
Settings......................................................................................967
Monitored data...........................................................................967
Operation principle.................................................................... 967
Technical data........................................................................... 968
Integer to boolean 16 conversion IB16...........................................968
Identification.............................................................................. 968
Functionality.............................................................................. 968
Function block........................................................................... 969
Signals.......................................................................................969
Setting parameters.................................................................... 970
Operation principle.................................................................... 970
Technical data........................................................................... 971
Integer to Boolean 16 conversion with logic node representation
ITBGAPC........................................................................................971
Identification.............................................................................. 971
Functionality.............................................................................. 971
Function block........................................................................... 972
Signals.......................................................................................972
Settings......................................................................................973
Operation principle.................................................................... 973
Technical data........................................................................... 974
Elapsed time integrator with limit transgression and overflow
supervision TEIGAPC.....................................................................974
Identification.............................................................................. 974
Functionality.............................................................................. 974
Function block........................................................................... 975
Signals.......................................................................................975
Settings......................................................................................976
Operation principle.................................................................... 976
Operation accuracy.............................................................. 978
Memory storage................................................................... 978
Technical data........................................................................... 978

Section 17 Monitoring.....................................................................979
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Measurements................................................................................979
Identification.............................................................................. 979
Functionality.............................................................................. 979
Function block........................................................................... 981
Signals.......................................................................................983
Settings......................................................................................986
Monitored data...........................................................................997
Operation principle.................................................................. 1000
Measurement supervision.................................................. 1000
Measurements CVMMXN...................................................1004
Phase current measurement CMMXU............................... 1009
Phase-phase and phase-neutral voltage measurements
VMMXU, VNMMXU............................................................ 1010
Voltage and current sequence measurements VMSQI,
CMSQI................................................................................1010
Technical data......................................................................... 1010
Gas medium supervision SSIMG................................................. 1012
Identification............................................................................ 1012
Functionality............................................................................ 1012
Function block......................................................................... 1013
Signals.....................................................................................1013
Settings....................................................................................1014
Operation principle.................................................................. 1014
Technical data......................................................................... 1015
Liquid medium supervision SSIML............................................... 1015
Identification............................................................................ 1015
Functionality............................................................................ 1016
Function block......................................................................... 1016
Signals.....................................................................................1016
Settings....................................................................................1017
Operation principle.................................................................. 1017
Technical data......................................................................... 1018
Breaker monitoring SSCBR..........................................................1018
Identification............................................................................ 1018
Functionality............................................................................ 1019
Function block......................................................................... 1019
Signals.....................................................................................1019
Settings....................................................................................1020
Monitored data.........................................................................1022
Operation principle.................................................................. 1022
Circuit breaker contact travel time......................................1024
Circuit breaker status......................................................... 1025
Remaining life of circuit breaker......................................... 1026
Accumulated energy...........................................................1027
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Circuit breaker operation cycles......................................... 1028


Circuit breaker operation monitoring.................................. 1029
Circuit breaker spring charge monitoring........................... 1030
Circuit breaker gas pressure indication.............................. 1031
Technical data......................................................................... 1031
Event function EVENT..................................................................1032
Identification............................................................................ 1032
Functionality............................................................................ 1032
Function block......................................................................... 1032
Signals.....................................................................................1033
Settings....................................................................................1034
Operation principle.................................................................. 1036
Disturbance report DRPRDRE..................................................... 1037
Identification............................................................................ 1037
Functionality............................................................................ 1037
Function block......................................................................... 1038
Signals.....................................................................................1039
Settings....................................................................................1044
Monitored data.........................................................................1083
Operation principle.................................................................. 1086
Technical data......................................................................... 1093
Logical signal status report BINSTATREP................................... 1094
Identification............................................................................ 1094
Functionality............................................................................ 1094
Function block......................................................................... 1095
Signals.....................................................................................1095
Settings....................................................................................1096
Operation principle.................................................................. 1096
Measured value expander block RANGE_XP.............................. 1097
Identification............................................................................ 1097
Functionality............................................................................ 1097
Function block......................................................................... 1097
Signals.....................................................................................1098
Operation principle.................................................................. 1098
Limit counter L4UFCNT................................................................1098
Identification............................................................................ 1098
Identification....................................................................... 1098
Functionality............................................................................ 1099
Operation principle.................................................................. 1099
Design................................................................................ 1099
Reporting............................................................................1100
Function block......................................................................... 1101
Signals.....................................................................................1101
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Settings....................................................................................1102
Monitored data.........................................................................1102
Technical data......................................................................... 1102

Section 18 Metering..................................................................... 1103


Pulse-counter logic PCFCNT....................................................... 1103
Identification............................................................................ 1103
Functionality............................................................................ 1103
Function block......................................................................... 1103
Signals.....................................................................................1104
Settings....................................................................................1104
Monitored data.........................................................................1105
Operation principle.................................................................. 1105
Technical data......................................................................... 1107
Function for energy calculation and demand handling ETPMMTR1107
Identification............................................................................ 1107
Functionality............................................................................ 1107
Function block......................................................................... 1108
Signals.....................................................................................1108
Settings....................................................................................1109
Monitored data.........................................................................1110
Operation principle.................................................................. 1111
Technical data......................................................................... 1114
Technical data.................................................................... 1114

Section 19 Station communication............................................... 1115


670 series protocols..................................................................... 1115
DNP3 protocol.............................................................................. 1115
IEC 61850-8-1 communication protocol....................................... 1115
Communication interfaces and protocols................................ 1115
Settings....................................................................................1116
Technical data......................................................................... 1116
Generic communication function for Single Point indication
SPGAPC, SP16GAPC.............................................................1116
Functionality....................................................................... 1117
Function block.................................................................... 1117
Signals................................................................................1117
Settings.............................................................................. 1118
Monitored data................................................................... 1118
Operation principle............................................................. 1119
Generic communication function for Measured Value
MVGAPC................................................................................. 1119
Functionality....................................................................... 1119
Function block.................................................................... 1119
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Signals................................................................................1120
Settings.............................................................................. 1120
Monitored data................................................................... 1121
Operation principle............................................................. 1121
IEC 61850-8-1 redundant station bus communication............ 1121
Functionality....................................................................... 1121
Function block.................................................................... 1121
Signals................................................................................1122
Settings.............................................................................. 1122
Monitored data................................................................... 1122
Principle of operation..........................................................1122
IEC 61850-9-2LE communication protocol...................................1124
Introduction..............................................................................1124
Function block......................................................................... 1124
Signals.....................................................................................1124
Output signals.................................................................... 1124
Settings....................................................................................1127
Monitored data.........................................................................1130
Operation principle.................................................................. 1131
Technical data......................................................................... 1134
LON communication protocol....................................................... 1134
Functionality............................................................................ 1134
Settings....................................................................................1135
Operation principle.................................................................. 1135
Technical data......................................................................... 1153
SPA communication protocol....................................................... 1153
Functionality............................................................................ 1153
Design..................................................................................... 1153
Settings....................................................................................1154
Operation principle.................................................................. 1154
Communication ports......................................................... 1162
Technical data......................................................................... 1162
IEC 60870-5-103 communication protocol................................... 1163
Introduction..............................................................................1163
Measurands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103MEAS......................... 1163
Functionality....................................................................... 1163
Identification....................................................................... 1163
Function block.................................................................... 1164
Signals................................................................................1164
Settings.............................................................................. 1164
Measurands user defined signals for IEC 60870-5-103
I103MEASUSR........................................................................1165
Functionality....................................................................... 1165
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Identification....................................................................... 1165
Function block.................................................................... 1165
Signals................................................................................1166
Settings.............................................................................. 1166
Function status auto-recloser for IEC 60870-5-103 I103AR....1167
Functionality....................................................................... 1167
Identification....................................................................... 1167
Function block.................................................................... 1167
Signals................................................................................1167
Settings.............................................................................. 1167
Function status earth-fault for IEC 60870-5-103 I103EF.........1168
Functionality....................................................................... 1168
Identification....................................................................... 1168
Function block.................................................................... 1168
Signals................................................................................1168
Settings.............................................................................. 1168
Function status fault protection for IEC 60870-5-103
I103FLTPROT......................................................................... 1169
Functionality....................................................................... 1169
Identification....................................................................... 1169
Function block.................................................................... 1170
Signals................................................................................1170
Settings.............................................................................. 1171
IED status for IEC 60870-5-103 I103IED................................ 1171
Functionality....................................................................... 1171
Identification....................................................................... 1172
Function block.................................................................... 1172
Signals................................................................................1172
Settings.............................................................................. 1172
Supervison status for IEC 60870-5-103 I103SUPERV............1173
Functionality....................................................................... 1173
Identification....................................................................... 1173
Function block.................................................................... 1173
Signals................................................................................1173
Settings.............................................................................. 1173
Status for user defined signals for IEC 60870-5-103
I103USRDEF...........................................................................1174
Functionality....................................................................... 1174
Identification....................................................................... 1174
Function block.................................................................... 1174
Signals................................................................................1174
Settings.............................................................................. 1175
Function commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103CMD.............. 1176
Functionality....................................................................... 1176
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Identification....................................................................... 1177
Function block.................................................................... 1177
Signals................................................................................1177
Settings.............................................................................. 1177
IED commands for IEC 60870-5-103 I103IEDCMD................ 1177
Functionality....................................................................... 1177
Identification....................................................................... 1178
Function block.................................................................... 1178
Signals................................................................................1178
Settings.............................................................................. 1178
Function commands user defined for IEC 60870-5-103
I103USRCMD..........................................................................1179
Functionality....................................................................... 1179
Identification....................................................................... 1179
Function block.................................................................... 1179
Signals................................................................................1179
Settings.............................................................................. 1180
Function commands generic for IEC 60870-5-103
I103GENCMD..........................................................................1180
Functionality....................................................................... 1180
Identification....................................................................... 1180
Function block.................................................................... 1181
Signals................................................................................1181
Settings.............................................................................. 1181
IED commands with position and select for IEC 60870-5-103
I103POSCMD..........................................................................1181
Functionality....................................................................... 1181
Identification....................................................................... 1182
Function block.................................................................... 1182
Signals................................................................................1182
Settings.............................................................................. 1182
Operation principle ................................................................. 1183
General...............................................................................1183
Communication ports......................................................... 1193
Technical data......................................................................... 1194
Horizontal communication via GOOSE for interlocking
GOOSEINTLKRCV.......................................................................1194
Functionality............................................................................ 1194
Function block......................................................................... 1195
Signals.....................................................................................1195
Settings....................................................................................1197
Goose binary receive GOOSEBINRCV........................................1198
Function block......................................................................... 1198
Signals.....................................................................................1198
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Settings....................................................................................1199
GOOSE function block to receive a double point value
GOOSEDPRCV............................................................................1200
Identification............................................................................ 1200
Functionality............................................................................ 1200
Function block......................................................................... 1200
Signals.....................................................................................1200
Settings....................................................................................1201
Operation principle ................................................................. 1201
GOOSE function block to receive an integer value
GOOSEINTRCV........................................................................... 1201
Identification............................................................................ 1201
Functionality............................................................................ 1201
Function block......................................................................... 1202
Signals.....................................................................................1202
Settings....................................................................................1202
Operation principle ................................................................. 1202
GOOSE function block to receive a measurand value
GOOSEMVRCV........................................................................... 1203
Identification............................................................................ 1203
Functionality............................................................................ 1203
Function block......................................................................... 1203
Signals.....................................................................................1203
Settings....................................................................................1204
Operation principle ................................................................. 1204
GOOSE function block to receive a single point value
GOOSESPRCV............................................................................ 1204
Identification............................................................................ 1204
Functionality............................................................................ 1205
Function block......................................................................... 1205
Signals.....................................................................................1205
Settings....................................................................................1205
Operation principle ................................................................. 1205
GOOSE VCTR configuration for send and receive
GOOSEVCTRCONF.................................................................... 1206
Identification............................................................................ 1206
Functionality............................................................................ 1206
Settings....................................................................................1207
GOOSE voltage control receiving block GOOSEVCTRRCV........1207
Identification............................................................................ 1207
Functionality............................................................................ 1207
Function block......................................................................... 1207
Signals.....................................................................................1208
MULTICMDRCV and MULTICMDSND........................................ 1208
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Functionality............................................................................ 1208
Design..................................................................................... 1208
General...............................................................................1208
Function block......................................................................... 1209
Signals.....................................................................................1209
Settings....................................................................................1211
Operation principle.................................................................. 1211
Security events on protocols SECALARM....................................1212
Security alarm SECALARM.....................................................1212
Signals................................................................................1212
Settings.............................................................................. 1212
Activity logging parameters ACTIVLOG....................................... 1212
Activity logging ACTIVLOG..................................................... 1212
Settings....................................................................................1212

Section 20 Remote communication..............................................1215


Binary signal transfer....................................................................1215
Identification............................................................................ 1215
Functionality............................................................................ 1215
Function block......................................................................... 1216
Signals.....................................................................................1216
Settings....................................................................................1218
Monitored data.........................................................................1221
Operation principle.................................................................. 1222
Transmission of analog data from LDCM LDCMTransmit............ 1223
Function block......................................................................... 1223
Signals.....................................................................................1223

Section 21 Basic IED functions.................................................... 1225


Authority check ATHCHCK...........................................................1225
Identification............................................................................ 1225
Functionality............................................................................ 1225
Operation principle ................................................................. 1226
Authorization with Central Account Management enabled
IED..................................................................................... 1228
Authority management AUTHMAN...............................................1231
Identification............................................................................ 1231
AUTHMAN...............................................................................1231
Settings....................................................................................1231
FTP access with password FTPACCS......................................... 1231
Identification............................................................................ 1231
FTP access with TLS, FTPACCS............................................1231
Settings....................................................................................1232
Authority status ATHSTAT........................................................... 1232
34
Technical manual

Table of contents

Identification............................................................................ 1232
Functionality............................................................................ 1232
Function block......................................................................... 1232
Signals.....................................................................................1233
Settings....................................................................................1233
Operation principle ................................................................. 1233
Self supervision with internal event list INTERRSIG.................... 1233
Functionality............................................................................ 1233
Function block......................................................................... 1233
Signals.....................................................................................1234
Settings....................................................................................1234
Operation principle.................................................................. 1234
Internal signals................................................................... 1236
Supervision of analog inputs.............................................. 1238
Technical data......................................................................... 1238
Time synchronization TIMESYNCHGEN......................................1239
Functionality............................................................................ 1239
Settings....................................................................................1239
Operation principle ................................................................. 1244
General concepts............................................................... 1244
Real-time clock (RTC) operation........................................ 1247
Synchronization alternatives.............................................. 1248
Process bus IEC 61850-9-2LE synchronization.................1251
Technical data......................................................................... 1251
Parameter setting groups............................................................. 1251
Functionality............................................................................ 1251
Function block......................................................................... 1252
Signals.....................................................................................1252
Settings....................................................................................1253
Operation principle.................................................................. 1253
ChangeLock function CHNGLCK................................................. 1254
Functionality............................................................................ 1254
Function block......................................................................... 1255
Signals.....................................................................................1255
Operation principle ................................................................. 1255
Test mode functionality TESTMODE............................................1256
Functionality............................................................................ 1256
Function block......................................................................... 1256
Signals.....................................................................................1256
Settings....................................................................................1257
Operation principle ................................................................. 1257
IED identifiers TERMINALID........................................................ 1258
Functionality............................................................................ 1258
35
Technical manual

Table of contents

Settings ...................................................................................1258
Product information PRODINF..................................................... 1259
Functionality............................................................................ 1259
Settings ...................................................................................1259
Factory defined settings.......................................................... 1259
Signal matrix for binary inputs SMBI............................................ 1260
Functionality............................................................................ 1260
Function block......................................................................... 1260
Signals.....................................................................................1260
Operation principle.................................................................. 1261
Signal matrix for binary outputs SMBO ....................................... 1261
Functionality............................................................................ 1261
Function block......................................................................... 1262
Signals.....................................................................................1262
Operation principle.................................................................. 1262
Signal matrix for mA inputs SMMI................................................ 1263
Functionality............................................................................ 1263
Function block......................................................................... 1263
Signals.....................................................................................1263
Operation principle.................................................................. 1264
Signal matrix for analog inputs SMAI........................................... 1264
Functionality............................................................................ 1264
Function block......................................................................... 1264
Signals.....................................................................................1265
Settings....................................................................................1266
Operation principle ................................................................. 1268
Frequency values............................................................... 1269
Global base values GBASVAL..................................................... 1270
Identification............................................................................ 1270
Functionality............................................................................ 1270
Settings....................................................................................1270
Primary system values PRIMVAL.................................................1271
Identification............................................................................ 1271
Functionality............................................................................ 1271
Settings....................................................................................1271
Summation block 3 phase 3PHSUM............................................ 1271
Functionality............................................................................ 1271
Function block......................................................................... 1272
Signals.....................................................................................1272
Settings....................................................................................1273
Operation principle ................................................................. 1273
Denial of service DOS.................................................................. 1273
Functionality ........................................................................... 1273
36
Technical manual

Table of contents

Function blocks........................................................................1274
Signals.....................................................................................1274
Settings....................................................................................1275
Monitored data.........................................................................1275
Operation principle.................................................................. 1275

Section 22 IED hardware............................................................. 1277


Overview.......................................................................................1277
Variants of case size with local HMI display............................1277
Case from the rear side........................................................... 1279
Hardware modules....................................................................... 1284
Overview..................................................................................1284
Numeric processing module (NUM)........................................ 1285
Introduction.........................................................................1285
Functionality....................................................................... 1285
Block diagram.....................................................................1286
Power supply module (PSM)................................................... 1286
Introduction.........................................................................1286
Design................................................................................ 1286
Technical data.................................................................... 1287
Local human-machine interface (Local HMI)...........................1287
Transformer input module (TRM)............................................ 1287
Introduction.........................................................................1287
Design................................................................................ 1288
Technical data.................................................................... 1289
Analog digital conversion module, with time synchronization
(ADM) ..................................................................................... 1290
Introduction.........................................................................1290
Design................................................................................ 1290
Binary input module (BIM)....................................................... 1292
Introduction.........................................................................1292
Design................................................................................ 1292
Signals................................................................................1295
Settings.............................................................................. 1296
Monitored data................................................................... 1296
Technical data.................................................................... 1296
Binary output modules (BOM)................................................. 1297
Introduction.........................................................................1297
Design................................................................................ 1297
Signals................................................................................1299
Settings.............................................................................. 1300
Monitored data................................................................... 1300
Technical data.................................................................... 1304
Static binary output module (SOM)......................................... 1305
37
Technical manual

Table of contents

Introduction.........................................................................1305
Design................................................................................ 1305
Signals................................................................................1306
Settings.............................................................................. 1307
Monitored data................................................................... 1307
Technical data.................................................................... 1309
Binary input/output module (IOM)............................................1310
Introduction.........................................................................1310
Design................................................................................ 1310
Signals................................................................................1312
Settings.............................................................................. 1313
Monitored data................................................................... 1313
Technical data.................................................................... 1315
mA input module (MIM)........................................................... 1317
Introduction.........................................................................1317
Design................................................................................ 1317
Signals................................................................................1318
Settings.............................................................................. 1319
Monitored data................................................................... 1320
Technical data.................................................................... 1321
Serial and LON communication module (SLM) ...................... 1321
Introduction.........................................................................1321
Design................................................................................ 1321
Technical data.................................................................... 1322
Galvanic RS485 communication module.................................1323
Introduction.........................................................................1323
Design................................................................................ 1323
Technical data.................................................................... 1324
Optical ethernet module (OEM)...............................................1325
Introduction.........................................................................1325
Functionality....................................................................... 1325
Design................................................................................ 1325
Technical data.................................................................... 1326
Line data communication module (LDCM).............................. 1326
Introduction.........................................................................1326
Design................................................................................ 1326
Technical data.................................................................... 1327
Galvanic X.21 line data communication (X.21-LDCM)............ 1328
Introduction.........................................................................1328
Design................................................................................ 1329
Functionality....................................................................... 1330
Technical data.................................................................... 1331
GPS time synchronization module (GTM)............................... 1331
38
Technical manual

Table of contents

Introduction.........................................................................1331
Design................................................................................ 1331
Monitored data................................................................... 1332
Technical data.................................................................... 1332
GPS antenna........................................................................... 1332
Introduction.........................................................................1332
Design................................................................................ 1332
Technical data.................................................................... 1334
IRIG-B time synchronization module IRIG-B........................... 1334
Introduction.........................................................................1334
Design................................................................................ 1334
Settings.............................................................................. 1335
Technical data.................................................................... 1335
Dimensions...................................................................................1336
Case without rear cover...........................................................1336
Flush mounting dimensions.....................................................1338
Side-by-side flush mounting dimensions................................. 1339
Wall mounting dimensions.......................................................1340
External resistor unit for high impedance differential protection1340
Mounting alternatives................................................................... 1342
Flush mounting........................................................................ 1342
Overview............................................................................ 1342
Mounting procedure for flush mounting..............................1343
19 panel rack mounting.......................................................... 1344
Overview............................................................................ 1344
Mounting procedure for 19 panel rack mounting...............1345
Wall mounting..........................................................................1346
Overview............................................................................ 1346
Mounting procedure for wall mounting............................... 1346
How to reach the rear side of the IED................................ 1347
Side-by-side 19 rack mounting...............................................1348
Overview............................................................................ 1348
Mounting procedure for side-by-side rack mounting.......... 1348
IED in the 670 series mounted with a RHGS6 case...........1349
Side-by-side flush mounting.................................................... 1349
Overview............................................................................ 1349
Mounting procedure for side-by-side flush mounting......... 1350
Technical data.............................................................................. 1351
Enclosure.................................................................................1351
Electrical safety....................................................................... 1351
Connection system.................................................................. 1351
Influencing factors................................................................... 1352
Type tests according to standard............................................ 1353
39
Technical manual

Table of contents

Section 23 Labels.........................................................................1357
Labels on IED............................................................................... 1357

Section 24 Connection diagrams................................................. 1361


Section 25 Inverse time characteristics........................................1363
Application.................................................................................... 1363
Principle of operation....................................................................1366
Mode of operation....................................................................1366
Inverse characteristics..................................................................1371

Section 26 Glossary..................................................................... 1401


Glossary....................................................................................... 1401

40
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 1

Introduction

1.1

This manual
The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists
function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and
technical data, sorted per function. The manual can be used as a technical reference
during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during
normal service.

1.2

Intended audience
This manual addresses system engineers and installation and commissioning
personnel, who use technical data during engineering, installation and
commissioning, and in normal service.
The system engineer must have a thorough knowledge of protection systems,
protection equipment, protection functions and the configured functional logic in the
IEDs. The installation and commissioning personnel must have a basic knowledge in
handling electronic equipment.

41
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

Decommissioning
Deinstalling & disposal

Maintenance

Operation

Product documentation set

Commissioning

1.3.1

Engineering

Product documentation

Planning & purchase

1.3

Installing

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Engineering manual
Installation manual
Commissioning manual
Operation manual
Application manual
Technical manual
Communication
protocol manual
Cyber security
deployment guideline
IEC07000220-4-en.vsd
IEC07000220 V4 EN

Figure 1:

The intended use of manuals throughout the product lifecycle

The engineering manual contains instructions on how to engineer the IEDs using the
various tools available within the PCM600 software. The manual provides
instructions on how to set up a PCM600 project and insert IEDs to the project
structure. The manual also recommends a sequence for the engineering of protection
and control functions, LHMI functions as well as communication engineering for IEC
60870-5-103, IEC 61850 and DNP3.
The installation manual contains instructions on how to install the IED. The manual
provides procedures for mechanical and electrical installation. The chapters are
organized in the chronological order in which the IED should be installed.
The commissioning manual contains instructions on how to commission the IED. The
manual can also be used by system engineers and maintenance personnel for
assistance during the testing phase. The manual provides procedures for the checking
of external circuitry and energizing the IED, parameter setting and configuration as

42
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

well as verifying settings by secondary injection. The manual describes the process of
testing an IED in a substation which is not in service. The chapters are organized in the
chronological order in which the IED should be commissioned. The relevant
procedures may be followed also during the service and maintenance activities.
The operation manual contains instructions on how to operate the IED once it has been
commissioned. The manual provides instructions for the monitoring, controlling and
setting of the IED. The manual also describes how to identify disturbances and how to
view calculated and measured power grid data to determine the cause of a fault.
The application manual contains application descriptions and setting guidelines
sorted per function. The manual can be used to find out when and for what purpose a
typical protection function can be used. The manual can also provide assistance for
calculating settings.
The technical manual contains application and functionality descriptions and lists
function blocks, logic diagrams, input and output signals, setting parameters and
technical data, sorted per function. The manual can be used as a technical reference
during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during
normal service.
The communication protocol manual describes the communication protocols
supported by the IED. The manual concentrates on the vendor-specific
implementations.
The point list manual describes the outlook and properties of the data points specific
to the IED. The manual should be used in conjunction with the corresponding
communication protocol manual.
The cyber security deployment guideline describes the process for handling cyber
security when communicating with the IED. Certification, Authorization with role
based access control, and product engineering for cyber security related events are
described and sorted by function. The guideline can be used as a technical reference
during the engineering phase, installation and commissioning phase, and during
normal service.

1.3.2

Document revision history


Document revision/date

History

-/May2014

First release

A/June 2016

Second release

B/June 2016

Minor corrections

43
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction
1.3.3

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Related documents
Documents related to RET670

Identify number

Application manual

1MRK 504 138-UEN

Commissioning manual

1MRK 504 140-UEN

Product guide

1MRK 504 141-BEN

Technical manual

1MRK 504 139-UEN

Type test certificate

1MRK 504 141-TEN

670 series manuals

Identify number

Operation manual

1MRK 500 118-UEN

Engineering manual

1MRK 511 308-UEN

Installation manual

1MRK 514 019-UEN

Communication protocol manual, IEC


60870-5-103

1MRK 511 304-UEN

Communication protocol manual, IEC 61850


Edition 1

1MRK 511 302-UEN

Communication protocol manual, IEC 61850


Edition 2

1MRK 511 303-UEN

Communication protocol manual, LON

1MRK 511 305-UEN

Communication protocol manual, SPA

1MRK 511 306-UEN

Accessories guide

1MRK 514 012-BEN

Cyber security deployment guideline

1MRK 511 309-UEN

Connection and Installation components

1MRK 513 003-BEN

Test system, COMBITEST

1MRK 512 001-BEN

1.4

Document symbols and conventions

1.4.1

Symbols
The electrical warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which
could result in electrical shock.

The warning icon indicates the presence of a hazard which could


result in personal injury.

The caution hot surface icon indicates important information or


warning about the temperature of product surfaces.

44
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The caution icon indicates important information or warning related


to the concept discussed in the text. It might indicate the presence of
a hazard which could result in corruption of software or damage to
equipment or property.

The information icon alerts the reader of important facts and


conditions.

The tip icon indicates advice on, for example, how to design your
project or how to use a certain function.
Although warning hazards are related to personal injury, it is necessary to understand
that under certain operational conditions, operation of damaged equipment may result
in degraded process performance leading to personal injury or death. It is important
that the user fully complies with all warning and cautionary notices.

1.4.2

Document conventions

Abbreviations and acronyms in this manual are spelled out in the glossary. The
glossary also contains definitions of important terms.
Push button navigation in the LHMI menu structure is presented by using the
push button icons.
For example, to navigate between the options, use
and
.
HMI menu paths are presented in bold.
For example, select Main menu/Settings.
LHMI messages are shown in Courier font.
For example, to save the changes in non-volatile memory, select Yes and press
.
Parameter names are shown in italics.
For example, the function can be enabled and disabled with the Operation setting.
Each function block symbol shows the available input/output signal.

the character ^ in front of an input/output signal name indicates that the


signal name may be customized using the PCM600 software.
the character * after an input signal name indicates that the signal must be
connected to another function block in the application configuration to
achieve a valid application configuration.

Logic diagrams describe the signal logic inside the function block and are
bordered by dashed lines.

45
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Signals in frames with a shaded area on their right hand side represent
setting parameter signals that are only settable via the PST or LHMI.
If an internal signal path cannot be drawn with a continuous line, the suffix
-int is added to the signal name to indicate where the signal starts and
continues.
Signal paths that extend beyond the logic diagram and continue in another
diagram have the suffix -cont.

Illustrations are used as an example and might show other products


than the one the manual describes. The example that is illustrated is
still valid.

1.4.3

IEC 61850 edition 1 / edition 2 mapping


Table 1:

IEC 61850 edition 1 / edition 2 mapping

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

AEGPVOC

AEGGAPC

AEGPVOC

AGSAL

AGSAL
SECLLN0

AGSAL

ALMCALH

ALMCALH

ALMCALH

ALTIM

ALTIM

ALTMS

ALTMS

ALTRK

ALTRK

BCZSPDIF

BCZSPDIF

BCZSPDIF

BCZTPDIF

BCZTPDIF

BCZTPDIF

BDCGAPC

SWSGGIO

BBCSWI
BDCGAPC

BRCPTOC

BRCPTOC

BRCPTOC

BRPTOC

BRPTOC

BRPTOC

BTIGAPC

B16IFCVI

BTIGAPC

BUSPTRC_B1

BUSPTRC
BBSPLLN0

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B2

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B3

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B4

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B5

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B6

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B7

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B8

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B9

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B10

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

Table continues on next page

46
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

BUSPTRC_B11

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B12

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B13

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B14

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B15

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B16

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B17

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B18

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B19

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B20

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B21

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B22

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B23

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC_B24

BUSPTRC

BUSPTRC

BUTPTRC_B1

BUTPTRC
BBTPLLN0

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC_B2

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC_B3

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC_B4

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC_B5

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC_B6

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC_B7

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC_B8

BUTPTRC

BUTPTRC

BZISGGIO

BZISGGIO

BZISGAPC

BZITGGIO

BZITGGIO

BZITGAPC

BZNSPDIF_A

BZNSPDIF

BZASGAPC
BZASPDIF
BZNSGAPC
BZNSPDIF

BZNSPDIF_B

BZNSPDIF

BZBSGAPC
BZBSPDIF
BZNSGAPC
BZNSPDIF

BZNTPDIF_A

BZNTPDIF

BZATGAPC
BZATPDIF
BZNTGAPC
BZNTPDIF

BZNTPDIF_B

BZNTPDIF

BZBTGAPC
BZBTPDIF
BZNTGAPC
BZNTPDIF

Table continues on next page

47
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

CBPGAPC

CBPLLN0
CBPMMXU
CBPPTRC
HOLPTOV
HPH1PTOV
PH3PTUC
PH3PTOC
RP3PDOP

CBPMMXU
CBPPTRC
HOLPTOV
HPH1PTOV
PH3PTOC
PH3PTUC
RP3PDOP

CCPDSC

CCRPLD

CCPDSC

CCRBRF

CCRBRF

CCRBRF

CCRWRBRF

CCRWRBRF

CCRWRBRF

CCSRBRF

CCSRBRF

CCSRBRF

CCSSPVC

CCSRDIF

CCSSPVC

CMMXU

CMMXU

CMMXU

CMSQI

CMSQI

CMSQI

COUVGAPC

COUVLLN0
COUVPTOV
COUVPTUV

COUVPTOV
COUVPTUV

CVGAPC

GF2LLN0
GF2MMXN
GF2PHAR
GF2PTOV
GF2PTUC
GF2PTUV
GF2PVOC
PH1PTRC

GF2MMXN
GF2PHAR
GF2PTOV
GF2PTUC
GF2PTUV
GF2PVOC
PH1PTRC

CVMMXN

CVMMXN

CVMMXN

D2PTOC

D2LLN0
D2PTOC
PH1PTRC

D2PTOC
PH1PTRC

DPGAPC

DPGGIO

DPGAPC

DRPRDRE

DRPRDRE

DRPRDRE

ECPSCH

ECPSCH

ECPSCH

ECRWPSCH

ECRWPSCH

ECRWPSCH

EF2PTOC

EF2LLN0
EF2PTRC
EF2RDIR
GEN2PHAR
PH1PTOC

EF2PTRC
EF2RDIR
GEN2PHAR
PH1PTOC

EF4PTOC

EF4LLN0
EF4PTRC
EF4RDIR
GEN4PHAR
PH1PTOC

EF4PTRC
EF4RDIR
GEN4PHAR
PH1PTOC

EFPIOC

EFPIOC

EFPIOC

EFRWPIOC

EFRWPIOC

EFRWPIOC

ETPMMTR

ETPMMTR

ETPMMTR

FDPSPDIS

FDPSPDIS

FDPSPDIS

FMPSPDIS

FMPSPDIS

FMPSPDIS

FRPSPDIS

FPSRPDIS

FPSRPDIS

Table continues on next page


48
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

FTAQFVR

FTAQFVR

FTAQFVR

FUFSPVC

SDDRFUF

FUFSPVC
SDDSPVC

GENPDIF

GENPDIF

GENGAPC
GENPDIF
GENPHAR
GENPTRC

GOOSEBINRCV

BINGREC

GOOSEDPRCV

DPGREC

GOOSEINTLKRCV

INTGREC

GOOSEINTRCV

INTSGREC

GOOSEMVRCV

MVGREC

GOOSESPRCV

BINSGREC

GOOSEVCTRRCV

VCTRGREC

GOPPDOP

GOPPDOP

GOPPDOP
PH1PTRC

GRPTTR

GRPTTR

GRPTTR

GSPTTR

GSPTTR

GSPTTR

GUPPDUP

GUPPDUP

GUPPDUP
PH1PTRC

HZPDIF

HZPDIF

HZPDIF

INDCALCH

INDCALH

INDCALH

ITBGAPC

IB16FCVB

ITBGAPC

L3CPDIF

L3CPDIF

L3CGAPC
L3CPDIF
L3CPHAR
L3CPTRC

L4UFCNT

L4UFCNT

L4UFCNT

L6CPDIF

L6CPDIF

L6CGAPC
L6CPDIF
L6CPHAR
L6CPTRC

LAPPGAPC

LAPPLLN0
LAPPPDUP
LAPPPUPF

LAPPPDUP
LAPPPUPF

LCCRPTRC

LCCRPTRC

LCCRPTRC

LCNSPTOC

LCNSPTOC

LCNSPTOC

LCNSPTOV

LCNSPTOV

LCNSPTOV

LCP3PTOC

LCP3PTOC

LCP3PTOC

LCP3PTUC

LCP3PTUC

LCP3PTUC

LCPTTR

LCPTTR

LCPTTR

LCZSPTOC

LCZSPTOC

LCZSPTOC

LCZSPTOV

LCZSPTOV

LCZSPTOV

LD0LLN0

LLN0

LDLPSCH

LDLPDIF

LDLPSCH

Table continues on next page


49
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

LDRGFC

STSGGIO

LDRGFC

LEXPDIS

LEXPDIS

LEXPDIS
LEXPTRC

LFPTTR

LFPTTR

LFPTTR

LMBRFLO

LMBRFLO

LMBRFLO

LOVPTUV

LOVPTUV

LOVPTUV

LPHD

LPHD

LPTTR

LPTTR

LPTTR

LT3CPDIF

LT3CPDIF

LT3CGAPC
LT3CPDIF
LT3CPHAR
LT3CPTRC

LT6CPDIF

LT6CPDIF

LT6CGAPC
LT6CPDIF
LT6CPHAR
LT6CPTRC

MVGAPC

MVGGIO

MVGAPC

NS2PTOC

NS2LLN0
NS2PTOC
NS2PTRC

NS2PTOC
NS2PTRC

NS4PTOC

EF4LLN0
EF4PTRC
EF4RDIR
GEN4PHAR
PH1PTOC

EF4PTRC
EF4RDIR
PH1PTOC

O2RWPTOV

GEN2LLN0
O2RWPTOV
PH1PTRC

O2RWPTOV
PH1PTRC

OC4PTOC

OC4LLN0
GEN4PHAR
PH3PTOC
PH3PTRC

GEN4PHAR
PH3PTOC
PH3PTRC

OEXPVPH

OEXPVPH

OEXPVPH

OOSPPAM

OOSPPAM

OOSPPAM
OOSPTRC

OV2PTOV

GEN2LLN0
OV2PTOV
PH1PTRC

OV2PTOV
PH1PTRC

PAPGAPC

PAPGAPC

PAPGAPC

PCFCNT

PCGGIO

PCFCNT

PH4SPTOC

GEN4PHAR
OCNDLLN0
PH1BPTOC
PH1PTRC

GEN4PHAR
PH1BPTOC
PH1PTRC

PHPIOC

PHPIOC

PHPIOC

PRPSTATUS

RCHLCCH

RCHLCCH
SCHLCCH

PSLPSCH

ZMRPSL

PSLPSCH

PSPPPAM

PSPPPAM

PSPPPAM
PSPPTRC

Table continues on next page


50
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

QCBAY

QCBAY

QCRSV

QCRSV

QCRSV

REFPDIF

REFPDIF

REFPDIF

ROTIPHIZ

ROTIPHIZ

ROTIPHIZ
ROTIPTRC

ROV2PTOV

GEN2LLN0
PH1PTRC
ROV2PTOV

PH1PTRC
ROV2PTOV

SAPFRC

SAPFRC

SAPFRC

SAPTOF

SAPTOF

SAPTOF

SAPTUF

SAPTUF

SAPTUF

SCCVPTOC

SCCVPTOC

SCCVPTOC

SCILO

SCILO

SCILO

SCSWI

SCSWI

SCSWI

SDEPSDE

SDEPSDE

SDEPSDE
SDEPTOC
SDEPTOV
SDEPTRC

SESRSYN

RSY1LLN0
AUT1RSYN
MAN1RSYN
SYNRSYN

AUT1RSYN
MAN1RSYN
SYNRSYN

SINGLELCCH

SCHLCCH

SLGAPC

SLGGIO

SLGAPC

SMBRREC

SMBRREC

SMBRREC

SMPPTRC

SMPPTRC

SMPPTRC

SP16GAPC

SP16GGIO

SP16GAPC

SPC8GAPC

SPC8GGIO

SPC8GAPC

SPGAPC

SPGGIO

SPGAPC

SSCBR

SSCBR

SSCBR

SSIMG

SSIMG

SSIMG

SSIML

SSIML

SSIML

STBPTOC

STBPTOC

BBPMSS
STBPTOC

STEFPHIZ

STEFPHIZ

STEFPHIZ

STTIPHIZ

STTIPHIZ

STTIPHIZ

SXCBR

SXCBR

SXCBR

SXSWI

SXSWI

SXSWI

T2WPDIF

T2WPDIF

T2WGAPC
T2WPDIF
T2WPHAR
T2WPTRC

T3WPDIF

T3WPDIF

T3WGAPC
T3WPDIF
T3WPHAR
T3WPTRC

Table continues on next page


51
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

TCLYLTC

TCLYLTC

TCLYLTC
TCSLTC

TCMYLTC

TCMYLTC

TCMYLTC

TEIGAPC

TEIGGIO

TEIGAPC
TEIGGIO

TEILGAPC

TEILGGIO

TEILGAPC

TMAGAPC

TMAGGIO

TMAGAPC

TPPIOC

TPPIOC

TPPIOC

TR1ATCC

TR1ATCC

TR1ATCC

TR8ATCC

TR8ATCC

TR8ATCC

TRPTTR

TRPTTR

TRPTTR

U2RWPTUV

GEN2LLN0
PH1PTRC
U2RWPTUV

PH1PTRC
U2RWPTUV

UV2PTUV

GEN2LLN0
PH1PTRC
UV2PTUV

PH1PTRC
UV2PTUV

VDCPTOV

VDCPTOV

VDCPTOV

VDSPVC

VDRFUF

VDSPVC

VMMXU

VMMXU

VMMXU

VMSQI

VMSQI

VMSQI

VNMMXU

VNMMXU

VNMMXU

VRPVOC

VRLLN0
PH1PTRC
PH1PTUV
VRPVOC

PH1PTRC
PH1PTUV
VRPVOC

VSGAPC

VSGGIO

VSGAPC

WRNCALH

WRNCALH

WRNCALH

ZC1PPSCH

ZPCPSCH

ZPCPSCH

ZC1WPSCH

ZPCWPSCH

ZPCWPSCH

ZCLCPSCH

ZCLCPLAL

ZCLCPSCH

ZCPSCH

ZCPSCH

ZCPSCH

ZCRWPSCH

ZCRWPSCH

ZCRWPSCH

ZCVPSOF

ZCVPSOF

ZCVPSOF

ZGVPDIS

ZGVLLN0
PH1PTRC
ZGVPDIS
ZGVPTUV

PH1PTRC
ZGVPDIS
ZGVPTUV

ZMCAPDIS

ZMCAPDIS

ZMCAPDIS

ZMCPDIS

ZMCPDIS

ZMCPDIS

ZMFCPDIS

ZMFCLLN0
PSFPDIS
ZMFPDIS
ZMFPTRC
ZMMMXU

PSFPDIS
ZMFPDIS
ZMFPTRC
ZMMMXU

Table continues on next page

52
Technical manual

Section 1
Introduction

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block name

Edition 1 logical nodes

Edition 2 logical nodes

ZMFPDIS

ZMFLLN0
PSFPDIS
ZMFPDIS
ZMFPTRC
ZMMMXU

PSFPDIS
PSFPDIS
ZMFPDIS
ZMFPTRC
ZMMMXU

ZMHPDIS

ZMHPDIS

ZMHPDIS

ZMMAPDIS

ZMMAPDIS

ZMMAPDIS

ZMMPDIS

ZMMPDIS

ZMMPDIS

ZMQAPDIS

ZMQAPDIS

ZMQAPDIS

ZMQPDIS

ZMQPDIS

ZMQPDIS

ZMRAPDIS

ZMRAPDIS

ZMRAPDIS

ZMRPDIS

ZMRPDIS

ZMRPDIS

ZMRPSB

ZMRPSB

ZMRPSB

ZSMGAPC

ZSMGAPC

ZSMGAPC

53
Technical manual

54

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 2

Available functions

2.1

Main protection functions


= option quantities

3-A03

= optional function included in packages A03 (refer to ordering details)

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function
description

RET670 (A30)

ANSI

= number of basic instances

0-3

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

Differential protection
T2WPDIF

87T

Transformer
differential
protection, two
winding

1-2

T3WPDIF

87T

Transformer
differential
protection, three
winding

1-2

HZPDIF

87

1Ph high
impedance
differential
protection

0-6

3-A02

REFPDIF

87N

Restricted earth
fault protection,
low impedance

0-3

LDRGFC

11RE
L

Additional
security logic for
differential
protection

0-1

3-A02

3-A02

3-A02

2-B
1-A01

2-B
1-A01

Impedance protection
ZMQPDIS,
ZMQAPDIS

21

Distance
protection zone,
quadrilateral
characteristic

0-5

4-B12

4-B12

4-B12

4-B12

ZDRDIR

21D

Directional
impedance
quadrilateral

0-2

2-B12

2-B12

2-B12

2-B12

ZMCAPDIS

21

Additional
distance
measuring zone,
quadrilateral
characteristic

Table continues on next page


55
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

ZMCPDIS,
ZMCAPDIS

21

Distance
measuring zone,
quadrilateral
characteristic for
series
compensated
lines

0-5

ZDSRDIR

21D

Directional
impedance
quadrilateral,
including series
compensation

0-2

FDPSPDIS

21

Phase selection,
quadrilateral
characteristic with
fixed angle

0-2

2-B12

2-B12

2-B12

2-B12

ZMHPDIS

21

Fullscheme
distance
protection, mho
characteristic

0-5

4-B13

4-B13

4-B13

4-B13

ZMMPDIS,
ZMMAPDIS

21

Fullscheme
distance
protection,
quadrilateral for
earth faults

0-5

4-B13

4-B13

4-B13

4-B13

ZDMRDIR

21D

Directional
impedance
element for mho
characteristic

0-2

2-B13

2-B13

2-B13

2-B13

ZDARDIR

Additional
distance
protection
directional
function for earth
faults

0-1

1-B13

1-B13

1-B13

1-B13

ZSMGAPC

Mho impedance
supervision logic

0-1

1-B13

1-B13

1-B13

1-B13

2-B13

2-B13

2-B13

2-B13

FMPSPDIS

21

Faulty phase
identification with
load
enchroachment

0-2

ZMRPDIS,
ZMRAPDIS

21

Distance
protection zone,
quadrilateral
characteristic,
separate settings

0-5

FRPSPDIS

21

Phase selection,
quadrilateral
characteristic with
fixed angle

0-2

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function
description

RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table continues on next page

56
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ZMFPDIS

21

High speed
distance
protection

01

ZMFCPDIS

21

High speed
distance
protection for
series
compensated
lines

01

ZMRPSB

68

Power swing
detection

0-1

Power swing logic

0-1

PSLPSCH
PSPPPAM

78

Pole slip/out-ofstep protection

0-1

OOSPPAM

78

Out-of-step
protection

01

Phase preference
logic

0-1

Underimpedance
for generators
and transformers

01

PPLPHIZ
21

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

1-B12
1-B13

1-B12
1-B13

1-B14

1-B14

1-B14

1-B14

Back-up protection functions


Transformer

RET670

RET670 (A25)

Function
description

RET670 (B40)

ANSI

RET670 (A40)

IEC 61850

1-B12
1-B13

RET670 (B30)

2.2

1-B12
1-B13

RET670 (A30)

ZGVPDIS

RET670 (A40)

RET670

RET670 (B30)

Transformer
RET670 (A30)

Function
description
RET670 (A10)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

Current protection
PHPIOC

50

Instantaneous
phase
overcurrent
protection

0-8

2-C19

OC4PTOC

51_671)

Four step phase


overcurrent
protection

0-8

2-C19

EFPIOC

50N

Instantaneous
residual
overcurrent
protection

0-8

2-C19

Table continues on next page

57
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function
description

RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

EF4PTOC

51N
67N2)

Four step
residual
overcurrent
protection

0-8

2-C19

NS4PTOC

46I2

Four step
directional
negative phase
sequence
overcurrent
protection

0-8

2-C42

2-C42

2-C42

3-C43

3-C43

2-C19

SDEPSDE

67N

Sensitive
directional
residual
overcurrent and
power protection

0-3

1-C16

1-C16

1-C16

1-C16

1-C16

LCPTTR

26

Thermal
overload
protection, one
time constant,
Celsius

02

LFPTTR

26

Thermal
overload
protection, one
time constant,
Fahrenheit

02

TRPTTR

49

Thermal
overload
protection, two
time constant

0-6

1B
1-C05

1B
1-C05

2B
1-C05

2B
1-C05

CCRBRF

50BF

Breaker failure
protection

0-6

CCPDSC

52PD

Pole
discordance
protection

0-2

GUPPDUP

37

Directional
underpower
protection

0-2

1-C17

1-C17

1-C17

1-C17

GOPPDOP

32

Directional
overpower
protection

0-2

1-C17

1-C17

1-C17

1-C17

BRCPTOC

46

Broken
conductor check

Capacitor bank
protection

0-6

Negative
sequence time
overcurrent
protection for
machines

0-2

CBPGAPC
NS2PTOC

46I2

Table continues on next page

58
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function
description

RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

51V

Voltage
restrained
overcurrent
protection

0-3

UV2PTUV

27

Two step
undervoltage
protection

0-3

1-D01

1B
1-D01

1B
1-D01

1B
2-D02

1B
2-D02

2-D02

OV2PTOV

59

Two step
overvoltage
protection

0-3

1-D01

1B
1-D01

1B
1-D01

1B
1-D02

1B
1-D02

2-D02

ROV2PTOV

59N

Two step
residual
overvoltage
protection

0-3

1-D01

1B
1-D01

1B
1-D01

1B
1-D02

1B
1-D02

2-D02

OEXPVPH

24

Overexcitation
protection

0-2

1-D03

1-D03

2-D04

2-D04

VDCPTOV

60

Voltage
differential
protection

0-2

LOVPTUV

27

Loss of voltage
check

VRPVOC

Voltage protection

Frequency protection
SAPTUF

81

Underfrequency
protection

0-6

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

SAPTOF

81

Overfrequency
protection

0-6

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

SAPFRC

81

Rate-of-change
frequency
protection

0-6

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

6-E01

General current
and voltage
protection

0-9

6-F02

6-F02

6-F02

6-F02

Multipurpose
filter

0-6

Multipurpose protection
CVGAPC

General calculation
SMAIHPAC
1) 67 requires voltage
2) 67N requires voltage

59
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

RET670 (A25)

RET670

RET670 (B40)

Transformer
RET670 (A40)

Function description

RET670 (B30)

ANSI

RET670 (A30)

IEC 61850

Control and monitoring functions


RET670 (A10)

2.3

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Control
SESRSYN

25

Synchrocheck,
energizing check and
synchronizing

0-6

APC30

Apparatus control for


up to 6 bays, max 30
apparatuses (6CBs)
incl. interlocking

0-1

1-B, 2H01

1-B, 3H02

1-B, 4H03

1-H09

1-H09

1-H09

1-H09

1-H09

QCBAY

Apparatus control

1+5/APC30

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

LOCREM

Handling of LRswitch
positions

1+5/APC30

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

LOCREMCTRL

LHMI control of PSTO

1+5/APC30

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

1+5/
APC3
0

TR1ATCC

90

Automatic voltage
control for tap
changer, single
control

0-4

1-H11

1-H11

1-H11,
2-H16

1-H11,
2-H16

2
2-H16

TR8ATCC

90

Automatic voltage
control for tap
changer, parallel
control

0-4

1-H15

1-H15

1-H15,
2-H18

1-H15,
2-H18

2
2-H18

TCMYLTC

84

Tap changer control


and supervision, 6
binary inputs

0-4

TCLYLTC

84

Tap changer control


and supervision, 32
binary inputs

0-4

SLGAPC

Logic rotating switch


for function selection
and LHMI
presentation

15

15

15

15

15

15

15

VSGAPC

Selector mini switch

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

DPGAPC

Generic
communication
function for Double
Point indication

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

SPC8GAPC

Single point generic


control 8 signals

AUTOBITS

AutomationBits,
command function for
DNP3.0

Table continues on next page

60
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function description
RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

SINGLECMD

Single command, 16
signals

VCTRSEND

Horizontal
communication via
GOOSE for VCTR

GOOSEVCTRRC
V

Horizontal
communication via
GOOSE for VCTR

I103CMD

Function commands
for IEC 60870-5-103

I103GENCMD

Function commands
generic for IEC
60870-5-103

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

I103POSCMD

IED commands with


position and select for
IEC 60870-5-103

50

50

50

50

50

50

50

I103IEDCMD

IED commands for


IEC 60870-5-103

I103USRCMD

Function commands
user defined for IEC
60870-5-103

Secondary system supervision


CCSSPVC

87

Current circuit
supervision

0-5

Fuse failure
supervision

0-4

60

Fuse failure
supervision based on
voltage difference

0-4

1-G03

1-G03

1-G03

1-G03

1-G03

1-G03

94

Tripping logic

1-6

TMAGAPC

Trip matrix logic

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

ALMCALH

Logic for group alarm

WRNCALH

Logic for group


warning

INDCALH

Logic for group


indication

AND, OR, INV,


PULSETIMER,
GATE,
TIMERSET, XOR,
LLD,
SRMEMORY,
RSMEMORY

Configurable logic
blocks

40-280

40-28
0

40-28
0

40-28
0

40-28
0

40-28
0

40-28
0

FUFSPVC
VDSPVC

Logic
SMPPTRC

Table continues on next page

61
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function description
RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ANDQT, ORQT,
INVERTERQT,
XORQT,
SRMEMORYQT,
RSMEMORYQT,
TIMERSETQT,
PULSETIMERQT
, INVALIDQT,
INDCOMBSPQT,
INDEXTSPQT

Configurable logic
blocks Q/T

01

SLGAPC,
VSGAPC, AND,
OR,
PULSETIMER,
GATE,
TIMERSET, XOR,
LLD,
SRMEMORY,
INV

Extension logic
package

01

FXDSIGN

Fixed signal function


block

B16I

Boolean 16 to Integer
conversion

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

BTIGAPC

Boolean 16 to Integer
conversion with Logic
Node representation

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

IB16

Integer to Boolean 16
conversion

18

18

18

18

18

18

18

ITBGAPC

Integer to Boolean 16
conversion with Logic
Node representation

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

TEIGAPC

Elapsed time
integrator with limit
transgression and
overflow supervision

12

12

12

12

12

12

12

CVMMXN,
CMMXU,
VMMXU, CMSQI,
VMSQI,
VNMMXU

Measurements

AISVBAS

Function block for


service value
presentation of
secondary analog
inputs

EVENT

Event function

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

Monitoring

Table continues on next page

62
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function description
RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

DRPRDRE,
A1RADR,
A2RADR,
A3RADR,
A4RADR,
B1RBDR,
B2RBDR,
B3RBDR,
B4RBDR,
B5RBDR,
B6RBDR

Disturbance report

SPGAPC

Generic
communication
function for Single
Point indication

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

SP16GAPC

Generic
communication
function for Single
Point indication 16
inputs

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

MVGAPC

Generic
communication
function for Measured
Value

24

24

24

24

24

24

24

BINSTATREP

Logical signal status


report

RANGE_XP

Measured value
expander block

66

66

66

66

66

66

66

SSIMG

63

Gas medium
supervision

21

21

21

21

21

21

21

SSIML

71

Liquid medium
supervision

SSCBR

Circuit breaker
monitoring

0-6

3-M13

2-M12

4-M14

3-M13

6-M15

I103MEAS

Measurands for IEC


60870-5-103

I103MEASUSR

Measurands user
defined signals for
IEC 60870-5-103

I103AR

Function status autorecloser for IEC


60870-5-103

I103EF

Function status earthfault for IEC


60870-5-103

I103FLTPROT

Function status fault


protection for IEC
60870-5-103

I103IED

IED status for IEC


60870-5-103

Table continues on next page


63
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function description
RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

I103SUPERV

Supervison status for


IEC 60870-5-103

I103USRDEF

Status for user


defiend signals for
IEC 60870-5-103

20

20

20

20

20

20

20

L4UFCNT

Event counter with


limit supervision

30

30

30

30

30

30

30

PCFCNT

Pulse-counter logic

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

ETPMMTR

Function for energy


calculation and
demand handling

Metering

RET670 (A25)

RET670

RET670 (B40)

Transformer
RET670 (A40)

Function
description

RET670 (B30)

ANSI

RET670 (A30)

IEC 61850

Communication

RET670 (A10)

2.4

Station communication
LONSPA, SPA

SPA
communication
protocol

ADE

LON
communication
protocol

HORZCOMM

Network
variables via
LON

PROTOCOL

Operation
selection
between SPA
and IEC
60870-5-103 for
SLM

RS485PROT

Operation
selection for
RS485

RS485GEN

RS485

DNPGEN

DNP3.0
communication
general protocol

Table continues on next page

64
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function
description

RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

DNPGENTCP

DNP3.0
communication
general TCP
protocol

CHSERRS485

DNP3.0 for
EIA-485
communication
protocol

CH1TCP,
CH2TCP,
CH3TCP,
CH4TCP

DNP3.0 for TCP/


IP
communication
protocol

CHSEROPT

DNP3.0 for TCP/


IP and EIA-485
communication
protocol

MST1TCP,
MST2TCP,
MST3TCP,
MST4TCP

DNP3.0 for
serial
communication
protocol

DNPFREC

DNP3.0 fault
records for
TCP/IP and
EIA-485
communication
protocol

IEC61850-8-1

Parameter
setting function
for IEC 61850

GOOSEINTLKR
CV

Horizontal
communication
via GOOSE for
interlocking

59

59

59

59

59

59

59

GOOSEBINRCV

Goose binary
receive

16

16

16

16

16

16

16

GOOSEDPRCV

GOOSE function
block to receive
a double point
value

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

GOOSEINTRCV

GOOSE function
block to receive
an integer value

32

32

32

32

32

32

32

GOOSEMVRCV

GOOSE function
block to receive
a measurand
value

60

60

60

60

60

60

60

GOOSESPRCV

GOOSE function
block to receive
a single point
value

64

64

64

64

64

64

64

Table continues on next page


65
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function
description

RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

GOOSEVCTRCO
NF

GOOSE VCTR
configuration for
send and
receive

VCTRSEND

Horizontal
communication
via GOOSE for
VCTR

GOOSEVCTRRC
V

Horizontal
communication
via GOOSE for
VCTR

MULTICMDRCV,
MULTICMDSND

Multiple
command and
transmit

60/10

60/10

60/10

60/10

60/10

60/10

60/10

FRONT, LANABI,
LANAB, LANCDI,
LANCD

Ethernet
configuration of
links

GATEWAY

Ethernet
configuration of
link one

OPTICAL103

IEC
60870-5-103
Optical serial
communication

RS485103

IEC
60870-5-103
serial
communication
for RS485

AGSAL

Generic security
application
component

LD0LLN0

IEC 61850 LD0


LLN0

SYSLLN0

IEC 61850 SYS


LLN0

LPHD

Physical device
information

PCMACCS

IED
Configuration
Protocol

SECALARM

Component for
mapping
security events
on protocols
such as DNP3
and IEC103

Table continues on next page

66
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RET670 (A25)

RET670 (B40)

RET670

RET670 (A40)

Transformer
RET670 (B30)

Function
description

RET670 (A30)

ANSI

RET670 (A10)

IEC 61850

FSTACCS

Field service tool


access via SPA
protocol over
ethernet
communication

ACTIVLOG

Activity logging
parameters

ALTRK

Service Tracking

SINGLELCCH

Single ethernet
port link status

PRPSTATUS

Dual ethernet
port link status

IEC 62439-3
parallel
redundancy
protocol (only in
F00)

0-1

1-P03

1-P03

1-P03

1-P03

1-P03

1-P03

Binary signal
transfer receive/
transmit

6/36

6/36

6/36

6/36

6/36

6/36

6/36

Transmission of
analog data from
LDCM

6/3/3

6/3/3

6/3/3

6/3/3

6/3/3

6/3/3

6/3/3

Process bus
communication
IEC 61850-9-2 1)
PRP

Remote communication

Receive binary
status from
remote LDCM
Scheme communication
ECPSCH

85

Scheme
communication
logic for residual
overcurrent
protection

0-1

ECRWPSCH

85

Current reversal
and weak-end
infeed logic for
residual
overcurrent
protection

0-1

1) Only included for 9-2LE products

67
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

2.5
Table 2:

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Basic IED functions


Basic IED functions

IEC 61850 or function


name

Description

INTERRSIG

Self supervision with internal event list

SELFSUPEVLST

Self supervision with internal event list

TIMESYNCHGEN

Time synchronization module

SYNCHBIN,
SYNCHCAN,
SYNCHCMPPS,
SYNCHLON,
SYNCHPPH,
SYNCHPPS,
SYNCHSNTP,
SYNCHSPA,
SYNCHCMPPS

Time synchronization

TIMEZONE

Time synchronization

DSTBEGIN,
DSTENABLE, DSTEND

GPS time synchronization module

IRIG-B

Time synchronization

SETGRPS

Number of setting groups

ACTVGRP

Parameter setting groups

TESTMODE

Test mode functionality

CHNGLCK

Change lock function

SMBI

Signal matrix for binary inputs

SMBO

Signal matrix for binary outputs

SMMI

Signal matrix for mA inputs

SMAI1 - SMAI20

Signal matrix for analog inputs

3PHSUM

Summation block 3 phase

ATHSTAT

Authority status

ATHCHCK

Authority check

AUTHMAN

Authority management

FTPACCS

FTP access with password

SPACOMMMAP

SPA communication mapping

SPATD

Date and time via SPA protocol

DOSFRNT

Denial of service, frame rate control for front port

DOSLANAB

Denial of service, frame rate control for OEM port AB

DOSLANCD

Denial of service, frame rate control for OEM port CD

DOSSCKT

Denial of service, socket flow control

GBASVAL

Global base values for settings

PRIMVAL

Primary system values

ALTMS

Time master supervision

ALTIM

Time management

Table continues on next page


68
Technical manual

Section 2
Available functions

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IEC 61850 or function


name

Description

ALTRK

Service tracking

ACTIVLOG

Activity logging parameters

FSTACCS

Field service tool access via SPA protocol over ethernet communication

PCMACCS

IED Configuration Protocol

SECALARM

Component for mapping security events on protocols such as DNP3 and IEC103

DNPGEN

DNP3.0 communication general protocol

DNPGENTCP

DNP3.0 communication general TCP protocol

CHSEROPT

DNP3.0 for TCP/IP and EIA-485 communication protocol

MSTSER

DNP3.0 for serial communication protocol

OPTICAL103

IEC 60870-5-103 Optical serial communication

RS485103

IEC 60870-5-103 serial communication for RS485

IEC61850-8-1

Parameter setting function for IEC 61850

HORZCOMM

Network variables via LON

LONSPA

SPA communication protocol

LEDGEN

General LED indication part for LHMI

69
Technical manual

70

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 3

Analog inputs

3.1

Introduction
Analog input channels must be configured and set properly to get correct
measurement results and correct protection operations. For power measuring and all
directional and differential functions the directions of the input currents must be
defined properly. Measuring and protection algorithms in the IED use primary system
quantities. Setting values are in primary quantities as well and it is important to set the
data about the connected current and voltage transformers properly.
A reference PhaseAngleRef can be defined to facilitate service values reading. This
analog channels phase angle will always be fixed to zero degrees and all other angle
information will be shown in relation to this analog input. During testing and
commissioning of the IED the reference channel can be changed to facilitate testing
and service values reading.
The IED has the ability to receive analog values from primary
equipment, that are sampled by Merging units (MU) connected to a
process bus, via the IEC 61850-9-2 LE protocol.

The availability of VT inputs depends on the ordered transformer


input module (TRM) type.

3.2

Function block
The hardware channels appear in the signal matrix tool (SMT) and in
ACT when a TRM is included in the configuration with the hardware
configuration tool. In the SMT or the ACT they can be mapped to the
desired virtual input (SMAI) of the IED and used internally in the
configuration.

71
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

3.3

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Signals
Table 3:
Name

TRM_12I Output signals


Type

Description

STATUS

BOOLEAN

Analogue input module status

CH1(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 1

CH2(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 2

CH3(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 3

CH4(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 4

CH5(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 5

CH6(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 6

CH7(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 7

CH8(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 8

CH9(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 9

CH10(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 10

CH11(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 11

CH12(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 12

Table 4:
Name

TRM_6I_6U Output signals


Type

Description

STATUS

BOOLEAN

Analogue input module status

CH1(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 1

CH2(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 2

CH3(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 3

CH4(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 4

CH5(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 5

CH6(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 6

CH7(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 7

CH8(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 8

CH9(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 9

CH10(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 10

CH11(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 11

CH12(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 12

Table 5:
Name

TRM_6I Output signals


Type

Description

STATUS

BOOLEAN

Analogue input module status

CH1(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 1

CH2(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 2

Table continues on next page


72
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Type

Description

CH3(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 3

CH4(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 4

CH5(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 5

CH6(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 6

Table 6:
Name

TRM_7I_5U Output signals


Type

Description

STATUS

BOOLEAN

Analogue input module status

CH1(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 1

CH2(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 2

CH3(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 3

CH4(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 4

CH5(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 5

CH6(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 6

CH7(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 7

CH8(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 8

CH9(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 9

CH10(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 10

CH11(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 11

CH12(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 12

Table 7:
Name

TRM_9I_3U Output signals


Type

Description

STATUS

BOOLEAN

Analogue input module status

CH1(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 1

CH2(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 2

CH3(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 3

CH4(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 4

CH5(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 5

CH6(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 6

CH7(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 7

CH8(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 8

CH9(I)

STRING

Analogue current input 9

CH10(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 10

CH11(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 11

CH12(U)

STRING

Analogue voltage input 12

73
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

3.4

Settings
Dependent on ordered IED type.

Table 8:
Name
PhaseAngleRef

Table 9:
Name

AISVBAS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
TRM40-Ch1 - Ch12
TRM41-Ch1 - Ch12
MU1-L1I
MU1-L2I
MU1-L3I
MU1-L4I
MU1-L1U
MU1-L2U
MU1-L3U
MU1-L4U
MU2-L1I
MU2-L2I
MU2-L3I
MU2-L4I
MU2-L1U
MU2-L2U
MU2-L3U
MU2-L4U
MU3-L1I
MU3-L2I
MU3-L3I
MU3-L4I
MU3-L1U
MU3-L2U
MU3-L3U
MU3-L4U
MU4-L1I - L4I
MU4-L1U - L4U
MU5-L1I - L4I
MU5-L1U - L4U
MU6-L1I - L4I
MU6-L1U - L4U

Unit

Step

Default

TRM40-Ch1

Description
Reference channel
for phase angle
presentation

TRM_12I Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTStarPoint1

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec1

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim1

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint2

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec2

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim2

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint3

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec3

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim3

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

Table continues on next page


74
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTStarPoint4

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec4

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim4

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint5

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec5

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim5

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint6

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec6

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim6

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint7

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec7

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim7

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint8

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec8

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim8

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint9

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec9

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim9

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint10

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec10

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim10

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint11

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec11

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim11

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint12

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec12

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim12

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

Table 10:
Name

TRM_6I_6U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTStarPoint1

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec1

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim1

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

Table continues on next page


75
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTStarPoint2

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec2

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim2

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint3

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec3

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim3

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint4

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec4

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim4

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint5

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec5

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim5

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint6

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec6

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim6

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

VTsec7

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim7

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec8

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim8

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec9

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim9

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec10

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim10

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec11

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim11

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec12

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim12

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

Step

Default

Table 11:

TRM_6I Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

CTStarPoint1

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec1

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim1

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint2

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec2

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

Table continues on next page


76
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTprim2

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint3

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec3

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim3

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint4

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec4

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim4

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint5

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec5

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim5

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint6

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec6

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim6

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

Table 12:
Name

TRM_7I_5U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTStarPoint1

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec1

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim1

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint2

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec2

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim2

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint3

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec3

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim3

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint4

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec4

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim4

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint5

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec5

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim5

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint6

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec6

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

Table continues on next page


77
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTprim6

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint7

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec7

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim7

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

VTsec8

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim8

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec9

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim9

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec10

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim10

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec11

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim11

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec12

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim12

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

Step

Default

Table 13:
Name

TRM_9I_3U Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Description

CTStarPoint1

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec1

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim1

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint2

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec2

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim2

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint3

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec3

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim3

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint4

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec4

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim4

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint5

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec5

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim5

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint6

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec6

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim6

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

Table continues on next page


78
Technical manual

Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CTStarPoint7

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec7

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim7

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint8

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec8

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim8

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

CTStarPoint9

FromObject
ToObject

ToObject

ToObject= towards protected object,


FromObject= the opposite

CTsec9

1 - 10

Rated CT secondary current

CTprim9

1 - 99999

3000

Rated CT primary current

VTsec10

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim10

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec11

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim11

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

VTsec12

0.001 - 999.999

0.001

110.000

Rated VT secondary voltage

VTprim12

0.05 - 2000.00

kV

0.05

400.00

Rated VT primary voltage

3.5

Monitored data
Table 14:
Name
Status

Table 15:
Name
STATUS

Table 16:
Name
STATUS

AISVBAS Monitored data


Type
INTEGER

Values (Range)
0=Ok
1=Error
2=AngRefLow
3=Uncorrelated

Unit
-

Description
Service value status

TRM_12I Monitored data


Type
BOOLEAN

Values (Range)
0=Ok
1=Error

Unit
-

Description
Analogue input module
status

TRM_6I_6U Monitored data


Type
BOOLEAN

Values (Range)
0=Ok
1=Error

Unit
-

Description
Analogue input module
status

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Section 3
Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 17:
Name
STATUS

Table 18:
Name
STATUS

Table 19:
Name
STATUS

3.6

TRM_6I Monitored data


Type
BOOLEAN

Values (Range)
0=Ok
1=Error

Unit
-

Description
Analogue input module
status

TRM_7I_5U Monitored data


Type
BOOLEAN

Values (Range)
0=Ok
1=Error

Unit
-

Description
Analogue input module
status

TRM_9I_3U Monitored data


Type
BOOLEAN

Values (Range)
0=Ok
1=Error

Unit
-

Description
Analogue input module
status

Operation principle
The direction of a current depends on the connection of the CT. The main CTs are
typically star connected and can be connected with the star point towards the object or
away from the object. This information must be set in the IED.
The convention of the directionality is defined as follows:

Positive value of current or power means that the quantity has the direction into
the object.
Negative value of current or power means that the quantity has the direction out
from the object.

For directional functions the directional conventions are defined as follows (see figure
2)

Forward means the direction is into the object.


Reverse means the direction is out from the object.

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Analog inputs

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Definition of direction
for directional functions
Reverse

Definition of direction
for directional functions
Forward

Forward

Reverse

Protected Object
Line, transformer, etc
e.g. P, Q, I
Measured quantity is
positive when flowing
towards the object

e.g. P, Q, I
Measured quantity is
positive when flowing
towards the object

Set parameter
CTStarPoint
Correct Setting is
"ToObject"

Set parameter
CTStarPoint
Correct Setting is
"FromObject"
en05000456.vsd

IEC05000456 V1 EN

Figure 2:

Internal convention of the directionality in the IED

If the settings of the primary CT is correct, that is CTStarPoint set as FromObject or


ToObject according to the plant condition, then a positive quantity always flows
towards the protected object, and a Forward direction always looks towards the
protected object.
The settings of the IED is performed in primary values. The ratios of the main CTs and
VTs are therefore basic data for the IED. The user has to set the rated secondary and
primary currents and voltages of the CTs and VTs to provide the IED with their rated
ratios.
The CT and VT ratio and the name on respective channel is done under Main menu/
Hardware/Analog modules in the Parameter Settings tool or on the HMI.

81
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82

Section 4
Binary input and output modules

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 4

Binary input and output modules

4.1

Binary input

4.1.1

Binary input debounce filter


The debounce filter eliminates bounces and short disturbances on a binary input.
A time counter is used for filtering. The time counter is increased once in a millisecond
when a binary input is high, or decreased when a binary input is low. A new debounced
binary input signal is forwarded when the time counter reaches the set DebounceTime
value and the debounced input value is high or when the time counter reaches 0 and
the debounced input value is low. The default setting of DebounceTime is 1 ms.
The binary input ON-event gets the time stamp of the first rising edge, after which the
counter does not reach 0 again. The same happens when the signal goes down to 0
again.

4.1.2

Oscillation filter
Binary input wiring can be very long in substations and there are electromagnetic
fields from for example nearby breakers. An oscillation filter is used to reduce the
disturbance from the system when a binary input starts oscillating.
An oscillation counter counts the debounced signal state changes during 1 s. If the
counter value is greater than the set value OscBlock, the input signal is blocked. The
input signal is ignored until the oscillation counter value during 1 s is below the set
value OscRelease.

4.1.3

Settings

4.1.3.1

Setting parameters for binary input modules

Table 20:
Name

BIM Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

On

Operation Off/On

DebounceTime

0.001 - 0.020

0.001

0.001

Debounce time for binary inputs

OscBlock

1 - 40

Hz

40

Oscillation block limit

OscRelease

1 - 30

Hz

30

Oscillation release limit

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Section 4
Binary input and output modules
4.1.3.2

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Setting parameters for binary input/output module

Table 21:

IOMIN Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

On

Binary input/output module in operation


(On) or not (Off)

DebounceTime

0.001 - 0.020

0.001

0.001

Debounce time for binary inputs

OscBlock

1 - 40

Hz

40

Oscillation block limit

OscRelease

1 - 30

Hz

30

Oscillation release limit

84
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Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 5

Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

5.1

Local HMI screen behaviour

5.1.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Local HMI screen behaviour

5.1.2
Table 22:

SCREEN

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

Settings
SCREEN Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

DisplayTimeout

1 - 120

Min

10

Local HMI display timeout

ContrastLevel

-100 - 100

10

Contrast level for display

Default screen

DefaultScreen

EvListSrtOrder

Latest on top
Oldest on top

Latest on top

Sort order of event list

AutoIndicationDRP

Off
On

Off

Automatic indication of disturbance report

SubstIndSLD

No
Yes

No

Substitute indication on single line


diagram

InterlockIndSLD

No
Yes

No

Interlock indication on single line diagram

BypassCommands

No
Yes

No

Enable bypass of commands

5.2

Local HMI signals

5.2.1

Identification

5.2.2

Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Local HMI signals

LHMICTRL

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

Function block

85
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Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

LHMICTRL
CLRLEDS

HMI-ON
RED-S
YELLOW-S
YELLOW-F
CLRPULSE
LEDSCLRD
IEC09000320-1-en.vsd

IEC09000320 V1 EN

Figure 3:

5.2.3

LHMICTRL function block

Signals
Table 23:

LHMICTRL Input signals

Name

Type

CLRLEDS

Table 24:

BOOLEAN

Default
0

Description
Input to clear the LCD-HMI LEDs

LHMICTRL Output signals

Name

Type

Description

HMI-ON

BOOLEAN

Backlight of the LCD display is active

RED-S

BOOLEAN

Red LED on the LCD-HMI is steady

YELLOW-S

BOOLEAN

Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is steady

YELLOW-F

BOOLEAN

Yellow LED on the LCD-HMI is flashing

CLRPULSE

BOOLEAN

A pulse is provided when the LEDs on the LCD-HMI


are cleared

LEDSCLRD

BOOLEAN

Active when the LEDs on the LCD-HMI are not


active

5.3

Basic part for LED indication module

5.3.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

Basic part for LED indication module

LEDGEN

Basic part for LED indication HW


module

GRP1_LED1 GRP1_LED15

GRP2_LED1 GRP2_LED15
GRP3_LED1 GRP3_LED15

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

5.3.2

Function block
LEDGEN
BLOCK
RESET

NEWIND
ACK
IEC09000321-1-en.vsd

IEC09000321 V1 EN

Figure 4:

LEDGEN function block

GRP1_LED1
^HM1L01R
^HM1L01Y
^HM1L01G
IEC09000322 V1 EN

Figure 5:

GRP1_LED1 function block

The GRP1_LED1 function block is an example. The 15 LEDs in each of the three
groups have a similar function block.

5.3.3

Signals
Table 25:
Name

LEDGEN Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Input to block the operation of the LEDs

RESET

BOOLEAN

Input to acknowledge/reset the indication LEDs

Table 26:
Name

LEDGEN Output signals


Type

Description

NEWIND

BOOLEAN

New indication signal if any LED indication input is


set

ACK

BOOLEAN

A pulse is provided when the LEDs are


acknowledged

Table 27:
Name

GRP1_LED1 Input signals


Type

Default

Description

HM1L01R

BOOLEAN

Red indication of LED1, local HMI alarm group 1

HM1L01Y

BOOLEAN

Yellow indication of LED1, local HMI alarm group 1

HM1L01G

BOOLEAN

Green indication of LED1, local HMI alarm group 1

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Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI
5.3.4
Table 28:
Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Settings
LEDGEN Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

On

Operation Off/On

tRestart

0.0 - 100.0

0.1

0.0

Defines the disturbance length

tMax

0.1 - 100.0

0.1

1.0

Maximum time for the definition of a


disturbance

Table 29:
Name

GRP1_LED1 Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

SequenceType

Follow-S
Follow-F
LatchedAck-F-S
LatchedAck-S-F
LatchedColl-S
LatchedReset-S

Follow-S

Sequence type for LED 1, local HMI alarm


group 1

LabelOff

0 - 18

G1L01_OFF

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm


group 1 is off

LabelRed

0 - 18

G1L01_RED

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm


group 1 is red

LabelYellow

0 - 18

G1L01_YELLOW

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm


group 1 is yellow

LabelGreen

0 - 18

G1L01_GREEN

Label string shown when LED 1, alarm


group 1 is green

5.3.5

Monitored data
Table 30:

GRP1_LED1 Monitored data

Name
LEDStatus

Type

Values (Range)

INTEGER

1=Red flash
2=Red steady
3=Yellow flash
4=Yellow steady
5=Green flash
6=Green steady
0=Off

Unit
-

Description
Status of LED 1, local
HMI alarm group 1

5.4

LCD part for HMI function keys control module

5.4.1

Identification
Function description
LCD part for HMI Function Keys Control
module

IEC 61850
identification
FNKEYMD1 FNKEYMD5

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

88
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Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

5.4.2

Function block
FNKEYMD1
^LEDCTL1
^FKEYOUT1
IEC09000327 V1 EN

Figure 6:

FNKEYMD1 function block

Only the function block for the first button is shown above. There is a similar block for
every function key button.

5.4.3

Signals
Table 31:

FNKEYMD1 Input signals

Name

Type

LEDCTL1

BOOLEAN

Table 32:

Type

FKEYOUT1

Table 33:
Name

Description
LED control input for function key

FNKEYMD1 Output signals

Name

5.4.4

Default

Description

BOOLEAN

Output controlled by function key

Settings
FNKEYMD1 Non group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Mode

Off
Toggle
Pulsed

Off

Output operation mode

PulseTime

0.001 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Pulse time for output controlled by


LCDFn1

LabelOn

0 - 18

LCD_FN1_ON

Label for LED on state

LabelOff

0 - 18

LCD_FN1_OFF

Label for LED off state

Table 34:

FNKEYTY1 Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Type

Off
Menu shortcut
Control

MenuShortcut

Menu shortcut for


function key

Unit
-

Step
-

Default
Off

Description
Function key type

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Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

5.5

Operation principle

5.5.1

Local HMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IEC13000239-2-en.vsd

IEC13000239 V2 EN

Figure 7:

Local human-machine interface

The LHMI of the IED contains the following elements:

Keypad
Display (LCD)
LED indicators
Communication port for PCM600

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Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The LHMI is used for setting, monitoring and controlling.

5.5.1.1

Display
The LHMI includes a graphical monochrome display with a resolution of 320 x 240
pixels. The character size can vary. The amount of characters and rows fitting the view
depends on the character size and the view that is shown.
The display view is divided into four basic areas.

IEC13000063-2-en.vsd

IEC13000063 V2 EN

Figure 8:

Display layout

1 Path
2 Content
3 Status
4 Scroll bar (appears when needed)

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Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The path shows the current location in the menu structure. If the path is too long
to be shown, it is truncated from the beginning, and the truncation is indicated
with three dots.
The content area shows the menu content.
The status area shows the current IED time, the user that is currently logged in and
the object identification string which is settable via the LHMI or with PCM600.
If text, pictures or other items do not fit in the display, a vertical scroll bar appears
on the right. The text in content area is truncated from the beginning if it does not
fit in the display horizontally. Truncation is indicated with three dots.

IEC13000045-2-en.vsd
IEC13000045 V2 EN

Figure 9:

Truncated path

The number after the function instance, for example ETHFRNT:1, indicates the
instance number.
The function button panel shows on request what actions are possible with the
function buttons. Each function button has a LED indication that can be used as a
feedback signal for the function button control action. The LED is connected to the
required signal with PCM600.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IEC13000281-1-en.vsd
GUID-C98D972D-D1D8-4734-B419-161DBC0DC97B V1 EN

Figure 10:

Function button panel

The alarm LED panel shows on request the alarm text labels for the alarm LEDs. Three
alarm LED pages are available.

IEC13000240-1-en.vsd
GUID-5157100F-E8C0-4FAB-B979-FD4A971475E3 V1 EN

Figure 11:

Alarm LED panel

The function button and alarm LED panels are not visible at the same time. Each panel
is shown by pressing one of the function buttons or the Multipage button. Pressing the
ESC button clears the panel from the display. Both the panels have dynamic width that
depends on the label string length that the panel contains.

5.5.1.2

LEDs
The LHMI includes three protection status LEDs above the display: Ready, Start and
Trip.
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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

There are 15 programmable alarm LEDs on the front of the LHMI. Each LED can
indicate three states with the colors: green, yellow and red. The alarm texts related to
each three-color LED are divided into three pages.

5.5.1.3

Keypad
The LHMI keypad contains push-buttons which are used to navigate in different
views or menus. The push-buttons are also used to acknowledge alarms, reset
indications, provide help and switch between local and remote control mode.
The keypad also contains programmable push-buttons that can be configured either as
menu shortcut or control buttons.

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

24

1
23

2
18

19

4
5

20
21

22

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

IEC15000157-2-en.vsd
IEC15000157 V2 EN

Figure 12:

LHMI keypad with object control, navigation and command pushbuttons and RJ-45 communication port

1...5 Function button


6

Close

Open

Escape

Left

10

Down

11

Up

12

Right

13

Key

14

Enter

15

Remote/Local

16

Uplink LED

17

Not in use

18

Multipage

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

19

Menu

20

Clear

21

Help

22

Communication port

23

Programmable indication LEDs

24

IED status LEDs

5.5.2

LED

5.5.2.1

Functionality

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The function blocks LEDGEN and GRP1_LEDx, GRP2_LEDx and GRP3_LEDx


(x=1-15) controls and supplies information about the status of the indication LEDs.
The input and output signals of the function blocks are configured with PCM600. The
input signal for each LED is selected individually using SMT or ACT. Each LED is
controlled by the GRPn_LEDx (n=1-3) function block that controls the color and the
operating mode.
Each indication LED on local HMI can be set individually to operate in 6 different
sequences; two as follow type and four as latch type. Two of the latching sequence
types are intended to be used as a protection indication system, either in collecting or
restarting mode, with reset functionality. The other two are intended to be used as
signalling system in collecting mode with acknowledgment functionality.

5.5.2.2

Status LEDs
There are three status LEDs above the LCD in front of the IED: green, yellow and red.
The green LED has a fixed function that presents the healthy status of the IED. The
yellow and red LEDs are user configured. The yellow LED can be used to indicate that
a disturbance report is triggered (steady) or that the IED is in test mode (flashing). The
red LED can be used to indicate a trip command.
Here is a typical configuration of the status LEDs:

Green LED: unlit > no power; blinking > startup or abnormal situation (IED is not
in service); steady > IED is in service
Yellow LED: unlit > no attention required; blinking > IED is in Testmode (IED
is not in normal service); steady > at least one of the signals configured to turn the
yellow LED on has been active
Red LED: unlit > no attention required; blinking > user performs a common write
from PCM600; steady > at least one of the signals configured to turn the red LED
on has been active

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The yellow and red status LEDs are configured in the disturbance recorder function,
DRPRDRE, by connecting a start or trip signal from the actual function to a BxRBDR
binary input function block using the PCM600, and configuring the setting to Off,
Start or Trip for that particular signal.

5.5.2.3

Indication LEDs
Operating modes
Collecting mode

LEDs that are used in the collecting mode of operation are accumulated
continuously until the unit is acknowledged manually. This mode is suitable
when the LEDs are used as a simplified alarm system. When all three inputs (red,
yellow and green) are connected to different sources of events for the same
function block, collecting mode shows the highest priority LED color that was
activated since the latest acknowledgment was made. If a number of different
indications were made since the latest acknowledgment, it is not possible to get
a clear view of what triggered the latest event without looking at the sequence of
events list. A condition for getting the sequence of events is that the signals have
been engineered in the disturbance recorder.

Re-starting mode

In the re-starting mode of operation each new start resets all previous active LEDs
and activates only those which appear during one disturbance. Only LEDs
defined for re-starting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S)
will initiate a reset and a restart at a new disturbance. A disturbance is defined to
end a settable time after the reset of the activated input signals or when the
maximum time limit has elapsed. In sequence 6, the restarting or reset mode
means that upon occurrence of any new event, all previous indications will be
reset. This facilitates that only the LED indications related to the latest event is
shown.

Acknowledgment/reset

From local HMI

The active LED indications can be acknowledged/reset manually. Manual


acknowledgment and manual reset have the same meaning and is a
common signal for all the operating sequences and LEDs. The function is
positive edge triggered, not level triggered. The acknowledgment/reset is
performed via the

button and menus on the LHMI.

From function input

The active LED indications can also be acknowledged/reset via an input,


CLRLEDS, to the function block LHMICTRL. This input can for example
be configured to a binary input operated from an external push button or a
97

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Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

function button. The function is positive edge triggered, not level triggered.
This means that even if the button is continuously pressed, the
acknowledgment/reset only affects indications active at the moment when
the button is first pressed.

Automatic reset

The automatic reset can only be performed for LED indications defined for
re-starting mode with the latched sequence type 6 (LatchedReset-S). When
the automatic reset of the LEDs has been performed, still persisting
indications will be indicated with a steady light.

Operating sequence
The sequences can be of type Follow or Latched. For the Follow type, the LED follows
the input signal completely. For the Latched type, each LED latches to the
corresponding input signal until it is reset.
The figures below show the function of available sequences selectable for each LED
separately. The following 6 sequences are available:

Sequence 1: Follow-S
Sequence 2: Follow-F
Sequence 3: LatchedAck-F-S
Sequence 4: LatchedAck-S-F
Sequence 5: LatchedColl-S
Sequence 6: LatchedReset-S

For sequence 1 and 2, which are of the Follow type, the acknowledgment (Ack ) /reset
function is not applicable because the indication shown by the LED follows its input
signal. Sequence 3 and 4, which are of the Latched type with acknowledgement, are
only working in collecting (Coll) mode. Sequence 5 is working according to Latched
type and collecting mode while Sequence 6 is working according to Latched type and
re-starting (Reset) mode. The letters S and F in the sequence names have the meaning
S = Steady and F = Flash.
At the activation of the input signal to any LED, the indication on the corresponding
LED obtains a color that corresponds to the activated input, and operates according to
the selected sequence diagrams shown below.
In the sequence diagrams the different statuses of the LEDs are shown using the
following symbols:

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

= No indication
G=

= Steady light

Green

Y=

= Flash
R=

Yellow

Red

IEC09000311.vsd
IEC09000311 V1 EN

Figure 13:

Symbols used in the sequence diagrams

Sequence 1 (Follow-S)
This sequence follows the corresponding input signals all the time with a steady light.
It does not react on acknowledgment or reset. Every LED is independent of the other
LEDs in its operation.
Activating
signal

LED
IEC01000228_2_en.vsd
IEC01000228 V2 EN

Figure 14:

Operating Sequence 1 (Follow-S)

If inputs for two or more colors are active at the same time to the same LED, the
priority color it shows is in accordance with the color described above. An example of
the operation when two colors are activated in parallel to the same LED is shown in
figure15.
Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal RED

LED

IEC09000312_1_en.vsd
IEC09000312 V1 EN

Figure 15:

Operating sequence 1, two colors

Sequence 2 (Follow-F)
This sequence is the same as Sequence 1, Follow-S, but the LEDs are flashing instead
of showing steady light.
Sequence 3 LatchedAck-F-S
This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. Every LED is
independent of the other LEDs in its operation. At the activation of the input signal,
the indication starts flashing. After acknowledgment the indication disappears if the
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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

signal is not present any more. If the signal is still present after acknowledgment it gets
a steady light.
Activating
signal

LED

Acknow.
en01000231.vsd
IEC01000231 V1 EN

Figure 16:

Operating Sequence 3 LatchedAck-F-S

The sequence described below is valid only if the same function block
is used for all three colour LEDs.
When an acknowledgment is performed, all indications that appear before the
indication with higher priority has been reset, will be acknowledged, independent of
if the low priority indication appeared before or after acknowledgment. In figure 17 it
is shown the sequence when a signal of lower priority becomes activated after
acknowledgment has been performed on a higher priority signal. The low priority
signal will be shown as acknowledged when the high priority signal resets.
Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal RED

LED

Acknow
IEC09000313_1_en.vsd
IEC09000313 V1 EN

Figure 17:

Operating Sequence 3 (LatchedAck-F-S), 2 colors involved

If all three signals are activated the order of priority is still maintained.
Acknowledgment of indications with higher priority will acknowledge also low
priority indications, which are not visible according to figure 18.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal YELLOW
Activating
signal RED

LED

Acknow.
IEC09000314-1-en.vsd
IEC09000314 V1 EN

Figure 18:

Operating sequence 3, three colors involved, alternative 1

If an indication with higher priority appears after acknowledgment of a lower priority


indication the high priority indication will be shown as not acknowledged according
to figure 19.
Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal YELLOW
Activating
signal RED

LED

Acknow.
IEC09000315-1-en.vsd
IEC09000315 V1 EN

Figure 19:

Operating sequence 3, three colors involved, alternative 2

Sequence 4 (LatchedAck-S-F)
This sequence has the same functionality as sequence 3, but steady and flashing light
have been alternated.

Sequence 5 LatchedColl-S
This sequence has a latched function and works in collecting mode. At the activation
of the input signal, the indication will light up with a steady light. The difference to
sequence 3 and 4 is that indications that are still activated will not be affected by the
reset that is, immediately after the positive edge of the reset has been executed a new
reading and storing of active signals is performed. Every LED is independent of the
other LEDs in its operation.
101
Technical manual

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Activating
signal

LED

Reset
IEC01000235_2_en.vsd
IEC01000235 V2 EN

Figure 20:

Operating Sequence 5 LatchedColl-S

That means if an indication with higher priority has reset while an indication with
lower priority still is active at the time of reset, the LED will change color according
to figure21.
Activating
signal GREEN
Activating
signal RED

LED

Reset
IEC09000316_1_en.vsd
IEC09000316 V1 EN

Figure 21:

Operating sequence 5, two colors

Sequence 6 LatchedReset-S
In this mode all activated LEDs, which are set to Sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), are
automatically reset at a new disturbance when activating any input signal for other
LEDs set to Sequence 6 LatchedReset-S. Also in this case indications that are still
activated will not be affected by manual reset, that is, immediately after the positive
edge of that the manual reset has been executed a new reading and storing of active
signals is performed. LEDs set for sequence 6 are completely independent in its
operation of LEDs set for other sequences.
Timing diagram for sequence 6
Figure 22 shows the timing diagram for two indications within one disturbance.

102
Technical manual

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Disturbance
tRestart

Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset

IEC01000239_2-en.vsd

IEC01000239 V2 EN

Figure 22:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within


same disturbance

Figure 23 shows the timing diagram for a new indication after tRestart time has
elapsed.
Disturbance
tRestart

Disturbance
tRestart

Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset
IEC01000240_2_en.vsd
IEC01000240 V2 EN

Figure 23:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two different disturbances


103

Technical manual

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Figure 24 shows the timing diagram when a new indication appears after the first one
has reset but before tRestart has elapsed.
Disturbance
tRestart
Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset
IEC01000241_2_en.vsd
IEC01000241 V2 EN

Figure 24:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), two indications within


same disturbance but with reset of activating signal between

Figure 25 shows the timing diagram for manual reset.

104
Technical manual

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Disturbance
tRestart
Activating
signal 1
Activating
signal 2

LED 1

LED 2
Automatic
reset
Manual
reset
IEC01000242_2_en.vsd
IEC01000242 V2 EN

Figure 25:

Operating sequence 6 (LatchedReset-S), manual reset

5.5.3

Function keys

5.5.3.1

Functionality
Local Human-Machine-Interface (LHMI) has five function buttons, directly to the left
of the LCD, that can be configured either as menu shortcut or control buttons. Each
button has an indication LED that can be configured in the application configuration.
When used as a menu shortcut, a function button provides a fast way to navigate
between default nodes in the menu tree. When used as a control, the button can control
a binary signal.

5.5.3.2

Operation principle
Each output on the FNKEYMD1 - FNKEYMD5 function blocks can be controlled
from the LHMI function keys. By pressing a function button on the LHMI, the output
status of the actual function block will change. These binary outputs can in turn be
used to control other function blocks, for example, switch control blocks, binary I/O
outputs etc.
FNKEYMD1 - FNKEYMD5 function block also has a number of settings and
parameters that control the behavior of the function block. These settings and
parameters are normally set using the PST.

105
Technical manual

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Operating sequence
The operation mode is set individually for each output, either OFF, TOGGLE or
PULSED.
Setting OFF
This mode always sets the outputs to a low value (0).

Input value

Output value
IEC09000330-2-en.vsd

IEC09000330 V2 EN

Figure 26:

Sequence diagram for setting OFF

Setting TOGGLE
In this mode the output toggles each time the function key has been pressed for more
than 500ms. Note that the input attribute is reset each time the function block executes.
The function block execution is marked with a dotted line below.

Input value

500ms

500ms

500ms

Output value
IEC09000331_1_en.vsd

IEC09000331 V2 EN

Figure 27:

Sequence diagram for setting TOGGLE

Setting PULSED
In this mode the output sets high (1) when the function key has been pressed for more
than 500ms and remains high according to set pulse time. After this time the output
will go back to 0. The input attribute is reset when the function block detects it being
high and there is no output pulse.
Note that the third positive edge on the input attribute does not cause a pulse, since the
edge was applied during pulse output. A new pulse can only begin when the output is
zero; else the trigger edge is lost.

106
Technical manual

Section 5
Local Human-Machine-Interface LHMI

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Input value

500ms

500ms

pulse time

Output value

500ms

500ms

pulse time

pulse time
IEC09000332_2_en.vsd

IEC09000332 V2 EN

Figure 28:

Sequence diagram for setting PULSED

Input function
All function keys work the same way: When the LHMI is configured so that a certain
function button is of type CONTROL, then the corresponding input on this function
block becomes active, and will light the yellow function button LED when high. This
functionality is active even if the function block operation setting is set to off. It has
been implemented this way for safety reasons; the idea is that the function key LEDs
should always reflect the actual status of any primary equipment monitored by these
LEDs.

107
Technical manual

108

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 6

Differential protection

6.1

Transformer differential protection T2WPDIF and


T3WPDIF

6.1.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Transformer differential protection, twowinding

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
87T

T2WPDIF

3Id/I
SYMBOL-BB V1 EN

Transformer differential protection,


three-winding

87T

T3WPDIF

3Id/I
SYMBOL-BB V1 EN

6.1.2

Functionality
The Transformer differential protection, two-winding T2WPDIF and Transformer
differential protection, three-winding T3WPDIF are provided with internal CT ratio
matching, vector group compensation and settable zero sequence current elimination.
The function can be provided with up to six three-phase sets of current inputs. All
current inputs are provided with percentage bias restraint features, making the IED
suitable for two- or three-winding transformer in multi-breaker station arrangements.
Two-winding applications
two-winding power
transformer
xx05000048.vsd
IEC05000048 V1 EN

xx05000049.vsd

two-winding power
transformer with
unconnected delta
tertiary winding

IEC05000049 V1 EN

Table continues on next page

109
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

xx05000050.vsd
IEC05000050 V1 EN

two-winding power
transformer with two
circuit breakers and
two CT-sets on one
side
two-winding power
transformer with two
circuit breakers and
two CT-sets on both
sides

xx05000051.vsd
IEC05000051 V1 EN

Three-winding applications
three-winding power
transformer with all
three windings
connected

xx05000052.vsd
IEC05000052 V1 EN

three-winding power
transformer with two
circuit breakers and
two CT-sets on one
side
xx05000053.vsd
IEC05000053 V1 EN

Autotransformer with
two circuit breakers
and two CT-sets on
two out of three sides

xx05000057.vsd
IEC05000057 V1 EN

Figure 29:

CT group arrangement
for differential
protection

The setting facilities cover the application of the differential protection to all types of
power transformers and auto-transformers with or without load tap changer as well as
shunt reactors and local feeders within the station. An adaptive stabilizing feature is
included for heavy through-fault currents.By introducing the load tap changer
position, the differential protection pick-up can be set to optimum sensitivity thus
covering internal faults with low fault current level.
Stabilization is included for inrush and overexcitation currents respectively, crossblocking is also available. Adaptive stabilization is also included for system recovery
110
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

inrush and CT saturation during external faults. A high set unrestrained differential
current protection element is included for a very high speed tripping at high internal
fault currents.
Included is an sensitive differential protection element based on the theory of negative
sequence current component. This element offers the best possible coverage of power
transformer windings turn to turn faults.

6.1.3

Function block
T2WPDIF
I3PW1CT1*
TRIP
I3PW1CT2*
TRIPRES
I3PW2CT1*
TRIPUNRE
I3PW2CT2*
TRNSUNR
TAPOLTC1
TRNSSENS
OLTC1AL
START
BLOCK
STL1
BLKRES
STL2
BLKUNRES
STL3
BLKNSUNR
BLK2H
BLKNSSEN
BLK2HL1
BLK2HL2
BLK2HL3
BLK5H
BLK5HL1
BLK5HL2
BLK5HL3
BLKWAV
BLKWAVL1
BLKWAVL2
BLKWAVL3
IDALARM
OPENCT
OPENCTAL
IDL1
IDL2
IDL3
IDL1MAG
IDL2MAG
IDL3MAG
IBIAS
IDNSMAG
IEC06000249_2_en.vsd
IEC06000249 V2 EN

Figure 30:

T2WPDIF function block

111
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

T3WPDIF
I3PW1CT1*
TRIP
I3PW1CT2*
TRIPRES
I3PW2CT1*
TRIPUNRE
I3PW2CT2*
TRNSUNR
I3PW3CT1*
TRNSSENS
I3PW3CT2*
START
TAPOLTC1
STL1
TAPOLTC2
STL2
OLTC1AL
STL3
OLTC2AL
BLK2H
BLOCK
BLK2HL1
BLKRES
BLK2HL2
BLKUNRES
BLK2HL3
BLKNSUNR
BLK5H
BLKNSSEN
BLK5HL1
BLK5HL2
BLK5HL3
BLKWAV
BLKWAVL1
BLKWAVL2
BLKWAVL3
IDALARM
OPENCT
OPENCTAL
IDL1
IDL2
IDL3
IDL1MAG
IDL2MAG
IDL3MAG
IBIAS
IDNSMAG
IEC06000250_2_en.vsd
IEC06000250 V2 EN

Figure 31:

6.1.4

T3WPDIF function block

Signals
Table 35:
Name

T2WPDIF Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3PW1CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding primary CT1

I3PW1CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding primary CT2

I3PW2CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding secondary CT1

I3PW2CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding secondary CT2

TAPOLTC1

INTEGER

Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 1

OLTC1AL

BOOLEAN

OLTC1 alarm

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKRES

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for restrained differential feature

BLKUNRES

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for unrestrained differential feature

BLKNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for unrestr. neg. seq. differential


feature

BLKNSSEN

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for sensitive neg. seq. differential


feature

112
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 36:
Name

T2WPDIF Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General, common trip signal

TRIPRES

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from restrained differential protection

TRIPUNRE

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection

TRNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestr. neg. seq. diff. protection

TRNSSENS

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from sensitive neg. seq. diff. protection

START

BOOLEAN

Common start signal from any phase

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

BLK2H

BOOLEAN

Common second harmonic block signal from any


phase

BLK2HL1

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK2HL2

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK2HL3

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLK5H

BOOLEAN

Common fifth harmonic block signal from any


phase

BLK5HL1

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK5HL2

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK5HL3

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLKWAV

BOOLEAN

Common block signal, waveform criterion, from


any phase

BLKWAVL1

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L1

BLKWAVL2

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L2

BLKWAVL3

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L3

IDALARM

BOOLEAN

Alarm for sustained diff currents in all three phases

OPENCT

BOOLEAN

An open CT was detected

OPENCTAL

BOOLEAN

Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a


delay ...

IDL1

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,


phase L1

IDL2

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,


phase L2

IDL3

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,


phase L3

IDL1MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase


L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase


L2

IDL3MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase


L3

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias current, which is common to


all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

Magnitude of the negative sequence differential


current
113

Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 37:
Name

T3WPDIF Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3PW1CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding primary CT1

I3PW1CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding primary CT2

I3PW2CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding secondary CT1

I3PW2CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding secondary CT2

I3PW3CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding tertiary CT1

I3PW3CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase winding tertiary CT2

TAPOLTC1

INTEGER

Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 1

TAPOLTC2

INTEGER

Most recent tap position reading on OLTC 2

OLTC1AL

BOOLEAN

OLTC1 alarm

OLTC2AL

BOOLEAN

OLTC2 alarm

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKRES

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for restrained differential feature

BLKUNRES

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for unrestrained differential feature

BLKNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for unrestr. neg. seq. differential


feature

BLKNSSEN

BOOLEAN

Block of trip for sensitive neg. seq. differential


feature

Table 38:
Name

T3WPDIF Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General, common trip signal

TRIPRES

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from restrained differential protection

TRIPUNRE

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestrained differential protection

TRNSUNR

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from unrestr. neg. seq. diff. protection

TRNSSENS

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from sensitive neg. seq. diff. protection

START

BOOLEAN

Common start signal from any phase

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

BLK2H

BOOLEAN

Common second harmonic block signal from any


phase

BLK2HL1

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK2HL2

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK2HL3

BOOLEAN

Second harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLK5H

BOOLEAN

Common fifth harmonic block signal from any


phase

Table continues on next page


114
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

6.1.5
Table 39:
Name

Type

Description

BLK5HL1

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L1

BLK5HL2

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L2

BLK5HL3

BOOLEAN

Fifth harmonic block signal, phase L3

BLKWAV

BOOLEAN

Common block signal, waveform criterion, from


any phase

BLKWAVL1

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L1

BLKWAVL2

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L2

BLKWAVL3

BOOLEAN

Block signal, waveform criterion, phase L3

IDALARM

BOOLEAN

Alarm for sustained diff currents in all three phases

OPENCT

BOOLEAN

An open CT was detected

OPENCTAL

BOOLEAN

Open CT Alarm output signal. Issued after a


delay ...

IDL1

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,


phase L1

IDL2

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,


phase L2

IDL3

REAL

Value of the instantaneous differential current,


phase L3

IDL1MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase


L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase


L2

IDL3MAG

REAL

Magnitude of fundamental freq. diff. current, phase


L3

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias current, which is common to


all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

Magnitude of the negative sequence differential


current

Settings
T2WPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

SOTFMode

Off
On

On

Operation mode for switch onto fault

tAlarmDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

10.000

Time delay for diff currents alarm level

IDiffAlarm

0.05 - 1.00

IB

0.01

0.20

Dif. cur. alarm, multiple of base curr,


usually W1 curr.

IdMin

0.05 - 0.60

IB

0.01

0.30

Section1 sensitivity, multi. of base curr,


usually W1 curr.

IdUnre

1.00 - 100.00

IB

0.01

10.00

Unrestr. prot. limit, multiple of Winding 1


rated current

Table continues on next page

115
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Unit

Step

Default

Description

CrossBlockEn

Off
On

On

Operation Off/On for cross-block logic


between phases

NegSeqDiffEn

Off
On

On

Operation Off/On for neg. seq. differential


protections

IMinNegSeq

0.02 - 0.20

IB

0.01

0.04

Neg. seq. curr. must be higher than this


level to be used

NegSeqROA

30.0 - 120.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Operate Angle for int. / ext. neg. seq. fault


discriminator

Table 40:

T2WPDIF Group settings (advanced)

Name

Unit

Step

Default

EndSection1

0.20 - 1.50

IB

0.01

1.25

End of section 1, multiple of Winding 1


rated current

EndSection2

1.00 - 10.00

IB

0.01

3.00

End of section 2, multiple of Winding 1


rated current

SlopeSection2

10.0 - 50.0

0.1

40.0

Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain


characteristic, in %

SlopeSection3

30.0 - 100.0

0.1

80.0

Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain


characteristic, in %

I2/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

15.0

Max. ratio of 2nd harm. to fundamental


harm dif. curr. in %

I5/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

25.0

Max. ratio of 5th harm. to fundamental


harm dif. curr. in %

OpenCTEnable

Off
On

Off

Open CT detection feature. Open


CTEnable Off/On

tOCTAlarmDelay

0.100 - 10.000

0.001

3.000

Open CT: time in s to alarm after an open


CT is detected

tOCTResetDelay

0.100 - 10.000

0.001

0.250

Reset delay in s. After delay, diff. function


is activated

tOCTUnrstDelay

0.10 - 6000.00

0.01

10.00

Unrestrained diff. protection blocked after


this delay, in s

Step

Default

Table 41:

Values (Range)

Description

T2WPDIF Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

GlobalBaseSelW1

1 - 12

Global base selector for winding 1

GlobalBaseSelW2

1 - 12

Global base selector for winding 2

ConnectTypeW1

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta

ConnectTypeW2

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta

Table continues on next page

116
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ClockNumberW2

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

0 [0 deg]

Phase displacement between W2 &


W1=HV winding, hour notation

ZSCurrSubtrW1

Off
On

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for


W1 side, On / Off

ZSCurrSubtrW2

Off
On

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for


W2 side, On / Off

TconfigForW1

No
Yes

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 1,


YES / NO

CT1RatingW1

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on


transf. W1 side

CT2RatingW1

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary in A, T-branch 2, on transf. W1


side

TconfigForW2

No
Yes

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 2,


YES / NO

CT1RatingW2

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on


transf. W2 side

CT2RatingW2

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on


transf. W2 side

LocationOLTC1

Not Used
Winding 1 (W1)
Winding 2 (W2)

Not Used

Transformer winding where OLTC1 is


located

LowTapPosOLTC1

0 - 10

OLTC1 lowest tap position designation


(e.g. 1)

RatedTapOLTC1

1 - 100

OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position


designation (e.g. 6)

HighTapPsOLTC1

1 - 100

11

OLTC1 highest tap position designation


(e.g. 11)

TapHighVoltTC1

1 - 100

OLTC1 end-tap position with winding


highest no-load voltage

StepSizeOLTC1

0.01 - 30.00

0.01

1.00

Voltage change per OLTC1 step in


percent of rated voltage

Step

Default

Table 42:
Name

T3WPDIF Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

tAlarmDelay

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

10.000

Description
Time delay for diff currents alarm level

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

IDiffAlarm

0.05 - 1.00

IB

0.01

0.20

Dif. cur. alarm, multiple of base curr,


usually W1 curr.

Table continues on next page

117
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Unit

Step

Default

Description

SOTFMode

Off
On

On

Operation mode for switch onto fault


feature

IdMin

0.05 - 0.60

IB

0.01

0.30

Section1 sensitivity, multi. of base curr,


usually W1 curr.

IdUnre

1.00 - 100.00

IB

0.01

10.00

Unrestr. prot. limit, multi. of base curr.


usually W1 curr.

CrossBlockEn

Off
On

On

Operation Off/On for cross-block logic


between phases

NegSeqDiffEn

Off
On

On

Operation Off/On for neg. seq. differential


protections

IMinNegSeq

0.02 - 0.20

IB

0.01

0.04

Neg. seq. curr. limit, mult. of base curr,


usually W1 curr.

NegSeqROA

30.0 - 120.0

Deg

0.1

60.0

Operate Angle for int. / ext. neg. seq. fault


discriminator

Table 43:

T3WPDIF Group settings (advanced)

Name

Unit

Step

Default

EndSection1

0.20 - 1.50

IB

0.01

1.25

End of section 1, multi. of base current,


usually W1 curr.

EndSection2

1.00 - 10.00

IB

0.01

3.00

End of section 2, multi. of base current,


usually W1 curr.

SlopeSection2

10.0 - 50.0

0.1

40.0

Slope in section 2 of operate-restrain


characteristic, in %

SlopeSection3

30.0 - 100.0

0.1

80.0

Slope in section 3 of operate-restrain


characteristic, in %

I2/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

15.0

Max. ratio of 2nd harm. to fundamental


harm dif. curr. in %

I5/I1Ratio

5.0 - 100.0

0.1

25.0

Max. ratio of 5th harm. to fundamental


harm dif. curr. in %

OpenCTEnable

Off
On

Off

Open CT detection feature. Open


CTEnable Off/On

tOCTAlarmDelay

0.100 - 10.000

0.001

3.000

Open CT: time in s to alarm after an open


CT is detected

tOCTResetDelay

0.100 - 10.000

0.001

0.250

Reset delay in s. After delay, diff. function


is activated

tOCTUnrstDelay

0.10 - 6000.00

0.01

10.00

Unrestrained diff. protection blocked after


this delay, in s

Step

Default

Table 44:

Values (Range)

Description

T3WPDIF Non group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

GlobalBaseSelW1

1 - 12

Global base selector for winding 1

GlobalBaseSelW2

1 - 12

Global base selector for winding 2

GlobalBaseSelW3

1 - 12

Global base selector for winding 3

ConnectTypeW1

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 1: Y-wye or Ddelta

Table continues on next page

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ConnectTypeW2

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

WYE (Y)

Connection type of winding 2: Y-wye or Ddelta

ConnectTypeW3

WYE (Y)
Delta (D)

Delta (D)

Connection type of winding 3: Y-wye or Ddelta

ClockNumberW2

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

0 [0 deg]

Phase displacement between W2 &


W1=HV winding, hour notation

ClockNumberW3

0 [0 deg]
1 [30 deg lag]
2 [60 deg lag]
3 [90 deg lag]
4 [120 deg lag]
5 [150 deg lag]
6 [180 deg]
7 [150 deg lead]
8 [120 deg lead]
9 [90 deg lead]
10 [60 deg lead]
11 [30 deg lead]

5 [150 deg lag]

Phase displacement between W3 &


W1=HV winding, hour notation

ZSCurrSubtrW1

Off
On

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for


W1 side, On / Off

ZSCurrSubtrW2

Off
On

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for


W2 side, On / Off

ZSCurrSubtrW3

Off
On

On

Enable zer. seq. current subtraction for


W3 side, On / Off

TconfigForW1

No
Yes

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 1,


YES / NO

CT1RatingW1

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on


transf. W1 side

CT2RatingW1

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary in A, T-branch 2, on transf. W1


side

TconfigForW2

No
Yes

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 2,


YES / NO

CT1RatingW2

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on


transf. W2 side

CT2RatingW2

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on


transf. W2 side

TconfigForW3

No
Yes

No

Two CT inputs (T-config.) for winding 3,


YES / NO

CT1RatingW3

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 1, on


transf. W3 side

CT2RatingW3

1 - 99999

3000

CT primary rating in A, T-branch 2, on


transf. W3 side

Table continues on next page

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Differential protection

Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

LocationOLTC1

Not Used
Winding 1 (W1)
Winding 2 (W2)
Winding 3 (W3)

Not Used

Transformer winding where OLTC1 is


located

LowTapPosOLTC1

0 - 10

OLTC1 lowest tap position designation


(e.g. 1)

RatedTapOLTC1

1 - 100

OLTC1 rated tap/mid-tap position


designation (e.g. 6)

HighTapPsOLTC1

1 - 100

11

OLTC1 highest tap position designation


(e.g. 11)

TapHighVoltTC1

1 - 100

OLTC1 end-tap position with winding


highest no-load voltage

StepSizeOLTC1

0.01 - 30.00

0.01

1.00

Voltage change per OLTC1 step in


percent of rated voltage

LocationOLTC2

Not Used
Winding 1 (W1)
Winding 2 (W2)
Winding 3 (W3)

Not Used

Transformer winding where OLTC2 is


located

LowTapPosOLTC2

0 - 10

OLTC2 lowest tap position designation


(e.g. 1)

RatedTapOLTC2

1 - 100

OLTC2 rated tap/mid-tap position


designation (e.g. 6)

HighTapPsOLTC2

1 - 100

11

OLTC2 highest tap position designation


(e.g. 11)

TapHighVoltTC2

1 - 100

OLTC2 end-tap position with winding


highest no-load voltage

StepSizeOLTC2

0.01 - 30.00

0.01

1.00

Voltage change per OLTC2 step in


percent of rated voltage

6.1.6

Monitored data
Table 45:
Name

T2WPDIF Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

OCTSIDE

INTEGER

Open CT side : 1 -> W 1


(pri), 2 -> W 2 (sec)

OPENCTIN

INTEGER

Open CT on Input : 1 for


input 1, 2 for input 2

OPENCTPH

INTEGER

Open CT in Phase : 1 for


L1, 2 for L2, 3 for L3

IDL1MAG

REAL

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L2

Table continues on next page

120
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

REAL

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L3

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias


current, which is common
to all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

Magnitude of the
negative sequence
differential current

Table 46:
Name

6.1.7

Type

IDL3MAG

T3WPDIF Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

IDL1MAG

REAL

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L1

IDL2MAG

REAL

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L2

IDL3MAG

REAL

Magnitude of
fundamental freq. diff.
current, phase L3

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias


current, which is common
to all phases

IDNSMAG

REAL

Magnitude of the
negative sequence
differential current

Operation principle
The task of the power transformer differential protection is to determine whether a
fault is within the protected zone, or outside of the protected zone. The protected zone
is limited by the position of current transformers (see Figure 32), and in principle can
include more objects than just a transformer. If the fault is found to be internal, the
faulty power transformer must be quickly disconnected from the system.
The main CTs are normally supposed to be star connected. The main CTs can be
earthed in anyway (that is, either "ToObject" or "FromObject"). However internally
the differential function will always use reference directions towards the protected
transformer as shown in Figure 32. Thus the IED will always internally measure the
currents on all sides of the power transformer with the same reference direction
towards the power transformer windings as shown in Figure 32. For more information
see the Application manual.

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IW1

E1S1

IW2

Z1S1

Z1S2

IW1

IW2

E1S2

IED

en05000186.vsd
IEC05000186 V1 EN

Figure 32:

Typical CT location and definition of positive current direction

Even in a healthy power transformer, the currents are generally not equal when they
flow through it. This is due to the ratio of the number of turns of the windings and the
connection group of the protected transformer. Therefore the differential protection
must first correlate all currents to each other before any calculation can be performed.
First, compensation for the protected transformer transformation ratio and connection
group is made, and only then are the currents compared phase-wise. This makes
external auxiliary (interposing) current transformers unnecessary. Conversion of all
currents to the common reference side of the power transformer is performed by preprogrammed coefficient matrices, which depends on the protected power transformer
transformation ratio and connection group. Once the power transformer vector group,
rated currents and voltages have been entered by the user, the differential protection
is capable to calculate off-line matrix coefficients required in order to perform the online current comparison by means of a fixed equation.
The negative-sequence-current-based internal-external fault discriminator, is used
with advantage in order to determine whether a fault is internal or external. It not only
positively discriminates between internal and external faults, but can also
independently detect minor faults which may not be sensed by the "usual" differential
protection based on operate-restrain characteristic.
For all differential functions it is the common trip that is used to
initiate a trip of a breaker. The separate trip signals from the different
parts lacks the safety against maloperation. This will in some cases
result in a 6 ms time difference between, for example restrained trip is
issued and common trip is issued. The separate trip signals are only
used for information purpose of which part that has caused the trip.

6.1.7.1

Function calculation principles


To make a differential IED as sensitive and stable as possible, restrained differential
characteristics have been developed and is now adopted as the general practice in the
protection of power transformers. The protection should be provided with a

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

proportional bias, which makes the protection operate for a certain percentage
differential current related to the current through the transformer. This stabilizes the
protection under through fault conditions while still permitting the system to have
good basic sensitivity. The following chapters explain how these quantities are
derived.

Fundamental frequency differential currents


The fundamental frequency differential current is a vectorial sum (sum of
fundamental frequency phasors) of the individual phase currents from the different
sides of the protected power transformer.
Before any differential current can be calculated, the power transformer phase shift,
and its transformation ratio, must be accounted for. Conversion of all currents to a
common reference is performed in two steps:

all current phasors are phase-shifted to (referred to) the phase-reference side,
(whenever possible the first winding with star connection)
all currents magnitudes are always referred to the first winding of the power
transformer (typically transformer high-voltage side)

The two steps of conversion are made simultaneously on-line by the pre-programmed
coefficient matrices, as shown in equation 1 for a two-winding power transformer, and
in equation 2 for a three-winding power transformer.
These are the internal compensation within the differential function.
The protected power transformer data is always entered per its
nameplate. The Differential function will correlate nameplate data
and select proper reference windings.

IDL1
IL1_ W 1
IL1_ W 2
Un
_
W
2
IDL 2 = A IL 2 _ W 1 +

Un _ W 1 B IL 2 _ W 2
IDL3
IL3 _ W 1
IL3 _ W 2
1

EQUATION1880 V1 EN

(Equation 1)

where:
1.

is the resulting Differential Currents

2.

is the current contribution from the W1 side

3.

is the current contribution from the W2 side

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IDL1
IL1_ W 1
IL1_ W 2
IL1_ W 3
IDL 2 = A IL 2 _ W 1 + Un _ W 2 B IL 2 _ W 2 + Un _ W 3 C IL 2 _ W 3

Un _ W 1

Un _ W 1

IDL3
IL3 _ W 1
IL3 _ W 2
IL3 _ W 3
1

(Equation 2)

EQUATION1556 V2 EN

where:
1.

is the resulting Differential Currents

2.

is the current contribution from the W1 side

3.

is the current contribution from the W2 side

4.

is the current contribution from the W3 side

and where, for equation 1 and equation 2:


IDL1

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL2

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL3

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IL1_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W1 side

IL2_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W1 side

IL3_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W1 side

IL1_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W2 side

IL2_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W2 side

IL3_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W2 side

IL1_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W3 side

IL2_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W3 side

IL3_W3

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W3 side

Ur_W1

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter)

Ur_W2

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W2 side (setting parameter)

Ur_W3

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W3 side (setting parameter)

A, B and C

are three by three matrices with numerical coefficients

Values of the matrix A, B and C coefficients depend on:


1.
2.
3.

The Power transformer winding connection type, such as star (Y/y) or delta (D/
d)
The Transformer vector group such as Yd1, Dy11, YNautod5, Yy0d5 and so on,
which introduce phase displacement between individual windings currents in
multiples of 30.
The Settings for elimination of zero sequence currents for the individual
windings.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 6
Differential protection

When the end user enters all these parameters, transformer differential function
automatically calculates the matrix coefficients. During this calculations the
following rules are used:
For the phase reference, the first winding with set star (Y) connection is always used.
For example, if the power transformer is a Yd1 power transformer, the HV winding
(Y) is taken as the phase reference winding. If the power transformer is a Dy1, then the
LV winding (y) is taken for the phase reference. If there is no star connected winding,
such as in Dd0 type of power transformers, then the HV delta winding (D) is
automatically chosen as the phase reference winding.
The fundamental frequency differential currents are in general composed of currents
of all sequences, that is, the positive-, the negative-, and the zero-sequence currents.
If the zero-sequence currents are eliminated (see section "Optional Elimination of
zero sequence currents"), then the differential currents can consist only of the
positive-, and the negative-sequence currents. When the zero-sequence current is
subtracted on one side of the power transformer, then it is subtracted from each
individual phase current.
As it can be seen from equation 1 and equation 2 the first entered winding (W1) is
always taken for ampere level reference (current magnitudes from all other sides are
always transferred to W1 side). In other words, within the differential protection
function, all differential currents and bias current are always expressed in HV side
primary Amperes.
It can be shown that the values of the matrix A, B & C coefficients (see equation 1 and
equation 2) can be pre-calculated in advance depending on the relative phase shift
between the reference winding and other power transformer windings.
Table 47 summarizes the values of the matrices for all standard phase shifts between
windings.

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 47:

Matrices for differential current calculation


Matrix with Zero Sequence
Reduction set to On

Matrix for Reference Winding

2 -1 -1
1
-1 2 -1

3
-1 -1 2

Matrix for winding with 30


lagging

1 -1 0
1
0 1 -1

3
-1 0 1
1
1
1
3
-2

-2

-2

(Equation 6)

0 -1 1
1
1 0 -1

3
-1 1 0

-1 -1 2
1
2 -1 -1

3
-1 2 -1

-1 0 1
1 -1 0

3
0 1 -1

EQUATION1235 V1 EN

Matrix for winding which is in


opposite phase

-2
1
1
3
1

Matrix for winding with 150


leading

(Equation 12)

-1 1 0
0 -1 1

3
1 0 -1

EQUATION1238 V1 EN

EQUATION1234 V1 EN

(Equation 10)

Not applicable. Matrix on the


left used.

(Equation 11)

-2 1

1 -2

EQUATION1236 V1 EN

Not applicable. Matrix on the


left used.

0 0 1
1 0 0

0 1 0
(Equation 9)

EQUATION1233 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 150


lagging

(Equation 7)

EQUATION1231 V1 EN

(Equation 8)

EQUATION1232 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 120


lagging

Not applicable. Matrix on the


left used.

0 -1 0
0 0 -1

-1 0 0

EQUATION1230 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 90


lagging

(Equation 4)

EQUATION1228 V1 EN

(Equation 5)

EQUATION1229 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 60


lagging

1 0 0
0 1 0

0 0 1
(Equation 3)

EQUATION1227 V1 EN

Matrix with Zero Sequence


Reduction set to Off

-1 0 0
0 -1 0

0 0 -1
EQUATION1237 V1 EN

(Equation 13)

Not applicable. Matrix on the


left used.

(Equation 14)

Table continues on next page

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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Matrix with Zero Sequence


Reduction set to On
Matrix for winding with 120
leading

-1 2 -1
1
-1 -1 2

3
2 -1 -1
EQUATION1239 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 90


leading

0 1 -1
-1 0 1

3
1 -1 0

EQUATION1241 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 60


leading

1
1
-2
3
1

1
1
-2

EQUATION1242 V1 EN

Matrix for winding with 30


leading

(Equation 15)

0 1 0
0 0 1

1 0 0
EQUATION1240 V1 EN

(Equation 16)

Not applicable. Matrix on the


left used.

(Equation 17)

-2
1

1
(Equation 18)

1 0 -1
-1 1 0

3
0 -1 1

EQUATION1244 V1 EN

Matrix with Zero Sequence


Reduction set to Off

0 0 -1
-1 0 0

0 -1 0
EQUATION1243 V1 EN

(Equation 19)

Not applicable. Matrix on the


left used.

(Equation 20)

By using this table complete equation for calculation of fundamental frequency


differential currents for two winding power transformer with YNd5 vector group and
enabled zero sequence current reduction on HV side will be derived. From the given
power transformer vector group the following is possible to be concluded:
1.
2.

The HV star (Y) connected winding will be used as the reference winding and
zero sequence currents shall be subtracted on that side
The LV winding is lagging for 150

With the help of table 47, the following matrix equation can be written for this power
transformer:

IDL1
2 -1 -1 IL1_ W1
-1 0 1 IL1_ W 2
IDL2 = 1 -1 2 -1 IL2 _ W1 + Ur _ W 2 1 1 -1 0 IL2 _ W 2

3

Ur _ W1 3

IDL3
-1 -1 2 IL3_ W1
0 1 -1 IL3_ W 2
(Equation 21)

EQUATION2015 V1 EN

where:
IDL1

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L1 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL2

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L2 (in W1 side primary amperes)

IDL3

is the fundamental frequency differential current in phase L3 (in W1 side primary amperes)

Table continues on next page

127
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IL1_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W1 side

IL2_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W1 side

IL3_W1

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W1 side

IL1_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L1 on the W2 side

IL2_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L2 on the W2 side

IL3_W2

is the fundamental frequency phase current in phase L3 on the W2 side

Ur_W1

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1 side (setting parameter)

Ur_W2

is transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W2 side (setting parameter)

As marked in equation 1 and equation 2, the first term on the right hand side of the
equation, represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from the
W1 side to the fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated for eventual
power transformer phase shift. The second term on the right hand side of the equation,
represents the total contribution from the individual phase currents from the W2 side
to the fundamental frequency differential currents, compensated for eventual power
transformer phase shift and transferred to the power transformer W1 side. The third
term on the right hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution from the
individual phase currents from the W3 side to the fundamental frequency differential
currents, compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift and transferred to
the power transformer W1 side. These current contributions are important, because
they are used for calculation of common bias current.
The fundamental frequency differential currents are the "usual" differential currents,
the magnitudes which are applied in a phase-wise manner to the operate - restrain
characteristic of the differential protection. The magnitudes of the differential
currents can be read as service values from the function and they are available as
outputs IDL1MAG, IDL2MAG, IDL3MAG from the differential protection function
block. Thus they can be connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically
recorded during any external or internal fault condition.

On-line compensation for load tap changer movement


A load tap changer is a mechanical device, which is used to step-wise change number
of turns within one power transformer winding. Consequently the power transformer
overall turns ratio is changed. Typically the load tap changer is located within the HV
winding (that is, winding 1, W1) of the power transformer. By operating load tap
changer, it is possible to step-wise regulate voltage on the LV side of the power
transformer. However at the same time the differential protection for power
transformer becomes unbalanced. Differential function in the IED has built-in feature
to continuously monitor the load tap changer position and dynamically compensate
on-line for changes in power transformer turns ratio.
Differential currents are calculated as shown in equation 1 and equation 2. By setting
parameters, the winding location of the OLTC is defined. Also, the voltage change of
each step. Thus, if for example the load tap changer is located within winding 1 the noload voltage Vn_W1 will be treated as a function of the actual load tap changer
position in equation 1 and equation 2. Thus for every load tap changer position a

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

corresponding value for Ur_W1 will be calculated and used in the above mentioned
equations. By doing this, complete on-line compensation for load tap changer
movement is achieved. Differential protection will be ideally balanced for every load
tap changer position and no false differential current will appear irrespective of actual
load tap changer position.
Typically the minimum differential protection pickup for power transformer with load
tap changer is set between 30% to 40%. However with this load tap changer
compensation feature it is possible to set the differential protection in the IED more
sensitive with a pickup value of 15% to 20%.
Load tap changer position is measured within the IED by Tap changer control and
supervision, (TCLYLTC). Within this function block, the load tap changer position
value is continuously monitored to insure its integrity.
When any error in the load tap changer position is detected an alarm is given. This
signal shall be connected to the OLTCxAL input of the differential function block.
While OLTCxAL input has a logical value of one the differential protection minimum
pickup, originally defined by setting parameter IdMin, will be increased by the set
range of the load tap changer. Alternatively the differential current alarm feature can
be used to alarm for any problems in the whole load tap changer compensation chain.
It shall be noted that:

two-winding differential protection in the IED can on-line compensate for one
load tap changer within the protected power transformer
three-winding differential protection in the IED can on-line compensate for up to
two load tap changers within the protected power transformer

Differential current alarm


Fundamental frequency differential current level is monitored all the time within the
differential function. As soon as all three fundamental frequency differential currents
are above the set threshold defined by setting parameter IDiffAlarm a delay on pickup
timer is started. When the pre-set time, defined by setting parameter tAlarmDelay, has
expired the differential current alarm is generated and output signal IDALARM is set
to logical value one. This feature can be effectively used to provide alarm when load
tap changer position compensation is used and something in the whole compensation
chain goes wrong. This alarm can be as well used with some additional IED
configuration logic to desensitize the differential function.

Bias current
The bias current is calculated as the highest current amongst all individual winding
current contributions to the total fundamental frequency differential currents, as
shown in equation 1 and equation 2. All individual winding current contributions are
already referred to the power transformer winding one side (power transformer HV
winding) and therefore they can be compared regarding their magnitudes. There are
six (or nine in the case of a three-winding transformer) contributions to the total
fundamental differential currents, which are the candidates for the common bias
current. The highest individual current contribution is taken as a common bias
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

(restrain) current for all three phases. This "maximum principle" makes the
differential protection more secure, with less risk to operate for external faults and in
the same time brings more meaning to the breakpoint settings of the operate - restrain
characteristic.
It shall be noted that if the zero-sequence currents are subtracted from the separate
contributions to the total differential current, then the zero-sequence component is
automatically eliminated from the bias current as well. This ensures that for secondary
injection from just one power transformer side the bias current is always equal to the
highest differential current regardless of the fault type. During normal through-load
operation of the power transformer, the bias current is equal to the maximum load
current from two (three) -power transformer windings.
The magnitudes of the common bias (restrain) current expressed in HV side amperes
can be read as service value from the function. At the same time it is available as an
output IBIAS from the differential protection function block. It can be connected to
the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any external or internal
fault condition.
For application with so called "T" configuration, that is, two restraint CT inputs from
one side of the protected power transformer, such as in the case of breaker-and-a-half
schemes the primary CT ratings can be much higher than the rating of the protected
power transformer. In order to determine the bias current for such T configuration, the
two separate currents flowing in the T-side are scaled down to the protected power
transform level by means of additional settings. This is done in order to prevent
unwanted de-sensitizing of the overall differential protection. In addition to that, the
resultant currents (the sum of two currents) into the protected power transformer
winding, which is not directly measured is calculated, and included in the common
bias calculation. The rest of the bias calculation procedure is the same as in protection
schemes without breaker-and-a-half arrangements.

Optional Elimination of zero sequence currents


To avoid unwanted trips for external earth-faults, the zero sequence currents should be
subtracted on the side of the protected power transformer, where the zero sequence
currents can flow at external earth -faults.
The zero sequence currents can be explicitly eliminated from the differential currents
and common bias current calculation by special, dedicated parameter settings, which
are available for every individual winding.
Elimination of the zero sequence component of current is necessary whenever:

the protected power transformer cannot transform the zero sequence currents to
the other side.
the zero sequence currents can only flow on one side of the protected power
transformer.

In most cases, power transformers do not properly transform the zero sequence current
to the other side. A typical example is a power transformer of the star-delta type, for
example YNd1. Transformers of this type do not transform the zero sequence
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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

quantities, but zero sequence currents can flow in the earthed star- connected winding.
In such cases, an external earth-fault on the star-side causes zero sequence current to
flow on the star-side of the power transformer, but not on the other side. This results
in false differential currents - consisting exclusively of the zero sequence currents. If
high enough, these false differential currents can cause an unwanted disconnection of
the healthy power transformer. They must therefore be subtracted from the
fundamental frequency differential currents if an unwanted trip is to be avoided.
For delta windings this feature shall be enabled only if an earthing transformer exists
within the differential zone on the delta side of the protected power transformer.
Removing the zero sequence current from the differential currents decreases to some
extent the sensitivity of the differential protection for internal earth -faults. In order to
counteract this effect to some degree, the zero sequence current is subtracted not only
from the three fundamental frequency differential currents, but from the bias current
as well.

Restrained and unrestrained limits of the differential protection


The power transformer differential protection function uses two limits, to which
actual magnitudes of the three fundamental frequency differential currents are
compared at each execution of the function.
The unrestrained (that is, non-stabilized, "instantaneous") part of the differential
protection is used for very high differential currents, where it should be beyond any
doubt, that the fault is internal. This settable limit is constant and not proportional to
the bias current. Neither harmonic, nor any other restrain is applied to this limit, which
is therefore allowed to trip the power transformer instantaneously.
The restrained (stabilized) part of the differential protection compares the calculated
fundamental differential (operating) currents and the bias (restrain) current, by
applying them to the operate - restrain characteristic. Practically, the magnitudes of
the individual fundamental frequency differential currents are compared with an
adaptive limit. This limit is adaptive because it is dependent on the bias (that is,
restrain) current magnitude. This limit is called the operate - restrain characteristic. It
is represented by a double-slope, double-breakpoint characteristic, as shown in
figure 33. The restrained characteristic is determined by the following 5 settings:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

IdMin (Sensitivity in section 1, multiple of trans. HV side rated current set under
the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
EndSection1 (End of section 1, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current
set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
EndSection2 (End of section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated current
set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
SlopeSection2 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated
current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)
SlopeSection3 (Slope in section 2, as multiple of transformer HV side rated
current set under the parameter RatedCurrentW1)

The restrained characteristic in figure 33 is defined by the settings:

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Differential protection

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IdMin
EndSection1
EndSection2
SlopeSection2
SlopeSection3

operate current
[ times IBase ]

Operate

unconditionally
UnrestrainedLimit

Operate

conditionally

2
Section 1

Section 2

Section 3
SlopeSection3

1
IdMin
SlopeSection2

Restrain

0
0

EndSection1
EndSection2

restrain current
[ times IBase ]

en05000187-2.vsd
IEC05000187 V2 EN

Figure 33:

Description of the restrained, and the unrestrained operate


characteristics

where:

slope = D Ioperate 100%


D Irestrain
EQUATION1246 V1 EN

The operate - restrain characteristic is tailor-made and can be designed freely by the
user after his needs. The default characteristic is recommended to be used. It gives
good results in a majority of applications. The operate - restrain characteristic has in
principle three sections with a section-wise proportionality of the operate value to the
bias (restrain) current. The reset ratio is in all parts of the characteristic equal to 0.95.

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Section 1: This is the most sensitive part on the characteristic. In section 1, normal
currents flow through the protected circuit and its current transformers, and risk for
higher false differential currents is relatively low. An un-compensated on-load tapchanger is a typical reason for existence of the false differential currents in this
section. The slope in section 1 is always zero percent.
Section 2: In section 2, a certain minor slope is introduced which is supposed to cope
with false differential currents proportional to higher than normal currents through the
current transformers.
Section 3: The more pronounced slope in section 3 is designed to result in a higher
tolerance to substantial current transformer saturation at high through-fault currents,
which may be expected in this section.
The operate - restrain characteristic should be designed so that it can be expected that:

for internal faults, the operate (differential) currents are always with a good
margin above the operate - restrain characteristic
for external faults, the false (spurious) operate currents are with a good margin
below the operate - restrain characteristic

Fundamental frequency negative sequence differential currents


Existence of relatively high negative sequence currents is in itself a proof of a
disturbance on the power system, possibly a fault in the protected power transformer.
The negative-sequence currents are a measurable indication of an abnormal condition,
similar to the zero sequence current. One of the several advantages of the negative
sequence currents compared to the zero sequence currents is that they provide
coverage for phase-to-phase and power transformer turn-to-turn faults. Theoretically,
the negative sequence currents do not exist during symmetrical three-phase faults,
however they do appear during initial stage of such faults for a long enough time (in
most cases) for the IED to make the proper decision. Further, the negative sequence
currents are not stopped at a power transformer by the Yd, or Dy connection type. The
negative sequence currents are always properly transformed to the other side of any
power transformer for any external disturbance. Finally, the negative sequence
currents are not affected by symmetrical through-load currents.
For power transformer differential protection applications, the negative sequence
based differential currents are calculated by using exactly the same matrix equations,
which are used to calculate the traditional phase-wise fundamental frequency
differential currents. The same equation shall be fed by the negative sequence currents
from the two power transformer sides instead of individual phase currents, as shown
in matrix equation 23 for a case of two-winding, YNd5 power transformer.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IDL1 _ NS
2
IDL 2 _ NS = 1 -1

3
IDL3 _ NS
-1

-1
2
-1

-1

INS _ W 1
Ur _ W 2

-1 a INS _ W 1 +

2
Ur _ W 1
a INS _ W 1
2

-1
1
3
0

0
-1
1

INS _ W 2
0 a INS _ W 2
2

a INS _ W 2
-1
1

3
(Equation 23)

EQUATION1247 V1 EN

where:
1.

is the Negative Sequence Differential Currents

2.

is the Negative Sequence current contribution from the W1 side

3.

is the Negative Sequence current contribution from the W2 side

and where:
IDL1_NS

is the negative sequence differential current in phase L1 (in


W1 side primary amperes)

IDL2_NS

is the negative sequence differential current in phase L2 (in


W1 side primary amperes)

IDL3_NS

is the negative sequence differential current in phase L3 (in


W1 side primary amperes)

INS_W1

is the negative sequence current on the W1 side in primary


amperes (phase L1 reference)

INS_W2

is the negative sequence current on the W2 side in primary


amperes (phase L1 reference)

Ur_W1

is the transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on the W1


side (setting parameter)

Ur_W2

is the transformer rated phase-to-phase voltage on W2 side


(setting parameter)

is the complex operator for sequence quantities,

a=e

j 120

=-

EQUATION1248 V1 EN

1
2

+ j

3
2
(Equation 24)

Because the negative sequence currents always form the symmetrical three phase
current system on each transformer side (that is, negative sequence currents in every
phase will always have the same magnitude and be phase displaced for 120 electrical
degrees from each other), it is only necessary to calculate the first negative sequence
differential current that is, IDL1_NS.
As marked in equation 23, the first term on the right hand side of the equation,
represents the total contribution of the negative sequence current from the W1 side
compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift. The second term on the right
hand side of the equation, represents the total contribution of the negative sequence

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

current from the W2 side compensated for eventual power transformer phase shift and
transferred to the power transformer W1 side. These negative sequence current
contributions are phasors, which are further used in directional comparisons, to
characterize a fault as internal or external. See section "Internal/external fault
discriminator" for more information.
The magnitudes of the negative sequence differential current expressed in the HV side
A can be read as service values from the function. In the same time it is available as
outputs IDNSMAG from the differential protection function block. Thus, it can be
connected to the disturbance recorder and automatically recorded during any external
or internal fault condition.

Internal/external fault discriminator


The internal/external fault discriminator is a very powerful and reliable
supplementary criterion to the traditional differential protection. It is recommended
that this feature shall be always used (that is, On) when protecting three-phase power
transformers. The internal/external fault discriminator detects even minor faults, with
a high sensitivity and at high speed, and at the same time discriminates with a high
degree of dependability between internal and external faults.
The internal/external fault discriminator responds to the magnitudes and the relative
phase angles of the negative-sequence fault currents at the different windings of the
protected power transformer. The negative sequence fault currents must first be
referred to the same phase reference side, and put to the same magnitude reference.
This is done by the matrix expression (see equation 23).
Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator is based on the relative position
of the two phasors representing the winding one (W1) and winding two (W2) negative
sequence current contributions, respectively, defined by expression shown in
equation 23. It performs a directional comparison between these two phasors. First,
the LV side phasor is referred to the HV side (W1 side): both the magnitude, and the
phase position are referred to the HV (W1 side). Then the relative phase displacement
between the two negative sequence current phasors is calculated. In case of threewinding power transformers, a little more complex algorithm is applied, with two
directional tests. The overall directional characteristic of the internal/external fault
discriminator is shown in figure 34, where the directional characteristic is defined by
two setting parameters:
1.
2.

IMinNegSeq
NegSeqROA

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

90 deg
120 deg
If one or the
other of
currents is too
low, then no
measurement
is done, and
120 degrees
is mapped

Internal/external
fault boundary

NegSeqROA
(Relay
Operate
Angle)

180 deg

0 deg

IMinNegSeq

Internal
fault
region

External
fault
region

270 deg

en05000188-3-en.vsd

IEC05000188 V3 EN

Figure 34:

Operating characteristic of the internal/external fault discriminator

In order to perform directional comparison of the two phasors their magnitudes must
be high enough so that one can be sure that they are due to a fault. On the other hand,
in order to guarantee a good sensitivity of the internal/external fault discriminator, the
value of this minimum limit must not be too high. Therefore this limit value, called
IminNegSeq, is settable in the range of 0.02 to 0.20 times the IBase of the power
transformer winding one. The default value is 0.04. Note that, in order to enhance
stability at higher fault currents, the relatively very low threshold value IminNegSeq
is dynamically increased at currents higher than normal currents: if the bias current is
higher than 110% of IBase ,then 10% of the bias current is added to the IminNegSeq.
Only if the magnitudes of both negative sequence current contributions are above the
actual limit, the relative position between these two phasors is checked. If either of the
negative sequence current contributions, which should be compared, is too small (less
than the set value for IminNegSeq), no directional comparison is made in order to
avoid the possibility to produce a wrong decision. This magnitude check guarantees
stability of the algorithm, when the power transformer is energized. The setting
NegSeqROA represents the Relay Operate Angle, which determines the boundary
between the internal and external fault regions. It can be selected in a range from 30
degrees to 90 degrees, with a step of 0.1 degree. The default value is 60 degrees. The
default setting 60 degree favours security in comparison to dependability.
If the above condition concerning magnitudes is fulfilled, the internal/external fault
discriminator compares the relative phase angle between the negative sequence
current contributions from W1 and W2 sides of the power transformer using the
following two rules:

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

If the negative sequence current contributions from the W1 and the W2 sides are
in phase, the fault is internal (that is, both phasors are within protected zone)
If the negative sequence currents contributions from W1 and W2 sides are 180
degrees out of phase, the fault is external (that is, W1 phasors is outside protected
zone)

For example, for any unsymmetrical external fault, ideally the respective negative
sequence current contributions from the W1 and W2 power transformer sides will be
exactly 180 degrees apart and equal in magnitude, regardless the power transformer
turns ratio and phase displacement. An example is shown in figure 35, which shows
trajectories of the two separate phasors representing the negative sequence current
contributions from the HV and LV sides of an Yd5 power transformer (after
compensation of the transformer turns ratio and phase displacement) by using
equation 23) for an unsymmetrical external fault. Observe that the relative phase angle
between these two phasors is 180 electrical degrees at any point in time. No current
transformer saturation was assumed for this case.
"steady state"
for HV side
neg. seq. phasor

90
60

150

30
10
ms

180

0
0.1 kA
10
ms

0.2 kA

0.3 kA

0.4 kA

330

210

240
270

"steady state"
for LV side
neg. seq. phasor

Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from HV side


Contribution to neg. seq. differential current from LV side

en05000189.vsd
IEC05000189 V1 EN

Figure 35:

Trajectories of Negative Sequence Current Contributions from HV


and LV sides of Yd5 power transformer during external fault

Under external fault conditions, the relative angle is theoretically equal to 180
degrees. During internal faults, the angle shall ideally be 0 degrees, but due to possible

137
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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

different negative sequence source impedance angles on the W1 and W2 sides of the
protected power transformer, it may differ somewhat from the ideal zero value.
However, during heavy faults, CT saturation might cause the measured phase angle to
differ from 180 degrees for an external, and from 0 degrees for an internal fault. See
figure 36 for an example of a heavy internal fault with transient CT saturation.
Dire ctiona l Compa ris on Crite rion: Inte rna l fa ult a s s e e n from the HV s ide
90
e xcurs ion
from 0 de gre e s
due to CT
s a tura tion

60

120
35 ms

150

30
de finite ly
a n inte rna l
fa ult

180
e xte rna l
fa ult
re gion

0.5 kA

330

210

trip c o mmand
in 12 ms
Inte rna l fa ult
de cla re d 7 ms
a fte r inte rna l
fa ult occure d

1.0 kA

240

300
270

1.5 kA

HV s ide contribution to the tota l ne ga tive s e que nce diffe re ntia l curre nt in kA
Dire ctiona l limit (within the re gion de limite d by 60 de gre e s is inte rna l fa ult)

en05000190.vsd
IEC05000190 V1 EN

Figure 36:

Operation of the internal/external fault discriminator for internal fault


with CT saturation

It shall be noted that additional security measures are implemented in the internal/
external fault discriminator algorithm in order to guarantee proper operation with
heavily saturated current transformers. The trustworthy information on whether a
fault is internal or external is typically obtained in about 10ms after the fault inception,
depending on the setting IminNegSeq, and the magnitudes of the fault currents. During
heavy faults, approximately 5ms time to full saturation of the main CT is sufficient in
order to produce a correct discrimination between internal and external faults.

Unrestrained, and sensitive negative sequence protections


Two sub functions, which are based on the internal/external fault discriminator with
the ability to trip a faulty power transformer, are parts of the traditional power
transformer differential protection.
The unrestrained negative sequence differential protection
The unrestrained negative sequence protection is activated if one or more start signals
have been set by the traditional differential protection algorithm. This happens
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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

because one or more of the fundamental frequency differential currents entered the
operate region on the operate - restrain characteristic. So, this protection is not
independent of the traditional restrained differential protection - it is activated after
the first start signal has been placed.
If the same fault has been positively recognized as internal, then the unrestrained
negative sequence differential protection places its own trip request.
Any block signals by the harmonic and/or waveform criteria, which can block the
traditional differential protection are overridden, and the differential protection
operates quickly without any further delay.
This logic guarantees a fast disconnection of a faulty power transformer for any
internal fault.
If the same fault has been classified as external, then generally, but not
unconditionally, a trip command is prevented. If a fault is classified as external, the
further analysis of the fault conditions is initiated. If all the instantaneous differential
currents in phases where start signals have been issued are free of harmonic pollution,
then a (minor) internal fault, simultaneous with a predominant external fault can be
suspected. This conclusion can be drawn because at external faults, major false
differential currents can only exist when one or more current transformers saturate. In
this case, the false instantaneous differential currents are polluted by higher harmonic
components, the 2nd, the 5th etc.
Sensitive negative sequence based turn-to-turn fault protection
The sensitive, negative sequence current based turn-to-turn fault protection detects
the low level faults, which are not detected by the traditional differential protection
until they develop into more severe faults, including power transformer iron core. The
sensitive protection is independent from the traditional differential protection and is a
very good complement to it. The essential part of this sensitive protection is the
internal/external fault discriminator. In order to be activated, the sensitive protection
requires no start signal from the traditional power transformer biased differential
protection. If magnitudes of HV and LV negative sequence current contributions are
above the set limit for IminNegSeq, then their relative positions are determined. If the
disturbance is characterized as an internal fault, then a separate trip request will be
placed. Any decision on the way to the final trip request must be confirmed several
times in succession in order to cope with eventual CT transients. This causes a short
additional operating time delay due to this security count. For very low level turn-toturn faults the overall response time of this protection is about 30ms.

Instantaneous differential currents


The instantaneous differential currents are calculated from the instantaneous values of
the input currents in order to perform the harmonic analysis and waveform analysis
upon each one of them (see section "Harmonic and waveform block criteria" for more
information).
The instantaneous differential currents are calculated using the same matrix
expression as shown in equation 1 and equation 2. The same matrices A, B and C are

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

used for these calculations. The only difference is that the matrix algorithm is fed by
instantaneous values of currents, that is, samples.

Harmonic and waveform block criteria


The two block criteria are the harmonic restrain and the waveform restrain. These two
criteria have the power to block a trip command by the traditional differential
protection, which produces start signals by applying the differential currents, and the
bias current, to the operate - restrain characteristic.
Harmonic restrain
The harmonic restrain is the classical restrain method traditionally used with power
transformer differential protections. The goal is to prevent an unwanted trip command
due to magnetizing inrush currents at switching operations, or due to magnetizing
currents at over-voltages.
The magnetizing currents of a power transformer flow only on one side of the power
transformer and are therefore always the cause of false differential currents. The
harmonic analysis (the 2nd and the 5th harmonic) is applied to the instantaneous
differential currents. Typical instantaneous differential currents during power
transformer energizing are shown in figure 37. The harmonic analysis is only applied
in those phases, where start signals have been set. For example, if the content of the 2nd
harmonic in the instantaneous differential current of phase L1 is above the setting I2/
I1Ratio, then a block signal is set for that phase, which can be read as BLK2HL1
output of the differential protection.
Waveform restrain
The waveform restrain criterion is a good complement to the harmonic analysis. The
waveform restrain is a pattern recognition algorithm, which looks for intervals within
each fundamental power system cycle with low instantaneous differential current.
This interval is often called current gap in protection literature. However, within
differential function this criterion actually searches for long-lasting intervals with low
rate-of-change in instantaneous differential current, which are typical for the power
transformer inrush currents. Block signals BLKWAVLx are set in those phases where
such behavior is detected. The algorithm does not require any end user settings. The
waveform algorithm is automatically adapted dependent only on the power
transformer rated data.

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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IEC05000343 V1 EN

Figure 37:

Inrush currents to a transformer as seen by a protective IED. Typical


is a high amount of the 2nd harmonic, and intervals of low current, and
low rate-of-change of current within each period.

Cross-blocking between phases


The basic definition of the cross-blocking is that one of the three phases can block
operation (that is, tripping) of the other two phases due to the harmonic pollution of the
differential current in that phase (that is, waveform, 2nd or 5th harmonic content). In
differential algorithm the user can control the cross-blocking between the phases via
the setting parameter CrossBlockEn=On.
When parameter CrossBlockEn=On cross blocking between phases is introduced.
There is no time settings involved, but the phase with the operating point above the set
bias characteristic (in the operate region) will be able to cross-block the other two
phases if it is itself blocked by any of the previously explained restrained criteria. As
soon as the operating point for this phase is below the set bias characteristic (that is,
in the restrain region) cross blocking from that phase will be inhibited. In this way
cross-blocking of the temporary nature is achieved. It should be noted that this is the
default setting value for this parameter.
When parameter CrossBlockEn=Off, any cross blocking between phases will be
disabled. It is recommended to use the value Off with caution in order to avoid the
unwanted tripping during initial energizing of the power transformer.

Switch onto fault feature


The transformer differential function has a built-in, advanced switch onto fault
feature. This feature can be enabled or disabled by a setting parameter SOTFMode.
When enabled this feature ensures quick differential protection tripping in cases
where a transformer is energized with an internal fault (for example, forgotten
earthing on transformer LV side). Operation of this feature is based on the fact that a
current gap (term current gap is explained under waveblock feature above) will exist
within the first power system cycle when healthy power transformer is energized. If
this is not the case the waveblock criterion will reset quickly. This quick reset of the

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

waveblock criterion will temporarily disable the second harmonic blocking feature of
the differential protection function. This consequently ensures fast operation of the
transformer differential function for a switch onto a fault condition. It shall be noted
that this feature is only active during initial power transformer energizing, under the
first 50 ms. When the switch onto fault feature is disabled by the setting parameter
SOTFMode, the waveblock and second harmonic blocking features work in parallel
and are completely independent from each other.

Open CT detection feature


Transformer differential protection has a built-in, advanced open CT detection
feature.
A sudden inadvertently opened CT circuit may cause an unexpected and unwanted
operation of the Transformer differential protection under normal load conditions.
Damage of secondary equipment may occur due to high voltage from open CT circuit
outputs. It is always an advantage, from the point of view of security and reliability,
to have the open CT detection function to block the Transformer differential
protection function in case of an open CT condition, and produce an alarm signal to the
operational personnel to quickly correct the open CT condition.
The built-in open CT feature can be enabled or disabled by the setting parameter
OpenCTEnable (Off/On). When enabled, this feature tries to prevent mal-operation
when a loaded main CT connected to Transformer differential protection is by mistake
open circuited on the secondary side. Note that this feature can only detect interruption
of one CT phase current at a time. If two or even all three-phase currents of one set of
CTs are accidentally interrupted at precisely the same time, this feature cannot
operate. Transformer differential protection generates a trip signal if the false
differential current is sufficiently high. An open CT circuit is typically detected in 12
14 ms, and if the load in the protected circuit is relatively high, about the nominal load,
the unwanted trip cannot always be prevented. Still, the information about what was
the cause of the open CT secondary circuit, is vital.
The principle applied to detect an open CT is a simple pattern recognition method,
similar to the waveform check used by the Power Transformer Differential Protection
in order to detect the magnetizing inrush condition. The open CT detection principle
is based on the fact that for an open CT, the current in the phase with the open CT
suddenly drops to zero (that is, as seen by the protection), while the currents of the
other two phases continue as before.
The open CT function is supposed to detect an open CT under normal conditions, that
is, with the protected multi-terminal circuit under normal load (10...120% of the rated
load). If the load currents are very low or zero, the open CT condition cannot be
detected. In addition to load condition requirement, Open CT function also checks the
differential current on faulty phase. If the differential current is lower than 10% of
IBase, the open CT condition cannot be detected. Therefore, the Open CT algorithm
only detects an open CT if the load on the power transformer protected object is
10...120% of rated load and the differential current is higher than 10% of IBase on that
phase. The search for an open CT starts 60 seconds (50 seconds in 60 Hz systems) after

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

the bias current has entered the 10...120% range. The Open CT detection feature can
also be explicitly deactivated by setting: OpenCTEnable = 0 (Off).
If an open CT is detected and the output OPENCT set to 1, then all the differential
functions are blocked, except the unrestrained (instantaneous) differential. An alarm
signal is also produced after a settable delay (tOCTAlarmDelay) to report to
operational personnel for quick remedy actions once the open CT is detected. When
the open CT condition is removed (that is, the previously open CT is reconnected), the
functions remain blocked for a specified interval of time, which is also defined by a
setting (tOCTResetDelay). This is to prevent an eventual mal-operation after the
reconnection of the previously open CT secondary circuit.
The open CT algorithm provides detailed information about the location of the
defective CT secondary circuit. The algorithm clearly indicates the IED side, CT input
and phase in which an open CT condition has been detected. These indications are
provided via the following outputs from the Transformer differential protection
function:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Output OPENCT provides instant information to indicate that an open CT circuit


has been detected.
Output OPENCTAL provides a time-delayed alarm that the open CT circuit has
been detected. Time delay is defined by the parameter tOCTAlarmDelay.
Integer output OPENCTIN provides information on the local HMI regarding
which open CT circuit has been detected (1=CT input No 1; 2=CT input No 2).
Integer output OPENCTPH provides information on the local HMI regarding in
which phase an open CT circuit has been detected (1=Phase L1; 2= Phase L2; 3=
Phase L3).

Once the open CT condition is declared, the algorithm stops to search for further open
CT circuits. It waits until the first open CT circuit has been corrected. Note that once
the open CT condition has been detected, it can be reset automatically within the
differential function. It is not possible to externally reset an open CT condition. To
reset the open CT circuit alarm automatically, the following conditions must be
fulfilled:

Bias current is for at least one minute smaller than 120%


The open CT condition in the defective CT circuit has been corrected (for
example, current asymmetry disappears)
The above two conditions are fulfilled for a longer time than defined by the
setting parameter tOCTResetDelay

If an open CT has been detected in a separate group of three CTs, the algorithm is reset
either when the missing current returns to the normal value, or when all three currents
become zero. After the reset, the open CT detection algorithm starts again to search for
open CT circuits within the protected zone.

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6.1.7.2

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Logic diagram
The simplified internal logics, for transformer differential protection are shown in the
following figures.

Derive equation to calculate differential currents

Open CT logic on W1 side


Open CT logic on W2 side

Phasors & samples

Trafo
Data

Phasors & samples

Phasor calculation of individual


phase current

Differential function

Phasor calculation of individual


phase current

A/D conversion scaling with CT


ratio

A/D conversion scaling with CT


ratio

ADM

Instantaneous (sample based)


Differential current, phase L1

IDL1

Instantaneous (sample based)


Differential current, phase L2

IDL2

Instantaneous (sample based)


Differential current, phase L3

IDL3

IDNSMAG

Negative sequence diff current


& NS current contribution from
individual windings

IDL1MAG

Fundamental frequency (phasor


based) Diff current, phase L1 &
phase current contributions from
individual windings

IDL2MAG

Fundamental frequency (phasor


based) Diff current, phase L2 &
phase current contributions from
individual windings

IDL3MAG

Fundamental frequency (phasor


based) Diff current, phase L3 &
phase current contributions from
individual windings

MAX

IBIAS

Settings for Zer. Seq.


Current Reduction
en06000554-3-en.vsd
IEC06000544 V3 EN

Figure 38:

Treatment of measured currents within IED for transformer differential function

Figure 38 shows how internal treatment of measured currents is done in case of a twowinding transformer.
The following currents are inputs used in the power transformer differential protection
function. They must all be expressed in power system (primary) A.

144
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

1.

Instantaneous values of currents (samples) from the HV, and LV sides for twowinding power transformers, and from the HV, the first LV, and the second LV
side for three-winding power transformers.
Currents from all power transformer sides expressed as fundamental frequency
phasors with their real and imaginary parts. These currents are calculated within
the protection function by the fundamental frequency Fourier filters.
Negative sequence currents from all power transformer sides expressed as
phasors. These currents are calculated within the protection function by the
symmetrical components module.

2.
3.

The power transformer differential protection:


1.

Calculates three fundamental frequency differential currents and one common


bias current. The zero-sequence component can optionally be eliminated from
each of the three fundamental frequency differential currents and at the same time
from the common bias current.
Calculates three instantaneous differential currents. They are used for harmonic,
and waveform analysis. Instantaneous differential currents are useful for postfault analysis using disturbance recording
Calculates negative-sequence differential current. Contributions to it from both
(all three) power transformer sides are used by the internal/external fault
discriminator to detect and classify a fault as internal or external.

2.
3.

BLKUNRES
IdUnre

AND

b>a

TRIPUNREL1

IDL1MAG
IBIAS

STL1

AND

BLOCK
BLKRES

AND

IDL1

2nd
Harmonic
Wave
block

Switch on
to fault logic

OR

BLK2HL1
BLKWAVL1
BLK5HL1

5th
Harmonic
Cross Block
from L2 or L3
OpCrossBlock=On

AND

TRIPRESL1

OR

AND

Cross Block
to L2 or L3

en06000545.vsd
IEC06000545 V1 EN

Figure 39:

Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for Phase


L1

145
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Internal/
External
Fault
discrimin
ator

Neg.Seq. Diff
Current
Contributions

EXTFAULT
INTFAULT

&

OpNegSeqDiff=On
IBIAS

Constant

a
b

b>a

&

STL1
STL2
STL3

TRNSSENS

TRNSUNR

>1

IEC05000167-2-en.vsd
IEC05000167-TIFF V2 EN

Figure 40:

Transformer differential protection simplified logic diagram for


external/internal fault discriminator

TRIPRESL1
TRIPRESL2
TRIPRESL3

OR

TRIPRES

OR

TRIPUNRE

TRIPUNREL1
TRIPUNREL2
TRIPUNREL3

TRNSSENS

OR

TRIP

TRNSUNR

en05000278.vsd
IEC05000278 V1 EN

Figure 41:

Transformer differential protection internal grouping of tripping


signals

146
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STL1
STL2
STL3

OR

START

OR

BLK2H

OR

BLK5H

OR

BLKWAV

BLK2HL1
BLK2HL2
BLK2HL3
BLK5HL1
BLK5HL2
BLK5HL3
BLKWAVL1
BLKWAVL2
BLKWAVL3

IEC05000279-2-en.vsd
IEC05000279-TIFF V2 EN

Figure 42:

Transformer differential protection internal grouping of logical signals

Logic in figures 39, 40, 41 and 42 can be summarized as follows:


1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

The three fundamental frequency differential currents are applied in a phase-wise


manner to two limits. The first limit is the operate-restrain characteristic, while
the other is the high-set unrestrained limit. If the first limit is exceeded, a start
signal START is set. If the unrestrained limit is exceeded, an immediate
unrestrained trip TRIPUNRE and common trip TRIP are issued.
If a start signal is issued in a phase the harmonic and the waveform block signals
are checked. Only a start signal, which is free of all of its block signals can result
in a trip command. If the cross-block logic scheme is applied, then only if all
phases with set start signal are free of their respective block signals, a restrained
trip TRIPRES and common trip TRIP are issued
If a start signal is issued in a phase, and the fault has been classified as internal,
then any eventual block signals are overridden and unrestrained negativesequence trip TRNSUNR and common trip TRIP are issued without any further
delay. This feature is called the unrestrained negative-sequence protection 110%
bias.
The sensitive negative sequence differential protection is independent of any start
signals. It is meant to detect smaller internal faults such as turn-to-turn faults,
which are often not detected by the traditional differential protection. The
sensitive negative sequence differential protection starts whenever both
contributions to the total negative sequence differential current (that must be
compared by the internal/external fault discriminator) are higher than the value of
the setting IMinNegSeq. If a fault is positively recognized as internal, and the
condition is stable with no interruption for at least one fundamental frequency
cycle the sensitive negative sequence differential protection TRNSSENS and
common trip TRIP are issued. This feature is called the sensitive negative
sequence differential protection.
If a start signal is issued in a phase (see signal STL1), even if the fault has been
classified as an external fault, the instantaneous differential current of that phase
(see signal IDL1) is analyzed for the 2nd and the 5th harmonic contents (see the
147

Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

6.

blocks with the text inside: 2nd Harmonic; Wave block and 5th Harmonic). If
there is less harmonic pollution. than allowed by the settings I2/I1Ratio, and I5/
I1Ratio, (then the outputs from the blocks 2nd harmonic and 5th harmonic is 0)
then it is assumed that a minor simultaneous internal fault must have occurred.
Only under these conditions a trip command is allowed (the signal TRIPRESL1
is = 1). The cross-block logic scheme is automatically applied under such
circumstances. (This means that the cross block signals from the other two phases
L2 and L3 is not activated to obtain a trip on the TRIPRESL1 output signal in
figure 39)
All start and blocking conditions are available as phase segregated as well as
common (that is three-phase) signals.

IDL1 MAG
I Diff Alarm

IDL2 MAG
I Diff Alarm

IDL3 MAG
I Diff Alarm

a
a>b
b

tAlarm Delay

&

a>b

IDALARM

a
a>b
b
en06000546.vsd

IEC06000546 V1 EN

Figure 43:

6.1.8

Differential current alarm logic

Technical data
Table 48:

T2WPDIF, T3WPDIF technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operating characteristic

Adaptable

1.0% of Ir at I Ir
1.0% of I at I > Ir

Reset ratio

> 90%

Unrestrained differential current limit

(100-5000)% ofIBase on high voltage


winding

1.0% of set value

Minimum pickup

(5-60)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir

Second harmonic blocking

(5.0-100.0)% of fundamental
differential current

1.0% of Ir
Note: fundamental
magnitude =
100% of Ir

Fifth harmonic blocking

(5.0-100.0)% of fundamental
differential current

5.0% of Ir
Note: fundamental
magnitude =
100% of Ir

Table continues on next page

148
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Connection type for each of the


windings

Y or D

Phase displacement between high


voltage winding, W1 and each of the
windings, W2 and W3. Hour notation

011

*Operate time at 0 to 10 x IdMin,


restrained function

Min. = 25 ms
Max. = 35 ms

*Reset time at 10 to 0 x IdMin, restrained


function

Min. = 5 ms
Max. = 15 ms

*Operate time at 0 to 10 x Idunre,


unrestrained function

Min. = 5 ms
Max. = 15 ms

*Reset time at 10 to 0 x Idunre,


unrestrained function

Min. = 15 ms
Max. = 30 ms

**Operate time, unrestrained negative


sequence function

Min. = 10 ms
Max. = 20 ms

**Reset time, unrestrained negative


sequence function

Min. = 10 ms
Max. = 30 ms

Critical impulse time

2 ms typically at 0 to 5 x IdMin

*Note: Data obtained with single input current group.


**Note: Data obtained with two input current groups. The rated symmetrical currents are applied on both
sides as pre- and after-fault currents. The fault is performed by increasing one phase current to double
on one side and decreasing same phase current to zero on the other side.

6.2

1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF

6.2.1

Identification
Function description

1Ph High impedance differential


protection

IEC 61850
identification

HZPDIF

IEC 60617
identification

Id

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number

87

SYMBOL-CC V2 EN

6.2.2

Functionality
The 1Ph High impedance differential protection HZPDIF functions can be used when
the involved CT cores have the same turns ratio and similar magnetizing
characteristics. It utilizes an external CT secondary current summation by wiring.
Actually all CT secondary circuits which are involved in the differential scheme are
connected in parallel. External series resistor, and a voltage dependent resistor which
are both mounted externally to the IED, are also required.
The external resistor unit shall be ordered under IED accessories in the Product Guide.

149
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

HZPDIF can be used to protect tee-feeders or busbars, reactors, motors, autotransformers, capacitor banks and so on. One such function block is used for a highimpedance restricted earth fault protection. Three such function blocks are used to
form three-phase, phase-segregated differential protection. Several function block
instances (for example, six) can be available in a single IED.

6.2.3

Function block
HZPDIF
ISI*
BLOCK
BLKTR

TRIP
ALARM
MEASVOLT
IEC05000363-2-en.vsd

IEC05000363 V2 EN

Figure 44:

6.2.4

HZPDIF function block

Signals
Table 49:

HZPDIF Input signals

Name

Type

Description

ISI

GROUP
SIGNAL

Single phase current input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Block of trip

Table 50:

HZPDIF Output signals

Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip signal

ALARM

BOOLEAN

Alarm signal

MEASVOLT

REAL

Measured RMS voltage on CT secondary side

6.2.5

Settings

Table 51:

HZPDIF Group settings (basic)

Name

Default

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

U>Alarm

5 - 500

10

Alarm voltage level in volts on CT


secondary side

tAlarm

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

5.000

Time delay to activate alarm

U>Trip

10 - 900

100

Operate voltage level in volts on CT


secondary side

SeriesResistor

50 - 20000

Ohm

250

Value of series resistor in Ohms

150
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

6.2.6

Monitored data
Table 52:
Name

HZPDIF Monitored data


Type

MEASVOLT

6.2.7

Values (Range)

REAL

Unit

Description

kV

Measured RMS voltage


on CT secondary side

Operation principle
High impedance protection system is a simple technique which requires that all CTs,
used in the protection scheme, have relatively high knee point voltage, similar
magnetizing characteristic and the same ratio. These CTs are installed in all ends of
the protected object. In order to make a scheme all CT secondary circuits belonging to
one phase are connected in parallel. From the CT junction points a measuring branch
is connected. The measuring branch is a series connection of one variable setting
resistor (or series resistor) RS with high ohmic value and an over-current element.
Thus, the high impedance differential protection responds to the current flowing
through the measuring branch. However, this current is result of a differential voltage
caused by this parallel CT connection across the measuring branch. Non-linear
resistor (that is, metrosil) is used in order to protect entire scheme from high peak
voltages which may appear during internal faults. Typical high impedance differential
scheme is shown in Figure 45. Note that only one phase is shown in this figure.

RS

1
I> (50)

4
2
GUID-5CEAF088-D92B-45E5-B98F-3083894A694C V1 EN

Figure 45:

HZPDIF scheme

Where in the Figure:


1.
2.

shows one main CT secondary winding connected in parallel with all other CTs,
from the same phase, connected to this scheme.
shows the scheme earthing point.

151
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

It is of utmost importance to insure that only one earthing point


exists in such protection scheme.
3.
4.

shows the setting (stabilizing) resistor RS.


shows the over-current measuring element.
The series connection of stabilizing resistor and over-current
element is designated as measuring branch.

5.
6.
7.

shows the non-linear resistor (that is, metrosil).


U is the voltage across the CT paralleling point (for example, across the
measuring branch).
I is the current flowing through the measuring branch.
U and I are interrelated in accordance with the following formula
U=RS I.

Due to the parallel CT connections the high impedance differential relay can only
measure one current and that is the relay operating quantity. That means that there is
no any stabilizing quantity (that is, bias) in high-impedance differential protection
schemes. Therefore in order to guaranty the stability of the differential relay during
external faults the operating quantity must not exceed the set pickup value. Thus, for
external faults, even with severe saturation of some of the current transformers, the
voltage across the measuring branch shall not rise above the relay set pickup value. To
achieve that a suitable value for setting resistor RS is selected in such a way that the
saturated CT secondary winding provides a much lower impedance path for the false
differential current than the measuring branch. In case of an external fault causing
current transformer saturation, the non-saturated current transformers drive most of
the spill differential current through the secondary winding of the saturated current
transformer and not through the measuring brunch of the relay. The voltage drop
across the saturated current transformer secondary winding appears also across the
measuring brunch, however it will typically be relatively small. Therefore, the pickup value of the relay has to be set above this false operating voltage.
See the application manual for operating voltage and sensitivity calculation.

6.2.7.1

Logic diagram
The logic diagram shows the operation principles for the 1Ph High impedance
differential protection function HZPDIF, see Figure 46.
The function utilizes the raw samples from the single phase current input connected to
it. Thus the twenty samples per fundamental power system cycle are available to the
HZPDIF function. These current samples are first multiplied with the set value for the
used stabilizing resistor in order to get voltage waveform across the measuring branch.

152
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The voltage waveform is then filtered in order to get its RMS value. Note that used
filtering is designed in such a way that it ensures complete removal of the DC current
component which may be present in the primary fault current. The voltage RMS value
is then compared with set Alarm and Trip thresholds. Note that the TRIP signal is
intentionally delayed on drop off for 30 ms within the function. The measured RMS
voltage is available as a service value from the function. The function has block and
trip block inputs available as well.

IEC05000301 V1 EN

Figure 46:

6.2.8

Logic diagram for 1Ph High impedance differential protection


HZPDIF

Technical data
Table 53:
Function

HZPDIF technical data


Range or value

Accuracy

Operate voltage

(10-900) V
I=U/R

1.0% of Ir at I Ir
1.0% of I at I > Ir

Reset ratio

>95% at (30-900) V

Maximum
continuous power

U>Trip2/SeriesResistor

Operate time at 0
to 10 x Ud

Min = 5 ms
Max = 15 ms

Reset time at 10
to 0 x Ud

Min = 75 ms
Max = 95 ms

Critical impulse
time

2 ms typically at 0 to 10 x Ud

Operate time at 0
to 2 x Ud

Min = 25 ms
Max = 35 ms

Reset time at 2 to
0 x Ud

Min = 50 ms
Max = 70 ms

Critical impulse
time

15 ms typically at 0 to 2 x Ud

200 W

153
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

6.3

Low impedance restricted earth fault protection


REFPDIF

6.3.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Restricted earth-fault protection, low


impedance

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
87N

REFPDIF

IdN/I
SYMBOL-AA V1 EN

6.3.2

Functionality
Restricted earth-fault protection, low-impedance function REFPDIF can be used on
all directly or low-impedance earthed windings. The REFPDIF function provides
high sensitivity and high speed tripping as it protects each winding separately and thus
does not need inrush stabilization.
The REFPDIF function is a percentage biased function with an additional zero
sequence current directional comparison criterion. This gives excellent sensitivity and
stability during through faults.
REFPDIF can also protect autotransformers. Five currents are measured at the most
complicated configuration as shown in Figure 47.
CT

YNdx
CT

CT
CB

CB

CB

CB
Autotransformer
CT

IED

The most typical


application

CT

CB

CB

CT

The most complicated


application - autotransformer
IEC05000058-2-en.vsd

IEC05000058-2 V1 EN

Figure 47:

Examples of applications of the REFPDIF

154
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

6.3.3

Function block
REFPDIF
I3P*
I3PW1CT1*
I3PW1CT2*
I3PW2CT1*
I3PW2CT2*
BLOCK

TRIP
START
DIROK
BLK2H
IRES
IN
IBIAS
IDIFF
ANGLE
I2RATIO
IEC06000251_2_en.vsd

IEC06000251 V2 EN

Figure 48:

6.3.4

REFPDIF function block

Signals
Table 54:
Name

REFPDIF Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for neutral current input

I3PW1CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for primary CT1 current input

I3PW1CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for primary CT2 current input

I3PW2CT1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for secondary CT1 current input

I3PW2CT2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for secondary CT2 current input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

Table 55:
Name

REFPDIF Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip by restricted earth fault protection function

START

BOOLEAN

Start by restricted earth fault protection function

DIROK

BOOLEAN

Directional Criteria has operated for internal fault

BLK2H

BOOLEAN

Block due to 2-nd harmonic

IRES

REAL

Magnitude of fund. freq. residual current

IN

REAL

Magnitude of fund. freq. neutral current

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias current

IDIFF

REAL

Magnitude of fund. freq. differential current

ANGLE

REAL

Direction angle from zerosequence feature

I2RATIO

REAL

Second harmonic ratio

155
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection
6.3.5
Table 56:
Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Settings
REFPDIF Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

IdMin

4.0 - 100.0

%IB

0.1

10.0

Maximum sensitivity in % of IBase

CTFactorPri1

1.0 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

CT factor for HV side CT1 (CT1rated/


HVrated current)

CTFactorPri2

1.0 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

CT factor for HV side CT2 (CT2rated/


HVrated current)

CTFactorSec1

1.0 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

CT factor for MV side CT1 (CT1rated/


MVrated current)

CTFactorSec2

1.0 - 10.0

0.1

1.0

CT factor for MV side CT2 (CT2rated/


MVrated current)

Table 57:
Name
ROA

Table 58:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

6.3.6

REFPDIF Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)
60 - 90

Unit

Step

Deg

Default
60

Description
Relay operate angle for zero sequence
directional feature

REFPDIF Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 59:
Name

REFPDIF Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

IRES

REAL

Magnitude of fund. freq.


residual current

IN

REAL

Magnitude of fund. freq.


neutral current

IBIAS

REAL

Magnitude of the bias


current

IDIFF

REAL

Magnitude of fund. freq.


differential current

ANGLE

REAL

deg

Direction angle from


zerosequence feature

I2RATIO

REAL

Second harmonic ratio

156
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

6.3.7

Operation principle

6.3.7.1

Fundamental principles of the restricted earth-fault protection


Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance function (REFPDIF) detects earth
faults on earthed power transformer windings, most often an earthed star winding.
REFPDIF is a unit protection of the differential type. Since REFPDIF is based on the
zero sequence current, which theoretically only exists in case of an earth fault,
REFPDIF can be made very sensitive regardless of normal load currents. It is the
fastest protection a power transformer winding can have. The high sensitivity and the
high speed tend to make such a protection unstable. Special measures must be taken
to make it insensitive to conditions for which it should not operate, for example, heavy
through faults of phase-to-phase type or heavy external earth faults.
REFPDIF is a differential protection of the low impedance type. All three-phase
currents, and the neutral point current, must be fed separately to REFPDIF. The
fundamental frequency components of all currents are extracted from all input
currents, while other eventual zero sequence components, such as the 3rd harmonic
currents, are fully suppressed. Then the residual current phasor is calculated from the
three line current phasors. This zero sequence current phasor is added to the neutral
current vectorially, in order to obtain differential current.
The following facts may be observed from Figure 49 and Figure 50, where the three
line CTs are shown as connected together in order to measure the residual 3Io current,
for the sake of simplicity.
These three
zero-sequence
currents are not measured

zone of protection

Izs1

L1
Power
system

L1

Izs1

L2

L2

Izs1

L3

L3
3Izs1

Uzs
IL1+ IL2+IL3 = 3I0
3I0 = 3Izs1

Ifault

IN = -3Izs1

(Summation in the IED)

Return path through


transformer

Current in the neutral


(measured as IN ) serves
as a directional reference
because it has the same
direction for both internal
and external faults.

Return path via


power system
External
fault
region

block

IN

3I0
block

External
fault
region

operate

Zero-sequence differential
current for external fault
Idiff = abs(3I0 + IN )
Idiff = 3Izs1 - 3Izs1 = 0

ROA

block

Internal
fault
region

ROA = Relay Operate Angle

IEC09000107-3-en.vsd
IEC09000107-3 V1 EN

Figure 49:

Zero sequence currents at an external earth fault

157
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

zone of protection

L1
Power
system

L2
L3

Izs2

Izs1

Izs2

Izs1

Izs2

Izs1

L1
L2
L3
3Izs1

Uzs
IL1+ IL2+IL3 = 3I0
3I0 = -3Izs2

IN = -3Izs1

Ifault

(Summation in the IED)

Return path
through transformer

Return path via


power system
External
fault
region

block

3I0

block
External
fault
region

operate

ROA

block

IN (reference)
Internal
fault
region

Current in the neutral


(measured as IN ) serves
as a directional reference
because it has the same
direction for both internal
and external faults.

Zero-sequence differential
current for internal fault
Idiff = abs(3I0 + IN )
Idiff = 3Izs2 + 3Izs1 > 0
Idiff = Ifault
ROA = Relay Operate Angle

IEC09000108-3-en.vsd

IEC09000108-3 V1 EN

Figure 50:

1.

2.

3.

4.

Zero sequence currents at an internal earth fault

For an external earth fault (Figure 49), the residual current 3Io and the neutral
current IN have equal magnitude, but they are seen within the IED as 180 degrees
out-of-phase if the current transformers are connected as in Figure 49, which is
the ABB recommended connection. The differential current becomes zero as
both CTs ideally measure exactly the same component of the earth- fault current.
For an internal fault, the total earth- fault current is composed generally of two
zero sequence currents. One zero sequence current (3IZS1) flows towards the
power transformer neutral point and into the earth, while the other zero sequence
current (3IZS2) flows into the connected power system. These two primary
currents can be expected to have approximately opposite directions (about the
same zero sequence impedance angle is assumed on both sides of the earth fault).
However, on the secondary CT sides of the current transformers, they will be
approximately in phase if the current transformers are oriented as in Figure 47,
which is the orientation recommended by ABB. The magnitudes of the two
currents may be different, dependent on the magnitudes of zero sequence
impedances of both sides. No current can flow towards the power system, if the
only point where the system is earthed, is at the protected power transformer.
Likewise, no current can flow into the power system, if the winding is not
connected to the power system (circuit breaker open and power transformer
energized from the other side).
For both internal and external earth faults, the current in the neutral connection IN
always has the same direction, which is towards the earth (except in case of
autotransformers where the direction can vary).
The two internally processed zero sequence currents are 3Io and IN. The vectorial
sum is the REFPDIF differential current, which is equal to Idiff = IN +3Io .

158
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Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The line zero sequence (residual) current is calculated from 3 line (terminal) currents.
A bias quantity must give stability against false operations due to high through fault
currents. To stabilize REFPDIF at external faults, a fixed bias characteristic is
implemented.
REFPDIF should also be stable against heavy phase-to-phase internal faults, not
including earth. These faults may also give false zero sequence currents due to
saturated line CTs. Such faults, however are without neutral current, and can thus be
eliminated as a source of danger.
As an additional measure against unwanted operation, a directional check is made in
agreement with the above points 1 and 2. Operation is only allowed if the currents 3Io
and IN (as shown in Figure 49 and Figure 50) are both within the operating region. By
taking a smaller ROA, REFPDIF can be made more stable under heavy external fault
conditions, as well as under the complex conditions, when external faults are cleared
by other protections.

6.3.7.2

Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance differential protection


Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance (REFPDIF) is a protection of
differential type, a unit protection, whose settings are independent of any other
protection. It has some advantages compared to the transformer differential
protection. It is less complicated, as no current phase correction or magnitude
correction are needed, not even in the case of an eventual on-load tap changer (OLTC).
REFPDIF is not sensitive to inrush and overexcitation currents. The only danger is an
eventual current transformer saturation.
REFPDIF has only one operate-bias characteristic, which is described in the table 60
and shown in Figure 51.
Table 60:

Data of the operate-bias characteristic of REFPDIF

Default sensitivity Idmin Max. base


(zone 1)
sensitivity Idmin
(zone 1)
% IBase
% IBase
30

Min. base sensitivity End of zone First slope


Idmin (zone 1)
1

Second
slope

% IBase

100

% IBase
125

%
70

100

The differential protection REFPDIF calculates a differential current and a bias


current. In case of internal earth faults, the differential current is theoretically equal to
the total earth-fault current. The bias current is supposed to give stability to REFPDIF.
The bias current is a measure of how high the currents are and how difficult the
conditions are under which the CTs operate. With a high bias, difficult conditions can
be suspected, and it will be more likely that the calculated differential current has a
component of a false current, primarily due to CT saturation. This law is formulated
by the operate-bias characteristic. This characteristic divides the Idiff - Ibias plane in
two areas. The area above the operate-bias characteristic is the operate area, while the
one below is the block area, see Figure 51.

159
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Zerosequence
diff. current
in per unit

D I operate
slope = ----------------* 100 %
D I restrain

5
Characteristic if
IdMin = 1.0 pu

4
Operate
conditionally

3
IdMin range: 0.04 1.00 IBase
Reset Ratio in all sections:
0.95 (a constant)

Slope 100%

2
Section 1

Section 3

Sec. 2

1
The characteristic
can be moved
up and down
(vertically)
by changing
the setting IdMin

Restrain

IdMin
Slope 70%

0
0

End Section 1
End Section 2

bias current
in per unit
IEC98000017-5-en.vsd

IEC98000017-5 V1 EN

Figure 51:

6.3.7.3

Operate - bias characteristic of the Restricted earth-fault protection,


low impedance REFPDIF

Calculation of differential current and bias current


The differential current (operate current), as a fundamental frequency phasor, is
calculated as (with designations as in Figure 49 and Figure 50):

Idiff = IN + 3 Io
EQUATION1533 V1 EN

(Equation 25)

where:
IN is current in the power transformer neutral as a fundamental frequency phasor.
3Io is residual current of the power transformer terminal currents as a phasor.
If there are two three-phase CT inputs, as in breaker-and-a-half configurations, see
figure 10, then their respective residual currents are added within the REFPDIF
function so that:
I3PW1 = I3PW1CT1 + I3PW1CT2
where the signals are defined in the input and output signal tables for REFPDIF.
The bias current is a measure (expressed internally as a true fundamental frequency
current in Amperes) of how difficult the conditions are under which the instrument
current transformers operate. Dependent on the magnitude of the bias current, the

160
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

corresponding zone (section) of the operate-bias characteristic is applied, when


deciding whether to trip, or not to trip. In general, the higher the bias current, the higher
the differential current required to produce a trip.
The bias current is the highest current of all separate input currents to REFPDIF, that
is, of current in phase L1, phase L2, phase L3, and the current in the neutral point
(designated as IN in Figure 49 and in Figure 50).
If there are two feeders included in the zone of protection of REFPDIF, as in case of
an auto-transformer with two feeders included on both sides, then the respective bias
current is found as the relatively highest of the following currents:
current[1] = max (I3PW1CT1)

1
CTFactorPri1
(Equation 26)

EQUATION1526 V1 EN

current[2] = max (I3PW1CT2)

1
CTFactorPri2
(Equation 27)

EQUATION1527 V1 EN

current[3] = max (I3PW2CT1)

1
CTFactorSec1
(Equation 28)

EQUATION1528 V1 EN

current[4] = max (I3PW2CT2)

1
CTFactorSec2

EQUATION1529 V1 EN

(Equation 29)

current[5] = IN
EQUATION1530 V1 EN

(Equation 30)

The bias current is thus generally equal to none of the input currents. If all primary
ratings of the CTs were equal to IBase, then the bias current would be equal to the
highest current in Amperes. IBase shall be set equal to the rated current of the
protected winding where REFPDIF function is applied.

6.3.7.4

Detection of external earth faults


External faults are more common than internal earth faults for which the restricted
earth-fault protection should operate. It is important that the restricted earth-fault
protection remains stable during heavy external earth and phase-to-phase faults, and
also when such a heavy external fault is cleared by some other protection such as
overcurrent, or earth-fault protection. The conditions during a heavy external fault,
and particularly immediately after the clearing of such a fault may be complex. The
circuit breakers poles may not open exactly at the same moment, some of the CTs
may still be highly saturated, and so on.

161
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The detection of external earth faults is based on the fact that for such a fault a high
neutral current appears first, while a false differential current only appears if one or
more current transformers saturate.
An external earth fault is thus assumed to have occurred when a high neutral current
suddenly appears, while at the same time the differential current Idiff remains low, at
least for a while. This condition must be detected before a trip request is placed within
REFPDIF. Any search for external fault is aborted if a trip request has been placed. A
condition for a successful detection is that it takes not less than 4ms for the first CT to
saturate.
For an internal earth fault, a true differential current develops immediately, while for
an external fault it only develops if a CT saturates. If a trip request comes first, before
an external fault could be positively detected, then it must be an internal fault.
If an external earth fault has been detected, then the REFPDIF is temporarily
desensitized.

Directional criterion
The directional criterion is applied in order to positively distinguish between internal
and external earth faults. This check is an additional criterion, which should prevent
malfunctions at heavy external earth faults, and during the disconnection of such
faults by other protections. Earth faults on lines connecting the power transformer
occur much more often than earth faults on a power transformer winding. It is
important therefore that the Restricted earth-fault protection, low impedance
(REFPDIF) must remain stable during an external fault, and immediately after the
fault has been cleared by some other protection.
For an external earth faults with no CT saturation, the residual current in the lines
(3Io) and the neutral current (IN in Figure 49) are theoretically equal in magnitude and
are 180 degrees out-of-phase. The current in the neutral (IN) serves as a directional
reference because it has the same direction for both internal and external earth faults.
The directional criterion in REFPDIF protection makes it a current-polarized
protection.
However, if one or more CTs saturate under external fault conditions, then the
measured currents 3Io and IN may no longer be equal, nor will their positions in the
complex plane be exactly 180 degrees apart. There is a risk that the resulting false
differential current Idiff enters the operate area of the operate-restrain characteristic
under external fault conditions. If this happens, a directional test may prevent a
malfunction.
A directional check is only executed if:
1.
2.

a trip request signal has been issued (REFPDIF function START signal set to 1)
the residual current in lines (3Io) is at least 3% of the IBase current.

If a directional check is either unreliable or not possible to do, due to too small
currents, then the direction is cancelled as a condition for an eventual trip.

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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

If a directional check is executed, the REFPDIF protection operation is only allowed


if currents 3Io and IN (as seen in Figure 49 and Figure 50) are both within the operating
region determined by the set value of ROA, in degrees.
ROA = 60 to 90 degrees; where ROA stands for Relay Operate Angle.

Second harmonic analysis


When energizing a transformer a false differential current may appear in earth fault
protection, low impedance function (REFPDIF). The phase CTs may saturate due to
a high DC component with a long duration, but the current through the neutral CT does
not have either the same DC component or the same amplitude and the risk for
saturation of this CT is not as high. As a result the differential current due to the
saturation may be so high that it reaches the operate characteristic. A calculation of the
content of 2nd harmonic in the neutral current is made when the neutral current,
residual current and bias current are within some windows and some timing criteria
are fulfilled. If the ratio between second and fundamental harmonic exceeds 40%,
REFPDIF is blocked.

6.3.7.5

Algorithm of the restricted earth-fault protection


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

8.

Check if current in the neutral Ineutral (IN) is less than 50% of the base sensitivity
Idmin. If yes, only service values are calculated, then REFPDIF algorithm is not
used.
If current in the Ineutral (IN) is more than 50% of Idmin, then determine the bias
current Ibias.
Determine the differential (operate) current Idiff as a phasor, and calculate its
magnitude.
Check if the point P(Ibias, Idiff) is above the operate-bias characteristic. If yes,
increment the trip request counter by 1. If the point P(Ibias, Idiff) is found to be
below the operate-bias characteristic, then the trip request counter is reset to zero.
If the trip request counter is still zero, search for an eventual heavy external earth
fault. The search is only made if the neutral current is at least 50% of the Idmin
current. If an external earth fault has been detected, a flag is set which remains set
until the external fault has been cleared. The external fault flag is reset to zero
when Ineutral falls below 50% of the base sensitivity Idmin. Any search for an
external fault is aborted if trip request counter is more than zero.
As long as the external fault persists, an additional temporary trip condition is
introduced. This means that REFPDIF is temporarily desensitized.
If point P(Ibias, Idiff) is found to be above the operate-bias characteristic), so that
trip request counter is more than zero, a directional check can be made. The
directional check is made only if Iresidual (3Io) is more than 3% of the IBase
current. If the result of the check means external fault, then the internal trip
request is reset. If the directional check cannot be executed, then direction is no
longer a condition for a trip.
When neutral current, residual current and bias current are within some windows
and some timing criteria are fulfilled, the ratio of 2nd to fundamental harmonic is

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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

9.

6.3.8

calculated. If it is found to be above 60% the trip request counter is reset and TRIP
remains zero.
Finally, a check is made if the trip request counter is equal to, or higher than 2. If
yes, and at the same instance of time tREFtrip, the actual bias current at this instance
of time tREFtrip is at least 50% of the highest bias current Ibiasmax (Ibiasmax is the
highest recording of any of the three phase currents measured during the
disturbance), then REFPDIF sets output TRIP to 1. If the counter is less than 2,
the TRIP signal remains zero.

Technical data
Table 61:

REFPDIF technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate characteristic

Adaptable

1.0% of Ir for I Ir
1.0% of I for I > Ir

Reset ratio

>95%

Minimum pickup

(4.0-100.0)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir

Directional characteristic

Fixed 180 degrees or 60 to 90


degrees

2.0 degrees

Operate time, trip at 0 to 10 x


IdMin

Min = 15 ms
Max = 30 ms

Reset time, trip at 10 to 0 x IdMin

Min = 15 ms
Max = 30 ms

Second harmonic blocking

60.0% of fundamental (hidden


setting)

1.0% of Ir

6.4

Additional security logic for differential protection


LDRGFC

6.4.1

Identification
Function description
Additional security logic for differential
protection

6.4.2

IEC 61850
identification
LDRGFC

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
11

Functionality
Additional security logic for differential protection (LDRGFC) can help the security
of the protection especially when the communication system is in abnormal status or
for example when there is unspecified asymmetry in the communication link. It helps
to reduce the probability for mal-operation of the protection. LDRGFC is more

164
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

sensitive than the main protection logic to always release operation for all faults
detected by the differential function. LDRGFC consists of four sub functions:

Phase-to-phase current variation


Zero sequence current criterion
Low voltage criterion
Low current criterion

Phase-to-phase current variation takes the current samples as input and it calculates
the variation using the sampling value based algorithm. Phase-to-phase current
variation function is major one to fulfill the objectives of the startup element.
Zero sequence criterion takes the zero sequence current as input. It increases the
security of protection during the high impedance fault conditions.
Low voltage criterion takes the phase voltages and phase-to-phase voltages as inputs.
It increases the security of protection when the three-phase fault occurred on the weak
end side.
Low current criterion takes the phase currents as inputs and it increases the
dependability during the switch onto fault case of unloaded line.
The differential function can be allowed to trip as no load is fed through the line and
protection is not working correctly.
Features:

6.4.3

Startup element is sensitive enough to detect the abnormal status of the protected
system
Startup element does not influence the operation speed of main protection
Startup element would detect the evolving faults, high impedance faults and three
phase fault on weak side
It is possible to block the each sub function of startup element
Startup signal has a settable pulse time

Function block
LDRGFC
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKCV
BLKUC
BLK3I0
BLKUV
REMSTUP

START
STCVL1L2
STCVL2L3
STCVL3L1
STUC
ST3I0
STUV

IEC14000015-1-en.vsd
IEC14000015 V1 EN

Figure 52:

LDRGFC function block

165
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection
6.4.4

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Signals
Table 62:

LDRGFC Input signals

Name

Type

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKCV

BOOLEAN

Block of ph to ph current variation criterion

BLKUC

BOOLEAN

Block of the low current criterion

BLK3I0

BOOLEAN

Block of zero sequence current criterion

BLKUV

BOOLEAN

Block of under voltage criterion

REMSTUP

BOOLEAN

Startup signal of remote end

LDRGFC Output signals

Name

Table 64:
Name

Description

GROUP
SIGNAL

Table 63:

6.4.5

Default

I3P

Type

Description

START

BOOLEAN

General startup signal

STCVL1L2

BOOLEAN

Start signal for current variation criterion for phase


L1L2

STCVL2L3

BOOLEAN

Start signal for current variation criterion for phase


L2L3

STCVL3L1

BOOLEAN

Start signal for current variation criterion for phase


L3L1

STUC

BOOLEAN

Start signal for low current criterion

ST3I0

BOOLEAN

Start signal for zero sequence current criterion

STUV

BOOLEAN

Start signal for under voltage criterion

Settings
LDRGFC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off/On

tStUpReset

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

7.000

Reset delay for startup signal

OperationCV

Off
On

On

Operation current variation Off/On

ICV>

1 - 100

%IB

20

Fixed threshold for ph to ph current


variation criterion

OperationUC

Off
On

On

Operation low current criterion Off/On

IUC<

1 - 100

%IB

Start value for low current operation in %


of IBase

Table continues on next page

166
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation3I0

Off
On

On

Operation zero sequence current criterion


Off/On

I3I0>

1 - 100

%IB

10

Start value for zero sequence current


criterion in % of IBase

OperationUV

Off
On

On

Operation under voltage criterion Off/On

UPhN<

1 - 100

%UB

60

Start value for phase voltage criterion in %


of UBase

UPhPh<

1 - 100

%UB

60

Start value for ph to ph voltage criterion in


% of UBase

Table 65:

LDRGFC Group settings (advanced)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

tCV

0.000 - 0.005

0.001

0.002

Time delay for phase to phase current


variation

tUC

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Time delay for low current criterion

t3I0

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay for zero sequence current


criterion

tUV

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay for low voltage criterion

Table 66:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

6.4.6

Step

Default

Description

LDRGFC Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 67:
Name

LDRGFC Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

IL1

REAL

Current RMS value for


phase L1

IL2

REAL

Current RMS value for


phase L2

IL3

REAL

Current RMS value for


phase L3

3I0

REAL

Zero sequence current


value

UL1

REAL

kV

Voltage RMS value for


phase L1

UL2

REAL

kV

Voltage RMS value for


phase L2

UL3

REAL

kV

Voltage RMS value for


phase L3

Table continues on next page

167
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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

6.4.7

Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

UL12

REAL

kV

Voltage RMS value for ph


to ph L1L2

UL23

REAL

kV

Voltage RMS value for ph


to ph L2L3

UL31

REAL

kV

Voltage RMS value for ph


to ph L3L1

Operation principle
Additional security logic for differential protection (LDRGFC) takes the current
samples, current RMS values, phase voltage values, phase-to-phase voltage values,
zero sequence current and remote side startup signals as inputs.
Startup signal becomes activated when any one of the current variation startup signal,
zero sequence current startup signal, voltage startup signal, and current startup signal
is activated.
Phase-to-phase current variation takes current samples and generates the startup
signal by comparing with the start value.
If the zero sequence current value is greater than the start value of zero sequence
current then the zero sequence current startup signal will be activated.
Voltage startup signal becomes activated when the any of phase voltage and line
voltage is less than the voltage start value and the remote startup signal has to be
activated.
Current startup signal becomes activated when the current value in all phases is less
than current start value.
Phase-to-phase current variation
Phase-to-phase current variation one is main startup element. It covers most of the
abnormal status of the system. The phase-to-phase current variation fails in high
impedance faults, three-phase fault on weak side and switch onto fault on unloaded
line because of low sensitivity in these cases.
Phase-to-phase current variation takes the current samples as input and the signal is
evaluated using the sampling value based algorithm.
The phase-to-phase current variation criterion is shown below:

DiFF > 1.8DIT + DI ZD


EQUATION2255 V1 EN

168
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Where:

sampling value of phase-to-phase current variation

IZD

setting of fixed threshold, which corresponds to setting ICV>. The default value for the
setting is 0.2IBase, where IBase is the base current.

IT

float threshold

It is the full-circle integral of the phase-to-phase current variation

DI T =

1 2T -1
| DiFF (t - n) |
T n =T

EQUATION2256 V1 EN

Where:
T

count of sample values in one cycle

i is calculated using the below formula:

Di (k ) = [i ( k ) - i (k - N )] - [i (k - N ) - i (k - 2 N )]
= i ( k ) - 2i ( k - N ) + i (k - 2 N )
EQUATION2257 V1 EN

N is the number of samples in one cycle.

tCV

STCVL1L2

t
I3P

Current variation
subfunction

cont

tCV

STCVL2L3

t
tCV

STCVL3L1

OR

STCV
cont

IEC10000295-1-en.vsd
IEC10000295 V1 EN

Figure 53:

Current variation logic diagram

169
Technical manual

Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

tCV is the time setting for the change of current criterion. Phase current samples are
included in input signal I3P.
Zero sequence current criterion
Zero sequence criterion is mainly for detection of remote IED high resistance faults or
some gradual faults. The criterion takes the zero sequence current as input. Zero
sequence current is compared with I3I0> for the t3I0 time to generate the zero
sequence current startup signal.
I3P

a
b

I3IO>

BLK3I0
BLOCK

a>b

AND

t3I0
t

ST3I0

OR

IEC09000778-2-en.vsd
IEC09000778 V2 EN

Figure 54:

Zero sequence current criterion logic diagram

Here I3I0> is the setting of the maximum possible non-faulted zero sequence current
for the protected line. The default value for this setting is 0.1 IBase where IBase is
the rated current of the CT.
t3I0 is the time setting for the zero sequence current criterion.
The zero sequence current criterion can be blocked by activating the BLK3I0 input
signal.
Low voltage criterion
Low voltage criterion is mainly for detection of the three phase faults occurring on
weak side with pre fault no load condition. The low voltage criterion takes the voltage
phase values, voltage phase-to-phase values and remote startup signals as inputs. The
logic for low voltage criterion is shown below:

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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

U3P (UPhN)

UPhN<

U3P (UPhPh)

UPhPh<

a<b

OR
a<b
tUV

REMSTUP (Recived)

AND

STUV

BLKUV
OR

BLOCK

IEC09000779-2-en.vsd
IEC09000779 V2 EN

Figure 55:

Low voltage criterion logic diagram

Voltage phase value is compared with the start value of voltage phase and voltage
phase-to-phase value is compared with the start value of voltage phase-to-phase. If
any of the phase voltage or phase-to-phase voltages is below the set voltage levels for
some time duration (tUV) then the low voltage START signal becomes activated after
receiving the remote startup signal. Low voltage criterion can be blocked by activating
BLKUV input signal.
If there are more than one remote IED, all the startup signals of the remote ends are
logically OR to obtain the REMSTUP signal from the remote side as input.
Low current criterion
The current in each phase is compared to the set current level. If all currents are below
setting IUC<, the STUC output is activated after the set delay tUC.
I3P

IUC<

BLKUC
BLOCK

a<b

tUC

AND

STUC

OR

IEC09000780-2-en.vsd
IEC09000780 V2 EN

Figure 56:

Low current criterion logic diagram

Security logic for differential protection


The configuration for the additional security logic for differential protection is shown
in Figure 57. The function will release tripping of the line differential protection up to
the end of timer tStUpReset.

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Section 6
Differential protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Phase-phase
current variation

STCV

Zero sequence
current criterion

ST3IO

I0 >

tStUpReset
t

Low voltage
criterion

STUV

Low current
criterion

STUC

ULOW <

START

OR

Local side start-up


Send signal to
remote side

I0 <

REMSTUP

IEC10000296-2-en.vsd
IEC10000296 V2 EN

Figure 57:

6.4.8

Additional security logic for differential protection. Logic diagram for


start up element.

Technical data
Table 68:

LDRGFC technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate current, zero


sequence current

(1-100)% of lBase

1.0% of Ir

Operate current, low current


operation

(1-100)% of lBase

1.0% of Ir

Operate voltage, phase to


neutral

(1-100)% of UBase

0.5% of Ur

Operate voltage, phase to


phase

(1-100)% of UBase

0.5% of Ur

Independent time delay, zero


sequence current at 0 to 2 x Iset

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 40 ms
whichever is greater

Independent time delay, low


current operation at 2 x Iset to 0

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 40 ms
whichever is greater

Independent time delay, low


voltage operation at 2 x Uset to
0

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 40 ms
whichever is greater

Reset time delay for startup


signal at 0 to 2 x Uset

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 40 ms
whichever is greater

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 7

Impedance protection

7.1

Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral


characteristic ZMQPDIS, ZMQAPDIS, ZDRDIR

7.1.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Distance protection zone, quadrilateral


characteristic (zone 1)

ZMQPDIS

Distance protection zone, quadrilateral


characteristic (zone 2-5)

ZMQAPDIS

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

S00346 V1 EN

21

S00346 V1 EN

Directional impedance quadrilateral

21D

ZDRDIR

Z<->
IEC09000167 V1 EN

7.1.2

Functionality
The line distance protection is an up to five (depending on product variant) zone full
scheme protection function with three fault loops for phase-to-phase faults and three
fault loops for phase-to-earth faults for each of the independent zones. Individual
settings for each zone in resistive and reactive reach gives flexibility for use as backup protection for transformer connected to overhead lines and cables of different types
and lengths.
ZMQPDIS together with Phase selection with load encroachment FDPSPDIS has
functionality for load encroachment, which increases the possibility to detect high
resistive faults on heavily loaded lines, as shown in figure58.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X
Forward
operation

R
Reverse
operation

en05000034.vsd
IEC05000034 V1 EN

Figure 58:

Typical quadrilateral distance protection zone with Phase selection


with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS activated

The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together with a
sensitive and reliable built-in phase selection makes the function suitable in
applications with single-phase autoreclosing.
Built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of zone 1 at
load exporting end at phase-to-earth faults on heavily loaded power lines.
The distance protection zones can operate independently of each other in directional
(forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. This makes them suitable, together with
different communication schemes, for the protection of power lines and cables in
complex network configurations, such as parallel lines, multi-terminal lines.

7.1.3

Function block
ZMQPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC06000256-2-en.vsd

IEC06000256 V2 EN

Figure 59:

ZMQPDIS function block

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ZMQAPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC09000884-1-en.vsd

IEC09000884 V1 EN

Figure 60:

ZMQAPDIS function block (zone 2 - 5)

The two inputs I3P Three phase group signal for current and U3P
Three phase group signal for voltage, must be connected to nonadaptive SMAI blocks if ANY OF THE ZONES are set for
directional operation. That is, the parameter DFTReference in used
SMAI must be set to InternalDFTRef. If adaptive SMAI block is used
this might result in a wrong directional and reach evaluation.

ZDRDIR
I3P*
U3P*

STDIRCND
IEC10000007-2-en.vsd

IEC10000007 V2 EN

Figure 61:

7.1.4

ZDRDIR function block

Signals
Table 69:
Name

ZMQPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

VTSZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

175
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 70:
Name

ZMQPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

Table 71:
Name

ZMQAPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

VTSZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 72:
Name

ZMQAPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 73:

ZDRDIR Input signals

Name

Type

Description

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

Table 74:

ZDRDIR Output signals

Name

Type

STDIRCND

7.1.5

Default

I3P

Description

INTEGER

Binary coded directional information per measuring


loop

Settings
Signals and settings for ZMQPDIS are valid for zone 1 while signals
and settings for ZMQAPDIS are valid for zone 2 - 5

Table 75:

ZMQPDIS Group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

X1

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach

R1

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

X0

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero sequence reactance reach

R0

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

RFPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-Ph

RFPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E

OperationPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Phase


loops

OpModetPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph

OperationPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth


loops

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

Table continues on next page

177
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Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IMinOpPP

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

IMinOpIN

5 - 1000

%IB

Minimum operate residual current for


Phase-Earth loops

Table 76:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

ZMQPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Table 77:

ZMQAPDIS Group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step
1

Step

Default
1

Default

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

X1

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach

R1

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

X0

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach

R0

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

RFPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-Ph

RFPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E

OperationPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Phase


loops

OpModetPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph

OperationPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth


loops

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

IMinOpPP

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

178
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 78:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

Table 79:
Name

ZMQAPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

ZDRDIR Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IMinOpPP

5 - 30

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase-phase current


for Phase-Phase loops

IMinOpPE

5 - 30

%IB

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

ArgNegRes

90 - 175

Deg

115

Angle of blinder in second quadrant for


forward direction

ArgDir

5 - 45

Deg

15

Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for


forward direction

Table 80:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.1.6

ZDRDIR Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 81:
Name

ZDRDIR Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

L1Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L1

L2Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L2

L3Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L3

L1R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L1

L1X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L1

L2R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L2

L2X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L2

L3R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L3

L3X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L3

179
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.1.7

Operation principle

7.1.7.1

Full scheme measurement


The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type, which
means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for
forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.
Figure 62 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for up to five,
impedance-measuring zones. There are 3 to 5 zones depending on product type and
variant.
L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 1

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 2

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 3

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 4

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 5

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone RV
IEC05000458-2-en.vsd

IEC05000458 V2 EN

Figure 62:

The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault.

The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
depending on fault type. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent
distance protection IED with six measuring elements.

7.1.7.2

Impedance characteristic
The distance measuring zone includes six impedance measuring loops; three intended
for phase-to-earth faults, and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as, three-phase
faults.
The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the non-directional
impedance characteristics presented in figure 63 and figure 64. The phase-to-earth
characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-phase
characteristic presents the per phase reach.

180
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (Ohm/loop)

R1+Rn
RFPE

RFPE

X1+Xn

jN
RFPE

jN

Xn =

X0-X1
3

Rn =

R0-R1
3

R (Ohm/loop)

RFPE

X1+Xn

RFPE

RFPE
IEC11000427-1-en.vsd

R1+Rn
IEC11000427 V1 EN

Figure 63:

Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring, ohm/loop domain

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RFPP

(Ohm/phase)

R1

RFPP

X 0 PE - X 1RVPE
XNRV =XX00PE
PG
1RVPG
-X3
1XRVPE
XNRV
=
XNRV =
33
--1X
11FWPE
XX
-X
X00PE
0PE
PG
XFWPE
FWPG
XNFW
XNFW
XNFW===
3
3 3

X1

R (Ohm/phase)
RFPP

RFPP

X1

RFPP
2

R1

RFPP
2

IEC11000428-1-en.vsd

IEC11000428 V1 EN

Figure 64:

Characteristic for phase-to-phase measuring

The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in
figure 65. Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault) resistive
reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.

182
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

UL1

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1

Phase-to-earth
element

RFPE
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0

Phase-to-phase
fault in phase
L1-L2

UL1

IN

(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L2
RFPP

IL2

(Arc resistance)

UL2
R1 + j X1

UL1
Three-phase
fault

IL1

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L3

IL3
UL3
IEC08000282-2-en.vsd

IEC08000282 V2 EN

Figure 65:

Fault loop model

The R1 and jX1 in figure 65 represents the positive sequence impedance from the
measuring point to the fault location. The settings and RFPP are the eventual fault
resistances in the faulty place.
Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 65, there is of course fault
current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. The illustration
merely reflects the loop measurement, which is made phase-to-phase.
The zone can be set to operate in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse direction
through the setting OperationDir. The result from respective set value is illustrated in
figure 66. The impedance reach is symmetric, in the sense that it conforms for forward
and reverse direction (there are different forward and reverse settings - Zx and ZxRev
respectively, where x = 1 - 5). Therefore, all reach settings apply to both directions.

183
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Non-directional

Forward

Reverse
IEC05000182-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000182 V2 EN

Figure 66:

7.1.7.3

Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zones

Minimum operating current


The operation of Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS)
is blocked if the magnitude of input currents fall below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.
For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies, that all
phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN, regardless of the phase
currents.
ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum
of the three-phase currents, that is, residual current 3I0.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLn < IMinOpPP.
ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln.
All three current limits IMinOpPE, IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are
automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to
operate in reverse direction, that is, OperationDir = Reverse.

7.1.7.4

Measuring principles
Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage, current, and changes in the
current. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. The

184
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

apparent impedances at phase-to-phase faults follow equation 31 (example for a phase


L1 to phase L2 fault).
UL1 UL2
Zapp = ------------------------I L1 IL2
(Equation 31)

EQUATION1222 V1 EN

Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective
phase Ln (n = 1, 2, 3)
The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to phase-to-earth
faults (example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 32.
Z app =

U L1
I L1 + I N KN
(Equation 32)

EQUATION1223 V2 EN

Where:
are the phase voltage, phase current and residual current present to the IED

U L1
I L1
IN
KN
is defined as:

KN =

Z 0 - Z1
3 Z1

EQUATION-2105 V2 EN

Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0
EQUATION2106 V2 EN

Z 1 = R1 + jX 1
EQUATION2107 V2 EN

Where
R0

is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach

X0

is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach

R1

is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach

X1

is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach

185
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point. This results in the same reach
along the line for all types of faults.
The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and
reactance X.
The formula given in equation 32 is only valid for radial feeder application without
load. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault, conventional
distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end.
The IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such
applications.
Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter.
The check sums are calculated and compared, and the information is distributed into
memory locations. For each of the six supervised fault loops, sampled values of
voltage (U), current (I), and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from
the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.
The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related to
the loop impedance according to equation 33,
X Di
U = R i + ------ ----w 0 Dt
EQUATION1224 V1 EN

(Equation 33)

in complex notation, or:


X D Re ( I )
Re ( U ) = R Re ( I ) + ------ -----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION354 V1 EN

(Equation 34)

X DIm ( I )
Im ( U ) = R Im ( I ) + ------ ----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION355 V1 EN

(Equation 35)

with
w0 = 2 p f 0
EQUATION356 V1 EN

(Equation 36)

where:
Re

designates the real component of current and voltage,

Im

designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and

f0

designates the rated system frequency

186
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value
of the voltage and substitutes it in the equation for the imaginary part. The equation for
the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. The final result is equal to:
Im ( U ) DRe ( I ) Re ( U ) D Im ( I )
R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) D Im ( I ) Re ( I )
(Equation 37)

EQUATION357 V1 EN

Re ( U ) Im ( I ) Im ( U ) Re ( I )
Xm = w 0 Dt ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) DIm ( I ) Re ( I )
(Equation 38)

EQUATION358 V1 EN

The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set
zone reach. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping
results. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive
voltage transformers or by other factors.
The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse
directions, and in all six fault loops. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked
positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures unlimited
directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.

7.1.7.5

Directional impedance element for quadrilateral characteristics


The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance quadrilateral
function ZDRDIR. Equation 39 and equation 40 are used to classify that the fault is in
forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault.
- ArgDir < arg

0.8 U 1L1 + 0.2 U 1L1 M


I L1

< ArgNeg Re s

EQUATION725 V2 EN

(Equation 39)

For the L1-L2 element, the equation in forward direction is according to.

187
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

- ArgDir < arg

0.8 U 1L1 L 2 + 0.2 U 1L1 L 2 M


I L1 L 2

< ArgNeg Re s
(Equation 40)

EQUATION726 V2 EN

where:
ArgDir

is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 15 (= -15 degrees) and

ArgNegRes

is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 115 degrees, see figure 67.

U 1L1
U 1L1M

I L1
U 1L1L 2

U 1L1L 2 M
I L1L 2

is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1


is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1
is phase current in phase L1
is voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees
respectively (as shown in figure 67). It should not be changed unless system studies
have shown the necessity.
ZDRDIR gives binary coded directional information per measuring loop on the output
STDIRCND.
STDIR=

STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+
+STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+
+STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ArgNegRes

ArgDir

en05000722.vsd
IEC05000722 V1 EN

Figure 67:

Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault in


Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR

The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by


180 degrees.
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive sequence voltage exceeds
5% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for all
unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1L1M memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored.
After 100 ms the following occurs:

If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current
(between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase), the condition seals in.

If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures.


If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element in
the reverse direction remains in operation.

If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, the memory resets
until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.

189
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Section 7
Impedance protection
7.1.7.6

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Simplified logic diagrams


Distance protection zones
The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops:
phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N, L2N and L3N. The phase-tophase signals are designated by L1L2, L2L3, and L3L1.
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:

Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described


above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 68.

Two types of function block, ZMQPDIS and ZMQAPDIS, are used in the IED.
ZMQPDIS is used for zone 1 and ZMQAPDIS for zone 2 - 5.
The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from
Phase selection with load encroachment, quadrilateral characteristic function
FDPSPDIS within the IED, which are converted within the zone measuring function
into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. Input signal
STCND is connected to FDPSPDIS or FMPSPDIS function output STCNDZ.
The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance
measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and
reverse direction. The zone measurement function filters out the relevant signals
depending on the setting of the parameter OperationDir. It must be configured to the
STDIR output on ZDRDIR function.

190
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STZMPP

OR

STCND

STNDL1L2

L1L2

AND

L2L3

AND

L3L1

AND

STNDL3L1

L1N

AND

STNDL1N

L2N

AND

STNDL2N

L3N

AND

STNDL2L3

STNDL3N
STPE

OR

OR
VTSZ
BLOCK

AND

OR
BLOCFUNC

STND
BLK
99000557-2.vsd

IEC99000557-TIFF V3 EN

Figure 68:

Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND, external start


condition

Composition of the phase start signals for a case, when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode, is presented in figure 69.

IEC00000488-TIFF V1 EN

Figure 69:

Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode


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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone operates
in directional (forward or reverse) mode, as shown in figure 70.
STNDL1N
DIRL1N

AND
STZMPE.

OR
STNDL2N
DIRL2N

AND

STNDL3N

OR

DIRL3N

AND

STNDL1L2
DIRL1L2

AND

OR

AND

15 ms
t

STL1

AND

15 ms
t

STL2

AND

15 ms
t

STL3

STNDL2L3
DIRL2L3

AND
OR

STNDL3L1
DIRL3L1

AND
STZMPP

OR
BLK

OR

AND

15 ms
t

START

IEC09000888-2-en.vsd
IEC09000888 V2 EN

Figure 70:

Composition of start signals in directional operating mode

Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in
figure 71.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Timer tPP=On
STZMPP

tPP
t

AND

BLOCFUNC

AND
OR

OR
tPE
t

Timer tPE=On
STZMPE

AND

AND
15ms

AND

BLKTR
BLK

TRIP

OR

STL1

AND

TRL1

STL2

AND

TRL2

STL3

AND

TRL3

IEC09000887-3-en.vsdx

IEC09000887 V3 EN

Figure 71:

7.1.8

Tripping logic for the distance protection zone

Technical data
Table 82:

ZMQPDIS Technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones

Max 5 with selectable


direction

Minimum operate residual


current, zone 1

(5-1000)% of IBase

Minimum operate current, phaseto-phase and phase-to-earth

(10-1000)% of IBase

Positive sequence reactance

(0.10-3000.00) /phase

Positive sequence resistance

(0.01-1000.00) /phase

Zero sequence reactance

(0.10-9000.00) /phase

2.0% static accuracy


2.0 degrees static angular accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees

Zero sequence resistance

(0.01-3000.00) /phase

Fault resistance, phase-to-earth

(0.10-9000.00) /loop

Fault resistance, phase-to-phase

(0.10-3000.00) /loop

Dynamic overreach

<5% at 85 degrees
measured with CVTs and
0.5<SIR<30

Table continues on next page

193
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Definite time delay Ph-Ph and


Ph-E operation

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 40 ms whichever is greater

Operate time

25 ms typically

IEC 60255-121

Reset ratio

105% typically

Reset time at 0.1 x Zreach to 2 x


Zreach

Min. = 20 ms
Max. = 50 ms

7.2

Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with


fixed angle FDPSPDIS

7.2.1

Identification

7.2.1.1

Identification
Function description
Phase selection with load
encroachment, quadrilateral
characteristic

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

FDPSPDIS

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

Z<phs
SYMBOL-DD V1 EN

7.2.2

Functionality
The operation of transmission networks today is in many cases close to the stability
limit. Due to environmental considerations, the rate of expansion and reinforcement
of the power system is reduced, for example, difficulties to get permission to build
new power lines. The ability to accurately and reliably classify the different types of
fault, so that single pole tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important role
in this matter. Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with fixed angle
FDPSPDIS is designed to accurately select the proper fault loop in the distance
function dependent on the fault type.
The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may make
fault resistance coverage difficult to achieve. Therefore, FDPSPDIS has a built-in
algorithm for load encroachment, which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive
setting of both the phase selection and the measuring zones without interfering with
the load.
The extensive output signals from the phase selection gives also important
information about faulty phase(s), which can be used for fault analysis.
A current-based phase selection is also included. The measuring elements
continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current and, compare them
with the set values.

194
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.2.3

Function block
FDPSPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
DIRCND

TRIP
START
STFWL1
STFWL2
STFWL3
STFWPE
STRVL1
STRVL2
STRVL3
STRVPE
STNDL1
STNDL2
STNDL3
STNDPE
STFW1PH
STFW2PH
STFW3PH
STPE
STPP
STCNDZ
STCNDLE
IEC14000047-1-en.vsd

IEC10000047 V2 EN

Figure 72:

7.2.4

FDPSPDIS function block

Signals
Table 83:
Name

FDPSPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 84:
Name

FDPSPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip output

START

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or loop

STFWL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - forward direction

STFWL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - forward direction

STFWL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - forward direction

STFWPE

BOOLEAN

Earth fault detected in forward direction

STRVL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - reverse direction

STRVL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - reverse direction

STRVL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - reverse direction

STRVPE

BOOLEAN

Earth fault detected in reverse direction

Table continues on next page

195
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

7.2.5

Type

Description

STNDL1

BOOLEAN

Non directional start in L1

STNDL2

BOOLEAN

Non directional start in L2

STNDL3

BOOLEAN

Non directional start in L3

STNDPE

BOOLEAN

Non directional start, phase-earth

STFW1PH

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction for single-phase fault

STFW2PH

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction for two- phase fault

STFW3PH

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction for thre-phase fault

STPE

BOOLEAN

Current conditions release of phase-earth


measuring elements

STPP

BOOLEAN

Current conditions release of phase-phase


measuring elements

STCNDZ

INTEGER

Start condition (Z< with LE and 3I0 E/F detection)

STCNDLE

INTEGER

Start condition (only LE and 3I0 E/F detection)

Settings

Table 85:

FDPSPDIS Group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

INBlockPP

10 - 100

%IPh

40

3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase


measuring loops

INReleasePE

10 - 100

%IPh

20

3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth


measuring loops

RLdFw

1.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

80.00

Forward resistive reach within the load


impedance area

RLdRv

1.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

80.00

Reverse resistive reach within the load


impedance area

ArgLd

5 - 70

Deg

30

Load angle determining the load


impedance area

X1

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach

X0

0.50 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach

RFFwPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward

RFRvPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse

RFFwPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward

RFRvPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse

IMinOpPP

5 - 500

%IB

10

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

5 - 500

%IB

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 86:
Name

FDPSPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

OperationZ<

Off
On

On

Operation of impedance based


measurement

OperationI>

Off
On

Off

Operation of current based measurement

IPh>

10 - 2500

%IB

120

Start value for phase over-current


element

IN>

10 - 2500

%IB

20

Start value for trip from 3I0 over-current


element

TimerPP

Off
On

Off

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

3.000

Time delay to trip, Ph-Ph

TimerPE

Off
On

Off

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

3.000

Time delay to trip, Ph-E

Table 87:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.2.6

FDPSPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Operation principle
The basic impedance algorithm for the operation of the phase selection measuring
elements is the same as for the distance zone measuring function. Phase selection with
load encroachment, quadrilateral characteristic FDPSPDIS includes six impedance
measuring loops; three intended for phase-to-earth faults, and three intended for
phase-to-phase faults as well as for three-phase faults.
The difference, compared to the distance zone measuring function, is in the
combination of the measuring quantities (currents and voltages) for different types of
faults.
A current-based phase selection is also included. The measuring elements
continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current, and compare them
with the set values. The current signals are filtered by Fourier's recursive filter, and
separate trip counter prevents too high overreaching of the measuring elements.
The characteristic is basically non-directional, but FDPSPDIS uses information from
the directional function to discriminate whether the fault is in forward or reverse
direction.
The start condition STCNDZ is essentially based on the following criteria:

197
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1.
2.
3.

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Residual current criteria, that is, separation of faults with and without earth
connection
Regular quadrilateral impedance characteristic
Load encroachment characteristics is always active but can be switched off by
selecting a high setting.

The current start condition STCNDLE is based on the following criteria:


1.
2.
3.

Residual current criteria


No quadrilateral impedance characteristic. The impedance reach outside the load
area is theoretically infinite. The practical reach, however, will be determined by
the minimum operating current limits.
Load encroachment characteristic is always active, but can be switched off by
selecting a high setting.

The STCNDLE output is non-directional. The directionality is determined by the


distance zones directional function. There are outputs from FDPSPDIS that indicate
whether a start is in forward or reverse direction or non-directional, for example
STFWL1, STRVL1 and STNDL1.
These directional indications are based on the sector boundaries of the directional
function and the impedance setting of FDPSPDIS function. Their operating
characteristics are illustrated in figure 73.

Non-directional (ND)

Forward (FW)

Reverse (RV)
en08000286.vsd

IEC08000286 V1 EN

Figure 73:

Characteristics for non-directional, forward and reverse operation of


Phase selection with load encroachment, quadrilateral characteristic
FDPSPDIS

The setting of the load encroachment function may influence the total operating
characteristic, (for more information, refer to section "Load encroachment").
The input DIRCND contains binary coded information about the directional coming
from the directional function . It shall be connected to the STDIR output on ZDRDIR,
198
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

directional measuring block. This information is also transferred to the input


DIRCND on the distance measuring zones, that is, the ZMQPDIS, distance measuring
block.
The code built up for the directionality is as follows:
STDIR=

STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+
+STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+
+STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048

If the binary information is 1 then it will be considered that we have start in forward
direction in phase L1. If the binary code is 3 then we have start in forward direction in
phase L1 and L2, binary code 192 means start in reverse direction in phase L1 and
L2A and B etc.
The STCNDZ or STCNDLE output contains, in a similar way as DIRCND, binary
coded information, in this case information about the condition for opening correct
fault loop in the distance measuring element. It shall be connected to the STCND input
on the ZMQPDIS, distance measuring block.
The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows:
STCND = L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32

7.2.6.1

Phase-to-earth fault
For a phase-to-earth fault, the measured impedance by FDPSPDIS will be according
to equation 41.
Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase
selection with load encroachment function FDPSPDIS.

ZPHSn =

ULn
ILn

EQUATION1255 V1 EN

(Equation 41)

where:
n

corresponds to the particular phase (n=1, 2 or 3)

The characteristic for FDPSPDIS function at phase-to-earth fault is according to


figure 74. The characteristic has a fixed angle for the resistive boundary in the first
quadrant of 60.
The resistance RN and reactance XN are the impedance in the earth-return path
defined according to equation 42 and equation 43.
199
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RN =

R0 - R1
3
(Equation 42)

EQUATION1256 V1 EN

XN =

X 0 - X1
3
(Equation 43)

EQUATION1257 V1 EN

X (ohm/loop)
Kr(X1+XN)
RFRvPE

RFFwPE

X1+XN
RFFwPE

R (Ohm/loop)

RFRvPE

60 deg

60 deg

X1+XN
Kr =

1
tan(60deg)

RFFwPE

RFRvPE
Kr(X1+XN)

en06000396.vsd
IEC06000396 V2 EN

Figure 74:

Characteristic of FDPSPDIS for phase-to-earth fault (setting


parameters in italic), ohm/loop domain (directional lines are drawn as
"line-dot-dot-line")

Besides this, the 3I0 residual current must fulfil the conditions according to
equation 44 and equation 45.
3 I0 0.5 IMinOpPE
EQUATION2108 V1 EN

(Equation 44)

200
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

3 I0 INReleasePE
------------------------------------ Iphmax
100
(Equation 45)

EQUATION766 V1 EN

where:

IMinOpPE

is the minimum operation current for forward zones

INReleasePE is the setting for the minimum residual current needed to enable operation in the phaseto-earth fault loops (in %).
Iphmax

7.2.6.2

is the maximum phase current in any of three phases.

Phase-to-phase fault
For a phase-to-phase fault, the measured impedance by FDPSPDIS will be according
to equation 46.
ZPHS =

ULm - ULn
-2 ILn

EQUATION1258 V1 EN

(Equation 46)

ULm is the leading phase voltage, ULn the lagging phase voltage and ILn the phase
current in the lagging phase n.
The operation characteristic is shown in figure 75.

201
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (W /
0.5RFRvPP

phase)
0.5RFFwPP

KrX1

X1

0.5RFFwPP
60 deg

60 deg

R (W /
0.5RFRvPP

phase)

X1
Kr =

1
tan(60 deg)

KrX1
0.5RFRvPP

0.5RFFwPP
IEC09000047-2-en.vsd

IEC09000047 V2 EN

Figure 75:

The operation characteristics for FDPSPDIS at phase-to-phase fault


(setting parameters in italic, directional lines drawn as "line-dot-dotline"), ohm/phase domain

In the same way as the condition for phase-to-earth fault, there are current conditions
that have to be fulfilled in order to release the phase-to-phase loop. Those are
according to equation 47 or equation 48.

3I 0 < IMinOpPE
(Equation 47)

EQUATION2109 V1 EN

3I 0 <

INBlockPP
Iph max
100

(Equation 48)

EQUATION2110 V1 EN

where:

IMinOpPE

is the minimum operation current for earth measuring loops,

INBlockPP is 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loop and


Iphmax

is maximal magnitude of the phase currents.

202
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.2.6.3

Three-phase faults
The operation conditions for three-phase faults are the same as for phase-to-phase
fault, that is equation 46, equation 47 and equation 48 are used to release the operation
of the function.
However, the reach is expanded by a factor 2/3 (approximately 1.1547) in all
directions. At the same time the characteristic is rotated 30 degrees, counterclockwise. The characteristic is shown in figure 76.
X (ohm/phase)
4 X1
3
90 deg
0.5RFFwPPK3
X1K3

4 RFFwPP
6

R (ohm/phase)
0.5RFRvPPK3

K3 =

2
3

30 deg

IEC05000671-5-en.vsd
IEC05000671 V5 EN

Figure 76:

7.2.6.4

The characteristic of FDPSPDIS for three-phase fault (setting


parameters in italic)

Load encroachment
Each of the six measuring loops has its own load encroachment characteristic based
on the corresponding loop impedance. The load encroachment functionality is always
active, but can be switched off by selecting a high setting.
The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 77. As illustrated, the resistive
blinders are set individually in forward and reverse direction while the angle of the
sector is the same in all four quadrants.

203
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RLdFw
ArgLd

ArgLd

ArgLd

RLdRv

ArgLd

IEC09000042-1-en.vsd
IEC09000042 V1 EN

Figure 77:

Characteristic of load encroachment function

The influence of load encroachment function on the operation characteristic is


dependent on the chosen operation mode of FDPSPDIS function. When output signal
STCNDZ is selected, the characteristic for FDPSPDIS (and also zone measurement
depending on settings) will be reduced by the load encroachment characteristic (see
figure 78, left illustration).
When output signal STCNDLE is selected, the operation characteristic will be as the
right illustration in figure 78. The reach will in this case be limit by the minimum
operation current and the distance measuring zones.

204
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STCNDZ

STCNDLE
IEC10000099-1en.vsd

IEC10000099 V1 EN

Figure 78:

Difference in operating characteristic depending on operation mode


when load encroachment is activated

When FDPSPDIS is set to operate together with a distance measuring zone the
resultant operate characteristic could look like in figure 79. The figure shows a
distance measuring zone operating in forward direction. Thus, the operating area is
highlighted in black.

205
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X
"Phase selection"
"quadrilateral" zone
Distance measuring zone

Load encroachment
characteristic
R
Directional line

en05000673.vsd
IEC05000673 V1 EN

Figure 79:

Operating characteristic in forward direction when load


encroachment is activated

Figure 79 is valid for phase-to-earth. During a three-phase fault, or load, when the
quadrilateral phase-to-phase characteristic is subject to enlargement and rotation the
operate area is transformed according to figure 80. Notice in particular what happens
with the resistive blinders of the "phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone. Due to the 30degree rotation, the angle of the blinder in quadrant one is now 90 degrees instead of
the original 60 degrees. The blinder that is nominally located to quadrant four will at
the same time tilt outwards and increase the resistive reach around the R-axis.
Consequently, it will be more or less necessary to use the load encroachment
characteristic in order to secure a margin to the load impedance.

206
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (W /

phase)

Phase selection
Quadrilateral zone

Distance measuring zone

R (W /

phase)

IEC09000049-1-en.vsd
IEC09000049 V1 EN

Figure 80:

Operating characteristic for FDPSPDIS in forward direction for threephase fault, ohm/phase domain

The result from rotation of the load characteristic at a fault between two phases is
presented in fig 81. Since the load characteristic is based on the same measurement as
the quadrilateral characteristic, it will rotate with the quadrilateral characteristic
clockwise by 30 degrees when subject to a pure phase-to-phase fault. At the same time
the characteristic will "shrink", divided by 2/3, from the full RLdFw and RLdRv
reach, which is valid at load or three-phase fault.

207
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IEC08000437.vsd
IEC08000437 V1 EN

Figure 81:

Rotation of load characteristic for a fault between two phases

There is a gain in selectivity by using the same measurement as for the quadrilateral
characteristic since not all phase-to-phase loops will be fully affected by a fault
between two phases. It should also provide better fault resistive coverage in quadrant
one. The relative loss of fault resistive coverage in quadrant four should not be a
problem even for applications on series compensated lines.

7.2.6.5

Minimum operate currents


The operation of the Phase selection with load encroachment function (FDPSPDIS) is
blocked if the magnitude of input currents falls below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn<IMinOpPE, where ILn is the RMS value
of the current in phase Ln.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if (2ILn<IMinOpPP).

7.2.6.6

Simplified logic diagrams


Figure 82 presents schematically the creation of the phase-to-phase and phase-toearth operating conditions. Consider only the corresponding part of measuring and

208
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

logic circuits, when only a phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase measurement is available


within the IED.
LDEblock
IRELPE

3I 0 0.5 IMinOpPE
&
INReleasePE
3I 0
Iphmax
100

15 ms
t

&

OR
INBlockPP
3I 0 <
Iphmax
100

&

Bool to
integer

BLOCK

3I 0 < IMinOpPE

STPE

&

10 ms 20 ms
t
t

&

15 ms
t

STCNDLE

STPP
IRELPP

IEC09000149_2_en.vsd
IEC09000149 V2 EN

Figure 82:

Phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth operating conditions (residual


current criteria)

A special attention is paid to correct phase selection at evolving faults. A STCNDLE


output signal is created as a combination of the load encroachment characteristic and
current criteria, refer to figure 82. This signal can be configured to STCND functional
input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of
the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements, residual current and
the load encroachment characteristic.
Figure 83 presents schematically the composition of non-directional phase selective
signals STNDLn. Internal signals ZMLnN and ZMLmLn (m and n change between
one and three according to the phase number) represent the fulfilled operating criteria
for each separate loop measuring element, that is, within the characteristic.

209
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

INDL1N
INDL2N
INDL3N

OR

15 ms
t

STNDPE

OR

15 ms
t

STNDL1

OR

15 ms
t

STNDL2

AND

OR

15 ms
t

STNDL3

AND

INDL1L2

IRELPE
LDEblockL1N
ZML1N
LDEblockL2N
ZML2N
LDEblockL3N
ZML3N
LDEblockL1L2
ZML1L2
LDEblockL2L3
ZML2L3
LDEblockL3L1
ZML3L1

AND
AND
AND

AND

INDL2L3
INDL3L1

IRELPP
OR

15 ms
t

STNDPP

IEC00000545-3-en.vsd
IEC00000545-TIFF V3 EN

Figure 83:

Composition on non-directional phase selection signals

Composition of the directional (forward and reverse) phase selective signals is


presented schematically in figure 85 and figure 84. The directional criteria appears as
a condition for the correct phase selection in order to secure a high phase selectivity
for simultaneous and evolving faults on lines within the complex network
configurations. Internal signals DFWLn and DFWLnLm present the corresponding
directional signals for measuring loops with phases Ln and Lm. Designation FW
(figure 85) represents the forward direction as well as the designation RV (figure 84)
represents the reverse direction. All directional signals are derived within the
corresponding digital signal processor.
Figure 84 presents additionally a composition of a STCNDZ output signal, which is
created on the basis of the continuation of the impedance measuring conditions and the
load encroachment characteristic. This signal can be configured to STCND functional
input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of
the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements and their phase
related starting and tripping signals.

210
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

INDL1N
DRVL1N

AND

INDL1L2
DRVL1L2

AND

OR

15 ms
t

STRVL1

OR

15 ms
t

STRVPE

OR

15 ms
t

STRVL2

INDL3L1
DRVL3L1

AND

INDL2N
DRVL2N

AND

INDL1L2
AND
INDL2L3
DRVL2L3

INDL1N
INDL2N
INDL3N
INDL1L2
INDL2L3
INDL3L1

AND

INDL3N
DRVL3N

AND

INDL2L3

Bool to
integer

15 ms
AND

OR

INDL3L1
AND

15 ms
OR

STCNDZ

STRVL3

STRVPP

IEC00000546_2_en.vsd
IEC00000546-TIFF V2 EN

Figure 84:

Composition of phase selection signals for reverse direction

211
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

AND
INDL1N
DFWL1N

AND

AND

OR

15 ms
t

INDL1L2
DFWL1L2

AND

OR

INDL3L1
DFWL3L1

DFWL2N

OR

15 ms
t

STFWL1

15 ms
t

STFWPE

15 ms
t

STFWL2

15 ms
t

STFW2PH

AND
AND

INDL1L2
AND

OR

INDL2L3
DFWL2L3

STFW1PH

AND

AND

INDL2N

15 ms
t

AND

OR

15 ms
t

AND

INDL3N
DFWL3N

AND

AND

INDL2L3
AND

15 ms
t

STFWL3

15 ms
t

STFW3PH

15 ms
t

STFWPP

OR

INDL3L1

AND
AND

OR

IEC05000201_2_en.vsd

IEC05000201 V2 EN

Figure 85:

Composition of phase selection signals for forward direction

Figure 86 presents the composition of output signals TRIP and START, where
internal signals STNDPP, STFWPP and STRVPP are the equivalent to internal
signals STNDPE, STFWPE and STRVPE, but for the phase-to-phase loops.

212
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

TimerPP=Off

tPP
t

AND
OR

TimerPE=Off

tPE
t

AND

AND
OR

TRIP

AND

STNDPP
STFWPP

OR

STRVPP
OR

STNDPE
STFWPE

START

OR

STRVPE

IEC08000441_2_en.vsd
IEC08000441-1 V2 EN

Figure 86:

TRIP and START signal logic

213
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.2.7

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Technical data
Table 88:

FDPSPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Minimum operate current

(5-500)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir at I Ir
1.0% of I at I > Ir

Reactive reach, positive


sequence

(0.503000.00) /phase

Resistive reach, positive


sequence

(0.101000.00) /phase

Reactive reach, zero sequence

(0.509000.00) /phase

Resistive reach, zero sequence

(0.503000.00) /phase

2.5% static accuracy


2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees

Fault resistance, phase-to-earth


faults, forward and reverse

(1.009000.00) /loop

Fault resistance, phase-to-phase


faults, forward and reverse

(0.503000.00) /loop

Load encroachment criteria:


Load resistance, forward and
reverse
Safety load impedance angle

(1.003000.00) /phase
(5-70) degrees

Reset ratio

105% typically

7.3

Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral


characteristic for series compensated lines
ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS, ZDSRDIR

7.3.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral


characteristic for series compensated
lines (zone 1)

ZMCPDIS

Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral


characteristic for series compensated
lines (zone 2-5)

ZMCAPDIS

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

S00346 V1 EN

21

S00346 V1 EN

Directional impedance quadrilateral,


including series compensation

21D

ZDSRDIR

Z<->
IEC09000167 V1 EN

214
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.3.2

Functionality
The line distance protection is a, up to five zone full scheme protection with three fault
loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth fault for each
of the independent zones. Individual settings for each zone resistive and reactive reach
give flexibility for use on overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths.
Quadrilateral characteristic is available.
ZMCPDIS function has functionality for load encroachment which increases the
possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines.
X
Forward
operation

R
Reverse
operation

en05000034.vsd
IEC05000034 V1 EN

Figure 87:

Typical quadrilateral distance protection zone with load


encroachment function activated

The distance protection zones can operate, independent of each other, in directional
(forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. This makes them suitable, together with
different communication schemes, for the protection of power lines and cables in
complex network configurations, such as parallel lines, multi-terminal lines.

7.3.3

Function block
ZMCPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC07000036-2-en.vsd

IEC07000036 V2 EN

Figure 88:

ZMCPDIS function block

215
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ZMCAPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC09000890-1-en.vsd

IEC09000890 V1 EN

Figure 89:

ZMCAPDIS function block


ZDSRDIR

I3P*
U3P*

STFW
STRV
STDIRCND
IEC07000035-2-en.vsd

IEC07000035 V2 EN

Figure 90:

7.3.4

ZDSRDIR function block

Signals
Input and output signals is shown for zone 1, zone 2 - 5 are equal.

Table 89:
Name

ZMCPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

VTSZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 90:
Name

ZMCPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

Table continues on next page

216
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Type

Description

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

Table 91:
Name

ZMCAPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

VTSZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 92:
Name

ZMCAPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

Table 93:

ZDSRDIR Input signals

Name

Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

217
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 94:

ZDSRDIR Output signals

Name

7.3.5

Type

Description

STFW

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction

STRV

BOOLEAN

Start in reverse direction

STDIRCND

INTEGER

Binary coded directional information per measuring


loop

Settings
Settings for ZMCPDIS are valid for zone 1, while settings for
ZMCAPDIS are valid for zone 2 - 5

Table 95:

ZMCPDIS Group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

OperationPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Phase


loops

X1FwPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhPh, forward

R1PP

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-Ph

RFFwPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward

X1RvPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhPh, reverse

RFRvPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse

OpModetPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph

OperationPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth


loops

X1FwPE

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhE, forward

R1PE

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-E

X0PE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E

R0PE

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

47.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle, Ph-E

RFFwPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward

X1RvPE

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhE, reverse

Table continues on next page


218
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Step

Default

RFRvPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

IMinOpPP

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

IMinOpIN

5 - 1000

%IB

Minimum operate residual current for


Phase-Earth loops

Table 96:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

ZMCPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Table 97:

ZMCAPDIS Group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step
1

Step

Default
1

Default

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

OperationPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Phase


loops

X1FwPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhPh, forward

R1PP

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-Ph

RFFwPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward

X1RvPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhPh, reverse

RFRvPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse

OpModetPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph

OperationPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth


loops

X1FwPE

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhE, forward

R1PE

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-E

X0PE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E

R0PE

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

47.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle, Ph-E

Table continues on next page


219
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

Step

Default

RFFwPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward

X1RvPE

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhE, reverse

RFRvPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

IMinOpPP

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

Table 98:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Unit

Description

ZMCAPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Table 99:

ZDSRDIR Group settings (basic)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step
1

Step

Default
1

Default

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Description

OperationSC

NoSeriesComp
SeriesComp

SeriesComp

Special directional criteria for voltage


reversal

IMinOpPE

5 - 30

%IB

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

IMinOpPP

5 - 30

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase-phase current


for Phase-Phase loops

ArgNegRes

90 - 175

Deg

130

Angle of blinder in second quadrant for


forward direction

ArgDir

5 - 45

Deg

15

Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for


forward direction

INReleasePE

10 - 100

%IPh

20

3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth


measuring loops

INBlockPP

10 - 100

%IPh

40

3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase


measuring loops

OperationLdCh

Off
On

On

Operation of load discrimination


characteristic

RLdFw

1.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

80.00

Forward resistive reach within the load


impedance area

RLdRv

1.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

80.00

Reverse resistive reach within the load


impedance area

ArgLd

5 - 70

Deg

30

Load angle determining the load


impedance area

X1FwPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhPh, forward

R1PP

0.10 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

7.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-Ph

Table continues on next page

220
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Step

Default

RFFwPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward

X1RvPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhPh, reverse

RFRvPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse

X1FwPE

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhE, forward

R1PE

0.10 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

7.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-E

X0FwPE

0.50 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E,


forward

R0PE

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

20.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle, Ph-E

RFFwPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward

X1RvPE

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhE, reverse

X0RvPE

0.50 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E,


reverse

RFRvPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse

Step

Default

Table 100:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.3.6

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

ZDSRDIR Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 101:
Name

ZDSRDIR Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

L1Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L1

L2Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L2

L3Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L3

L1R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L1

L1X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L1

L2R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L2

L2X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L2

L3R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L3

L3X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L3

221
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.3.7

Operation principle

7.3.7.1

Full scheme measurement


The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type, which
means that earth fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for
forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.
Figure 91 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the basic five,
impedance-measuring zones.
L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 1

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 2

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 3

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 4

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 5

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone RV
IEC05000458-2-en.vsd

IEC05000458 V2 EN

Figure 91:

The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault

The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
depending on fault type. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent
distance protection IED with six measuring elements.

7.3.7.2

Impedance characteristic
Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for series compensated lines
(ZMCPDIS) include six impedance measuring loops; three intended for phase-toearth faults, and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as, three-phase faults.
The distance measuring zone operates according to the non-directional impedance
characteristics presented in figure 92 and figure 93. The phase-to-earth characteristic
is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-phase characteristic presents
the per-phase reach.

222
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (Ohm/loop)

R1PE+RNFw
RFRvPE

RFFwPE

X 0 PE - X 1FwPE
3
X
PG- 1RVPG 1RvPE
XX00PE
1XRVPE
XNRV
=XXNFw

XNRV XNRv
==
3
3
X 1FwPE
XNFw =

XX0 PE
- X-1X
FWPE
0 PG
1FWPG
XNFW
XNFW==
3 3

X1FwPE+XNFw

jN

jN

RNFw =

R0 PE - R1PE
3

R (Ohm/loop)
RFRvPE

RFFwPE

X1RvPE+XNRv

jN
RFRvPE

RFFwPE
IEC09000625-1-en.vsd

IEC09000625 V1 EN

Figure 92:

Characteristic for the phase-to-earth measuring loops, ohm/loop


domain

223
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RFRvPP

(Ohm/phase)

R1PP

RFFwPP

X 0 PE - X 1RVPE
XNRV =XX00PE
PG- 1RVPG
X3
1XRVPE
XNRV
=
XNRV =
3
3
PE
--1X
11FWPE
XX
00
PE
-X
X
0
PG
XFWPE
FWPG
XNFW
=
XNFW
XNFW==
3 33

X1FwPP

j
jN
RFRvPP

RFFwPP

j
R (Ohm/phase)

X1RvPP

jN
RFRvPP

RFFwPP

IEC09000632-1-en.vsd

IEC09000632 V1 EN

Figure 93:

Characteristic for the phase-to-phase measuring loops

The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in
figure 94. Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault) resistive
reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.

224
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

UL1

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1

Phase-to-earth
element

RFPE
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0

Phase-to-phase
fault in phase
L1-L2

UL1

IN

(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L2
RFPP

IL2

(Arc resistance)

UL2
R1 + j X1

UL1
Three-phase
fault

IL1

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L3

IL3
UL3
IEC08000282-2-en.vsd

IEC08000282 V2 EN

Figure 94:

Fault loop model

The R1 and jX1 in figure 94 represents the positive sequence impedance from the
measuring point to the fault location. The RFPE and RFPP is the eventual fault
resistance in the fault place.
Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 94, there is of course fault
current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. The illustration
merely reflects the loop measurement, which is made phase-to-phase.
The zone may be set to operate in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse direction
through the setting OperationDir. The result from respective set value is illustrated in
figure 95. It may be convenient to once again mention that the impedance reach is
symmetric, forward and reverse direction. Therefore, all reach settings apply to both
directions.

225
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Non-directional

Forward

Reverse
IEC05000182-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000182 V2 EN

Figure 95:

7.3.7.3

Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zone

Minimum operating current


The operation of Distance measuring zone, quadrilateral characteristic for series
compensated lines (ZMCPDIS,ZMCAPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input
currents fall below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.
For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies, that all
phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN, regardless of the phase
currents.
ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum
of the three phase currents, that is, residual current 3I0.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLnAB (BC or CA)< IMinOpPP.
ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln.
All three current limits IMinOpPE, IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are
automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to
operate in reverse direction, that is, OperationDir=Reverse.

7.3.7.4

Measuring principles
Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage, current, and changes in the
current. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. The

226
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

calculation of the apparent impedances at ph-ph faults follows equation 49 (example


for a phase L1 to phase L2 fault).
UL1 UL2
Zapp = ------------------------I L1 IL2
(Equation 49)

EQUATION1222 V1 EN

Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective
phase.
The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to ph-E faults
(example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 50.
Z app =

U L1
I L1 + I N KN
(Equation 50)

EQUATION1223 V2 EN

Where:
UL1, IL1 and IN are the phase voltage, phase current and residual current present to the IED
KN

KN =

is defined as:

Z 0 - Z1
3 Z1

EQUATION-2105 V2 EN

Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0
EQUATION2106 V2 EN

Z 1 = R1 + jX 1
EQUATION2107 V2 EN

Where
R0

is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach

X0

is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach

R1

is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach

X1

is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach

Here IN is a phasor of the residual current at the IED point. This results in the same
reach along the line for all types of faults.
The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and
reactance X.
227
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The formula given in equation 50 is only valid for no loaded radial feeder applications.
When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault, conventional
distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end.
IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such
applications.
Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter.
The check sums are calculated and compared, and the information is distributed into
memory locations. For each of the six supervised fault loops, sampled values of
voltage (U), current (I), and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from
the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.
The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related to
the loop impedance according to equation 51,
X Di
U = R i + ------ ----w 0 Dt
EQUATION1224 V1 EN

(Equation 51)

in complex notation, or:


X D Re ( I )
Re ( U ) = R Re ( I ) + ------ -----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION354 V1 EN

(Equation 52)

X DIm ( I )
Im ( U ) = R Im ( I ) + ------ ----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION355 V1 EN

(Equation 53)

with
w0 = 2 p f 0
EQUATION356 V1 EN

(Equation 54)

where:
Re

designates the real component of current and voltage,

Im

designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and

f0

designates the rated system frequency

The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value
of the voltage and substitute it in the equation for the imaginary part. The equation for
the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. The final result is equal to:

228
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Im ( U ) DRe ( I ) Re ( U ) D Im ( I )
R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) D Im ( I ) Re ( I )
EQUATION357 V1 EN

(Equation 55)

Re ( U ) Im ( I ) Im ( U ) Re ( I )
Xm = w 0 Dt ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) DIm ( I ) Re ( I )
EQUATION358 V1 EN

(Equation 56)

The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set
zone reach. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping
results. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive
voltage transformers or by other factors.
The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse
directions, and in all six fault loops. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked
positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures unlimited
directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.

7.3.7.5

Directionality for series compensation


In the basic distance protection function, the control of the memory for polarizing
voltage is performed by an undervoltage control. In case of series compensated line,
a voltage reversal can occur with a relatively high voltage also when the memory must
be locked. Thus, a simple undervoltage type of voltage memory control can not be
used in case of voltage reversal. In the option for series compensated network the
polarizing quantity and memory are controlled by an impedance measurement
criterion.
The polarizing voltage is a memorized positive sequence voltage. The memory is
continuously synchronized via a positive sequence filter. The memory is starting to
run freely instantaneously when a voltage change is detected in any phase. A nondirectional impedance measurement is used to detect a fault and identify the faulty
phase or phases.
At a three phase fault when no positive sequence voltage remains (all three phases are
disconnected) the memory is used for direction polarization during 100 ms.
The memory predicts the phase of the positive sequence voltage with the pre-fault
frequency. This extrapolation is made with a high accuracy and it is not the accuracy
of the memory that limits the time the memory can be used. The network is at a three
phase fault under way to a new equilibrium and the post-fault condition can only be
predicted accurately for a limited time from the pre-fault condition.
In case of a three phase fault after 100 ms the phase of the memorized voltage can not
be relied upon and the directional measurement has to be blocked. The achieved
direction criteria are sealed-in when the directional measurement is blocked and kept
until the impedance fault criteria is reset (the direction is stored until the fault is
cleared).
229

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

This memory control allows in the time domain unlimited correct directional
measurement for all unsymmetrical faults also at voltage reversal. Only at three phase
fault within the range of the set impedance reach of the criteria for control of the
polarization voltage the memory has to be used and the measurement is limited to 100
ms and thereafter the direction is sealed-in. The special impedance measurement to
control the polarization voltage is set separately and has only to cover (with some
margin) the impedance to fault that can cause the voltage reversal.
The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance
quadrilateral, including series compensation (ZDSRDIR) function. Equation 57 and
equation 58 are used to classify that the fault is in forward direction for phase-to-earth
fault and phase-to-phase fault.
- ArgDir < arg

U 1L1M
< ArgNeg Re s
I L1
(Equation 57)

EQUATION2004 V2 EN

For the L1-L2 element, the equation in forward direction is according to:
- ArgDir < arg

U 1L1L 2 M
< ArgNeg Re s
I L1L 2
(Equation 58)

EQUATION2006 V2 EN

where:

ArgDir

is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 15 (= -15 degrees) and

ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 115 degrees, see Figure 96.
U1L1M

is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1

IL1

is phase current in phase L1

U1L1L2M

is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

IL1L2

is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees
respectively, see Figure 96, and it should not be changed unless system studies have
shown the necessity.
ZDSRDIR generates a binary coded signal on the output STDIR depending on the
evaluation where STFWL1N=1 adds 1, STRVL1N=1 adds 2, STFWL2N=1 adds 4.

230
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ArgNegRes

ArgDir

en05000722.vsd
IEC05000722 V1 EN

Figure 96:

Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault

The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by


180 degrees.

7.3.7.6

Simplified logic diagrams


Distance protection zones
The design of distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops: phaseto-earth as well as phase-to-phase.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by Ln, where n represents the
corresponding phase number (L1, L2, and L3). The phase-to-phase signals are
designated by LnLm, where n and m represent the corresponding phase numbers
(L1L2, L2L3, and L3L1).
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:

Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described


above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 97.

Two types of function block, ZMCPDIS and ZMCAPDIS, are used in the IED.
ZMCPDIS is used for zone 1 and ZMCAPDIS for zone 2 - 5.

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from
the phase selection function within the IED, which are converted within the zone
measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition
separately. It is connected to Phase selection with load enchroachment, quadrilateral
characteristic (FDPSPDIS) function output STCNDZ.

STZMPP

OR

STCND

STNDL1L2

L1L2

AND

L2L3

AND

L3L1

AND

STNDL3L1

L1N

AND

STNDL1N

L2N

AND

STNDL2N

L3N

AND

STNDL2L3

STNDL3N
STPE

OR

OR
VTSZ
BLOCK

STND

AND

OR

BLK

BLOCFUNC

99000557-2.vsd
IEC99000557-TIFF V3 EN

Figure 97:

Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND

Composition of the phase starting signals for a case, when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode, is presented in figure 98.

232
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IEC00000488-TIFF V1 EN

Figure 98:

Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode

Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone operates
in directional (forward or reverse) mode, as shown in figure 99.
STNDL1N
DIRL1N

AND
STZMPE.

OR
STNDL2N
DIRL2N

AND

STNDL3N

OR

DIRL3N

AND

STNDL1L2
DIRL1L2

AND

OR

AND

15 ms
t

STL1

AND

15 ms
t

STL2

AND

15 ms
t

STL3

STNDL2L3
DIRL2L3

AND
OR

STNDL3L1
DIRL3L1

AND
STZMPP

OR
BLK

OR

AND

15 ms
t

START

IEC09000888-2-en.vsd
IEC09000888 V2 EN

Figure 99:

Composition of starting signals in directional operating mode

Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in
figure 100.

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Timer tPP=On
STZMPP

tPP
t

AND

BLOCFUNC

AND
OR

OR
tPE
t

Timer tPE=On
STZMPE

AND

AND
15ms

AND

BLKTR
BLK

TRIP

OR

STL1

AND

TRL1

STL2

AND

TRL2

STL3

AND

TRL3

IEC09000887-3-en.vsdx

IEC09000887 V3 EN

Figure 100:

7.3.8

Tripping logic for the distance protection zone one

Technical data
Table 102:

ZMCPDIS, ZMCAPDIS Technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones

Max 5 with selectable direction

Minimum operate residual


current, zone 1

(5-1000)% of IBase

Minimum operate current, Ph-Ph


and Ph-E

(10-1000)% of IBase

Positive sequence reactance

(0.10-3000.00) /phase

Positive sequence resistance

(0.10-1000.00) /phase

Zero sequence reactance

(0.01-9000.00) /phase

Zero sequence resistance

(0.01-3000.00) /phase

Fault resistance, Ph-E

(0.10-9000.00) /loop

Fault resistance, Ph-Ph

(0.10-3000.00) /loop

2.0% static accuracy


2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees

Dynamic overreach

<5% at 85 degrees measured


with CCVTs and 0.5<SIR<30

Definite time delay Ph-Ph and


Ph-E operation

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 35 ms whichever is
greater

Table continues on next page

234
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Operate time

25 ms typically

IEC 60255-121

Reset ratio

105% typically

Reset time at 0.1 x Zreach to 2 x


Zreach

Min. = 20 ms
Max. = 50 ms

7.4

Full-scheme distance measuring, Mho characteristic


ZMHPDIS

7.4.1

Identification
Function description

Full-scheme distance protection, mho


characteristic

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617 identification

ZMHPDIS

ANSI/IEEE
C37.2 device
number
21

S00346 V1 EN

7.4.2

Functionality
The numerical mho line distance protection is a, up to four zone full scheme protection
for back-up detection of short circuit and earth faults.
The full scheme technique provides back-up protection of power lines with high
sensitivity and low requirement on remote end communication.
The four zones have fully independent measuring and settings, which gives high
flexibility for all types of lines.
Built-in selectable zone timer logic is also provided in the function.
The function can be used as under impedance back-up protection for transformers and
generators.

235
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Section 7
Impedance protection
7.4.3

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block
ZMHPDIS
I3P*
TRIP
U3P*
TRL1
CURR_INP*
TRL2
VOLT_INP*
TRL3
POL_VOLT*
TRPE
BLOCK
TRPP
BLKZ
START
BLKZMTD
STL1
BLKHSIR
STL2
BLKTRIP
STL3
BLKPE
STPE
BLKPP
STPP
EXTNST
STTIMER
INTRNST
DIRCND
STCND*
LDCND
IEC06000423-2-en.vsd
IEC06000423 V3 EN

Figure 101:

7.4.4

ZMHPDIS function block

Signals
Table 103:
Name

ZMHPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Connection for current sample signals

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Connection for voltage sample signals

CURR_INP

GROUP
SIGNAL

Connection for current signals

VOLT_INP

GROUP
SIGNAL

Connection for voltage signals

POL_VOLT

GROUP
SIGNAL

Connection for polarizing voltage

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKZ

BOOLEAN

Block due to fuse failure

BLKZMTD

BOOLEAN

Block signal for blocking of time domaine function

BLKHSIR

BOOLEAN

Blocks time domain function at high SIR

BLKTRIP

BOOLEAN

Blocks all operate output signals

BLKPE

BOOLEAN

Blocks phase-to-earth operation

BLKPP

BOOLEAN

Blocks phase-to-phase operation

EXTNST

BOOLEAN

External start

INTRNST

BOOLEAN

Internal start

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

LDCND

INTEGER

External load condition (loop enabler)

236
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 104:

ZMHPDIS Output signals

Name

7.4.5
Table 105:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip General

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip phase L3

TRPE

BOOLEAN

Trip phase-to-earth

TRPP

BOOLEAN

Trip phase-to-phase

START

BOOLEAN

Start General

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start phase L3

STPE

BOOLEAN

Start phase-to-earth

STPP

BOOLEAN

Start phase-to-phase

STTIMER

BOOLEAN

Start timer

Settings
ZMHPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off/On

DirMode

Off
Offset
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction mode

LoadEncMode

Off
On

Off

Load encroachment mode Off/On

ReachMode

Overreach
Underreach

Overreach

Reach mode Over/Underreach

ZnTimerSel

Timers seperated
Timers linked
Internal start
Start from PhSel
External start

Timers seperated

Zone timer selection

OpModePE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth


loops

ZPE

0.005 - 3000.000

Ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Positive sequence impedance setting for


Phase-Earth loop

ZAngPE

10 - 90

Deg

85

Angle for positive sequence line


impedance for Phase-Earth loop

KN

0.00 - 3.00

0.01

0.80

Magnitude of earth return compensation


factor KN

KNAng

-180 - 180

Deg

-15

Angle for earth return compensation


factor KN

Table continues on next page

237
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ZRevPE

0.005 - 3000.000

Ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Reverse reach of the phase to earth


loop(magnitude)

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Delay time for operation of phase to earth


elements

IMinOpPE

10 - 30

%IB

20

Minimum operation phase to earth current

OpModePP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Phase


loops

ZPP

0.005 - 3000.000

Ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Impedance setting reach for phase to


phase elements

ZAngPP

10 - 90

Deg

85

Angle for positive sequence line


impedance for Phase-Phase elements

ZRevPP

0.005 - 3000.000

Ohm/p

0.001

30.000

Reverse reach of the phase to phase


loop(magnitude)

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Delay time for operation of phase to phase

IMinOpPP

10 - 30

%IB

20

Minimum operation phase to phase


current

Table 106:
Name

ZMHPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

OffsetMhoDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Non-directional

Direction mode for offset mho

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

OpModetPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-ph

Table 107:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

ZMHPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step

Default

7.4.6

Operation principle

7.4.6.1

Full scheme measurement

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type, which
means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults are
executed in parallel for all zones.
The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
depending on fault type. So each distance protection zone performs like one
independent distance protection function with six measuring elements.
238
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.4.6.2

Impedance characteristic
The Mho distance function ZMHPDIS is present with four instances so that four
separate zones could be designed. Each instance can be selected to be either forward
or reverse with positive sequence polarized mho characteristic; alternatively self
polarized offset mho characteristics is also available. One example of the operating
characteristic is shown in Figure 102 A) where zone 5 is selected offset mho.
The directional mho characteristic of Figure 102 B) has a dynamic expansion due to
the source impedance. Instead of mho characteristic crossing origin, which is only
valid where the source impedance is zero, the crossing point is moved to the
coordinates of the negative source impedance giving an expansion of the circle of
Figure 102 B).

jx

Mho, zone4
Zs=0

Mho, zone3
Mho, zone2

Mho, zone1
Zs=Z1
Zs=2Z1
R
Offset mho, zone5

IEC09000143-3-en.vsd

IEC09000143 V3 EN

Figure 102:

Mho, offset mho characteristic and the source impedance influence on the mho characteristic

The polarization quantities used for the mho circle are 100% memorized positive
sequence voltages. This will give a somewhat less dynamic expansion of the mho
circle during faults than a plain cross polarized characteristic. However, if the source
impedance is high, the dynamic expansion of the mho circle might lower the security
of the function too much with high loading and mild power swing conditions.
The mho distance element has a load encroachment function which cuts off a section
of the characteristic when enabled. The function is enabled by setting the setting
parameter LoadEnchMode to On. Enabling of the load encroachment function
increases the possibility to detect high resistive faults without interfering with the load

239
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

impedance. The algorithm for the load encroachment is located in the Faulty phase
identification with load encroachment for mho function FMPSPDIS, where also the
relevant settings can be found. Information about the load encroachment from
FMPSPDIS to the zone measurement is given in binary format to the input signal
LDCND.

7.4.6.3

Basic operation characteristics


Each impedance zone can be switched On and Off by the setting parameter
Operation.
Each zone can be set to Non-directional, Forward or Reverse by setting the parameter
DirMode .
The operation for phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase fault can be individually
switched On and Off by the setting parameter OpModePE and OpModePP.
For critical applications such as for lines with high SIRs as well as CVTs, it is possible
to improve the security by setting the parameter ReachMode to Underreach. In this
mode the reach for faults close to the zone reach is reduced by 20% and the filtering
is also introduced to increase the accuracy in the measuring. If the ReachMode is set to
Overreach no reduction of the reach is introduced and no extra filtering introduced.
The latter setting is recommended for overreaching pilot zone, zone 2 or zone 3
elements and reverse zone where overreaching on transients is not a major issue either
because of less likelihood of overreach with higher settings or the fact that these
elements do not initiate tripping unconditionally.
The offset Mho characteristic can be set in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse by
the setting parameter OffsetMhoDir. When Forward or Reverse is selected a
directional line is introduced. Information about the directional line is given from the
directional element and given to the measuring element as binary coded signal to the
input DIRCND.
The zone reach for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault is set individually in
polar coordinates.
The impedance is set by the parameters ZPE and ZPP and the corresponding
arguments by the parameters ZAngPE and ZAngPP.
Compensation for earth -return path for faults involving earth is done by setting the
parameter KNMag and KNAng where KNMag is the magnitude of the earth-return
path and KNAng is the difference of angles between KNMag and ZPE .
KNMag =
EQUATION1579 V1 EN

Z0-Z1
3 Z1
(Equation 59)

240
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

KNAng = arg

Z 0 - Z1
3 Z1

)
(Equation 60)

EQUATION1580 V1 EN

where
Z0

is the complex zero sequence impedance of the line in /phase

Z1

is the complex positive sequence impedance of the line in /phase

The phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase measuring loops can be time delayed


individually by setting the parameter tPE and tPP respectively. To release the time
delay, the operation mode for the timers, OpModetPE and OpModetPP, has to be set
to On. This is also the case for instantaneous operation.
The operate timers triggering input depends on the parameter ZnTimerSel setting. The
parameter ZnTimerSel can be set to:

Timers separated: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the


respective measuring loop start signals.
Timers linked: Start of any of the phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase loops will
trigger both the phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase timers.
Internal start: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the
INTRNST input.
Start from PhSel: The phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by
the STCND and LDCND inputs. Each of the two inputs consist binary status
information related to the six measuring loops. Hence if any of the measuring
loop status is high in both two inputs STCND and LDCND, then the timers will be
triggered. In case when LoadEnchMode is off then only STCND enables the timer.
It is not recommended to use this timer setting for the Zone
instance where LoadEnchMode is off.

External start: Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase timers are triggered by the


EXTNST input.

The function can be blocked in the following ways:

activating of input BLOCK blocks the whole function


activating of the input BLKZ (fuse failure) blocks all output signals
activating of the input BLKZMTD blocks the delta based time domain algorithm
activating of the input BLKHSIR blocks the instantaneous part of the algorithm
for high SIR values

241
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

activating of the input BLKTRIP blocks all output signals


activating the input BLKPE blocks the phase-to-earth fault loop outputs
activating the input BLKPP blocks the phase-to-phase fault loop outputs

The activation of input signal BLKZ can be made by external fuse failure function or
from the loss of voltage check in the Mho supervision logic (ZSMGAPC). In both
cases the output BLKZ in the Mho supervision logic shall be connected to the input
BLKZ in the Mho distance function block (ZMHPDIS)
The input signal BLKZMTD is activated during some ms after fault has been detected
by ZSMGAPC to avoid unwanted operations due to transients. It shall be connected
to the BLKZMTD output signal of ZSMGAPC function.
At SIR values >10, the use of electronic CVT might cause overreach due to the builtin resonance circuit in the CVT, which reduce the secondary voltage for a while. The
input BLKHSIR is connected to the output signal HSIR on ZSMGAPC for increasing
of the filtering and high SIR values. This is valid only when permissive underreach
scheme is selected by setting ReachMode=Underreach.

7.4.6.4

Theory of operation
The mho algorithm is based on the phase comparison of an operating phasor and a
polarizing phasor. When the operating phasor leads the reference polarizing phasor by
90 degrees or more, the function operates and gives a trip output.

Phase-to-phase fault
Mho
The plain Mho circle has the characteristic as in Figure 103. The condition for deriving
the angle is according to equation 61.

(Equation 61)

EQUATION1789 V2 EN

where

U L1L2

is the voltage vector difference between phases L1 and L2

EQUATION1790 V2
EN

I L1L2

is the current vector difference between phases L1 and L2

EQUATION1791 V2
EN

ZPP

is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault

Upol

is the polarizing voltage

242
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The polarized voltage consists of 100% memorized positive sequence voltage


(UL1L2 for phase L1 to L2 fault). The memorized voltage will prevent collapse of the
Mho circle for close in faults.
Operation occurs if 90270
IL1L2X

Ucomp = UL1L2 - IL1L2 ZPP


IL1L2 ZPP

Upol
UL1L2

IL1L2R

en07000109.vsd
IEC07000109 V1 EN

Figure 103:

Simplified mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase L1-to-L2


fault

Offset Mho
The characteristic for offset mho is a circle where two points on the circle are the
setting parameters ZPP and ZRevPP. The vector ZPP in the impedance plane has the
settable angle AngZPP and the angle for ZRevPP is AngZPP+180.
The condition for operation at phase-to-phase fault is that the angle between the two
compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater than or equal to 90 (figure
104). The angle will be 90 for fault location on the boundary of the circle.
The angle for L1-to-L2 fault can be defined according to equation 62.

243
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

U-(-IL1L2 ZRevPP)

b = arg

U -IL1L2 ZPP

(Equation 62)

EQUATION1792 V1 EN

where

is the UL1L2 voltage

EQUATION1800 V1 EN

ZRevPP

is the positive sequence impedance setting for phase-to-phase fault in reverse direction

IL1L2jX

Ucomp1 = UL1L2 - IL1L2 ZPP


IL1L2 ZPP

U
Ucomp2 = U = IFZF=UL1L2
IL1L2R

- IL1L2 Z RevPP
en07000110.vsd
IEC07000110 V1 EN

Figure 104:

Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vectors for phase L1to-L2 fault.

Operation occurs if 90270.


Offset mho, forward direction
When forward direction has been selected for the offset mho, an extra criteria beside
the one for offset mho (90<<270) is introduced, that is the angle between the
voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second quadrant and fourth
quadrant. See figure 105. Operation occurs if 90270 and ArgDirArgNegRes.

244
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

where

ArgDir

is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.

ArgNegRes

is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.

is calculated according to equation 62

The directional information is brought to the mho distance measurement from the mho
directional element as binary coded information to the input DIRCND. See
Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) for information
about the mho directional element.
IL1L2jX

ZPP

UL1L2

ArgNegRes

IL1L2
ArgDir

en07000111.vsd
IEC07000111 V1 EN

Figure 105:

Simplified offset mho characteristic in forward direction for phase L1to-L2 fault

Offset mho, reverse direction


The operation area for offset mho in reverse direction is according to figure 106. The
operation area in second quadrant is ArgNegRes+180.
Operation occurs if 90270 and 180 - ArgDir ArgNegRes + 180
The is derived according to equation 62 for the mho circle and is the angle between
the voltage and current.

245
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X
ZPP

ArgNegRes

IL1L2

ArgDir

UL1L2

ZRevPP
en06000469.eps
IEC06000469 V1 EN

Figure 106:

Operation characteristic for reverse phase L1-to-L2 fault

Phase-to-earth fault
Mho
The measuring of earth faults uses earth-return compensation applied in a
conventional way. The compensation voltage is derived by considering the influence
from the earth-return path.
For an earth fault in phase L1, the compensation voltage Ucomp can be derived, as
shown in Figure 107.

246
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Ucomp = U pol - I L1 Z loop


(Equation 63)

EQUATION1793 V1 EN

where
Upol

is the polarizing voltage (memorized UL1 for Phase L1-to- earth fault)

Zloop

is the loop impedance, which in general terms can be expressed as

Z1+ZN = Z 1 1 + KN

where
Z1

is the positive sequence impedance of the line (Ohm/phase)

KN

is the zero-sequence compensator factor

The angle between the Ucomp and the polarize voltage Upol for a L1-to-earth fault
is

= arg U L1 I L1 + 3I 0 KN ZPE arg (Upol )

(Equation 64)

GUID-A9492CDF-D3B7-4DC5-8E06-6638BEE2540B V2 EN

where
UL1

is the phase voltage in faulty phase L1

IL1

is the phase current in faulty phase L1

3I0

is the zero-sequence current in faulty phase L1

KN

Z0-Z1
3 Z1
the setting parameter for the zero sequence
compensation consisting of the magnitude KN and
the angle KNAng.

Upol

is the 100% of positive sequence memorized voltage


UL1

247
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IL1X
IL1ZN

Ucomp

IL1 Zloop
IL1ZPE
Upol
f
IL1 (Ref)

IL1R

en06000472_2.vsd
IEC06000472 V2 EN

Figure 107:

Simplified offset mho characteristic and vector diagram for phase L1to-earth fault

Operation occurs if 90270.


Offset mho
The characteristic for offset mho at earth fault is a circle containing the two vectors
from the origin ZPE and ZRevPE where ZPE and ZrevPE are the setting reach for the
positive sequence impedance in forward respective reverse direction. The vector ZPE
in the impedance plane has the settable angle AngZPE and the angle for ZRevPP is
AngZPE+180.
The condition for operation at phase-to-earth fault is that the angle between the two
compensated voltages Ucomp1 and Ucomp2 is greater or equal to 90 see figure 108.
The angle will be 90 for fault location on the boundary of the circle.
The angle for L1-to-earth fault can be defined as

UL1-(- IL1 Z Re vPE )

b = arg

UL1- IL1L ZPE

(Equation 65)

EQUATION1802 V1 EN

U L1

is the phase L1 voltage

EQUATION1
805 V1 EN

248
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IL1L 2 jX

U comp1 = UL1 - I L1 ZPE

IL1 ZPE

UL1

U comp2 = UL1 - (-IL1 ZRevPE)


IL1L2 R

- I L1 Z Re vPe
en 06000465.vsd
IEC06000465 V1 EN

Figure 108:

Simplified offset mho characteristic and voltage vector for phase L1to-earth fault

Operation occurs if 90270.


Offset mho, forward direction
In the same way as for phase-to-phase fault, selection of forward direction of offset
mho will introduce an extra criterion for operation. Beside the basic criteria for offset
mho according to equation 65 and 90270, also the criteria that the angle between
the voltage and the current must lie between the blinders in second and fourth
quadrant. See figure 109. Operation occurs if 90270 and ArgDirArgNegRes.
where

ArgDir

is the setting parameter for directional line in fourth quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.

ArgNegRes

is the setting parameter for directional line in second quadrant in the directional element,
ZDMRDIR.

is calculated according to equation 65

249
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IL1 jX

UL1

ArgNegRes

IL1R

IL1
ArgDir

en 06000466.vsd
IEC06000466 V1 EN

Figure 109:

Simplified characteristic for offset mho in forward direction for L1-toearth fault

Offset mho, reverse direction


In the same way as for offset in forward direction, the selection of offset mho in
reverse direction will introduce an extra criterion for operation compare to the normal
offset mho. The extra is that the angle between the fault voltage and the fault current
shall lie between the blinders in second and fourth quadrant. The operation area in
second quadrant is limited by the blinder defined as 180 -ArgDir and in fourth
quadrant ArgNegRes+180, see figure 110.
The conditions for operation of offset mho in reverse direction for L1-to-earth fault is
90270 and 180-ArgdirArgNegRes+180.
The is derived according to equation 65 for the offset mho circle and is the angle
between the voltage and current.

250
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X
ZPE

ArgNegRes

IL
1
ArgDir

UL1
ZRevPE

en06000470.eps
IEC06000470 V1 EN

Figure 110:

7.4.6.5

Simplified characteristic for offset mho in reverse direction for L1-toearth fault

Simplified logic diagrams


Distance protection zones
The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops:
phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N, L2N and L3N. The phase-tophase signals are designated by L1L2, L2L3, and L3L1.
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:

Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described


above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 111.

The ZMHPDIS function block is used in the IED for each zone.
The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from
Phase selection with load encroachment function FMPSPDIS within the IED, which
251
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

are converted within the zone measuring function into corresponding boolean
expressions for each condition separately. Input signal STCND is connected from
FMPSPDIS function output signal STCNDPHS.
The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance
measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and
reverse direction. The zone measurement function filters out the relevant signals
depending on the setting of the parameter DirMode. Input signal DIRCND must be
configured to the STDIRCND output signal on ZDMRDIR function.

OffsetMhoDir=
Non-directional

AND

AND

DirMode=Offset
STCND

T
F

AND

AND
LoadEnchMode=
On/Off
LDCND

T
F

True

AND

Release

DIRCND
OffsetMhoDir=
Forward/Reverse
DirMode=
Forward/Reverse

AND

BLKZ
BLOCK

OR

IEC11000216-1-en.vsd
IEC11000216 V1 EN

Figure 111:

Simplified logic for release start signal

When load encroachment mode is switched on (LoadEnchMode=On), start signal


STCND is also checked against LDCND signal.
Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits when the zone operates
in directional (forward or reverse) mode, as shown in figure 111.
Composition of the phase start signals is presented in figure 69.

252
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Release

STL1N
STL2N
STL3N

STPE

OR

AND

STL1

OR
AND
AND

STL2

OR
STL1L2
STL2L3

AND
AND
STL3

OR
STL3L1

AND

OR

OR

START

STPP

IEC11000217-1-en.vsd
IEC11000217 V1 EN

Figure 112:

Composition of starting signals

Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in
figure 71.

253
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Timer tPP=On

tPP
t

AND

STPP

OR
Timer tPE=On

tPE
t

AND

STPE

15ms
AND

BLKTRIP

TRIP

STL1

AND

TRL1

STL2

AND

TRL2

STL3

AND

TRL3

IEC11000218-1-en.vsd
IEC11000218 V1 EN

Figure 113:

Tripping logic for the distance protection zone

Zone timer logic for the distance protection is symbolically presented in figure 114.
STPE
BLOCK
&
&
a
a=b
b

Internal
start

Internal
start

a
b

TRPE

tON
t

STTIMER

&

a<b

&

tON
t

&&

TRPP
STPP

ZnTimerSel
FALSE

1
internalCommonStart

1 timers seperated
2 timers linked
3 internal start

phSelStart

4 start from phSel

externalCommonStart

5 external start

IEC12000463-3-en.vsd

IEC12000463 V2 EN

Figure 114:

Zone timer logic

254
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.4.7

Technical data
Table 108:

ZMHPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones, Ph-E

Max 4 with selectable direction

Minimum operate current

(1030)% of IBase

Positive sequence impedance,


Ph-E loop

(0.0053000.000) W/phase

Positive sequence impedance


angle, Ph-E loop

(1090) degrees

Reverse reach, Ph-E loop


(Magnitude)

(0.0053000.000) /phase

2.0% static accuracy


Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: 85 degrees

Magnitude of earth return


compensation factor KN

(0.003.00)

Angle for earth compensation


factor KN

(-180180) degrees

Dynamic overreach

<5% at 85 degrees measured


with CVTs and 0.5<SIR<30

Definite time delay Ph-Ph and PhE operation

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 60 ms whichever is
greater

Operate time

22 ms typically

IEC 60255-121

Reset ratio

105% typically

Reset time at 0.5 to 1.5 x Zreach

Min = 30 ms
Max = 45 ms

7.5

Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for


earth faults ZMMPDIS, ZMMAPDIS

7.5.1

Identification
Function description
Fullscheme distance protection,
quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 1)

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

ZMMPDIS

S00346 V1 EN

Fullscheme distance protection,


quadrilateral for earth faults (zone 2-5)

21

ZMMAPDIS

S00346 V1 EN

255
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.5.2

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Functionality
The line distance protection is an up to five (depending on product variant) zone full
scheme protection function with three fault loops for phase-to-earth fault for each of
the independent zones. Individual settings for each zone resistive and reactive reach
give flexibility for use on overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths.
The Full-scheme distance protection, quadrilateral for earth fault functions have
functionality for load encroachment, which increases the possibility to detect high
resistive faults on heavily loaded lines , see Figure 58.
X
Forward
operation

R
Reverse
operation

en05000034.vsd
IEC05000034 V1 EN

Figure 115:

Typical quadrilateral distance protection zone with Phase selection,


quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle function FRPSPDIS
activated

The independent measurement of impedance for each fault loop together with a
sensitive and reliable built in phase selection makes the function suitable in
applications with single phase auto-reclosing.
Built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of zone1 at load
exporting end at phase to earth faults on heavily loaded power lines.
The distance protection zones can operate, independent of each other, in directional
(forward or reverse) or non-directional mode. This makes them suitable, together with
different communication schemes, for the protection of power lines and cables in
complex network configurations, such as parallel lines, multi-terminal lines.

256
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.5.3

Function block
ZMMPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC06000454-2-en.vsd

IEC06000454 V2 EN

Figure 116:

ZMMPDIS function block

ZMMAPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC09000947-1-en.vsd

IEC09000947 V1 EN

Figure 117:

7.5.4

ZMMAPDIS function block

Signals
Table 109:
Name

ZMMPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 110:
Name

ZMMPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

Table continues on next page


257
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Type

Description

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

Table 111:
Name

ZMMAPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 112:
Name

ZMMAPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

258
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.5.5
Table 113:
Name

Settings
ZMMPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

X1

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach

R1

0.10 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

X0

0.50 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero sequence reactance reach

R0

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

RFPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

IMinOpPE

10 - 30

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

IMinOpIN

5 - 30

%IB

Minimum operate residual current for


Phase-Earth loops

Table 114:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

Table 115:
Name

ZMMPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

ZMMAPDIS Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

X1

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach

R1

0.10 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

X0

0.50 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach

R0

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle

RFPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E

Table continues on next page

259
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

IMinOpPE

10 - 30

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

Table 116:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

ZMMAPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit

Step

Default

Description

7.5.6

Operation principle

7.5.6.1

Full scheme measurement

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

The different fault loops within the IED are operating in parallel in the same principle
as a full scheme measurement.
Figure 118 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the basic five,
impedance-measuring zones l.
L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

Zone 1

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

Zone 2

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

Zone 3

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

Zone 4

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

Zone 5

en07000080.vsd
IEC07000080 V1 EN

Figure 118:

7.5.6.2

The different measuring loops at line-earth fault and phase-phase


fault.

Impedance characteristic
The distance measuring zone include three impedance measuring loops; one fault loop
for each phase.
The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the non-directional
impedance characteristics presented in Figure 119. The characteristic is illustrated
with the full loop reach.

260
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (Ohm/loop)

R1PE+Rn
RFPE

RFPE

X1PE+Xn

jN
RFPE

Xn =

X0PE-X1PE
3

Rn =

R0PE-R1PE
3

jN

R (Ohm/loop)

RFPE

X1PE+Xn

RFPE

RFPE
en08000280-2-en.vsd

R1PE+Rn
IEC08000280 V1 EN

Figure 119:

Characteristic for the phase-to-earth measuring loops, ohm/loop


domain.

The fault loop reach may also be presented as in Figure 120.


UL1

ILn

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1

Phase-to-earth
element

RFPE
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0
IN

(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )

en06000412.vsd

IEC06000412 V1 EN

Figure 120:

Fault loop model

261
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The R1 and jX1 in Figure 120 represent the positive sequence impedance from the
measuring point to the fault location. The RFPE is presented in order to convey the
fault resistance reach.
The zone may be set to operate in Non-directional, Forward, Off or Reverse direction
through the setting OperationDir. The result from respective set value is illustrated in
Figure 121. The impedance reach is symmetric, in the sense that it is conform for
forward and reverse direction. Therefore, all reach settings apply to both directions.

Non-directional

Forward

Reverse
IEC05000182-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000182 V2 EN

Figure 121:

7.5.6.3

Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zone

Minimum operating current


The operation of the distance measuring zone is blocked if the magnitude of input
currents fall below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.
For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies, that all
phase-to-earth loops will be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN, regardless of the phase
currents.
ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum
of the three phase currents, that is, residual current 3I0.
Both current limits IMinOpPE and IMinOpIN are automatically
reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to operate in
reverse direction, that is, OperationDir=Reverse.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.5.6.4

Measuring principles
Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage, current, and changes in the
current. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits.
Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective
phase Ln (n = 1, 2, 3).
The calculation of the apparant impedances at phase-to-earth fault follow equation 66
The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner.
Z app =

U L1
I L1 + I N KN
(Equation 66)

EQUATION1223 V2 EN

Where:
UL1, IL1 and IN are the phase voltage, phase current and residual current present to the IED
KN

KN =

is defined as:

Z 0 - Z1
3 Z1

EQUATION-2105 V2 EN

Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0
EQUATION2106 V2 EN

Z 1 = R1 + jX 1
EQUATION2107 V2 EN

Where
R0

is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach

X0

is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach

R1

is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach

X1

is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach

Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point. This results in the same reach
along the line for all types of faults.
The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and
reactance X.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The formula given in equation 66 is only valid for no loaded radial feeder applications.
When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault, conventional
distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end.
IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such
applications.
Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter.
The check sums are calculated and compared, and the information is distributed into
memory locations. For each of the six supervised fault loops, sampled values of
voltage (U), current (I), and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from
the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.
The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related to
the loop impedance according to equation 67,
X Di
U = R i + ------ ----w 0 Dt
EQUATION1224 V1 EN

(Equation 67)

in complex notation, or:


X D Re ( I )
Re ( U ) = R Re ( I ) + ------ -----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION354 V1 EN

(Equation 68)

X DIm ( I )
Im ( U ) = R Im ( I ) + ------ ----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION355 V1 EN

(Equation 69)

with
w0 = 2 p f 0
EQUATION356 V1 EN

(Equation 70)

where:
Re

designates the real component of current and voltage,

Im

designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and

f0

designates the rated system frequency

The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value
of the voltage and substitute it in the equation for the imaginary part. The equation for
the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. The final result is equal to:

264
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Im ( U ) DRe ( I ) Re ( U ) D Im ( I )
R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) D Im ( I ) Re ( I )
(Equation 71)

EQUATION357 V1 EN

Re ( U ) Im ( I ) Im ( U ) Re ( I )
Xm = w 0 Dt ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) DIm ( I ) Re ( I )
(Equation 72)

EQUATION358 V1 EN

The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set
zone reach. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping
results. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive
voltage transformers or by other factors.
The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse
directions, and in all six fault loops. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked
positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures unlimited
directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.

7.5.6.5

Directionality
The evaluation of the directionality takes place in the Directional impedance element
for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR function. Equation 73 is used to classify that the
fault is in forward direction for line-to-earth fault.

- ArgDir < arg

0.85 U1L1 + 0.15 U1L1M


I L1

< ArgNeg Re s
(Equation 73)

EQUATION1617 V1 EN

where:

ArgDir

is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 15 (= -15 degrees) and

ArgNegRes is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 115 degrees, see figure 122.
U1L1

is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1

U1L1M

is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1

IL1

is phase current in phase L1

The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees
respectively (see figure 122) and it should not be changed unless system studies have
shown the necessity.
ZDMRDIR gives a binary coded signal on the output STDIRCND depending on the
evaluation where STFWL1N=1 adds 1, STRVL1N=1 adds 2, STFWL2N=1 adds 4
etc.
265
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ArgNegRes

ArgDir

en05000722.vsd
IEC05000722 V1 EN

Figure 122:

Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault

The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by


180 degrees.
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage exceeds
5% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for all
unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1L1M memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored.
After 100 ms, the following occurs:

If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current
(between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase), the condition seals in.

If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures.


If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element in
the reverse direction remains in operation.

If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, the memory resets
until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.5.6.6

Simplified logic diagrams


Distance protection zones
The design of distance protection zone 1 is presented for all measuring phase-to-earth
loops.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by LnE, where n represents the
corresponding phase number (L1E, L2E, and L3E).
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:

Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described


above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 123.

The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from
the phase selection function within the IED, which are converted within the zone
measuring function into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition
separately. It is connected to the Phase selection with load enchroachment,
quadrilateral characteristic (FDPSPDIS) function output STCNDZ.
The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance
measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and
reverse direction. The zone measurement function filter out the relevant signals on the
DIRCND input depending on the setting of the parameter OperationDir. It shall be
configured to the DIRCND output on the Directional impedance element for mho
characteristic (ZDMRDIR) function.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STCND

L1N

AND

STNDL1N

L2N

AND

STNDL2N

L3N

AND

STNDL3N
STNDPE

OR

OR
BLKZ
BLOCK

STND

AND

OR

BLK
en06000408-2.vsd

IEC06000408 V2 EN

Figure 123:

Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND

Composition of the phase starting signals for a case, when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode, is presented in figure 124.
STNDL1N
AND

15 ms
t

STL1

AND

15 ms
t

STL2

AND

15 ms
t

STL3

AND

15 ms
t

START

STNDL2N
STNDL3N

OR
BLK

en06000409.vsd
IEC06000409 V1 EN

Figure 124:

Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode

Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone operates
in directional (forward or reverse) mode, see figure 125.

268
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STNDL1N
DIRL1N

AND
OR

STNDL2N
DIRL2N
STNDL3N
DIRL3N

STZMPE.

&

AND

AND

&

15 ms
t

STL1

&

15 ms
t

STL2

&

15 ms
t

STL3

&

15 ms
t

START

BLK
OR

en07000081.vsd
IEC07000081 V1 EN

Figure 125:

Composition of starting signals in directional operating mode

Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in
figure 126.

Timer tPE=On
STZMPE

AND

tPE
t
15ms

TRIP

BLKTR

AND

STL1

AND

TRL1

STL2

AND

TRL2

STL3

AND

TRL3

en07000082.vsd
IEC07000082 V1 EN

Figure 126:

Tripping logic for the distance protection zone one

269
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Section 7
Impedance protection
7.5.7

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Technical data
Table 117:

ZMMPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones

Max 5 with selectable direction

Minimum operate current

(10-30)% of IBase

Positive sequence reactance

(0.50-3000.00) W/phase

Positive sequence resistance

(0.10-1000.00) /phase

Zero sequence reactance

(0.50-9000.00) /phase

Zero sequence resistance

(0.50-3000.00) /phase

Fault resistance, Ph-E

(1.00-9000.00) W/loop

2.0% static accuracy


2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees

Dynamic overreach

<5% at 85 degrees measured


with CCVTs and 0.5<SIR<30

Definite time delay Ph-Ph and PhE operation

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 40 ms whichever is
greater

Operate time

25 ms typically

IEC 60255-121

Reset ratio

105% typically

Reset time at 0.1 to 2 x Zreach

Min. = 20 ms
Max. = 35 ms

7.6

Directional impedance element for mho


characteristic and additional distance protection
directional function for earth faults ZDMRDIR,
ZDARDIR

7.6.1

Identification
Function description
Directional impedance element for mho
characteristic

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21D

ZDMRDIR

S00346 V1 EN

Function description
Additional distance protection
directional function for earth faults

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

ZDARDIR

S00346 V1 EN

270
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.6.2

Functionality
The phase-to-earth impedance elements can be supervised by a phase unselective
directional function based on symmetrical components (option).

7.6.3

Function block
ZDMRDIR
I3P*
U3P*

DIR_CURR
DIR_VOLT
DIR_POL
STFW
STRV
STDIRCND
IEC06000422_2_en.vsd

IEC06000422 V2 EN

Figure 127:

ZDMRDIR function block

ZDARDIR
I3P*
U3P*
I3PPOL*
DIRCND

STFWPE
STRVPE
DIREFCND

IEC06000425-2-en.vsd
IEC06000425 V2 EN

Figure 128:

7.6.4

ZDARDIR function block

Signals
Table 118:
Name

ZDMRDIR Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

Table 119:
Name

ZDMRDIR Output signals


Type

Description

CURR

GROUP SIGNAL

Group signal for current signals to Mho function

VOLT

GROUP SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage signals to Mho function

POL

GROUP SIGNAL

Group signal for polarization voltage signals to Mho


function

STFW

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction

STRV

BOOLEAN

Start in reverse direction

STDIRCND

INTEGER

Binary coded directional information per measuring


loop

271
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 120:

ZDARDIR Input signals

Name

Type

Current signals

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Voltage signals

I3PPOL

GROUP
SIGNAL

Polarisation current signals

DIRCND

INTEGER

Binary coded directional signal

ZDARDIR Output signals

Name

Table 122:
Name

Description

GROUP
SIGNAL

Table 121:

7.6.5

Default

I3P

Type

Description

STFWPE

BOOLEAN

Forward start signal from phase-to-ground


directional element

STRVPE

BOOLEAN

Reverse start signal from phase-to-ground


directional element

DIREFCND

INTEGER

Start direction Binary coded

Settings
ZDMRDIR Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

DirEvalType

Impedance
Comparator
Imp/Comp

Comparator

Directional evaluation mode Impedance /


Comparator

ArgNegRes

90 - 175

Deg

115

Angle of blinder in second quadrant for


forward direction

ArgDir

5 - 45

Deg

15

Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for


forward direction

IMinOpPE

5 - 30

%IB

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

IMinOpPP

5 - 30

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase-phase current


for Phase-Phase loops

Table 123:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

ZDMRDIR Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 124:
Name

ZDARDIR Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

PolMode

-3U0
-U2
IPol
Dual
-3U0Comp
-U2comp

-3U0

Polarization quantity for opt dir function for


P-E faults

AngleRCA

-90 - 90

Deg

75

Characteristic relay angle (= MTA or base


angle)

I>

5 - 200

%IB

Minimum operation current in % of IBase

UPol>

4 - 100

%UB

Minimum polarizing voltage in % of UBase

IPol>

5 - 100

%IB

10

Minimum polarizing current in % of IBase

Table 125:
Name

ZDARDIR Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

AngleOp

90 - 180

Deg

160

Operation sector angle

Kmag

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm

0.01

40.00

Boost-factor in -U0comp and -U2comp


polarization

Step

Default

Table 126:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.6.6

ZDARDIR Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 127:
Name

ZDMRDIR Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

L1Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L1

L2Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L2

L3Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L3

L1R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L1

L1X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L1

L2R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L2

L2X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L2

L3R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L3

L3X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L3

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.6.7

Operation principle

7.6.7.1

Directional impedance element for mho characteristic ZDMRDIR


The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance element for
mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR). Equation 74 and equation 75 are used to classify that
the fault is in the forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault
respectively.

- ArgDir < arg

0.85 U1L1 + 0.15 U1L1M


I L1

< ArgNeg Re s
(Equation 74)

EQUATION1617 V1 EN

- ArgDir < arg

0.85 U1L1L 2 + 0.15 U1L1L 2M


I L1L 2

< ArgNeg Re s
(Equation 75)

EQUATION1619 V1 EN

Where:
ArgDir

Setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set to 15
(= -15 degrees)

ArgNegRes

Setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set to
115 degrees, see figure 129 for mho characteristics.

U1L1

Positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1

U1L1M

Positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1

IL1

Phase current in phase L1

U1L1L2

Voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

U1L1L2M

Memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

IL1L2

Current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

The default settings for ArgDir and ArgNegRes are 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees
respectively (see figure 129) and they should not be changed unless system studies
show the necessity.
If one sets DirEvalType to Comparator (which is recommended when using the mho
characteristic) then the directional lines are computed by means of a comparator-type
calculation, meaning that the directional lines are based on mho-circles (of infinite
radius). The default setting value Impedance otherwise means that the directional
lines are implemented based on an impedance calculation equivalent to the one used
for the quadrilateral impedance characteristics.
When Directional impedance element for mho characteristic
(ZDMRDIR) is used together with Fullscheme distance protection,
mho characteristic (ZMHPDIS) the following settings for parameter
DirEvalType is vital:
274
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

alternative Comparator is strongly recommended


alternative Imp/Comp should generally not be used
alternative Impedance should not be used. This altenative is
intended for use together with Distance protection zone,
quadrilateral characteristic (ZMQPDIS)

X
Zset reach point

ArgNegRes

-ArgDir

-Zs
en06000416.vsd
IEC06000416 V1 EN

Figure 129:

Setting angles for discrimination of forward fault

The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by


180 degrees.
The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows: STDIRCND
= L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32
Example: If only L1Nstart, the value is 1, if start in L1N and L3N are detected, the
value is 1+4=5.
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive-sequence voltage exceeds
5% of the set base voltage UBase, thus the directional element can use it for all
unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1L1M memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored. After 100ms, the following occurs:

If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current the
condition seals in.
275

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

If the fault has caused tripping, the trip continues.


If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element in
the reverse direction remains in operation.

If the current decreases below the minimum operate value, no directional


indications will be given until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its
rated value.

The Directional impedance element for mho characteristic (ZDMRDIR) function has
the following output signals:
The STDIRCND output provides an integer signal that depends on the evaluation and
is derived from a binary coded signal as follows:
bit 11
(2048)

bit 10
(1024)

bit 9
(512)

bit 8
(256)

bit 7
(128)

bit 6
(64)

STRVL3L1=
1

STRVL2L3=
1

STRVL1L2=
1

STRVL3N=1

STRVL2N=1

STRVL1N=1

bit 5
(32)

bit 4
(16)

bit 3
(8)

bit 2
(4)

bit 1
(2)

bit 0
(1)

STFWL3L1=
1

STFWL2L3=
1

STFWL1L2=
1

STFWL3N=1

STFWL2N=1

STFWL1N=1

The STFW output is a logical signal with value 1 or 0. It is made up as an OR-function


of all the forward starting conditions, that is, STFWL1N, STFWL2N, STFWL3N,
STFWL1L2, STFWL2L3 and STFWL3L1. The STRV output is similar to the STFW
output, the only difference being that it is made up as an OR-function of all the reverse
starting conditions, that is, STRVL1N, STRVL2N, STRVL3N, STRVL1L2,
STRVL2L3 and STRVL3L1.

7.6.7.2

Additional distance protection directional function for earth faults


ZDARDIR
A Mho element needs a polarizing voltage to operate. The positive-sequence memorypolarized elements are generally preferred. The benefits include:

The greatest amount of expansion for improved resistive coverage. These


elements always expand back to the source.
Memory action for all fault types. This is very important for close-in three-phase
faults.
A common polarizing reference for all six distance-measuring loops. This is
important for single-pole tripping, during a pole-open period.

There are however some situations that can cause security problems like reverse phase
to phase faults and double phase-to-earth faults during high load periods. To solve
these, additional directional element is used.

276
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

For phase-to-earth faults, directional elements using sequence components are very
reliable for directional discrimination. The directional element can be based on one of
following types of polarization:

Zero-sequence voltage
Negative-sequence voltage
Zero-sequence current

These additional directional criteria are evaluated in the Additional distance


protection directional function for earth faults (ZDARDIR).
Zero-sequence voltage polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the zerosequence voltage and the zero-sequence current at the location of the protection. The
measurement principle is illustrated in figure 130.

- 3U 0
AngleOp
AngleRCA

3I 0
en06000417.vsd
IEC06000417 V1 EN

Figure 130:

Principle for zero-sequence voltage polarized additional directional


element

Negative-sequence voltage polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the


negative-sequence voltage and the negative-sequence current at the location of the
protection.
Zero-sequence current polarization is utilizing the phase relation between the zerosequence current at the location of the protection and some reference zero-sequence
current, for example, the current in the neutral of a power transformer.
The principle of zero-sequence voltage polarization with zero-sequence current
compensation is described in figure 131. The same also applies for the negativesequence function.

277
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

I0

Z0 SA

I0

Z0 SB

Z0 Line

Charac te ris tic


ang le

U0

U0

K*I0
U0 + K*I0
IF
en06000418.vsd

IEC06000418 V1 EN

Figure 131:

Principle for zero sequence compensation

Note that the sequence based additional directional element cannot give per phase
information about direction to fault. This is why it is an AND-function with the normal
directional element that works on a per phase base. The enable signals are per phase
and to enable the measuring element in a specific phase, both the additional directional
element and the normal directional element, for that phase must indicate correct
direction.
These polarization quantities, voltage and current, are stabilized against minimum
polarizing voltage (UPOL>) and current (IPOL>). That means if polarizing voltage is
greater than UPOL> setting, and if polarizing current is greater than IPol>, then only
they are used for direction determination.
Normal
directional
element
L1N, L2N, L3N
Additional
directional
element

AND

Release of distance
measuring element
L1N, L2N, L3N

AND per
phase
en06000419.vsd

IEC06000419 V1 EN

Figure 132:

Earth distance element directional supervision

7.7

Mho impedance supervision logic ZSMGAPC

7.7.1

Identification
Function description
Mho Impedance supervision logic

IEC 61850
identification
ZSMGAPC

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

278
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.7.2

Functionality
The Mho impedance supervision logic (ZSMGAPC) includes features for fault
inception detection and high SIR detection. It also includes the functionality for loss
of potential logic as well as for the pilot channel blocking scheme.
ZSMGAPC can mainly be decomposed in two different parts:
1.
2.

7.7.3

A fault inception detection logic


High SIR detection logic

Function block
ZSMGAPC
I3P*
BLKZMTD
U3P*
BLKCHST
BLOCK
CHSTOP
REVSTART
HSIR
BLOCKCS
CBOPEN
IEC06000426-2-en.vsd
IEC06000426 V2 EN

Figure 133:

7.7.4

ZSMGAPC function block

Signals
Table 128:
Name

ZSMGAPC Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase current samples and DFT magnitude

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Three phase phase-neutral voltage samples and


DFT magnitude

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of the function

REVSTART

BOOLEAN

Indication of reverse start

BLOCKCS

BOOLEAN

Blocks the blocking carrier signal to remote end

CBOPEN

BOOLEAN

Indicates that the breaker is open

Table 129:
Name

ZSMGAPC Output signals


Type

Description

BLKZMTD

BOOLEAN

Block signal for blocking of time domained mho

BLKCHST

BOOLEAN

Blocking signal to remote end to block


overreaching zone

CHSTOP

BOOLEAN

Stops the blocking signal to remote end

HSIR

BOOLEAN

Indication of source impedance ratio above set limit

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Impedance protection
7.7.5
Table 130:
Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Settings
ZSMGAPC Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

PilotMode

Off
On

Off

Pilot mode Off/On

Zreach

0.1 - 3000.0

Ohm

0.1

38.0

Line impedance

IMinOp

10 - 30

%IB

20

Minimum operating current for SIR


measurement

Table 131:
Name

ZSMGAPC Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

DeltaI

0 - 200

%IB

10

Current change level in % of IBase for fault


inception detection

Delta3I0

0 - 200

%IB

10

Zero seq current change level in % of


IBase

DeltaU

0 - 100

%UB

Voltage change level in % of UBase for


fault inception detection

Delta3U0

0 - 100

%UB

Zero seq voltage change level in % of


UBase

SIRLevel

5 - 15

10

Settable level for source impedance ratio

Table 132:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

ZSMGAPC Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

7.7.6

Operation principle

7.7.6.1

Fault inception detection

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

The aim for the fault inception detector is to quickly detect that a fault has occurred in
the system. The fault detector detects a fault when there is a sufficient change in at
least one current and at the same time there is a sufficient change in at least one
voltage. A change is defined roughly by the difference between the present
instantaneous value and the one from one power system cycle before. The change is
sufficient if it exceeds the related threshold value. DeltaI and DeltaU for phase
currents and voltages. Delta3I0 and Delta3U0 for residual current and voltage.
If the setting PilotMode is set to On in blocking scheme and the fault inception
function has detected a system fault, a block signal BLKCHST is issued and send to
remote end in order to block the overreaching zones. Different criteria has to be
fulfilled for sending the BLKCHST signal:

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

1.
2.
3.

The setting PilotMode has to be set to On


The breaker has to be closed, that is, the input signal CBOPEN should not be
actived
A reverse fault should have been detected while the carrier send signal is not
blocked, that is, input signal REVSTART is activated and input signal BLOCKCS
is not activated or a fault inception is detected and input signal CSBLOCK is not
activated.

If it is later detected that it was an internal fault that made the function issue the
BLKCHST signal, the function issues a CHSTOP signal to unblock the remote end. The
criteria that have to be fulfilled for this are:
1.
2.
3.

The function has to be in pilot mode, that is, the setting PilotMode has to be set to
On
The carrier send signal should be blocked, that is, input signal BLOCKCS is On
and,
A reverse fault should not have been detected while the carrier send signal was
not blocked, that is, input REVSTART should not have been activated before
BLOCKCS.

If loss of voltage is detected, but not a fault inception, the distance protection function
is blocked. This is also the case if a fuse failure is detected by the external fuse failure
function and activate the input FUSEFAIL. Those blocks are generated by activating
the output BLKZ, which are connected to the input BLKZ on the distance Mho function
block.
During fault inception a lot of transients are developed which in turn might cause the
distance function to overreach. The Mho supervision logic (ZSMGAPC) increases the
filtering during the most transient period of the fault. This is done by activating the
output BLKZMTD, which is connected to the input BLKZMTD on mho distance
function block.

High SIR detection


High SIR values increases the likelihood that CVT will introduce a prolonged and
distorted transient, increasing the risk for overreach of the distance function.
The SIR function calculates the SIR value as the source impedance divided by the
setting Zreach and activates the output signal HSIR if the calculated value for any of
the six basic shunt faults exceed the setting SIRLevel. The HSIR signal is intended to
block the delta based mho impedance function.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.8

Faulty phase identification with load encroachment


FMPSPDIS

7.8.1

Identification
Function description
Faulty phase identification with load
encroachment for mho

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

FMPSPDIS

S00346 V1 EN

7.8.2

Functionality
The ability to accurately and reliably classify different types of fault so that single
phase tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important roll in today's power
systems.
The phase selection function is design to accurately select the proper fault loop(s) in
the distance function dependent on the fault type.
The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may in some
cases interfere with the distance protection zone reach and cause unwanted operation.
Therefore the function has a built in algorithm for load encroachment, which gives the
possibility to enlarge the resistive setting of the measuring zones without interfering
with the load.
The output signals from the phase selection function produce important information
about faulty phase(s), which can be used for fault analysis as well.

7.8.3

Function block
FMPSPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
ZSTART
TR3PH
1POLEAR

STL1
STL2
STL3
STPE
STCNDPHS
STCNDPLE
STCNDLE
START
IEC06000429-2-en.vsd

IEC06000429 V2 EN

Figure 134:

FMPSPDIS function block

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.8.4

Signals
Table 133:

FMPSPDIS Input signals

Name

Type

Group signal for current

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

ZSTART

BOOLEAN

Start from underimpdeance function

TR3PH

BOOLEAN

Three phase tripping initiated

1POLEAR

BOOLEAN

Single pole autoreclosing in progress

FMPSPDIS Output signals

Name

Table 135:
Name

Description

GROUP
SIGNAL

Table 134:

7.8.5

Default

I3P

Type

Description

STL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3

STPE

BOOLEAN

Earth fault detected

STCNDPHS

INTEGER

Binary coded starts from phase selection

STCNDPLE

INTEGER

Binary coded starts from ph sel with load


encroachment

STCNDLE

INTEGER

Binary coded starts from load encroachment only

START

BOOLEAN

Indicates that something has started

Settings
FMPSPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IMaxLoad

10 - 5000

%IB

200

Maximum load for identification of three


phase fault in % of IBase

RLd

1.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

80.00

Load encroachment resistive reach in


ohm/phase

ArgLd

5 - 70

Deg

20

Load encroachment inclination of load


angular sector

Table 136:
Name

FMPSPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

DeltaIMinOp

5 - 100

%IB

10

Delta current level in % of IBase

DeltaUMinOp

5 - 100

%UB

20

Delta voltage level in % of UBase

U1Level

5 - 100

%UB

80

Pos seq voltage limit for identification of 3ph fault

Table continues on next page


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Impedance protection

Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

I1LowLevel

5 - 200

%IB

10

Pos seq current level for identification of 3ph fault in % of IBase

U1MinOp

5 - 100

%UB

20

Minimum operate positive sequence


voltage for ph sel

U2MinOp

1 - 100

%UB

Minimum operate negative sequence


voltage for ph sel

INRelPE

10 - 100

%IB

20

3I0 limit for release ph-e measuring loops


in % of max phase current

INBlockPP

10 - 100

%IB

40

3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase


measuring loops in % of max phase
current

Table 137:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

FMPSPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

7.8.6

Operation principle

7.8.6.1

The phase selection function

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS) function
can be decomposed into six different parts:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

A high speed delta based current phase selector


A high speed delta based voltage phase selector
A symmetrical components based phase selector
Fault evaluation and selection logic
A load encroachment logic
A blinder logic

The total function can be blocked by activating the input BLOCK.

Delta based current and voltages


The delta based fault detection function uses adaptive technique and is based on patent
US4409636.
The aim of the delta based phase selector is to provide very fast and reliable phase
selection for releasing of tripping from the high speed Mho measuring element and is
essential to Directional Comparison Blocking scheme (DCB), which uses Power Line
Carrier (PLC) communication system along the protected line.
The current and voltage samples for each phase passes through a notch filter that filters
out the fundamental components. Under steady state load conditions or when no fault
is present, the output of the filter is zero or close to zero. When a fault occurs, currents
and voltages change resulting in sudden changes in the currents and voltages resulting
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

in non-fundamental waveforms being introduced on the line. At this point the notch
filter produces significant non-zero output. The filter output is processed by the delta
function. The algorithm uses an adaptive relationship between phases to determine if
a fault has occurred, and determines the faulty phases.
The current and voltage delta based phase selector gives a real output signal if the
following criterion is fulfilled (only phase L1 shown):
Max(UL1,UL2,UL3)>DeltaUMinOp
Max(IL1,IL2,IL3)>DeltaIMinOp
where:
UL1, UL2 and UL3

are the voltage change between sample t and sample t-1

DeltaUMinOp and DeltaIMinOp

are the minimum harmonic level settings for the voltage and current filters
to decide that a fault has occurred. A slow evolving fault may not produce
sufficient harmonics to detect the fault; however, in such a case speed is
no longer the issue and the sequence components phase selector will
operate.

The delta voltages ULn and delta current ILn (n index for phase order) are the
voltage and current between sample t and sample t-1.
The delta phase selector employs adaptive techniques to determine the fault type. The
logic determines the fault type by summing up all phase values and dividing by the
largest value. Both voltages and currents are filtered out and evaluated. The condition
for fault type classification for the voltages and currents can be expressed as:

FaulType =

( UL1, UL2, UL3)


MAX ( UL1, UL 2, UL3)
(Equation 76)

EQUATION1621 V2 EN

FaulType =

( IL1, IL2, IL3)


MAX ( IL1, IL 2, IL3)
(Equation 77)

EQUATION1622 V2 EN

The value of FaultType for different shunt faults are as follows:


Under ideal conditions: (Patent pending)
Single phase-to-earth;

FaultType=1

Phase-to-phase fault

FaultType=2

Three-phase fault;

FaultType=3

The output signal is 1 for single phase-to-earth fault, 2 for phase-to-phase fault and 3
for three-phase fault. At this point the filter does not know if earth was involved or not.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Typically there are induced harmonics in the non-faulted lines that will affect the
result. This method allows for a significant tolerance in the evaluation of FaultType
over its entire range.
When a single phase-to-earth fault has been detected, the logic determines the largest
quantity, and asserts that phase. If phase-to-phase fault is detected, the two largest
phase quantities will be detected and asserted as outputs.
The faults detected by the delta based phase selector are coordinated in a separate
block. Different phases of faults may be detected at slightly different times due to
differences in the angles of incidence of fault on the wave shape. Therefore the output
is forced to wait a certain time by means of a timer. If the timer expires, and a fault is
detected in one phase only, the fault is deemed as phase-to-earth. This way a
premature single phase-to-earth fault detection is not released for a phase-to-phase
fault. If, however, earth current is detected before the timer expires, the phase-to-earth
fault is released sooner.
If another phase picks up during the time delay, the wait time is reduced by a certain
amount. Each detection of either phase-to-earth or additional phases further reduce the
initial time delay and allow the delta phase selector output to be faster. There is no time
delay if all three phases are faulty.
The delta function is released if the input DELTAREL is activated at the same time as
input DELTABLK is not activated. Activating the DELTABLK input blocks the delta
function. The release signal has an internal pulse timer of 100 ms. When the
DELTAREL signal has disappeared the delta logic is reset. In order not to get too
abrupt change, the reset is decayed in pre-defined steps.

Symmetrical component based phase selector


The symmetrical component phase selector uses preprocessed calculated sequence
voltages and currents as inputs. It also uses sampled values of the phase currents. All
the symmetrical quantities mentioned further in this section are with reference to
phase L1.
The function is made up of four main parts:
A

Detection of the presence of earth fault

A phase-to-phase logic block based on U1/U2 angle relationship

A phase-to-earth component based on patent US5390067 where the angle relationships between
U2/I0 and U2/U1 is evaluated to determine earth fault or phase- to-phase to earth fault

Logic for detection of three-phase fault

Presence of earth-fault detection


This detection of earth fault is performed in two levels, first by evaluation of the
magnitude of zero sequence current, and secondly by the evaluation of the zero and
negative sequence voltage. It is a complement to the earth-fault signal built-in in the
Symmetrical component based phase selector.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The complementary based zero-sequence current function evaluates the presence of


earth fault by calculating the 3I0 and comparing the result with the setting parameter
INRelPE. The output signal is used to release the earth-fault loop. It is a complement
to the earth-fault signal built-in in the sequence based phase selector. The condition
for releasing the phase-to-earth loop is as follows:
The output from this detection is used to release the earth-fault loop.
|3I0|>maxIph INRelPE
where:
|3I0|

is the magnitude of the zero sequence current 3I0

maxIph

is the maximum magnitude of the phase currents

INRelPE

is a setting parameter for the relation between the magnitude of 3I0 and the maximum
phase current

The earth-fault loop is also released if the evaluation of the zero sequence current by
the main sequence function meets the following conditions:
|3I0|>IBase 0.5
|3I0|>maxIph INRelPE
where:
maxIph

is the maximal current magnitude found in any of the three phases

INRelPE

is the setting of 3I0 limit for release of phase-to-earth measuring loop in % of IBase

IBase

is the global setting of the base current (A)

In systems where the source impedance for zero sequence is high the change of zero
sequence current may not be significant and the above detection may fail. In those
cases the detection enters the second level, with evaluation of zero and negative
sequence voltage. The release of the earth-fault loops can then be achieved if all of the
following conditions are fulfilled:
|3U0|>|U2| 0.5
|3U0|>|U1| 0.2
|U1|> UBase 0.2/(3)
and
3I0<0.1 IBase
or
3I0<maxIph INRelPE
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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

where:
3U0

is the magnitude of the zero sequence voltage

U2

is the magnitude of the negative sequence voltage at the relay measuring point

k5

is design parameter

ILmax

is the maximal phase current

IMinOp

is the setting of minimum operate phase current in % of IBase

Phase-to-phase fault detection


The detection of phase-to-phase fault is performed by evaluation of the angle
difference between the sequence voltages U2 and U1.

IEC06000383-2-en.vsd
IEC06000383 V2 EN

Figure 135:

Definition of fault sectors for phase-to-phase fault

The phase-to-phase loop for the faulty phases will be determined if the angle between
the sequence voltages U2 and U1 lies within the sector defined according to figure 135
and the following conditions are fulfilled:
|U1|>U1MinOP
|U2|>U2MinOp
where:

U1MinOP and U2MinOp

are the setting parameters for positive sequence and negative sequence
minimum operate voltages

The positive sequence voltage U1L1 in figure 135 above is reference.


If there is a three-phase fault, there will not be any release of the individual phase
signals, even if the general conditions for U2 and U1 are fulfilled.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase-to-earth-fault detection


The detection of phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase-to-earth fault (US patent
5390067) is based on two conditions:
1. Angle relationship between U2 and I0
2. Angle relationship between U2 and U1
The condition 1 determines faulty phase at single phase-to-earth fault by evaluating
the argument between U2 and I0.
80

L2-E sector

L3-E sector
U2L1
(Ref)

200

L1-E sector
320

IEC06000384_2_en.vsd
IEC06000384 V3 EN

Figure 136:

Condition 1: Definition of faulty phase sector as angle between U2


and I0

The angle is calculated in a directional function block and gives the angle in radians
as input to the U2 and I0 function block. The input angle is released only if the fault is
in forward direction. This is done by the directional element. The fault is classified as
forward direction if the angle between U0 and I0 lies between 20 to 200 degrees, see
figure 137.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Forward

200

20

Reverse

en06000385.vsd

IEC06000385 V1 EN

Figure 137:

Directional element used to release the measured angle between Uo


and I0

The input radians are summarized with an offset angle and the result evaluated. If the
angle is within the boundaries for a specific sector, the phase indication for that sector
will be active see figure 136. Only one sector signal is allowed to be activated at the
same time.
The sector function for condition 1 has an internal release signal which is active if the
main sequence function has classified the angle between U0 and I0 as valid. The
following conditions must be fulfilled for activating the release signals:
|U2|>U2MinOp
|3I0|> 0.05 IBase
|3I0|>maxIph INRelPE
where:
U2 and IN

are the magnitude of the negative sequence voltage and zerosequence current (3I0)

U2MinOp

is the setting parameter for minimum operating negative sequence


voltage

maxIph

is the maximum phase current

INRelPE

is the setting parameter for 3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth loop

The angle difference is phase shifted by 180 degrees if the fault is in reverse direction.
The condition 2 looks at the angle relationship between the negative sequence voltage
U2 and the positive sequence voltage U1. Since this is a phase-to-phase voltage
relationship, there is no need for shifting phases if the fault is in reverse direction. A
phase shift is introduced so that the fault sectors will have the same angle boarders as
for condition 1. If the calculated angle between U2 and U1 lies within one sector, the
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

corresponding phase for that sector will be activated. The condition 2 is released if
both the following conditions are fulfilled:
|U2|>U2MinOp
|U1|>U1MinOP
where:
|U1| and |U2|

are the magnitude of the positive and negative sequence voltages.

U1MinOP and U2MinOp

are the setting parameters for positive sequence and negative sequence
minimum operating voltages.

140

L3-E sector
20

L1-E sector

U1L1
(Ref)

L2-E sector

260

IEC06000413_2_en.vsd

IEC06000413 V2 EN

Figure 138:

Condition 2: U2 and U1 angle relationship

If both conditions are true and there is sector match, the fault is deemed as single
phase-to-earth. If the sectors, however, do not match the fault is determined to be the
complement of the second condition, that is, a phase-to-phase-to- earth fault.
Condition 1 and

Condition 2

Fault type

L3-E

L3-E

L3-E

L2-E

L1-E

L2-L3-E

The sequence phase selector is blocked when earth is not involved or if a three-phase
fault is detected.
Three-phase fault detection
Unless it has been categorized as a single or two-phase fault, the function classifies it
as a three-phase fault if the following conditions are fulfilled:
|U1|<U1Level

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

and
|I1|>I1LowLevel
or
|I1|>IMaxLoad
where:
|U1| and |I1|

are the positive sequence voltage and current magnitude

U1Level ,
I1LowLevel

are the setting of limits for positive sequence voltage and current

IMaxLoad

is the setting of the maximum load current

The output signal for detection of three-phase fault is only released if not earth fault
and phase-to-phase fault in the main sequence function is detected.
The conditions for not detecting earth fault are the inverse of equation 5 to 10.
The condition for not detecting phase-to-phase faults is determined by three
conditions. Each of them gives condition for not detecting phase-to-phase fault. Those
are:
1:
earth fault is detected
or
|3I0|> 0.05 IBase
and
|3I0|>maxIph INRelPE
2:
phase-to-earth and phase-to-phase faults are not fulfilled
and
maxIph<0.1 IBase
and
|I2|<0.1 maxIph
3:
|3I0|>maxIph INBlockPP
or
|I2|<maxIph I2ILmax

where:
maxIph

is the maximum of the phase currents IL1, IL2 and IL3

INRelPE

is the setting parameter for 3I0 limit for release of phase-to-earth fault loops

Table continues on next page

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

|I2|

is the magnitude of the negative sequence current

I2ILmax

is the setting parameter for the relation between negative sequence current to
the maximum phase current in percent of IBase

INBlockPP

is the setting parameter for 3I0 limit for blocking phase to phase measuring
loops

Fault evaluation and selection logic


The phase selection logic has an evaluation procedure that can be simplified according
to figure 139. Only phase L1 is shown in the figure. If the internal signal 3 Phase fault
is activated, all four outputs START, STL1, STL2 and STL3 gets activated.

DeltaIL1

DeltaUL1
Sequence based
function

L1L2 fault

a
OR

a>b
then c=a
else c=b

a<b
then c=b
else c=a

FaultPriority
Adaptive release
dependent on result
from Delta logic

OR

L1N fault
3 Phase fault
STL1

&

IL1Valid
BLOCK

IEC06000386-2-en.vsd
IEC06000386 V2 EN

Figure 139:

Simplified diagram for fault evaluation, phase L1

Load encroachment logic


Each of the six measuring loops has its own load (encroachment) characteristic based
on the corresponding loop impedance. The load encroachment functionality is always
activated in faulty phase identification with load encroachment for mho (FMPSPDIS)
function but the influence on the zone measurement can be switched On/Offin the
respective impedance measuring function.
The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 140. As illustrated, the resistive
reach in forward and reverse direction and the angle of the sector is the same in all four
quadrants. The reach for the phase selector will be reduced by the load encroachment
function, as shown in figure 140.

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Blinder
Blinder provides a mean to discriminate high load from a fault. The operating
characteristic is illustrated in figure 140. There are six individual measuring loops
with the blinder functionality. Three phase-to-earth loops which estimate the
impedance according to
Zn = Uph / Iph
and three phase-to-phase loops according to
Zph-ph = Uph-ph / Iph-ph
The start operations from respective loop are binary coded into one word and provides
an output signal STCNDPLE.
X

jX

Operation area

Operation area

RLd
ArgLd

ArgLd

R
R

ArgLd

ArgLd
RLd

Operation area

No operation area

No operation area

en06000414.vsd
IEC06000414 V1 EN

Figure 140:

Influence on the characteristic by load encroachment logic

Outputs
The output of the sequence components based phase selector and the delta logic phase
selector activates the output signals STL1, STL2 and STL3. If an earth fault is detected
the signal STPE gets activated.
The phase selector also gives binary coded signals that are connected to the zone
measuring element for opening the correct measuring loop(s). This is done by the
signal STCNDPHS. If only one phase is started (L1, L2 or L3), the corresponding
phase-to-earth element is enabled. STPE is expected to be made available for twophase and three-phase faults for the correct output to be selected. The fault loop is
indicated by one of the decimal numbers below.
The output STCNDPHS provides release information from the phase selection part
only. STCNDLE provides release information from the load encroachment part only.
STCNDPLE provides release information from the phase selection part and the load
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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

encroachment part combined, that is, both parts have to issue a release at the same time
(this signal is normally not used in the zone measuring element). In these signals, each
fault type has an associated value, which represents the corresponding zone measuring
loop to be released. The values are presented in table 137.
0=

no faulted phases

1=

L1E

2=

L2E

3=

L3E

4=

-L1L2E

5=

-L2L3E

6=

-L3L1E

7=

-L1L2L3E

8=

-L1L2

9=

-L2L3

10=

-L3L1

11=

L1L2L3

An additional logic is applied to handle the cases when phase-to-earth outputs are to
be asserted when the earth input G is not asserted.
The output signal STCNDPLE is activated when the load encroachment is operating.
STCNDPLE is connected to the input STCND for selected quadrilateral impedance
measuring zones to be blocked. The signal must be connected to the input LDCND for
selected mho impedance measuring zones .
The load encroachment at the measuring zone must be activated to
release the blocking from the load encroachment function.

7.8.7

Technical data
Table 138:

FMPSPDIS technical data

Function
Load encroachment criteria:
Load resistance, forward and
reverse

Range or value
(1.003000.00) W/phase
(570) degrees

Accuracy
2.0% static accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.11.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.530) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.9

Distance protection zone, quadrilateral


characteristic, separate settings ZMRPDIS,
ZMRAPDIS and ZDRDIR

7.9.1

Identification
Function description
Distance protection zone, quadrilateral
characteristic, separate settings (zone
1)

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ZMRPDIS

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

S00346 V1 EN

Distance protection zone, quadrilateral


characteristic, separate settings (zone
2-5)

ZMRAPDIS

21

S00346 V1 EN

Function description
Directional impedance quadrilateral

7.9.2

IEC 61850
identification
ZDRDIR

IEC 60617
identification
Z<->

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21D

Functionality
The line distance protection is up to five zone full scheme protection with three fault
loops for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth fault for each
of the independent zones. Individual settings for each zone in resistive and reactive
reach gives flexibility for use as back-up protection for transformer connected to
overhead lines and cables of different types and lengths.
Mho alternative quadrilateral characteristic is available.
ZMRPDIS together with Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable
angle FRPSPDIS has functionality for load encroachment, which increases the
possibility to detect high resistive faults on heavily loaded lines.
The distance protection zones can operate, independent of each other, in directional
(forward or reverse) or non-directional mode.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.9.3

Function block
ZMRPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC08000248-1-en.vsd

IEC08000248 V1 EN

Figure 141:

ZMRPDIS function block

ZMRAPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKZ
BLKTR
STCND
DIRCND

TRIP
TRL1
TRL2
TRL3
START
STL1
STL2
STL3
STND
IEC08000290_1_en.vsd

IEC08000290 V1 EN

Figure 142:

ZMRAPDIS function block

ZDRDIR
I3P*
U3P*

STDIRCND
IEC10000007-2-en.vsd

IEC10000007 V2 EN

7.9.4

Signals
Table 139:
Name

ZMRPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 140:
Name

ZMRPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

Table 141:
Name

ZMRAPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKZ

BOOLEAN

Blocks all output by fuse failure signal

BLKTR

BOOLEAN

Blocks all trip outputs

STCND

INTEGER

External start condition (loop enabler)

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 142:
Name

ZMRAPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

General Trip, issued from any phase or loop

TRL1

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L1

TRL2

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L2

TRL3

BOOLEAN

Trip signal from phase L3

START

BOOLEAN

General Start, issued from any phase or loop

STL1

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L1

STL2

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L2

STL3

BOOLEAN

Start signal from phase L3

STND

BOOLEAN

Non-directional start, issued from any phase or


loop

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 143:

ZDRDIR Input signals

Name

Type

group connection for current abs 2

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

group connection for voltage abs 2

ZDRDIR Output signals

Name

Type

STDIRCND

Table 145:
Name

Description

GROUP
SIGNAL

Table 144:

7.9.5

Default

I3P

Description

INTEGER

Binary coded directional information per measuring


loop

Settings
ZMRPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

X1PP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach PhPh

R1PP

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-Ph

X1PE

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach Ph-E

R1PE

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-E

RFPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-Ph

X0PE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E

RFPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E

R0PE

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle, Ph-E

OperationPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Phase


loops

OpModetPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph

OperationPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth


loops

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

Table continues on next page

299
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Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IMinOpPP

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

IMinOpIN

5 - 1000

%IB

Minimum operate residual current for


Phase-Earth loops

Table 146:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

Table 147:
Name

ZMRPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

ZMRAPDIS Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationDir

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Operation mode of directionality NonDir /


Forw / Rev

X1PP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach PhPh

R1PP

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-Ph

X1PE

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach Ph-E

R1PE

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-E

RFPP

0.10 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-Ph

X0PE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, Ph-E

RFPE

0.10 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach in ohm/loop, Ph-E

R0PE

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle, Ph-E

OperationPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Phase


loops

OpModetPP

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-Ph

OperationPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Phase-Earth


loops

OpModetPE

Off
On

On

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay of trip, Ph-E

IMinOpPP

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

10 - 1000

%IB

20

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 148:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

Table 149:
Name

ZMRAPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step

Default

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

ZDRDIR Group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IMinOpPP

5 - 30

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase-phase current


for Phase-Phase loops

IMinOpPE

5 - 30

%IB

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

ArgNegRes

90 - 175

Deg

115

Angle of blinder in second quadrant for


forward direction

ArgDir

5 - 45

Deg

15

Angle of blinder in fourth quadrant for


forward direction

Table 150:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

ZDRDIR Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step

Default

7.9.6

Operation principle

7.9.6.1

Full scheme measurement

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type, which
means that each fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for
forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.
Figure 62 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for up to five,
impedance-measuring zones. There are 3 to 5 zones depending on product type and
variant.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 1

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 2

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 3

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 4

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 5

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone RV
IEC05000458-2-en.vsd

IEC05000458 V2 EN

Figure 143:

The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault.

The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
depending on fault type. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent
distance protection IED with six measuring elements.

7.9.6.2

Impedance characteristic
The distance measuring zone includes six impedance measuring loops; three intended
for phase-to-earth faults, and three intended for phase-to-phase as well as, three-phase
faults.
The distance measuring zone will essentially operate according to the non-directional
impedance characteristics presented in figure 63 and figure 64. The phase-to-earth
characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-phase
characteristic presents the per phase reach.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (Ohm/loop)

R1PE+Rn
RFPE

RFPE

X1PE+Xn

jN
RFPE

Xn =

X0PE-X1PE
3

Rn =

R0PE-R1PE
3

jN

R (Ohm/loop)

RFPE

X1PE+Xn

RFPE

RFPE
en08000280-2-en.vsd

R1PE+Rn
IEC08000280 V1 EN

Figure 144:

Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring , ohm/loop domain

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RFPP

(Ohm/phase)

R1PP

RFPP

X 0 PE - X 1RVPE
XNRV =XX00PE
PG- 1RVPG
X3
1XRVPE
XNRV
=
XNRV =
3
3
PE
--1X
11FWPE
XX
00
PE
-X
X
0
PG
XFWPE
FWPG
XNFW
=
XNFW
XNFW==
3 33

X1PP

R (Ohm/phase)
RFPP

RFPP

X1PP

RFPP
2

R1PP

RFPP
2

en07000062.vsd

IEC07000062 V2 EN

Figure 145:

Characteristic for phase-to-phase measuring

The fault loop reach with respect to each fault type may also be presented as in
figure 65. Note in particular the difference in definition regarding the (fault) resistive
reach for phase-to-phase faults and three-phase faults.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

UL1

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1

Phase-to-earth
element

RFPE
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0

Phase-to-phase
fault in phase
L1-L2

UL1

IN

(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L2
RFPP

IL2

(Arc resistance)

UL2
R1 + j X1

UL1
Three-phase
fault

IL1

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L3

IL3
UL3
IEC08000282-2-en.vsd

IEC08000282 V2 EN

Figure 146:

Fault loop model

The R1 and jX1 in figure 65 represents the positive sequence impedance from the
measuring point to the fault location. The settings RFPE and RFPP are the eventual
fault resistances in the faulty place.
Regarding the illustration of three-phase fault in figure 65, there is of course fault
current flowing also in the third phase during a three-phase fault. The illustration
merely reflects the loop measurement, which is made phase-to-phase.
The zone can be set to operate in Non-directional, Forward or Reverse direction
through the setting OperationDir. The result from respective set value is illustrated in
figure 66. The impedance reach is symmetric, in the sense that it conforms for forward
and reverse direction. Therefore, all reach settings apply to both directions.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Non-directional

Forward

Reverse
IEC05000182-2-en.vsdx

IEC05000182 V2 EN

Figure 147:

7.9.6.3

Directional operating modes of the distance measuring zones

Minimum operating current


The operation of Distance measuring zones, quadrilateral characteristic (ZMRPDIS)
is blocked if the magnitude of input currents fall below certain threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn < IMinOpPE.
For zone 1 with load compensation feature the additional criterion applies, that all
phase-to-earth loops can be blocked when IN < IMinOpIN, regardless of the phase
currents.
ILn is the RMS value of the current in phase Ln. IN is the RMS value of the vector sum
of the three-phase currents, that is residual current 3I0.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if ILmLn< IMinOpPP.
ILmLn is the RMS value of the vector difference between phase currents Lm and Ln.
All three current limits IMinOpPE, IMinOpIN and IMinOpPP are
automatically reduced to 75% of regular set values if the zone is set to
operate in reverse direction, that is OperationDir=Reverse

7.9.6.4

Measuring principles
Fault loop equations use the complex values of voltage, current, and changes in the
current. Apparent impedances are calculated and compared with the set limits. The

306
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

apparent impedances at phase-to-phase faults follow equation 31 (example for a phase


L1 to phase L2 fault).
UL1 UL2
Zapp = ------------------------I L1 IL2
(Equation 78)

EQUATION1222 V1 EN

Here U and I represent the corresponding voltage and current phasors in the respective
phase Ln (n = 1, 2, 3)
The earth return compensation applies in a conventional manner to phase-to-earth
faults (example for a phase L1 to earth fault) according to equation 32.
Z app =

U L1
I L1 + I N KN
(Equation 79)

EQUATION1223 V2 EN

Where:
are the phase voltage, phase current and residual current present to the IED

U L1
I L1
IN
KN
is defined as:

KN =

Z 0 - Z1
3 Z1

EQUATION-2105 V2 EN

Z 0 = R 0 + jX 0
EQUATION2106 V2 EN

Z 1 = R1 + jX 1
EQUATION2107 V2 EN

Where
R0

is setting of the resistive zero sequence reach

X0

is setting of the reactive zero sequence reach

R1

is setting of the resistive positive sequence reach

X1

is setting of the reactive positive sequence reach

307
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Here IN is a phasor of the residual current in IED point. This results in the same reach
along the line for all types of faults.
The apparent impedance is considered as an impedance loop with resistance R and
reactance X.
The formula given in equation 32 is only valid for radial feeder application without
load. When load is considered in the case of single phase-to-earth fault, conventional
distance protection might overreach at exporting end and underreach at importing end.
The IED has an adaptive load compensation which increases the security in such
applications.
Measuring elements receive current and voltage information from the A/D converter.
The check sums are calculated and compared, and the information is distributed into
memory locations. For each of the six supervised fault loops, sampled values of
voltage (U), current (I), and changes in current between samples (DI) are brought from
the input memory and fed to a recursive Fourier filter.
The filter provides two orthogonal values for each input. These values are related to
the loop impedance according to equation 33,
X Di
U = R i + ------ ----w 0 Dt
EQUATION1224 V1 EN

(Equation 80)

in complex notation, or:


X D Re ( I )
Re ( U ) = R Re ( I ) + ------ -----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION354 V1 EN

(Equation 81)

X DIm ( I )
Im ( U ) = R Im ( I ) + ------ ----------------w0
Dt
EQUATION355 V1 EN

(Equation 82)

with
w0 = 2 p f 0
EQUATION356 V1 EN

(Equation 83)

where:
Re

designates the real component of current and voltage,

Im

designates the imaginary component of current and voltage and

f0

designates the rated system frequency

308
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The algorithm calculates Rm measured resistance from the equation for the real value
of the voltage and substitutes it in the equation for the imaginary part. The equation for
the Xm measured reactance can then be solved. The final result is equal to:
Im ( U ) DRe ( I ) Re ( U ) D Im ( I )
R m = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) D Im ( I ) Re ( I )
(Equation 84)

EQUATION357 V1 EN

Re ( U ) Im ( I ) Im ( U ) Re ( I )
Xm = w 0 Dt ------------------------------------------------------------------------------DRe ( I ) Im ( I ) DIm ( I ) Re ( I )
(Equation 85)

EQUATION358 V1 EN

The calculated Rm and Xm values are updated each sample and compared with the set
zone reach. The adaptive tripping counter counts the number of permissive tripping
results. This effectively removes any influence of errors introduced by the capacitive
voltage transformers or by other factors.
The directional evaluations are performed simultaneously in both forward and reverse
directions, and in all six fault loops. Positive sequence voltage and a phase locked
positive sequence memory voltage are used as a reference. This ensures unlimited
directional sensitivity for faults close to the IED point.

7.9.6.5

Directional impedance element for quadrilateral characteristics


The evaluation of the directionality takes place in Directional impedance quadrilateral
function ZDRDIR. Equation 39 and equation 40 are used to classify that the fault is in
forward direction for phase-to-earth fault and phase-to-phase fault.
- ArgDir < arg

0.8 U 1L1 + 0.2 U 1L1 M


I L1

< ArgNeg Re s

EQUATION725 V2 EN

(Equation 86)

For the L1-L2 element, the equation in forward direction is according to.

309
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

- ArgDir < arg

0.8 U 1L1 L 2 + 0.2 U 1L1 L 2 M


I L1 L 2

< ArgNeg Re s
(Equation 87)

EQUATION726 V2 EN

where:
ArgDir

is the setting for the lower boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 15 (= -15 degrees) and

ArgNegRes

is the setting for the upper boundary of the forward directional characteristic, by default set
to 115 degrees, see figure 67.

U 1L1
U 1L1M

I L1
U 1L1L 2

U 1L1L 2 M
I L1L 2

is positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1


is positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1
is phase current in phase L1
is voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
is memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)
is current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1)

The setting of ArgDir and ArgNegRes is by default set to 15 (= -15) and 115 degrees
respectively (as shown in figure 67). It should not be changed unless system studies
have shown the necessity.
ZDRDIR gives binary coded directional information per measuring loop on the output
STDIRCND.
STDIR=

STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+
+STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+
+STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ArgNegRes

ArgDir

en05000722.vsd
IEC05000722 V1 EN

Figure 148:

Setting angles for discrimination of forward and reverse fault in


Directional impedance quadrilateral function ZDRDIR

The reverse directional characteristic is equal to the forward characteristic rotated by


180 degrees.
The polarizing voltage is available as long as the positive sequence voltage exceeds
5% of the set base voltage UBase. So the directional element can use it for all
unsymmetrical faults including close-in faults.
For close-in three-phase faults, the U1L1M memory voltage, based on the same
positive sequence voltage, ensures correct directional discrimination.
The memory voltage is used for 100 ms or until the positive sequence voltage is
restored.
After 100 ms the following occurs:

If the current is still above the set value of the minimum operating current
(between 10 and 30% of the set IED rated current IBase), the condition seals in.

If the fault has caused tripping, the trip endures.


If the fault was detected in the reverse direction, the measuring element in
the reverse direction remains in operation.

If the current decreases below the minimum operating value, the memory resets
until the positive sequence voltage exceeds 10% of its rated value.

311
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Section 7
Impedance protection
7.9.6.6

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Simplified logic diagrams


Distance protection zones
The design of the distance protection zones are presented for all measuring loops:
phase-to-earth as well as phase-to-phase.
Phase-to-earth related signals are designated by L1N, L2N and L3N.. The phase-tophase signals are designated by L1L2, L2L3, and L3L1.
Fulfillment of two different measuring conditions is necessary to obtain the one
logical signal for each separate measuring loop:

Zone measuring condition, which follows the operating equations described


above.
Group functional input signal (STCND), as presented in figure 68.

The STCND input signal represents a connection of six different integer values from
Phase selection with load encroachment, quadrilateral characteristic function
FRPSPDIS within the IED, which are converted within the zone measuring function
into corresponding boolean expressions for each condition separately. Input signal
STCND is connected to FRPSPDISfunction output STCNDZ.
The input signal DIRCND is used to give condition for directionality for the distance
measuring zones. The signal contains binary coded information for both forward and
reverse direction. The zone measurement function filter out the relevant signals
depending on the setting of the parameter OperationDir. It must be configured to the
STDIRCND output on directional function ZDRDIR function.

312
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STZMPP

OR

STCND

STNDL1L2

L1L2

AND

L2L3

AND

L3L1

AND

STNDL3L1

L1N

AND

STNDL1N

L2N

AND

STNDL2N

L3N

AND

STNDL2L3

STNDL3N
STPE

OR

OR
VTSZ
BLOCK

AND

OR
BLOCFUNC

STND
BLK
99000557-2.vsd

IEC99000557-TIFF V3 EN

Figure 149:

Conditioning by a group functional input signal STCND, external start


condition

Composition of the phase start signals for a case, when the zone operates in a nondirectional mode, is presented in figure 69.

313
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STNDL1N

OR

STNDL2N
STNDL3N
OR

STNDL1L2

AND

15 ms
t

STL1

AND

15 ms
t

STL2

AND

15 ms
t

STL3

AND

15 ms
t

START

STNDL2L3
STNDL3L1

OR
OR

BLK
IEC09000889-1-en.vsd
IEC09000889 V1 EN

Figure 150:

Composition of starting signals in non-directional operating mode

Results of the directional measurement enter the logic circuits, when the zone operates
in directional (forward or reverse) mode, as shown in figure 70.
STNDL1N
DIRL1N

AND
STZMPE.

OR
STNDL2N
DIRL2N

AND

STNDL3N

OR

DIRL3N

AND

STNDL1L2
DIRL1L2

AND

OR

AND

15 ms
t

STL1

AND

15 ms
t

STL2

AND

15 ms
t

STL3

STNDL2L3
DIRL2L3

AND
OR

STNDL3L1
DIRL3L1

AND
STZMPP

OR
BLK

OR

AND

15 ms
t

START

IEC09000888-2-en.vsd
IEC09000888 V2 EN

Figure 151:

Composition of start signals in directional operating mode

Tripping conditions for the distance protection zone one are symbolically presented in
figure 71.

314
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Timer tPP=On
STZMPP

tPP
t

AND

BLOCFUNC

AND
OR

OR
tPE
t

Timer tPE=On
STZMPE

AND

AND
15ms

AND

BLKTR
BLK

TRIP

OR

STL1

AND

TRL1

STL2

AND

TRL2

STL3

AND

TRL3

IEC09000887-3-en.vsdx

IEC09000887 V3 EN

Figure 152:

7.9.7

Tripping logic for the distance protection zone

Technical data
Table 151:

ZMRPDIS, ZMRAPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones

Max 5 with selectable


direction

Minimum operate residual


current, zone 1

(5-1000)% of IBase

Minimum operate current, phaseto-phase and phase-to-earth

(10-1000)% of IBase

Positive sequence reactance

(0.10-3000.00) /
phase

Positive sequence resistance

(0.01-1000.00) /
phase

Zero sequence reactance

(0.10-9000.00) /
phase

2.0% static accuracy


2.0 degrees static angular accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85 degrees

Zero sequence resistance

(0.01-3000.00) /
phase

Fault resistance, phase-to-earth

(0.10-9000.00) /loop

Fault resistance, phase-to-phase

(0.10-3000.00) /loop

Table continues on next page

315
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Dynamic overreach

<5% at 85 degrees
measured with CVTs
and 0.5<SIR<30

Definite time delay phase-phase


and phase-earth operation

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 40 ms whichever is greater

Operate time

25 ms typically

IEC 60255-121

Reset ratio

105% typically

Reset time at 0.1 x Zreach to 2 x


Zreach

Min. = 20 ms
Max. =50 ms

7.10

Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with


settable angle FRPSPDIS

7.10.1

Identification
Function description
Phase selection, quadrilateral
characteristic with settable angle

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

FRPSPDIS

Z<phs
SYMBOL-DD V1 EN

7.10.2

Functionality
The ability to accurately and reliably classify the different types of fault, so that single
pole tripping and autoreclosing can be used plays an important role in today's power
systems. Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle FRPSPDIS is
designed to accurately select the proper fault loop in the distance function dependent
on the fault type.
The heavy load transfer that is common in many transmission networks may make
fault resistance coverage difficult to achieve. Therefore, FRPSPDIS has a built-in
algorithm for load encroachment, which gives the possibility to enlarge the resistive
setting of both the phase selection and the measuring zones without interfering with
the load.
The extensive output signals from the phase selection gives also important
information about faulty phase(s) which can be used for fault analysis.
A current-based phase selection is also included. The measuring elements
continuously measure three phase currents and the residual current and, compare them
with the set values.

316
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.10.3

Function block
FRPSPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
DIRCND

TRIP
START
STFWL1
STFWL2
STFWL3
STFWPE
STRVL1
STRVL2
STRVL3
STRVPE
STNDL1
STNDL2
STNDL3
STNDPE
STFW1PH
STFW2PH
STFW3PH
STPE
STPP
STCNDZ
STCNDLE
IEC08000430-2-en.vsd

IEC08000430 V2 EN

Figure 153:

7.10.4

FRPSPDIS function block

Signals
Table 152:
Name

FRPSPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

DIRCND

INTEGER

External directional condition

Table 153:
Name

FRPSPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip output

START

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or loop

STFWL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - forward direction

STFWL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - forward direction

STFWL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - forward direction

STFWPE

BOOLEAN

Earth fault detected in forward direction

STRVL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - reverse direction

STRVL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - reverse direction

STRVL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - reverse direction

STRVPE

BOOLEAN

Earth fault detected in reverse direction

Table continues on next page

317
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

7.10.5
Table 154:
Name

Type

Description

STNDL1

BOOLEAN

Non directional start in L1

STNDL2

BOOLEAN

Non directional start in L2

STNDL3

BOOLEAN

Non directional start in L3

STNDPE

BOOLEAN

Non directional start, phase-earth

STFW1PH

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction for single-phase fault

STFW2PH

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction for two- phase fault

STFW3PH

BOOLEAN

Start in forward direction for thre-phase fault

STPE

BOOLEAN

Current conditions release of phase-earth


measuring elements

STPP

BOOLEAN

Current conditions release of phase-phase


measuring elements

STCNDZ

INTEGER

Start condition (Z< with LE and 3I0 E/F detection)

STCNDLE

INTEGER

Start condition (only LE and 3I0 E/F detection)

Settings
FRPSPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

INBlockPP

10 - 100

%IPh

40

3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase


measuring loops

INReleasePE

10 - 100

%IPh

20

3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth


measuring loops

RLdFw

1.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

80.00

Forward resistive reach within the load


impedance area

RLdRv

1.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

80.00

Reverse resistive reach within the load


impedance area

ArgLd

5 - 70

Deg

30

Load angle determining the load


impedance area

X1

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach

R1PP

0.10 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-Ph

R1PE

0.10 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

1.50

Positive seq. resistance for characteristic


angle, Ph-E

X0

0.50 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach

R0PE

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Zero seq. resistance for zone


characteristic angle, Ph-E

RFFwPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, forward

RFRvPP

0.50 - 3000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, reverse

RFFwPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, forward

RFRvPE

1.00 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, reverse

IMinOpPP

5 - 500

%IB

10

Minimum operate delta current for PhasePhase loops

IMinOpPE

5 - 500

%IB

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops

318
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 155:
Name

FRPSPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TimerPP

Off
On

Off

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-Ph

tPP

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

3.000

Time delay to trip, Ph-Ph

TimerPE

Off
On

Off

Operation mode Off / On of Zone timer,


Ph-E

tPE

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

3.000

Time delay to trip, Ph-E

Table 156:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.10.6

FRPSPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Operation principle
The basic impedance algorithm for the operation of the phase selection measuring
elements is the same as for the distance zone measuring function. Phase selection,
quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle (FRPSPDIS) includes six impedance
measuring loops; three intended for phase-to-earth faults, and three intended for
phase-to-phase as well as for three-phase faults.
The difference, compared to the distance zone measuring function, is in the
combination of the measuring quantities (currents and voltages) for different types of
faults.
The characteristic is basically non-directional, but FRPSPDIS uses information from
the directional function ZDRDIR to discriminate whether the fault is in forward or
reverse direction.
The start condition STCNDZ is essentially based on the following criteria:

Residual current criteria, that is, separation of faults with and without earth
connection
Regular quadrilateral impedance characteristic
Load encroachment characteristics is always active but can be switched off by
selecting a high setting.

The current start condition STCNDLE is based on the following criteria:

Residual current criteria


No quadrilateral impedance characteristic. The impedance reach outside the load
area is theoretically infinite. The practical reach, however, will be determined by
the minimum operating current limits.
Load encroachment characteristic is always active, but can be switched off by
selecting a high setting.
319

Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The STCNDLE output is non-directional. The directionality is determined by the


distance zones directional function ZDRDIR.
There are output from FRPSPDIS that indicate whether a start is in forward or reverse
direction or non-directional, for example STFWL1, STRVL1 and STNDL1.
These directional indications are based on the sector boundaries of the directional
function and the impedance setting of FRPSPDIS function. Their operating
characteristics are illustrated in figure 73.

Non-directional (ND)

Forward (FW)

Reverse (RV)
en08000286.vsd

IEC08000286 V1 EN

Figure 154:

Characteristics for non-directional, forward and reverse operation of


Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle
(FRPSPDIS)

The setting of the load encroachment function may influence the total operating
characteristic, for more information, refer to section "Load encroachment".
The input DIRCND contains binary coded information about the directional coming
from the directional function ZDRDIR. It shall be connected to the STDIR output on
ZDRDIR. This information is also transferred to the input DIRCND on the distance
measuring zones, that is, the ZMRPDIS block.
The code built up for the directionality is as follows:
STDIR=

STFWL1*1+STFWL2*2+STFWL3*4+STFWL1L2*8+
+STFWL2L3*16+STFWL3L1*32+STRVL1*64+STRVL2*128+
+STRVL3*256+STRVL1L2*512+STRVL2L3*1024+STRVL3L1*2048

If the binary information is 1 then it will be considered that we have start in forward
direction in phase L1. If the binary code is 3 then we have start in forward direction in
phase L1 and L2 etc.
320
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The STCNDZ or STCNDLE output contains, in a similar way as DIRCND, binary


coded information, in this case information about the condition for opening correct
fault loop in the distance measuring element. It shall be connected to the STCND input
on the ZMRPDIS distance measuring zones block.
The code built up for release of the measuring fault loops is as follows:
STCNDZ = L1N*1 + L2N*2 + L3N*4 + L1L2*8 + L2L3*16 + L3L1*32

7.10.6.1

Phase-to-earth fault
For a phase-to-earth fault, the measured impedance by FRPSPDIS is according to
equation 41.
Index PHS in images and equations reference settings for Phase
selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle
(FRPSPDIS).

ZPHSn =

ULn
ILn
(Equation 88)

EQUATION1255 V1 EN

where:
n

corresponds to the particular phase (n=1, 2 or 3)

The characteristic for FRPSPDIS function at phase-to-earth fault is according to


figure 74. The characteristic has a settable angle for the resistive boundary in the first
quadrant of 70.
The resistance RN and reactance XN are the impedance in the earth-return path
defined according to equation 44 and equation 45.
RN =

R 0 PE - R1PE
3

EQUATION-2125 V1 EN

(Equation 89)

R0 - R1
RN =
3
EQUATION1256 V1 EN

XN =

(Equation 89)

X 0 - X1
3

EQUATION1257 V1 EN

(Equation 90)

321
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (ohm/loop)
R1PE+RN
RFRvPE

RFFwPE

X1+XN
RFFwPE
R (Ohm/loop)

RFRvPE

X1+XN

RFFwPE

RFRvPE
R1PE+RN

IEC09000633-1-en.vsd
IEC09000633 V1 EN

Figure 155:

Characteristic of FRPSPDIS for phase to earth fault (directional lines


are drawn as "line-dot-dot-line")

Besides this, the 3I0 residual current must fulfil the conditions according to
equation 44 and equation 45.
3 I0 0.5 IMinOpPE
(Equation 91)

EQUATION2108 V1 EN

3 I0 INReleasePE
------------------------------------ Iphmax
100
(Equation 92)

EQUATION766 V1 EN

where:

IMinOpPE

is the minimum operation current for forward zones

INReleasePE is the setting for the minimum residual current needed to enable operation in the phaseto-earth fault loops (in %).
Iphmax

is the maximum phase current in any of three phases.

322
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.10.6.2

Phase-to-phase fault
For a phase-to-phase fault, the measured impedance by FRPSPDIS is according to
equation 46.
ZPHS =

ULm - ULn
-2 ILn
(Equation 93)

EQUATION1258 V1 EN

ULm is the leading phase voltage, ULn the lagging phase voltage and ILn the phase
current in the lagging phase n.
The operation characteristic is shown in figure 75.
X (ohm/phase)
0.5FRvPP

R1PP 0.5RFFwPP

X1

0.5RFFwPP

R (ohm/phase)
0.5RFRvPP

0.5RFRvPP

R1PP

X1

0.5RFFwPP

IEC09000634-1-en.vsd

IEC09000634 V1 EN

Figure 156:

The operation characteristic for FRPSPDIS at phase-to-phase fault


(directional lines are drawn as "line-dot-dot-line")

In the same way as the condition for phase-to-earth fault, there are current conditions
that have to be fulfilled in order to release the phase-to-phase loop. Those are
according to equation 47 or equation 48.

323
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

3I 0 < IMinOpPE
(Equation 94)

EQUATION2109 V1 EN

3I 0 <

INBlockPP
Iph max
100
(Equation 95)

EQUATION2110 V1 EN

where:

IMinOpPE

is the minimum operation current for forward earth measuring loops,

INBlockPP is 3I0 limit for blocking phase-to-phase measuring loop and


Iphmax

7.10.6.3

is maximal magnitude of the phase currents.

Three-phase faults
The operation conditions for three-phase faults are the same as for phase-to-phase
fault, that is equation 46, equation 47 and equation 48 are used to release the operation
of the function.
However, the reach is expanded by a factor 2/3 (approximately 1.1547) in all
directions. At the same time the characteristic is rotated 30 degrees, counterclockwise. The characteristic is shown in figure 76.

324
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (ohm/phase)
4 X1PP
3

0.5RFFwPPK3
X1K3

30 deg

RFwPP

2
3

R (ohm/phase)
0.5RFRvPPK3
K3 = 2 / sqrt(3)

30 deg

IEC09000635-1-en.vsd
IEC09000635 V2 EN

Figure 157:

7.10.6.4

The characteristic of FRPSPDIS for three-phase fault (set angle 70)

Load encroachment
Each of the six measuring loops has its own load encroachment characteristic based
on the corresponding loop impedance. The load encroachment functionality is always
active, but can be switched off by selecting a high setting.
The outline of the characteristic is presented in figure 78. As illustrated, the resistive
blinders are set individually in forward and reverse direction while the angle of the
sector is the same in all four quadrants.

325
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RLdFw
ArgLd

ArgLd

ArgLd

RLdRv

ArgLd

IEC09000042-1-en.vsd
IEC09000042 V1 EN

Figure 158:

Characteristic of load encroachment function

The influence of load encroachment function on the operation characteristic is


dependent on the chosen operation mode of FRPSPDIS function. When output signal
STCNDZ is selected, the characteristic for FRPSPDIS (and also zone measurement
depending on settings) will be reduced by the load encroachment characteristic, see
figure 79.
When output signal STCNDI is selected, the operation characteristic will be as in
figure 78. The reach will in this case be limit by the minimum operation current and
the distance measuring zones.

326
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STCNDZ

STCNDLE
IEC10000099-1en.vsd

IEC10000099 V1 EN

Figure 159:

Difference in operating characteristic depending on operation mode


when load encroachment is activated

When FRPSPDIS is set to operate together with a distance measuring zone the
resultant operate characteristic could look like in figure 79. The figure shows a
distance measuring zone operating in forward direction. Thus, the operating area of
the zone together with the load encroachment is highlighted in black.

327
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X
"Phase selection"
"quadrilateral" zone
Distance measuring zone

Load encroachment
characteristic
R
Directional line

en05000673.vsd
IEC05000673 V1 EN

Figure 160:

Operating characteristic in forward direction when load


encroachment is activated

Figure 79 is valid for phase-to-earth. During a three-phase fault, or load, when the
quadrilateral phase-to-phase characteristic is subject to enlargement and rotation the
operate area is transformed according to figure 80. Notice in particular what happens
with the resistive blinders of the "phase selection" "quadrilateral" zone. Due to the 30degree rotation, the angle of the blinder in quadrant one is now 100 degrees instead of
the original 70 degrees (if the angle setting is 70 degrees). The blinder that is
nominally located to quadrant four will at the same time tilt outwards and increase the
resistive reach around the R-axis. Consequently, it will be more or less necessary to
use the load encroachment characteristic in order to secure a margin to the load
impedance.

328
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (W /

phase)

Phase selection
Quadrilateral zone

Distance measuring zone

R (W /

phase)

IEC09000049-1-en.vsd
IEC09000049 V1 EN

Figure 161:

Operating characteristic for FRPSPDIS in forward direction for threephase fault, ohm/phase domain

The result from rotation of the load characteristic at a fault between two phases is
presented in fig 81. Since the load characteristic is based on the same measurement as
the quadrilateral characteristic, it will rotate with the quadrilateral characteristic
clockwise by 30 degrees when subject to a pure phase-to-phase fault. At the same time
the characteristic will "shrink" by 2/3, from the full RLdFw and RLdRv reach, which
is valid at load or three-phase fault.

329
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

IEC08000437.vsd
IEC08000437 V1 EN

Figure 162:

Rotation of load characteristic for a fault between two phases

There is a gain in selectivity by using the same measurement as for the quadrilateral
characteristic since not all phase-to-phase loops will be fully affected by a fault
between two phases. It should also provide better fault resistive coverage in quadrant
one. The relative loss of fault resistive coverage in quadrant four should not be a
problem even for applications on series compensated lines.

7.10.6.5

Minimum operate currents


The operation of Phase selection, quadrilateral characteristic with settable angle
(FRPSPDIS) is blocked if the magnitude of input currents falls below certain
threshold values.
The phase-to-earth loop Ln is blocked if ILn<IMinOpPE, where ILn is the RMS value
of the current in phase Ln.
The phase-to-phase loop LmLn is blocked if (2ILn<IMinOpPP).

330
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.10.6.6

Simplified logic diagrams


Figure 82 presents schematically the creation of the phase-to-phase and phase-toearth operating conditions. Consider only the corresponding part of measuring and
logic circuits, when only a phase-to-earth or phase-to-phase measurement is available
within the IED.
LDEblock
IRELPE

3I 0 0.5 IMinOpPE
&
INReleasePE
3I 0
Iphmax
100

15 ms
t

&

OR
INBlockPP
3I 0 <
Iphmax
100

&

Bool to
integer

BLOCK

3I 0 < IMinOpPE

STPE

&

10 ms 20 ms
t
t

&

15 ms
t

STCNDLE

STPP
IRELPP

IEC09000149_2_en.vsd
IEC09000149 V2 EN

Figure 163:

Phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth operating conditions (residual


current criteria)

A special attention is paid to correct phase selection at evolving faults. A STCNDLE


output signal is created as a combination of the load encroachment characteristic and
current criteria, refer to figure 82. This signal can be configured to STCND functional
input signals of the distance protection zone and this way influence the operation of
the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring elements and their phase
related starting and tripping signals.
Figure 83 presents schematically the composition of non-directional phase selective
signals STNDLn. Internal signals ZMLnN and ZMLmLn (m and n change between
one and three according to the phase number) represent the fulfilled operating criteria
for each separate loop measuring element, that is within the characteristic.

331
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

INDL1N
INDL2N
INDL3N

OR

15 ms
t

STNDPE

OR

15 ms
t

STNDL1

OR

15 ms
t

STNDL2

AND

OR

15 ms
t

STNDL3

AND

INDL1L2

IRELPE
LDEblockL1N
ZML1N
LDEblockL2N
ZML2N
LDEblockL3N
ZML3N
LDEblockL1L2
ZML1L2
LDEblockL2L3
ZML2L3
LDEblockL3L1
ZML3L1

AND
AND
AND

AND

INDL2L3
INDL3L1

IRELPP
OR

15 ms
t

STNDPP

IEC00000545-3-en.vsd
IEC00000545-TIFF V3 EN

Figure 164:

Composition on non-directional phase selection signals

Composition of the directional (forward and reverse) phase selective signals is


presented schematically in figure 84 and figure 85. The directional criteria appears as
a condition for the correct phase selection in order to secure a high phase selectivity
for simultaneous and evolving faults on lines within the complex network
configurations. Internal signals DFWLn and DFWLnLm present the corresponding
directional signals for measuring loops with phases Ln and Lm. Designation FW
(figure 85) represents the forward direction as well as the designation RV (figure 84)
represents the reverse direction. All directional signals are derived within the
corresponding digital signal processor.
Figure 84 presents additionally a composition of a STCNDZ output signal, which is
created on the basis of impedance measuring conditions. This signal can be configured
to STCND functional input signals of the distance protection zone and this way
influence the operation of the phase-to-phase and phase-to-earth zone measuring
elements and their phase related starting and tripping signals.

332
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

INDL1N
DRVL1N

AND

INDL1L2
DRVL1L2

AND

OR

15 ms
t

STRVL1

OR

15 ms
t

STRVPE

OR

15 ms
t

STRVL2

INDL3L1
DRVL3L1

AND

INDL2N
DRVL2N

AND

INDL1L2
AND
INDL2L3
DRVL2L3

INDL1N
INDL2N
INDL3N
INDL1L2
INDL2L3
INDL3L1

AND

INDL3N
DRVL3N

AND

INDL2L3

Bool to
integer

15 ms
AND

OR

INDL3L1
AND

15 ms
OR

STCNDZ

STRVL3

STRVPP

IEC00000546_2_en.vsd
IEC00000546-TIFF V2 EN

Figure 165:

Composition of phase selection signals for reverse direction

333
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

AND
INDL1N
DFWL1N

AND

AND

OR

15 ms
t

INDL1L2
DFWL1L2

AND

OR

INDL3L1
DFWL3L1

DFWL2N

OR

15 ms
t

STFWL1

15 ms
t

STFWPE

15 ms
t

STFWL2

15 ms
t

STFW2PH

AND
AND

INDL1L2
AND

OR

INDL2L3
DFWL2L3

STFW1PH

AND

AND

INDL2N

15 ms
t

AND

OR

15 ms
t

AND

INDL3N
DFWL3N

AND

AND

INDL2L3
AND

15 ms
t

STFWL3

15 ms
t

STFW3PH

15 ms
t

STFWPP

OR

INDL3L1

AND
AND

OR

IEC05000201_2_en.vsd

IEC05000201 V2 EN

Figure 166:

Composition of phase selection signals for forward direction

Figure86 presents the composition of output signals TRIP and START, where internal
signals STNDPP, STFWPP and STRVPP are the equivalent to internal signals
STNDPE, STFWPE and STRVPE, but for the phase-to-phase loops.

334
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

TimerPP=Off

tPP
t

AND
OR

TimerPE=Off

tPE
t

AND

AND
OR

TRIP

AND

STNDPP
STFWPP

OR

STRVPP
OR

STNDPE
STFWPE

START

OR

STRVPE

IEC08000441_2_en.vsd
IEC08000441-1 V2 EN

Figure 167:

TRIP and START signal logic

335
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.10.7

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Technical data
Table 157:

FRPSPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Minimum operate current

(5-500)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir at I Ir
1.0% of I at I > Ir

Reactive reach, positive


sequence

(0.503000.00) /phase

Resistive reach, positive


sequence

(0.101000.00) /phase

Reactive reach, zero sequence

(0.509000.00) /phase

Resistive reach, zero sequence

(0.503000.00) /phase

2.0% static accuracy


2.0 degrees static angular
accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees

Fault resistance, Ph-E faults,


forward and reverse

(1.009000.00) /loop

Fault resistance, Ph-Ph faults,


forward and reverse

(0.503000.00) /loop

Load encroachment criteria:


Load resistance, forward and
reverse
Safety load impedance angle

(1.003000.00) /phase
(5-70) degrees

Reset ratio

105% typically

7.11

High speed distance protection ZMFPDIS

7.11.1

Identification
Function description
High speed distance protection zone
(zone 1)

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

ZMFPDIS

S00346 V1 EN

7.11.2

Functionality
The High speed distance protection (ZMFPDIS) is providing sub-cycle, down
towards half-cycle, operate time for basic faults within 60% of the line length and up
to around SIR 5. At the same time, it is specifically designed for extra care during
difficult conditions in high voltage transmission networks, like faults on long heavily
loaded lines and faults generating heavily distorted signals. These faults are handled
with outmost security and dependability, although sometimes with reduced operating
speed.

336
Technical manual

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Section 7
Impedance protection

The ZMFPDIS function is a six zone full scheme protection with three fault loops for
phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth faults for each of the
independent zones, which makes the function suitable in applications with singlephase autoreclosing.
The zones can operate independently of each other in directional (forward or reverse)
or non-directional mode. However, zone1 and zone2 is designed to measure in
forward direction only, while one zone (ZRV) is designed to measure in the reverse
direction. This makes them suitable, together with a communication scheme, for
protection of power lines and cables in complex network configurations, such as
parallel lines, multi-terminal lines, and so on.
A new built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of the
distance zones in the load exporting end during phase-to-earth faults on heavily
loaded power lines. It also reduces underreach in the importing end.
The ZMFPDIS function-block itself incorporates a phase-selection element and a
directional element, contrary to previous designs in the 670-series, where these
elements were represented with separate function-blocks.
The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change
criteria (i.e. delta quantities), with significantly increased dependability. There is also
a phase selection criterion operating in parallel which bases its operation only on
voltage and current phasors.
The directional element utilizes a set of well-established quantities to provide fast and
correct directional decision during various power system operating conditions,
including close-in three-phase faults, simultaneous faults and faults with only zerosequence in-feed.

337
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.11.3

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block
ZMFPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKZ1
BLKZ2
BLKZ3
BLKZ4
BLKZ5
BLKZRV
BLKTRZ1
BLKTRZ2
BLKTRZ3
BLKTRZ4
BLKTRZ5
BLKTRZRV

TRIPZ1
TRL1Z1
TRL2Z1
TRL3Z1
TRIPZ2
TRL1Z2
TRL2Z2
TRL3Z2
TRIPZ3
TRIPZ4
TRIPZ5
TRIPZRV
STARTZ1
STNDZ1
STARTZ2
STL1Z2
STL2Z2
STL3Z2
STNDZ2
STARTZ3
STNDZ3
STARTZ4
STNDZ4
STARTZ5
STNDZ5
STARTZRV
STL1ZRV
STL2ZRV
STL3ZRV
STNDZRV
STARTND
STFWL1
STFWL2
STFWL3
STFWPE
STRVL1
STRVL2
STRVL3
STRVPE
STFW1PH
STFW2PH
STFW3PH
STPE
STPP
IEC11000433-1-en.vsd

IEC11000433 V1 EN

Figure 168:

7.11.4

ZMFPDIS function block

Signals
Table 158:
Name

ZMFPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire


function

VTSZ

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire


function

Table continues on next page

338
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Type

Default

Description

BLKZ1

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 1

BLKZ2

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 2

BLKZ3

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 3

BLKZ4

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 4

BLKZ5

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 5

BLKZRV

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of reverse


zone

BLKTRZ1

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 1

BLKTRZ2

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 2

BLKTRZ3

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 3

BLKTRZ4

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 4

BLKTRZ5

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 5

BLKTRZRV

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of reverse


zone

Table 159:
Name

ZMFPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIPZ1

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 1 - forward


direction

TRL1Z1

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L1 from zone 1 - forward direction

TRL2Z1

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L2 from zone 1 - forward direction

TRL3Z1

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L3 from zone 1 - forward direction

TRIPZ2

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 2 - forward


direction

TRL1Z2

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L1 from zone 2 - forward direction

TRL2Z2

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L2 from zone 2 - forward direction

TRL3Z2

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L3 from zone 2 - forward direction

TRIPZ3

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 3 - zone


direction

TRIPZ4

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 4 - zone


direction

TRIPZ5

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 5 - zone


direction

TRIPZRV

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone RV - reverse


dir.

STARTZ1

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 - forward


direction

STNDZ1

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 - any


direction

STARTZ2

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 - forward


direction

STL1Z2

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L1 from zone 2 - forward direction

STL2Z2

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L2 from zone 2 - forward direction

Table continues on next page

339
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Type

Description

STL3Z2

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L3 from zone 2 - forward direction

STNDZ2

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 - any


direction

STARTZ3

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 - zone


direction

STNDZ3

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 - any


direction

STARTZ4

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 - zone


direction

STNDZ4

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 - any


direction

STARTZ5

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 - zone


direction

STNDZ5

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 - any


direction

STARTZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone RV reverse dir.

STL1ZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L1 from zone RV - reverse direction

STL2ZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L2 from zone RV - reverse direction

STL3ZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L3 from zone RV - reverse direction

STNDZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone RV - any


direction

STARTND

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in any phase or phases - any


direction

STNDL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - any direction

STNDL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - any direction

STNDL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - any direction

STFWL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - forward direction

STFWL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - forward direction

STFWL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - forward direction

STFWPE

BOOLEAN

Fault with earth connection detected - forward


direction

STRVL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - reverse direction

STRVL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - reverse direction

STRVL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - reverse direction

STRVPE

BOOLEAN

Fault with earth connection detected - reverse


direction

STFW1PH

BOOLEAN

Single-phase fault detected - forward direction

STFW2PH

BOOLEAN

Two-phase fault detected - forward direction

STFW3PH

BOOLEAN

Three-phase fault detected - forward direction

STPE

BOOLEAN

Ph-E zone measurement enabled - any direction

STPP

BOOLEAN

Ph-Ph zone measurement enabled - any direction

340
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.11.5
Table 160:
Name

Settings
ZMFPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Mode Off / On

RLdFw

0.01 - 5000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

60.00

Resistance determining the load


impedance area - forward

RLdRv

0.01 - 5000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

60.00

Resistance determining the load


impedance area - reverse

XLd

0.01 - 10000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

400.00

Reactance determining the load


impedance area

ArgLd

5 - 70

Deg

30

Angle determining the load impedance


area

CVTtype

Any
Passive type
None (Magnetic)

Passive type

CVT selection determining filtering of the


function

OpModeZ1

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 1

X1PPZ1

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhPh, zone 1

R1PPZ1

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive sequence resistive reach, Ph-Ph,


zone 1

X1PEZ1

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, PhE, zone 1

R1PEZ1

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive sequence resistive reach, Ph-E,


zone 1

X0Z1

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, zone 1

R0Z1

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero sequence resistive reach, zone 1

RFPPZ1

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 1

RFPEZ1

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 1

tPPZ1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 1

tPEZ1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 1

IMinOpPPZ1

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 1

IMinOpPEZ1

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 1

OpModeZ2

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 2

X1Z2

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, zone


2

R1Z2

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive sequence resistive reach, zone 2

X0Z2

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, zone 2

R0Z2

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero sequence resistive reach, zone 2

Table continues on next page

341
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Step

Default

RFPPZ2

0.01 - 9000.00

Unit
Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Description
Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 2

RFPEZ2

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 2

tPPZ2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 2

tPEZ2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 2

IMinOpPPZ2

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 2

IMinOpPEZ2

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 2

OpModeZ3

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 3

DirModeZ3

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction of zone 3 (which will be the Fw


direction of zone 3)

X1Z3

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, zone


3

R1Z3

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive sequence resistive reach, zone 3

X0Z3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, zone 3

R0Z3

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero sequence resistive reach, zone 3

RFPPZ3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 3

RFPEZ3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 3

tPPZ3

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.800

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 3

tPEZ3

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.800

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 3

IMinOpPPZ3

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 3

IMinOpPEZ3

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 3

OpModeZ4

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 4

DirModeZ4

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction of zone 4 (which will be the Fw


direction of zone 4)

X1Z4

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, zone


4

R1Z4

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive sequence resistive reach, zone 4

X0Z4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, zone 4

R0Z4

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero sequence resistive reach, zone 4

RFPPZ4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 4

RFPEZ4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 4

tPPZ4

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.200

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 4

tPEZ4

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.200

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 4

IMinOpPPZ4

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 4

Table continues on next page


342
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

IMinOpPEZ4

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 4

OpModeZ5

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 5

DirModeZ5

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction of zone 5 (which will be the Fw


direction of zone 5)

X1Z5

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, zone


5

R1Z5

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive sequence resistive reach, zone 5

X0Z5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, zone 5

R0Z5

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero sequence resistive reach, zone 5

RFPPZ5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 5

RFPEZ5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 5

tPPZ5

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.600

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 5

tPEZ5

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.600

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 5

IMinOpPPZ5

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 5

IMinOpPEZ5

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 5

OpModeZRV

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone RV

X1ZRV

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive sequence reactance reach, zone


RV

R1ZRV

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive sequence resistive reach, zone


RV

X0ZRV

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero sequence reactance reach, zone RV

R0ZRV

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero sequence resistive reach, zone RV

RFPPZRV

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone RV

RFPEZRV

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone RV

tPPZRV

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone RV

tPEZRV

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone RV

IMinOpPPZRV

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone RV

IMinOpPEZRV

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone RV

343
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

Table 161:
Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ZMFPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ZoneLinkStart

Phase Selection
1st starting zone

Phase Selection

Select. of start source for all ZoneLinked


trip delay timers

INReleasePE

5 - 400

%IPh

400

3I0 limit for releasing Phase-to-Earth


measuring loops

TimerModeZ1

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 1

TimerLinksZ1

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 1

TimerModeZ2

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 2

TimerLinksZ2

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 2

TimerModeZ3

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 3

TimerLinksZ3

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 3

TimerModeZ4

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 4

TimerLinksZ4

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 4

TimerModeZ5

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 5

TimerLinksZ5

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 5

TimerModeZRV

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone RV

TimerLinksZRV

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone RV

344
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 162:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.11.6

ZMFPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Step

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Monitored data
Table 163:
Name

7.11.7

Unit

ZMFPDIS Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

L1Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L1

L2Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L2

L3Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L3

L1L2Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in loop L1L2

L2L3Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in loop L2L3

L3L1Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in loop L3L1

L1R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L1

L1X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L1

L2R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L2

L2X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L2

L3R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L3

L3X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L3

Operation principle
Settings, input and output names are sometimes mentioned in the following text
without its zone suffix (i.e. BLKZx instead of BLKZ3) when the description is equally
valid for all zones.

7.11.7.1

Filtering
Practically all voltage, current and impedance quantities used within the ZMFPDIS
function are derived from fundamental frequency phasors filtered by a half cycle
filter.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The phasor filter is frequency adaptive in the sense that its coefficients are changed
based on the estimated power system frequency.
A half cycle filter will not be able to reject both even and odd harmonics. So, while odd
harmonics will be completely attenuated, accuracy will be affected by even
harmonics. Even harmonics will not cause the distance zones to overreach however;
instead there will be a slightly variable underreach, on average in the same order as the
magnitude ratio between the harmonic and fundamental component.

7.11.7.2

Distance measuring zones


Th different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type, which means that earth
fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for forward and reverse
faults are executed in parallel.
Figure 91 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the six distance
zones.
L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 1

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 2

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 3

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 4

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 5

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone RV
IEC05000458-2-en.vsd

IEC05000458 V2 EN

Figure 169:

The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault

Each distance protection zone performs like one independent distance protection
function with six measuring elements.
Tansients from CVTs may have a significant impact on the transient overreach of a
distance protection. At the same time these transients can be very diverse in nature
from one type to the other; in fact, more diverse than can be distinguished by the
algorithm itself in the course of a few milliseconds. So, a setting (CVTtype) is
introduced in order to inform the algorithm about the type of CVT applied and thus
providing the advantage of knowing how performance should be optimized, even
during the first turbulent milliseconds of the fault period.
There are basically two types of CVTs from the function point of view, the passive and
the active type, which refers to the type of ferro-resonance suppression device that is
employed. The active type requires more rigorous filtering which will have a negative

346
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

impact on operate times. However, this will be evident primarily at higher source
impedance ratios (SIRs), SIR 5 and above, or close to the reach limit.
The IEC 60044-5 transient classification is of little or no use in this connection. It is
not primarily the damping of transients that is important; it is the frequency content of
the transients that is decisive, i.e. how difficult it is to filter out the specific frequency.
So, even if two CVTs, one passive and the other active type, comply with the same
transient class, the active type requires more extensive filtering in order to avoid
transient overreach.
For avoiding overreach and at the same time achieving fast operate times, a
supplementary circular characteristic that includes some alternative processing is
implemented. One such circular characteristic exists for every measuring loop and
quadrilateral characteristic. There are no specific reach settings for this circular zone.
It uses the normal quadrilateral zone settings to determine a reach that will be
appropriate. This implies that the circular characteristic will always have somewhat
shorter reach than the quadrilateral zone.

7.11.7.3

Phase-selection criteria
The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change
criteria (i.e. delta quantities), with significantly increased dependability. Naturally,
there is also a phase selection criterion operating in parallel which bases its operation
only on voltage and current phasors.
The phase-selection element can, owing to the current change criteria, distinguish
faults with minimum influence from load and fault impedance. In other words, it is not
restricted by a load encroachment characteristic during the current change phase. This
significantly improves performance for remote phase-to-earth faults on heavily
loaded lines. One exception however is three-phase faults, for which the load
encroachment characteristic always has to be applied, in order to distinguish fault
from load.
The continuous criteria will in the vast majority of cases operate in parallel and carry
on the fault indication after the current change phase has ended. Only in some
particularly difficult faults on heavily loaded lines the continuous criteria might not be
sufficient, for example, when the estimated fault impedance resides within the load
area defined by the load encroachment characteristic. In this case, the indication will
be restricted to a pulse lasting for one or two power system cycles.
Phase-to-phase-earth faults (also called double earth faults) will practically always
activate phase-to-phase zone measurements. Measurement in two phase-to-earth
loops at the same time is associated with so-called simultaneous faults: two earth
faults at the same time, one each on the two circuits of a double line, or when the zero
sequence current is relatively high due to a source with low Z0/Z1 ratio. In fact, in
these situations zone measurement will be released both for the related phase-to-earth
loops and the phase-to-phase loop simultaneously. On the other hand, simultaneous
faults closer to the remote bus will gradually take on the properties of a phase-to-

347
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

phase-earth fault and the function will eventually use phase-to-phase zone
measurements also here.
In cases where the fault current infeed is more or less completely of zero sequence
nature (all phase currents in phase), the measurement will be performed in the phaseto-earth loops only for a phase-to-phase-earth fault.
However, should it be desirable to use phase-to-earth (and only phase-to-earth) zone
measurement for phase-to-phase-earth faults, there is a setting INReleasePE that can
be lowered from its excessive default value to the level above which phase-to-earth
measurement should be activated.

7.11.7.4

Directional criteria
Several criteria are employed when making the directional decision. The basis is
provided by comparing a sum of positive sequence voltage and memory voltage with
phase currents. For extra security, especially in making a very fast decision, this
method is complemented with an equivalent comparison where, instead of the phase
current, the change in phase current is used. Moreover, a basic negative sequence
directional evaluation is taken into account as a reliable reference during high load
condition. Finally, a zero sequence directional evaluation is used whenever there is
more or less exclusive zero sequence in-feed.
The directional sectors that represent forward direction, one per measuring loop, are
defined by the following equations.

15 < arg

( (1 k ) U1

L1

+ k U 1L1M )

I L1

< 120
(Equation 96)

EQUATION2546 V2 EN

15 < arg

( (1 k ) U1

L1L 2

+ k U 1L1L 2 M )

I L1L 2

< 120
(Equation 97)

EQUATION2547 V2 EN

Where:
U1L1

is the positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1.

U1L1M

is the positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1.

IL1

is the phase current in phase L1.

U1L1L2

is the voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1).

U1L1L2M is the memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1).
IL1L2

is the current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1).

is the factor determining the amount of memory voltage.

The corresponding reverse directional sectors range from 165 to -60 degrees. The
value of the k factor determining the amount of memory voltage used is normally 0.8.

348
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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

However, if the SeriesComp option is chosen (only available in ZMFCPDIS) the


value is changed to 0.95.

7.11.7.5

Fuse failure
The ZMFPDIS function has to be blocked by an additional function like the Fuse
failure supervision (FUFSPVC) or an equivalent external device. Typically, the
binary input VTSZ is used for this purpose.

7.11.7.6

Power swings
There is need for external blocking of the ZMFPDIS function during power swings,
either from the Power Swing Blocking function (ZMRPSB) or an external device.

7.11.7.7

Measuring principles
All ZMFPDIS zones operate according to the non-directional impedance
characteristics presented in Figure 170 and Figure 171. The phase-to-earth
characteristic is given in ohms-per-loop domain while the phase-to-phase
characteristic is given in ohms-per-phase domain.

349
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (Ohm/loop)

R1PE+Rn
RFPE

RFPE

X1PE+Xn

jN
RFPE

Xn =

X0PE-X1PE
3

Rn =

R0PE-R1PE
3

jN

R (Ohm/loop)

RFPE

X1PE+Xn

RFPE

RFPE
IEC11000415-1-en.vsd

R1PE+Rn
IEC11000415 V1 EN

Figure 170:

ZMFPDIS Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring, ohm/loop


domain

350
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RFPP

(Ohm/phase)

R1PP

RFPP

X 0 PE - X 1RVPE
XNRV =XX00PE
PG- 1RVPG
X3
1XRVPE
XNRV
=
XNRV =
33
XX00PE
PE
11FWPE
X
X-1X
0
PG
XFWPE
FWPG
XNFW
XNFW
XNFW===
3
3 3

X1PP

j
R (Ohm/phase)

RFPP

RFPP

X1PP

RFPP
2

R1PP

RFPP
2

IEC11000416-1-en.vsd

IEC11000416 V1 EN

Figure 171:

ZMFPDIS Characteristic for phase-to-phase measuring, ohm/loop


domain

The faulty loop in relation to the fault type can be presented as in Figure 172. The main
intention with this illustration is to make clear how the fault resistive reach should be
interpreted and set. Note in particular that the setting RFPP always represents the total
fault resistance of the loop, regardless the fact that the fault resistance (arc) may be
divided into parts like for three-phase or phase-to-phase faults. The R1 + jX1 represent
the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault location.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

UL1

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1

Phase-to-earth
element

RFPE
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0

UL1
Phase-to-phase
fault in phase
L1-L2

IN

(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L2
RFPP

IL2

(Arc resistance)

UL2
R1 + j X1

Three-phase
fault or Phase-tophase-earth fault

UL1

IL1

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L3

IL3
UL3
IEC11000419-2-en.vsd

IEC11000419 V2 EN

Figure 172:

7.11.7.8

Fault loop model

Load encroachment
In some cases the measured load impedance might enter the set zone characteristic
without any fault on the protected line. The phenomenon is called load encroachment
and it might occur when an external fault is cleared and high emergency load is
transferred on the protected line. The effect of load encroachment is illustrated to the
left in Figure 173. A load impedance within the characteristic would cause an
unwanted trip. The traditional way of avoiding this situation is to set the distance zone
resistive reach with a security margin to the minimum load impedance. The drawback
with this approach is that the sensitivity of the protection to detect resistive faults is
reduced.
The IED has a built in feature which shapes the characteristic according to the
characteristic shown in Figure 173. The load encroachment algorithm will increase
the possibility to detect high fault resistances, especially for phase-to-earth faults at
remote line end. For example, for a given setting of the load angle ArgLd, the resistive
blinder for the zone measurement can be set according to Figure 173 affording higher

352
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

fault resistance coverage without risk for unwanted operation due to load
encroachment. Separate resistive blinder setting is available in forward and reverse
direction.
The use of the load encroachment feature is essential for long heavily loaded lines,
where there might be a conflict between the necessary emergency load transfer and
necessary sensitivity of the distance protection. The function can also preferably be
used on heavy loaded, medium long lines. For short lines, the major concern is to get
sufficient fault resistance coverage. Load encroachment is not a major problem. See
section "".
X

Z1

Z1

Load impedance
area in forward
R
direction

ArgLd
R

RLdRv

RLdFw

IEC09000248-2-en.vsd
IEC09000248 V2 EN

Figure 173:

7.11.7.9

Load encroachment phenomena and shaped load encroachment


characteristic

Simplified logic schemes


PHSL1, PHSL2,...PHSL3L1 are internal binary logical signals from the Phaseselection element. They correspond directly to the six loops of the distance zones and
determine which loops should be released to operate.
FWL1, FWL2,...FWL3L1 and RVL1, RVL2,...RVL3L1 are the internal binary
signals from the Directional element. An FW signal is activated if the criteria for a
forward fault or load is fulfilled for its particular loop. The equivalent applies to the
reverse (RV) signals.
The internal input 'IN present' is activated if the residual current (3I0) exceeds 10% of
the maximum phase current magnitude and at the same time is above 5% of IBase.
However, if current transformer saturation is detected, this criterion is changed to
residual voltage (3U0) exceeding 5% of UBase/sqrt(3) instead.

353
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

FW(Ln & LmLn)

DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z1

FW(Ln & LmLn)

DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z2

RV(Ln & LmLn)

DIR(Ln & LmLn)ZRV


DirModeZ3-5

TRUE (1)
FW(Ln & LmLn)
RV(Ln & LmLn)

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z3-5

IEC12000137-2-en.vsd
IEC12000137 V2 EN

Figure 174:

ZML1Zx
PHSL1
DIRL1Zx
ZML2Zx
PHSL2
DIRL2Zx
ZML3Zx
PHSL3
DIRL3Zx
ZML1L2Zx
PHSL1L2
DIRL1L2Zx
ZML2L3Zx
PHSL2L3
DIRL2L3Zx
ZML3L1Zx
PHSL3L1
DIRL3L1Zx

Connection of directional signals to Zones

PEZx

OR
AND
AND
AND
AND
OR

AND

L1Zx

AND
OR

AND

L2Zx

AND
OR

AND

L3Zx

AND
AND
AND
OR

OR

PPZx

NDZx

IEC12000140-1-en.vsd
IEC12000140 V1 EN

Figure 175:

Intermediate logic

354
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

TimerModeZx =
Enable Ph-Ph,
Ph-E

PPZx

AND

AND

PEZx

BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKZx
BLKTRZx

OR

OR

AND

tPPZx
t

AND

tPEZx
t

TZx

OR

AND

OR

TimerLinksZx

OR

ZoneLinkStart
STPHS

AND

OR

Phase Selection
1st starting zone

LNKZ1
LNKZ2
LNKZRV
OR
LNKZ3
LNKZ4
LNKZ5

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink & ZoneLink
No Links

FALSE (0)
AND

LNKZx

TimerLinksZx =
LoopLink & ZoneLink

IEC12000139-3-en.vsdx

IEC12000139 V3 EN

Figure 176:

Logic for linking of timers

355
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

15 ms
t

TZx

TRIPZx

AND

BLKTRZx
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKZx

OR

AND

OR

AND
AND
15 ms
t

L1Zx

15 ms
t

L2Zx

15 ms
t

L3Zx
PPZx
PEZx

OR

15 ms
t
15 ms
t

NDZx

AND
AND
AND

AND

AND

TRL1Zx
TRL2Zx
TRL3Zx
STL1Zx
STL2Zx
STL3Zx

STARTZx

STNDZx

IEC12000138-1-en.vsd
IEC12000138 V1 EN

Figure 177:

Start and trip outputs

356
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

15 ms
t

OR

STPE

AND

PHSL1
PHSL2

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

PHSL3
PHSL1L2
PHSL2L3
PHSL3L1
OR

BLOCK
VTSZ

15 ms
t

AND

AND

AND

STPP

AND

OR

OR

STARTND
STPHS
IEC12000133-1-en.vsd

IEC12000133 V1 EN

Figure 178:

Additional start outputs 1

357
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

PHSL1
FWL1
PHSL2
FWL2
PHSL3
FWL3

AND
AND

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

AND

PHSL1L2
FWL1L2
PHSL2L3
FWL2L3
PHSL3L1
FWL3L1

AND
AND

STFWL1

AND

STFWL2

AND

STFWL3

AND

AND
OR

IN present

BLOCK
VTSZ

AND

STFWPE

STFW1PH

=1
OR

STFW2PH

=2

STFW3PH

=3

IEC12000134-1-en.vsd
IEC12000134 V1 EN

Figure 179:

Additional start outputs 2

PHSL1
RVL1
PHSL2
RVL2
PHSL3
RVL3

AND
AND

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

AND

PHSL1L2
RVL1L2
PHSL2L3
RVL2L3
PHSL3L1
RVL3L1

AND
AND

STRVL1

AND

STRVL2

AND

STRVL3

AND

AND
OR

IN present
BLOCK
VTSZ

AND

STRVPE

OR

IEC12000141-1-en.vsd
IEC12000141 V1 EN

Figure 180:

Additional start outputs 3

358
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.11.8

Technical data
Table 164:

ZMFPDIS, ZMFCPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones

3 selectable
directions, 3 fixed
directions

Minimum operate current, Ph-Ph


and Ph-E

(5-6000)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir

Positive sequence reactance


reach, Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop

(0.01 - 3000.00) ohm/


phase

Positive sequence resistance


reach, Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop

(0.00 - 1000.00) ohm/


phase

Zero sequence reactance reach

(0.01 - 9000.00) ohm/p

Zero sequence resistive reach

(0.00 - 3000.00) ohm/p

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E and


Ph-Ph

(0.01 -9000.00) ohm/l

Dynamic overreach

< 5% at 85 deg
measured with CVTs
and 0.5 < SIR < 30

Definite time delay to trip, Ph-E


and Ph-Ph operation

(0.000-60.000) s

2.0% or 35 ms whichever is greater

Operate time

16 ms typically

IEC 60255-121

Reset time at 0.1 to 2 x Zreach

Min = 20 ms
Max = 35 ms

Reset ratio

105% typically

2.0% of static accuracy


2.0 deg static angular accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: At 0 deg and 85 deg

7.12

High speed distance protection ZMFCPDIS

7.12.1

Identification
Function description
High speed distance protection zone
(zone 1-6)

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
21

ZMFCPDIS

S00346 V1 EN

7.12.2

Functionality
High speed distance protection (ZMFCPDIS) provides sub-cycle, down towards halfcycle, operate time for basic faults within 60% of the line length and up to around SIR
5. At the same time, it is specifically designed for extra care during difficult conditions
in high voltage transmission networks, like faults on long heavily loaded lines and
359

Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

faults generating heavily distorted signals. These faults are handled with outmost
security and dependability, although sometimes with reduced operating speed.
High speed distance protection ZMFCPDIS is fundamentally the same function as
ZMFPDIS but provides more flexibility in zone settings to suit more complex
applications, such as series compensated lines. In operation for series compensated
networks, the parameters of the directional function are altered to handle voltage
reversal.
The ZMFCPDIS function is a six-zone full scheme protection with three fault loops
for phase-to-phase faults and three fault loops for phase-to-earth faults for each of the
independent zones, which makes the function suitable in applications with singlephase autoreclosing.
The zones can operate independently of each other in directional (forward or reverse)
or non-directional mode. This makes them suitable, together with a communication
scheme, for protection of power lines and cables in complex network configurations,
such as parallel lines, multi-terminal lines, and so on.
A new built-in adaptive load compensation algorithm prevents overreaching of the
distance zones in the load exporting end during phase-to-earth faults on heavily
loaded power lines. It also reduces underreach in the importing end.
The ZMFCPDIS function block incorporates a phase-selection element and a
directional element, contrary to previous designs in the 670series, where these
elements were represented with separate function blocks.
The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change
criteria, with significant increased dependability. Naturally, there is also a part
operating with continuous criteria that operates in parallel
The directional element utilizes a set of well-established quantities to provide fast and
correct directional evaluation during various conditions, including close-in threephase faults, simultaneous faults and faults with only zero-sequence in-feed.

360
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.12.3

Function block

ZMFCPDIS
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKZ1
BLKZ2
BLKZ3
BLKZ4
BLKZ5
BLKZRV
BLKTRZ1
BLKTRZ2
BLKTRZ3
BLKTRZ4
BLKTRZ5
BLKTRZRV

TRIPZ
TRIPZ1
TRL1Z1
TRL2Z1
TRL3Z1
TRIPZ2
TRL1Z2
TRL2Z2
TRL3Z2
TRIPZ3
TRIPZ4
TRIPZ5
TRIPZRV
STARTZ
STARTZ1
STNDZ1
STARTZ2
STL1Z2
STL2Z2
STL3Z2
STNDZ2
STARTZ3
STNDZ3
STARTZ4
STNDZ4
STARTZ5
STNDZ5
STARTZRV
STL1ZRV
STL2ZRV
STL3ZRV
STNDZRV
STARTND
STNDL1
STNDL2
STNDL3
STFWL1
STFWL2
STFWL3
STFWPE
STRVL1
STRVL2
STRVL3
STRVPE
STFW1PH
STFW2PH
STFW3PH
STPE
STPP
ZL1
ZL1RANG
ZL1ANGL
ZL2
ZL2RANG
ZL2ANGL
ZL3
ZL3RANG
ZL3ANGL

IEC11000422.vsdx

IEC11000422 V2 EN

Figure 181:

ZMFCPDIS function block

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Section 7
Impedance protection
7.12.4

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Signals
Table 165:
Name

ZMFCPDIS Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire


function

VTSZ

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of entire


function

BLKZ1

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 1

BLKZ2

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 2

BLKZ3

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 3

BLKZ4

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 4

BLKZ5

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of zone 5

BLKZRV

BOOLEAN

Resets all outputs and internal timers of reverse


zone

BLKTRZ1

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 1

BLKTRZ2

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 2

BLKTRZ3

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 3

BLKTRZ4

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 4

BLKTRZ5

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of zone 5

BLKTRZRV

BOOLEAN

Resets all trip outputs and internal timers of reverse


zone

Table 166:
Name

ZMFCPDIS Output signals


Type

Description

TRIPZ1

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 1 - forward


direction

TRL1Z1

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L1 from zone 1 - forward direction

TRL2Z1

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L2 from zone 1 - forward direction

TRL3Z1

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L3 from zone 1 - forward direction

TRIPZ2

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 2 - forward


direction

TRL1Z2

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L1 from zone 2 - forward direction

TRL2Z2

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L2 from zone 2 - forward direction

TRL3Z2

BOOLEAN

Trip in phase L3 from zone 2 - forward direction

TRIPZ3

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 3 - zone


direction

TRIPZ4

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 4 - zone


direction

Table continues on next page

362
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Type

Description

TRIPZ5

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone 5 - zone


direction

TRIPZRV

BOOLEAN

Trip in any phase or phases from zone RV - reverse


dir.

STARTZ1

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 - forward


direction

STNDZ1

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 1 - any


direction

STARTZ2

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 - forward


direction

STL1Z2

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L1 from zone 2 - forward direction

STL2Z2

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L2 from zone 2 - forward direction

STL3Z2

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L3 from zone 2 - forward direction

STNDZ2

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 2 - any


direction

STARTZ3

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 - zone


direction

STNDZ3

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 3 - any


direction

STARTZ4

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 - zone


direction

STNDZ4

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 4 - any


direction

STARTZ5

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 - zone


direction

STNDZ5

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone 5 - any


direction

STARTZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone RV reverse dir.

STL1ZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L1 from zone RV - reverse direction

STL2ZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L2 from zone RV - reverse direction

STL3ZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in phase L3 from zone RV - reverse direction

STNDZRV

BOOLEAN

Start in any phase or phases from zone RV - any


direction

STARTND

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in any phase or phases - any


direction

STNDL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - any direction

STNDL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - any direction

STNDL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - any direction

STFWL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - forward direction

STFWL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - forward direction

STFWL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - forward direction

STFWPE

BOOLEAN

Fault with earth connection detected - forward


direction

STRVL1

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L1 - reverse direction

STRVL2

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L2 - reverse direction

Table continues on next page


363
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

7.12.5
Table 167:
Name

Type

Description

STRVL3

BOOLEAN

Fault detected in phase L3 - reverse direction

STRVPE

BOOLEAN

Fault with earth connection detected - reverse


direction

STFW1PH

BOOLEAN

Single-phase fault detected - forward direction

STFW2PH

BOOLEAN

Two-phase fault detected - forward direction

STFW3PH

BOOLEAN

Three-phase fault detected - forward direction

STPE

BOOLEAN

Ph-E zone measurement enabled - any direction

STPP

BOOLEAN

Ph-Ph zone measurement enabled - any direction

Settings
ZMFCPDIS Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Mode Off / On

OperationSC

NoSeriesComp
SeriesComp

NoSeriesComp

Selection of series compensation


operation Off / On

RLdFw

0.01 - 5000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

60.00

Resistance determining the load


impedance area - forward

RLdRv

0.01 - 5000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

60.00

Resistance determining the load


impedance area - reverse

XLd

0.01 - 10000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

400.00

Reactance determining the load


impedance area

ArgLd

5 - 70

Deg

30

Angle determining the load impedance


area

CVTtype

Any
Passive type
None (Magnetic)

Passive type

CVT selection determining the filtering of


the function

OpModeZ1

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 1

X1FwPPZ1

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-Ph,


zone 1, forward dir.

R1FwPPZ1

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-Ph, zone


1, forward dir.

RFPPZ1

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 1,


forw & rev dir.

X1RvPPZ1

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-Ph, zone 1,


reverse direction

X1FwPEZ1

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone


1, forward dir.

R1FwPEZ1

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone


1, forward dir.

X0FwPEZ1

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

100.00

Zero seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone 1,


forward direction

Table continues on next page

364
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Step

Default

R0FwPEZ1

Values (Range)
0.00 - 3000.00

Unit
Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Description
Zero seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone 1,
forward direction

RFPEZ1

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 1, forw


& rev dir.

X1RvPEZ1

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-E, zone 1,


reverse direction

tPPZ1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 1

tPEZ1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 1

IMinOpPPZ1

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 1

IMinOpPEZ1

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 1

OpModeZ2

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 2

X1FwPPZ2

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-Ph,


zone 2, forward dir.

R1FwPPZ2

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-Ph, zone


2, forward dir.

RFPPZ2

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 2,


forw & rev dir.

X1RvPPZ2

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-Ph, zone 2,


reverse direction

X1FwPEZ2

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone


2, forward dir.

R1FwPEZ2

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone


2, forward dir.

X0FwPEZ2

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone 2,


forward direction

R0FwPEZ2

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone 2,


forward direction

RFPEZ2

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 2, forw


& rev dir.

X1RvPEZ2

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-E, zone 2,


reverse direction

tPPZ2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 2

tPEZ2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.400

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 2

IMinOpPPZ2

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 2

IMinOpPEZ2

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 2

OpModeZ3

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 3

DirModeZ3

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction of zone 3 (which will be the Fw


direction of zone 3)

Table continues on next page

365
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

Values (Range)

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Step

Default

X1FwPPZ3

0.01 - 3000.00

Unit
Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Description
Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-Ph,
zone 3, zone direction

R1FwPPZ3

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-Ph, zone


3, zone direction

RFFwPPZ3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 3,


zone direction

X1RvPPZ3

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-Ph, zone 3,


opposite to zone dir

RFRvPPZ3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 3,


opposite to zone dir.

X1FwPEZ3

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone


3, zone direction

R1FwPEZ3

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone


3, zone direction

X0FwPEZ3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone 3,


zone direction

R0FwPEZ3

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone 3,


zone direction

RFFwPEZ3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 3,


zone direction

X1RvPEZ3

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-E, zone 3,


opposite to zone dir

RFRvPEZ3

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 3,


opposite to zone dir.

tPPZ3

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.800

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 3

tPEZ3

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.800

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 3

IMinOpPPZ3

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 3

IMinOpPEZ3

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 3

OpModeZ4

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 4

DirModeZ4

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction of zone 4 (which will be the Fw


direction of zone 4)

X1FwPPZ4

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-Ph,


zone 4, zone direction

R1FwPPZ4

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-Ph, zone


4, zone direction

RFFwPPZ4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 4,


zone direction

X1RvPPZ4

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-Ph, zone 4,


opposite to zone dir

RFRvPPZ4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 4,


opposite to zone dir.

X1FwPEZ4

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone


4, zone direction

Table continues on next page

366
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Step

Default

R1FwPEZ4

Values (Range)
0.00 - 1000.00

Unit
Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Description
Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone
4, zone direction

X0FwPEZ4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone 4,


zone direction

R0FwPEZ4

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone 4,


zone direction

RFFwPEZ4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 4,


zone direction

X1RvPEZ4

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-E, zone 4,


opposite to zone dir

RFRvPEZ4

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 4,


opposite to zone dir.

tPPZ4

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.200

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 4

tPEZ4

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.200

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 4

IMinOpPPZ4

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 4

IMinOpPEZ4

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 4

OpModeZ5

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone 5

DirModeZ5

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

Forward

Direction of zone 5 (which will be the Fw


direction of zone 5)

X1FwPPZ5

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-Ph,


zone 5, zone direction

R1FwPPZ5

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-Ph, zone


5, zone direction

RFFwPPZ5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 5,


zone direction

X1RvPPZ5

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-Ph, zone 5,


opposite to zone dir

RFRvPPZ5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone 5,


opposite to zone dir.

X1FwPEZ5

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone


5, zone direction

R1FwPEZ5

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone


5, zone direction

X0FwPEZ5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone 5,


zone direction

R0FwPEZ5

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone 5,


zone direction

RFFwPEZ5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 5,


zone direction

X1RvPEZ5

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-E, zone 5,


opposite to zone dir

RFRvPEZ5

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone 5,


opposite to zone dir.

Table continues on next page

367
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Values (Range)

Unit

tPPZ5

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.600

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone 5

tPEZ5

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

1.600

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone 5

IMinOpPPZ5

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone 5

IMinOpPEZ5

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone 5

OpModeZRV

Disable-Zone
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E loops,


zone RV

X1FwPPZRV

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Positive seq. reactance reach, Ph-Ph,


zone RV, reverse dir.

R1FwPPZRV

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-Ph, zone


RV, reverse dir.

RFPPZRV

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-Ph, zone RV,


rev & forw dir.

X1RvPPZRV

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react, reach, Ph-Ph, zone RV,


forward direction

X1FwPEZRV

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react, reach, Ph-E, zone RV,


reverse direction

R1FwPEZRV

0.00 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

5.00

Positive seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone


RV, reverse dir.

X0FwPEZRV

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

120.00

Zero seq. reactance reach, Ph-E, zone


RV, reverse direction

R0FwPEZRV

0.00 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

15.00

Zero seq. resistive reach, Ph-E, zone RV,


reverse direction

RFPEZRV

0.01 - 9000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

100.00

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E, zone RV,


rev & forw dir.

X1RvPEZRV

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

40.00

Pos. seq. react. reach, Ph-E, zone RV,


forward direction

tPPZRV

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Phase, zone RV

tPEZRV

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.000

Time delay to trip, Phase-Earth, zone RV

IMinOpPPZRV

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate ph-ph current for


Phase-Phase loops, zone RV

IMinOpPEZRV

5 - 6000

%IB

10

Minimum operate phase current for


Phase-Earth loops, zone RV

Table 168:
Name

Step

Default

Description

ZMFCPDIS Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

ZoneLinkStart

Phase Selection
1st starting zone

Phase Selection

Select. of start source for all ZoneLinked


trip delay timers

INReleasePE

5 - 400

%IPh

400

3I0 limit for releasing phase-to-earth


measuring loops

TimerModeZ1

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 1

Table continues on next page

368
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

TimerLinksZ1

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 1

TimerModeZ2

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 2

TimerLinksZ2

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 2

TimerModeZ3

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 3

TimerLinksZ3

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 3

TimerModeZ4

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 4

TimerLinksZ4

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 4

TimerModeZ5

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone 5

TimerLinksZ5

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone 5

TimerModeZRV

Disable all
Enable Ph-E
Enable PhPh
Enable Ph-E PhPh

Enable Ph-E PhPh

On/Off setting for Ph-Ph and Ph-E trip


output, zone RV

TimerLinksZRV

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink &
ZoneLink
No Links

LoopLink (tPPtPE)

How start of trip delay timers should be


linked for zone RV

Table 169:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

ZMFCPDIS Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

369
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.12.6

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Monitored data
Table 170:
Name

7.12.7

ZMFCPDIS Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

L1Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L1

L2Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L2

L3Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in phase L3

L1L2Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in loop L1L2

L2L3Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in loop L2L3

L3L1Dir

INTEGER

1=Forward
2=Reverse
0=No direction

Direction in loop L3L1

L1R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L1

L1X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L1

L2R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L2

L2X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L2

L3R

REAL

Ohm

Resistance in phase L3

L3X

REAL

Ohm

Reactance in phase L3

Operation principle
Settings, input and output names are sometimes mentioned in the following text
without its zone suffix (i.e. BLKZx instead of BLKZ3) when the description is equally
valid for all zones.

7.12.7.1

Filtering
Practically all voltage, current and impedance quantities used within the ZMFCPDIS
function are derived from fundamental frequency phasors filtered by a half-cycle
filter.
The phasor filter is frequency adaptive in the sense that its coefficients are changed
based on the estimated power system frequency.
A half-cycle filter will not be able to reject both even and odd harmonics. So, while
odd harmonics will be completely attenuated, accuracy will be affected by even
harmonics. Even harmonics will not cause the distance zones to overreach; instead

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

there will be a slightly variable underreach, on average in the same order as the
magnitude ratio between the harmonic and the fundamental component.

7.12.7.2

Distance measuring zones


The execution of the different fault loops within the IED are of full scheme type, which
means that earth fault loop for phase-to-earth faults and phase-to-phase faults for
forward and reverse faults are executed in parallel.
Figure 91 presents an outline of the different measuring loops for the six distance
zones.
L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 1

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 2

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 3

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 4

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone 5

L1-N

L2-N

L3-N

L1-L2

L2-L3

L3-L1

Zone RV
IEC05000458-2-en.vsd

IEC05000458 V2 EN

Figure 182:

The different measuring loops at phase-to-earth fault and phase-tophase fault

The use of full scheme technique gives faster operation time compared to switched
schemes which mostly uses a start element to select correct voltages and current
depending on fault type. Each distance protection zone performs like one independent
distance protection function with six measuring elements.
It is well-known that transients from CVTs may have a significant impact on the
transient overreach of a distance protection. At the same time these transients can be
very diverse in nature from one type to the other; in fact, more diverse than can be
distinguished by the algorithm itself in the course of a few milliseconds. So, a setting
is introduced in order to inform the algorithm about the type of CVT applied and thus
providing the advantage of knowing how performance should be optimized, even
during the first turbulent milliseconds of the fault period.
There are basically two types of CVTs from the function point of view, the passive and
the active type, which refers to the type of ferro-resonance suppression device that is
employed. The active type requires more rigorous filtering which will have a negative
impact on operate times. However, this will be evident primarily at higher source
impedance ratios (SIRs), SIR 5 and above, or close to the reach limit.
It is worth mentioning here that the IEC 60044-5 transient classification is of little or
no use in this connection. It is not primarily the damping of transients that is important;

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1MRK 504 139-UEN B

it is the frequency content of the transients that is decisive, i.e. how difficult it is to
filter out the specific frequency. So, even if two CVTs, one passive and the other active
type, comply with the same transient class, the active type requires more extensive
filtering in order to avoid transient overreach.
For avoiding overreach and at the same time achieving fast operate times, a
supplementary circular characteristic that includes some alternative processing
(retained from REL 531) is implemented. One such circular characteristic exists for
every measuring loop and quadrilateral characteristic. There are no specific reach
settings for this circular zone. It uses the normal quadrilateral zone settings to
determine a reach that will be appropriate. This implies that the circular characteristic
will always have somewhat shorter reach than the quadrilateral zone.

7.12.7.3

Phase-selection element
The operation of the phase-selection element is primarily based on current change
criteria. The current change criteria itself can however only be relied on for a short
period following the fault inception (during what we will call the current change
phase). Subsequent switching in the network may render the change in current invalid.
So, naturally, the phase-selection element also operates on continuous criteria.
The phase-selection element can, owing to the current change criteria, distinguish
faults with minimum influence from load and fault impedance. In other words, it is not
restricted by a load encroachment characteristic during the current change phase. This
significantly improves performance for remote phase-to-earth faults on heavily
loaded lines. One exception, however, is three-phase faults, for which the load
encroachment characteristic always has to be applied, in order to distinguish fault
from load.
The continuous criteria will in the vast majority of cases operate in parallel and carry
on the fault indication after the current change phase has ended. Only in some
particularly difficult faults on heavily loaded lines the continuous criteria might not be
sufficient, for example, when the estimated fault impedance resides within the load
area defined by the load encroachment characteristic. In this case, the indication will
be restricted to a pulse lasting for one or two power system cycles.
Phase-to-phase-earth faults (also called double earth faults) will practically always
activate phase-to-phase zone measurements. This is a substantial difference compared
to the previous phase selection function in the 500- and 600-series (that is,
FDPSPDIS). Measurement in two phase-to-earth loops at the same time is associated
with so-called simultaneous faults: two earth faults at the same time, one each on the
two circuits of a double line, or when the zero sequence current is relatively high due
to a source with low Z0/Z1 ratio.In fact, in these situations zone measurement will be
released both for the related phase-to-earth loops and the phase-to-phase loop
simultaneously. On the other hand, simultaneous faults closer to the remote bus will
gradually take on the properties of a phase-to-phase-earth fault and the function will
eventually use phase-to-phase zone measurements also here.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

In cases where the fault current infeed is more or less completely lack of zero sequence
nature (all phase currents in phase), the measurement will be performed in the phaseto-earth loops only for a phase-to-phase-earth fault.
However, should it be desirable to use phase-to-earth (and only phase-to-earth) zone
measurement for phase-to-phase-earth faults, the setting INReleasePE can be lowered
from its excessive default value to the level above which phase-to-earth measurement
should be activated.

7.12.7.4

Directional element
Several criteria are employed when making the directional decision. The basis is
provided by comparing a sum of positive sequence voltage and memory voltage with
phase currents. This has been the standard method up to now in the 600-series
(ZDRDIR). For extra security, especially in making a very fast decision, this method
is complemented with an equivalent comparison where, instead of the phase current,
the change in phase current is used. Moreover, a basic negative sequence directional
evaluation is taken into account as a reliable reference during high load condition.
Finally, zero sequence directional evaluation is used whenever there is more or less
exclusive zero sequence in-feed.
Fundamentally, the directional sectors that represent forward direction, one per
measuring loop, are defined by the following equations (examples for L1and L1L2
only):

15 < arg

( (1 k ) U1

L1

+ k U 1L1M )

I L1

< 120
(Equation 98)

EQUATION2546 V2 EN

15 < arg

( (1 k ) U1

L1L 2

+ k U 1L1L 2 M )

I L1L 2

< 120
(Equation 99)

EQUATION2547 V2 EN

Where:
U1L1

is the positive sequence phase voltage in phase L1.

U1L1M

is the positive sequence memorized phase voltage in phase L1.

IL1

is the phase current in phase L1.

U1L1L2

is the voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1).

U1L1L2M is the memorized voltage difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1).
IL1L2

is the current difference between phase L1 and L2 (L2 lagging L1).

is the factor determining the amount of memory voltage.

The corresponding reverse directional sectors range from 165 to -60 degrees. The
value of the k factor determining the amount of memory voltage used is normally 0.8.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

However, if the SeriesComp option is chosen (only available in ZMFCPDIS) the value
is changed to 0.95.

7.12.7.5

Fuse failure
The ZMFCPDIS function has to be blocked by an additional function like the Fuse
failure supervision (FUFSPVC) or an equivalent external device. Typically, the
binary input VTSZ is used for this purpose.
However, to guarantee that also very fast operation is blocked in a fuse failure
situation, there is a built-in supervision based on change in current that will delay
operation before the FUFSPVC blocking signal is received. The delay will be
introduced if no (vector) magnitude change greater than 5% of IBase has been
detected in any of the phase currents.

7.12.7.6

Power swings
There is need for external blocking of the ZMFCPDIS function during power swings,
either from the Power Swing Blocking function (ZMRPSB) or an external device.

7.12.7.7

Measuring principles
All ZMFCPDIS zones operate according to the non-directional impedance
characteristics presented in figure 183 and figure 184. The phase-to-earth
characteristic is illustrated with the full loop reach while the phase-to-phase
characteristic presents the per-phase reach.

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

X (Ohm/loop)

R1PE+RNFw
RFRvPE

RFFwPE

X 0 PE - X 1FwPE
3
PG- 1RVPGX 1RvPE
XX00PE
X 1XRVPE
XNRV
= XNFw

XNRVXNRv
==
33
X 1FwPE
XNFw =

XX0 PE
- X-1X
FWPE
0 PG
1FWPG
XNFW
XNFW==
3 3

X1FwPE+XNFw

jN

jN

RNFw =

R0 PE - R1PE
3

R (Ohm/loop)
RFRvPE

RFFwPE

X1RvPE+XNRv

jN
RFRvPE

RFFwPE

R1PE+RNRv

IEC11000417-1-en.vsd

IEC11000417 V1 EN

Figure 183:

ZMFCPDIS Characteristic for phase-to-earth measuring loops, ohm/


loop domain

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RFRvPP

(Ohm/phase)

R1PP

RFFwPP

X 0 PE - X 1RVPE
XNRV =XX00PE
PG- 1RVPG
X3
1XRVPE
XNRV
=
XNRV =
33
XX00PE
PE
11FWPE
X
X-1X
0
PG
XFWPE
FWPG
XNFW
XNFW
XNFW===
3
3 3

X1FwPP

j
jN
RFRvPP

RFFwPP

j
R (Ohm/phase)

X1RvPP

jN
RFRvPP

RFFwPP

IEC11000418-1-en.vsd

IEC11000418 V1 EN

Figure 184:

ZMFCPDIS Characteristic for the phase-to-phase measuring loops

Note that for ZMFCPDIS, the reverse zone ZRV, as well as any of
zones 3-5, that are set to DirMode=Reverse will get their operating
impedances inverted (rotated 180 degrees) internally in order to make
use of the main settings, which are the settings designated Fw.
Therefore, a reverse zone will have its Fw-settings (RFFwPPZRV,
X1FwPEZ3, and so on) applied in the third quadrant, that is, towards
the busbar instead of the line.
The fault loop reach in relation to each fault type may also be presented as in figure
172. The main intention with this illustration is to make clear how the fault resistive
reach should be interpreted. Note in particular that the setting RFPP always represents
the total fault resistance of the loop, even while the fault resistance (arc) may be
divided into parts like for three-phase or phase-to-phase-to-earth faults. The R1 and
jX1 represent the positive sequence impedance from the measuring point to the fault
location.

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

UL1

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-earth
fault in phase L1

Phase-to-earth
element

RFPE
(Arc + tower
resistance)
0

UL1
Phase-to-phase
fault in phase
L1-L2

IN

(R0-R1)/3 +
j (X0-X1)/3 )

IL1

R1 + j X1

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L2
RFPP

IL2

(Arc resistance)

UL2
R1 + j X1

Three-phase
fault or Phase-tophase-earth fault

UL1

IL1

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

R1 + j X1

0.5RFPP

Phase-to-phase
element L1-L3

IL3
UL3
IEC11000419-2-en.vsd

IEC11000419 V2 EN

Figure 185:

7.12.7.8

Fault loop model

Simplified logic schemes


PHSL1, PHSL2,...PHSL3L1 are internal binary logical signals from the Phaseselection element. They correspond directly to the six loops of the distance zones and
determine which loops should be released to possibly issue a start or a trip.
FWL1, FWL2,...FWL3L1 and RVL1, RVL2,...RVL3L1 are the internal binary
signals from the Directional element. An FW signal is set true if the criteria for a
forward fault or load is fulfilled for its particular loop. The equivalent applies to the
reverse (RV) signals.
The internal input 'IN present' is true if the residual current (3I0) exceeds 7% of IBase.
However, if current transformer saturation is detected, this criterion is changed to
residual voltage (3U0) exceeding 5% of UBase/sqrt(3) instead.

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Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

15 ms
t

OR

STPE

AND

PHSL1
PHSL2

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

PHSL3
PHSL1L2
PHSL2L3
PHSL3L1
OR

BLOCK
VTSZ

15 ms
t

AND

AND

AND

STPP

AND

OR

OR

STARTND
STPHS
IEC12000133-1-en.vsd

IEC12000133 V1 EN

Figure 186:

Additional start outputs 1

378
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

PHSL1
FWL1
PHSL2
FWL2
PHSL3
FWL3

AND
AND

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

AND

PHSL1L2
FWL1L2
PHSL2L3
FWL2L3
PHSL3L1
FWL3L1

AND
AND

STFWL1

AND

STFWL2

AND

STFWL3

AND

AND
OR

IN present

BLOCK
VTSZ

AND

=1

STFWPE

STFW1PH

OR
=2

=3

STFW2PH

STFW3PH

IEC12000134-1-en.vsd
IEC12000134 V1 EN

Figure 187:

Additional start outputs 2

FW(Ln & LmLn)

DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z1

FW(Ln & LmLn)

DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z2

RV(Ln & LmLn)

DIR(Ln & LmLn)ZRV


DirModeZ3-5

TRUE (1)
FW(Ln & LmLn)
RV(Ln & LmLn)

Non-directional
Forward
Reverse

DIR(Ln & LmLn)Z3-5

IEC12000137-2-en.vsd
IEC12000137 V2 EN

Figure 188:

Connection of directional signals to zones

379
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

15 ms
t

TZx

TRIPZx

AND

BLKTRZx
BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKZx

OR

AND

OR

AND
AND
15 ms
t

L1Zx

15 ms
t

L2Zx

15 ms
t

L3Zx
PPZx
PEZx

OR

15 ms
t
15 ms
t

NDZx

AND
AND
AND

AND

AND

TRL1Zx
TRL2Zx
TRL3Zx
STL1Zx
STL2Zx
STL3Zx

STARTZx

STNDZx

IEC12000138-1-en.vsd
IEC12000138 V1 EN

Figure 189:

Start and trip outputs

380
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

TimerModeZx =
Enable Ph-Ph,
Ph-E

PPZx

AND

AND

PEZx

BLOCK
VTSZ
BLKZx
BLKTRZx

OR

OR

AND

tPPZx
t

AND

tPEZx
t

TZx

OR

AND

OR

TimerLinksZx

OR

ZoneLinkStart
STPHS

AND

OR

Phase Selection
1st starting zone

LNKZ1
LNKZ2
LNKZRV
OR
LNKZ3
LNKZ4
LNKZ5

LoopLink (tPP-tPE)
LoopLink & ZoneLink
No Links

FALSE (0)
AND

LNKZx

TimerLinksZx =
LoopLink & ZoneLink

IEC12000139-3-en.vsdx

IEC12000139 V3 EN

Figure 190:

Logic for linking of timers

381
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

PHSL1
RVL1
PHSL2
RVL2
PHSL3
RVL3

AND
AND

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

OR

15 ms
t

AND

PHSL1L2
RVL1L2
PHSL2L3
RVL2L3
PHSL3L1
RVL3L1

AND
AND

STRVL1

AND

STRVL2

AND

STRVL3

AND

AND
OR

IN present
BLOCK
VTSZ

AND

STRVPE

OR

IEC12000141-1-en.vsd
IEC12000141 V1 EN

Figure 191:

Additional start outputs 3

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ZML1Zx
PHSL1
DIRL1Zx
ZML2Zx
PHSL2
DIRL2Zx
ZML3Zx
PHSL3
DIRL3Zx
ZML1L2Zx
PHSL1L2
DIRL1L2Zx
ZML2L3Zx
PHSL2L3
DIRL2L3Zx
ZML3L1Zx
PHSL3L1
DIRL3L1Zx

PEZx

OR
AND
AND
AND
AND
OR

AND

L1Zx

AND
OR

AND

L2Zx

AND
OR

AND

L3Zx

AND
AND
AND
OR

OR

PPZx

NDZx

IEC12000140-1-en.vsd
IEC12000140 V1 EN

Figure 192:

Intermediate logic

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Section 7
Impedance protection
7.12.8

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Technical data
Table 171:

ZMFCPDIS technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Number of zones

3 selectable
directions, 3 fixed
directions

Minimum operate current, Ph-Ph


and Ph-E

(5 - 6000)% of IBase

1.0% of In

Positive sequence reactance


reach, Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop

(30 - 3000) /phase

Positive sequence resistance


reach, Ph-E and Ph-Ph loop

(30 - 3000) /phase

Zero sequence reactance reach

(100.00 - 9000.00) /p

Zero sequence resistive reach

(15.00 - 3000.00) /p

Fault resistance reach, Ph-E and


Ph-Ph

(1.00 - 9000.00) /l

Dynamic overreach

< 5% at 85 deg
measured with CVT's
and 0.5 < SIR <30

Definite time delay to trip, Ph-E


and Ph-Ph operation

(0.000 - 60.000) s

Operate time

16 ms typically

Reset time at 0.1 to 2 x Zreach

Min = 20 ms
Max = 35 ms

Reset ratio

105% typically

" +- 2.0% static accuracy +- 2.0 deg static


angular accuracy Conditions: Voltage
range: (0.1 - 1.1) x Ur Current range: (0.5
- 30) x Ir Angle: At 0 deg and 85 deg"

0.2% or 35 ms whichever is greater


IEC 60255-121
-

7.13

Power swing detection ZMRPSB

7.13.1

Identification
Function description
Power swing detection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
68

ZMRPSB

Zpsb
SYMBOL-EE V1 EN

7.13.2

Functionality
Power swings may occur after disconnection of heavy loads or trip of big generation
plants.

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Power swing detection function ZMRPSB is used to detect power swings and initiate
block of all distance protection zones. Occurrence of earth-fault currents during a
power swing inhibits the ZMRPSB function, to allow fault clearance.

7.13.3

Function block
ZMRPSB
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKI01
BLKI02
BLK1PH
REL1PH
BLK2PH
REL2PH
I0CHECK
TRSP
EXTERNAL

START
ZOUT
ZIN

IEC06000264-2-en.vsd
IEC06000264 V2 EN

Figure 193:

7.13.4

ZMRPSB function block

Signals
Table 172:
Name

ZMRPSB Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for current input

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group signal for voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKI01

BOOLEAN

Block inhibit of start output for slow swing condition

BLKI02

BOOLEAN

Block inhibit of start output for subsequent residual


current detection

BLK1PH

BOOLEAN

Block one-out-of-three-phase operating mode

REL1PH

BOOLEAN

Release one-out-of-three-phase operating mode

BLK2PH

BOOLEAN

Block two-out-of-three-phase operating mode

REL2PH

BOOLEAN

Release two-out-of-three-phase operating mode

I0CHECK

BOOLEAN

Residual current (3I0) detection used to inhibit start


output

TRSP

BOOLEAN

Single-pole tripping command issued by tripping


function

EXTERNAL

BOOLEAN

Input for external detection of power swing

385
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 173:

ZMRPSB Output signals

Name

7.13.5
Table 174:
Name

Type

Description

START

BOOLEAN

Power swing detected

ZOUT

BOOLEAN

Measured impedance within outer impedance


boundary

ZIN

BOOLEAN

Measured impedance within inner impedance


boundary

Settings
ZMRPSB Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Mode On / Off

X1InFw

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Inner reactive boundary, forward

R1LIn

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Line resistance for inner characteristic


angle

R1FInFw

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance coverage to inner


resistive line, forward

X1InRv

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Inner reactive boundary, reverse

R1FInRv

0.01 - 1000.00

Ohm/l

0.01

30.00

Fault resistance line to inner resistive


boundary, reverse

OperationLdCh

Off
On

On

Operation of load discrimination


characteristic

RLdOutFw

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Outer resistive load boundary, forward

ArgLd

5 - 70

Deg

25

Load angle determining load impedance


area

RLdOutRv

0.01 - 3000.00

Ohm/p

0.01

30.00

Outer resistive load boundary, reverse

kLdRFw

0.50 - 0.90

Mult

0.01

0.75

Multiplication factor for inner resistive load


boundary, forward

kLdRRv

0.50 - 0.90

Mult

0.01

0.75

Multiplication factor for inner resistive load


boundary, reverse

tEF

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

3.000

Timer for overcoming single-pole


reclosing dead time

IMinOpPE

5 - 30

%IB

10

Minimum operate current in % of IBase

Table 175:

ZMRPSB Group settings (advanced)

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

tP1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.045

Timer for detection of initial power swing

tP2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.015

Timer for detection of subsequent power


swings

tW

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.250

Waiting timer for activation of tP2 timer

Step

Default

Description

Table continues on next page

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

Values (Range)

Unit

tH

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.500

Timer for holding power swing START


output

tR1

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.300

Timer giving delay to inhibit by the residual


current

tR2

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

2.000

Timer giving delay to inhibit at very slow


swing

Table 176:
Name
GlobalBaseSel

7.13.6

Step

Default

Description

ZMRPSB Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)
1 - 12

Unit
-

Step
1

Default
1

Description
Selection of one of the Global Base Value
groups

Operation principle
Power swing detection (ZMRPSB ) function comprises an inner and an outer
quadrilateral measurement characteristic with load encroachment, as shown in
figure 194.
Its principle of operation is based on the measurement of the time it takes for a power
swing transient impedance to pass through the impedance area between the outer and
the inner characteristics. Power swings are identified by transition times longer than
a transition time set on corresponding timers. The impedance measuring principle is
the same as that used for the distance protection zones. The impedance and the
characteristic passing times are measured in all three phases separately.
One-out-of-three or two-out-of-three operating modes can be selected according to
the specific system operating conditions.

387
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

jX

X1OutFw
X1InFw

DRv

R1LIn

ZL

DFw
j

R1FInRv

R1FInFw

DFw

ArgLd

ArgLd

DRv

DFw
DFw

R
DFw

DRv

DFw

RLdInRv RLdInFw

DRv
j

RLdOutRv RLdOutFw

DRv

X1InRv
X1OutRv
IEC09000222_1_en.vsd

IEC09000222 V1 EN

Figure 194:

Operating characteristic for ZMRPSB function (setting parameters in


italic)

The impedance measurement within ZMRPSB function is performed by solving


equation 100 and equation 101 (n = 1, 2, 3 for each corresponding phase L1, L2 and
L3).

ULn
Re
Rset
I
L
n

EQUATION1183 V2 EN

(Equation 100)

ULn
Im
Xset
ILn
EQUATION1184 V2 EN

(Equation 101)

The Rset and Xset are R and X boundaries.

7.13.6.1

Resistive reach in forward direction


To avoid load encroachment, the resistive reach is limited in forward direction by
setting the parameter RLdOutFw which is the outer resistive load boundary value
while the inner resistive boundary is calculated according to equation 102.

388
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

RLdInFw = kLdRFwRLdOutFw
EQUATION1185 V2 EN

(Equation 102)

where:

kLdRFw is a settable multiplication factor less than 1

The slope of the load encroachment inner and outer boundary is defined by setting the
parameter ArgLd.
The load encroachment in the fourth quadrant uses the same settings as in the first
quadrant (same ArgLd and RLdOutFw and calculated value RLdInFw).
The quadrilateral characteristic in the first quadrant is tilted to get a better adaptation
to the distance measuring zones. The angle is the same as the line angle and derived
from the setting of the reactive reach inner boundary X1InFw and the line resistance
for the inner boundary R1LIn. The fault resistance coverage for the inner boundary is
set by the parameter R1FInFw.
From the setting parameter RLdOutFw and the calculated value RLdInFw a distance
between the inner and outer boundary, DFw, is calculated. This value is valid for R
direction in first and fourth quadrant and for X direction in first and second quadrant.

7.13.6.2

Resistive reach in reverse direction


To avoid load encroachment in reverse direction, the resistive reach is limited by
setting the parameter RLdOutRv for the outer boundary of the load encroachment
zone. The distance to the inner resistive load boundary RLdInRv is determined by
using the setting parameter kLdRRv in equation 103.

RLdInRv = kLdRRvRLdOutRv
EQUATION1187 V2 EN

(Equation 103)

where:

kLdRRv is a settable multiplication factor less than 1

From the setting parameter RLdOutRv and the calculated value RLdInRv, a distance
between the inner and outer boundary, DRv, is calculated. This value is valid for R
direction in second and third quadrant and for X direction in third and fourth quadrant.
The inner resistive characteristic in the second quadrant outside the load
encroachment part corresponds to the setting parameter R1FInRv for the inner
boundary. The outer boundary is internally calculated as the sum of DRv+R1FInRv.
The inner resistive characteristic in the third quadrant outside the load encroachment
zone consist of the sum of the settings R1FInRv and the line resistance R1LIn. The
389
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

argument of the tilted lines outside the load encroachment is the same as the tilted lines
in the first quadrant. The distance between the inner and outer boundary is the same
as for the load encroachment in reverse direction, that is DRv.

7.13.6.3

Reactive reach in forward and reverse direction


The inner characteristic for the reactive reach in forward direction correspond to the
setting parameter X1InFw and the outer boundary is defined as X1InFw + DFw,
where:
DFw = RLdOutFw - KLdRFw RLdOutFw

The inner characteristic for the reactive reach in reverse direction correspond to the
setting parameter X1InRv for the inner boundary and the outer boundary is defined as
X1InRv + DRv.
where:
DRv = RLdOutRv - KLdRRv RLdOutRv

7.13.6.4

Basic detection logic


The operation of the Power swing detection ZMRPSB is only released if the
magnitude of the current is above the setting of the min operating current, IMinOpPE.
ZMRPSB function can operate in two operating modes:

The 1 out of 3 operating mode is based on detection of power swing in any of the
three phases. Figure 195 presents a composition of an internal detection signal
DET-L1 in this particular phase.
The 2 out of 3 operating mode is based on detection of power swing in at least two
out of three phases. Figure 196 presents a composition of the detection signals
DET1of3 and DET2of3.

Signals ZOUTLn (outer boundary) and ZINLn (inner boundary) in figure 195 are
related to the operation of the impedance measuring elements in each phase separately
(n represents the corresponding L1, L2 and L3). They are internal signals, calculated
by ZMRPSB function.
The tP1 timer in figure 195 serve as detection of initial power swings, which are
usually not as fast as the later swings are. The tP2 timer become activated for the
detection of the consecutive swings, if the measured impedance exit the operate area
and returns within the time delay, set on the tW waiting timer. The upper part of
figure 195 (internal input signal ZOUTL1, ZINL1, AND-gates and tP-timers) are
duplicated for phase L2 and L3. All tP1 and tP2 timers in the figure have the same
settings.

390
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ZOUTL1
ZINL1

0-tP1
0

AND

AND

OR
-loop

-loop

0-tP2
0

OR

AND

ZOUTL2
ZOUTL3

detected

AND

DET-L1

OR

0
0-tW
IEC05000113-2-en.vsd

IEC05000113 V2 EN

Figure 195:

DET-L1
DET-L2
DET-L3

Detection of power swing in phase L1

DET1of3 - int.

>1

&
&

>1

DET2of3 - int.

&
IEC01000057-2-en.vsd
IEC01000057-TIFF V2 EN

Figure 196:

Detection of power swing for 1-of-3 and 2-of-3 operating mode

391
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

ZOUTL1

ZOUT

OR

ZOUTL2

ZINL1

ZOUTL3

TRSP

ZIN

OR

ZINL2

AND

ZINL3

tEF
AND

I0CHECK
10 ms
t

AND

BLKI02

OR
tR1

AND

INHIBIT

OR

-loop
tR2
AND

BLKI01

BLOCK
-loop
DET1of3 - int.
REL1PH
BLK1PH
DET2of3 - int.
REL2PH
BLK2PH

AND
tH
OR
AND

t
OR

START

AND

EXTERNAL
en05000114.vsd
IEC05000114 V1 EN

Figure 197:

7.13.6.5

Simplified block diagram for ZMRPSB function

Operating and inhibit conditions


Figure 197 presents a simplified logic diagram for the Power swing detection function
ZMRPSB. The internal signals DET1of3 and DET2of3 relate to the detailed logic
diagrams in figure 195 and figure 196 respectively.
Selection of the operating mode is possible by the proper configuration of the
functional input signals REL1PH, BLK1PH, REL2PH, and BLK2PH.
The load encroachment characteristic can be switched off by setting the parameter
OperationLdCh = Off, but notice that the DFw and DRv will still be calculated from
RLdOutFw and RLdOutRv. The characteristic will in this case be only quadrilateral.
There are four different ways to form the internal INHIBIT signal:

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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.13.7

Logical 1 on functional input BLOCK inhibits the output START signal


instantaneously.
The INHIBIT internal signal is activated, if the power swing has been detected
and the measured impedance remains within its operate characteristic for the
time, which is longer than the time delay set on tR2 timer. It is possible to disable
this condition by connecting the logical 1 signal to the BLKI01 functional input.
The INHIBIT internal signal is activated after the time delay, set on tR1 timer, if
an earth-fault appears during the power swing (input IOCHECK is high) and the
power swing has been detected before the earth-fault (activation of the signal
I0CHECK). It is possible to disable this condition by connecting the logical 1
signal to the BLKI02 functional input.
The INHIBIT logical signals becomes logical 1, if the functional input I0CHECK
appears within the time delay, set on tEF timer and the impedance has been seen
within the outer characteristic of ZMRPSB operate characteristic in all three
phases. This function prevents the operation of ZMRPSB function in cases, when
the circuit breaker closes onto persistent single-phase fault after single-phase
autoreclosing dead time, if the initial single-phase fault and single-phase opening
of the circuit breaker causes the power swing in the remaining two phases.

Technical data
Table 177:

ZMRPSB technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy
2.0% static accuracy
Conditions:
Voltage range: (0.1-1.1) x Ur
Current range: (0.5-30) x Ir
Angle: at 0 degrees and 85
degrees

Reactive reach

(0.10-3000.00) W/phase

Resistive reach

(0.101000.00) W/loop

Power swing detection operate


time

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 10 ms whichever
is greater

Second swing reclaim operate


time

(0.000-60.000) s

0.2% or 20 ms whichever
is greater

Minimum operate current

(5-30)% of IBase

1.0% of Ir

7.14

Power swing logic PSLPSCH

7.14.1

Identification
Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Power swing logic

PSLPSCH

IEC 60617
identification
-

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
-

393
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.14.2

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Functionality
Power Swing Logic (PSLPSCH) is a complementary function to Power Swing
Detection (ZMRPSB) function. It provides possibility for selective tripping of faults
on power lines during system oscillations (power swings or pole slips), when the
distance protection function should normally be blocked. The complete logic consists
of two different parts:

Communication and tripping part: provides selective tripping on the basis of


special distance protection zones and a scheme communication logic, which are
not blocked during the system oscillations.
Blocking part: blocks unwanted operation of instantaneous distance protection
zone 1 for oscillations, which are initiated by faults and their clearing on the
adjacent power lines and other primary elements.

7.14.3

Function block
PSLPSCH
BLOCK
STZMUR
STZMOR
STPSD
STDEF
STZMPSD
CACC
AR1P1
CSUR
CR

TRIP
STZMURPS
BLKZMUR
BLKZMOR
CS

IEC07000026-3-en.vsd
IEC07000026 V3 EN

Figure 198:

7.14.4

PSLPSCH function block

Signals
Table 178:
Name

PSLPSCH Input signals


Type

Default

Description

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

STZMUR

BOOLEAN

Start of the underreaching zone

STZMOR

BOOLEAN

Start of the overreaching zone

STPSD

BOOLEAN

Power swing detected

STDEF

BOOLEAN

Start from Earth Fault Protection in forward or


reverse direction

STZMPSD

BOOLEAN

Operation of Power Swing Detection external


characteristic

CACC

BOOLEAN

Overreaching ZM zone to be accelerated

AR1P1

BOOLEAN

Single pole auto-reclosing in progress

CSUR

BOOLEAN

Carrier send by the underreaching power-swing


zone

CR

BOOLEAN

Carrier receive signal during power swing detection


operation

394
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 179:

PSLPSCH Output signals

Name

7.14.5
Table 180:
Name

Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Trip through Power Swing Logic

STZMURPS

BOOLEAN

Start of Underreaching zone controlled by PSL to


be used in configuration

BLKZMUR

BOOLEAN

Block trip of underreaching impedance zone

BLKZMOR

BOOLEAN

Block trip of overreaching distance protection


zones

CS

BOOLEAN

Carrier send signal controlled by the power swing

Settings
PSLPSCH Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

tDZ

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.050

Permitted max oper time diff between


higher and lower zone

tDZMUR

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.200

Delay for oper of underreach zone with


detected diff in oper time

tCS

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Conditional timer for sending the CS at


power swings

tTrip

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.100

Conditional timer for tripping at power


swings

tBlkTr

0.000 - 60.000

0.001

0.300

Timer for blocking the overreaching zones


trip

7.14.6

Operation principle

7.14.6.1

Communication and tripping logic


Communication and tripping logic as used by the power swing distance protection
zones is schematically presented in figure 199.

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Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

STDEF
AR1P1

&

STPSD
BLOCK

&

tCS
t

CS

&

CSUR

tTrip
t
CACC
CR

tBlkTr
t

&

&

>1

BLKZMPS

TRIP

en06000236.vsd
IEC06000236 V1 EN

Figure 199:

Simplified logic diagram power swing communication and tripping


logic

The complete logic remains blocked as long as there is a logical one on the BLOCK
functional input signal. Presence of the logical one on the STDEF functional input
signal also blocks the logic as long as this block is not released by the logical one on
the AR1P1 functional input signal. The functional output signal BLKZMPS remains
logical one as long as the function is not blocked externally (BLOCK is logical zero)
and the earth-fault is detected on protected line (STDEF is logical one), which is
connected in three-phase mode (AR1P1 is logical zero). Timer tBlkTr prolongs the
duration of this blocking condition, if the measured impedance remains within the
operate area of the Power Swing Detection (ZMRPSB) function (STPSD input
active). The BLKZMPS can be used to block the operation of the power-swing zones.
Logical one on functional input CSUR, which is normally connected to the TRIP
functional output of a power swing carrier sending zone, activates functional output
CS, if the function is not blocked by one of the above conditions. It also activates the
TRIP functional output.
Initiation of the CS functional output is possible only, if the STPSD input has been
active longer than the time delay set on the security timer tCS.
Simultaneous presence of the functional input signals PLTR_CRD and CR (local trip
condition) also activates the TRIP functional output, if the function is not blocked by
one of the above conditions and the STPSD signal has been present longer then the
time delay set on the trip timer tTrip.

7.14.6.2

Blocking logic
Figure 200 presents the logical circuits, which control the operation of the
underreaching zone (zone 1) at power swings, caused by the faults and their clearance
on the remote power lines.

396
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

&
BLKZMH

&
STZML
BLOCK
STMZH
STZMPSD
STPSD

tZL
t

&

&

>1

STZMLL

tDZ

&

>1

&
-loop

en06000237.vsd
IEC06000237 V1 EN

Figure 200:

Control of underreaching distance protection (Zone 1) at power


swings caused by the faults and their clearance on adjacent lines and
other system elements

The logic is disabled by a logical one on functional input BLOCK. It can start only if
the following conditions are simultaneously fulfilled:

STPSD functional input signal must be a logical zero. This means, that Power
swing detection (ZMRPSB) function must not detect power swinging over the
protected power line.
STZMPSD functional input must be a logical one. This means that the impedance
must be detected within the external boundary of ZMRPSB function.
STZMOR functional input must be a logical one. This means that the fault must
be detected by the overreaching distance protection zone, for example zone 2.

The STZMURPS functional output, which can be used in complete terminal logic
instead of a normal distance protection zone 1, becomes active under the following
conditions:

If the STZMUR signal appears at the same time as the STZMOR or if it appears
with a time delay, which is shorter than the time delay set on timer tDZ.
If the STZMUR signal appears after the STZMOR signal with a time delay longer
than the delay set on the tDZ timer, and remains active longer than the time delay
set on the tZL timer.

The BLKZMOR functional output signal can be used to block the operation of the
higher distance protection zone, if the fault has moved into the zone 1 operate area
after tDZ time delay.

397
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Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Table 181:

PSLPSCH technical data

Function

Range or value
(0.000 60.0000) s

0,2% or 15 ms
whichever is greater

Delay for operation of


underreach zone with
detected difference in
operating time

(0.000 60.0000) s

0,2% or 15 ms
whichever is greater

Conditional timer for sending


the CS at power swings

(0.000 60.0000) s

0,2% or 15 ms
whichever is greater

Conditional timer for tripping


at power swings

(0.000 60.0000) s

0,2% or 15 ms
whichever is greater

Timer for blocking the


overreaching zones trip

(0.000 60.0000) s

0,2% or 15 ms
whichever is greater

7.15

Pole slip protection PSPPPAM

7.15.1

Identification

7.15.2

Accuracy

Permitted maximum
operating time difference
between higher and lower
zone

Function description

IEC 61850
identification

Pole slip protection

PSPPPAM

IEC 60617
identification
Ucos

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
78

Functionality
Sudden events in an electric power system such as large changes in load, fault
occurrence or fault clearance, can cause power oscillations referred to as power
swings. In a non-recoverable situation, the power swings become so severe that the
synchronism is lost, a condition referred to as pole slipping. The main purpose of the
pole slip protection (PSPPPAM) is to detect, evaluate, and take the required action for
pole slipping occurrences in the power system.

398
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.15.3

Function block
PSPPPAM
I3P*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKGEN
BLKMOTOR
EXTZONE1

TRIP
TRIP1
TRIP2
START
ZONE1
ZONE2
GEN
MOTOR
SFREQ
SLIPZOHM
SLIPZPER
UCOS
UCOSPER

IEC10000045-1-en.vsd
IEC10000045 V1 EN

Figure 201:

7.15.4

PSPPPAM function block

Signals
Table 182:
Name

PSPPPAM Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Current group connection

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Voltage group connection

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKGEN

BOOLEAN

Block operation in generating direction

BLKMOTOR

BOOLEAN

Block operation in motor direction

EXTZONE1

BOOLEAN

Extension of zone1 with zone2 region

Table 183:
Name

PSPPPAM Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip signal

TRIP1

BOOLEAN

Trip1 after the N1Limit slip in zone1

TRIP2

BOOLEAN

Trip2 after the N2Limit slip in zone2

START

BOOLEAN

Common start signal

ZONE1

BOOLEAN

First slip in zone1 region

ZONE2

BOOLEAN

First slip in zone2 region

GEN

BOOLEAN

Generator is faster than the system

MOTOR

BOOLEAN

Generator is slower than the system

SFREQ

REAL

Slip frequency

SLIPZOHM

REAL

Slip impedance in ohms

SLIPZPER

REAL

Slip impedance in percent of ZBase

UCOS

REAL

UCosPhi voltage

UCOSPER

REAL

UCosPhi voltage in percent of UBase

399
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.15.5
Table 184:
Name

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Settings
PSPPPAM Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation On / Off

OperationZ1

Off
On

On

Operation Zone1 On / Off

OperationZ2

Off
On

On

Operation Zone2 On / Off

ImpedanceZA

0.00 - 1000.00

0.01

10.00

Forward impedance in % of Zbase

ImpedanceZB

0.00 - 1000.00

0.01

10.00

Reverse impedance in % of Zbase

ImpedanceZC

0.00 - 1000.00

0.01

10.00

Impedance of zone1 limit in % of Zbase

AnglePhi

72.00 - 90.00

Deg

0.01

85.00

Angle of the slip impedance line

StartAngle

0.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

110.0

Rotor angle for the start signal

TripAngle

0.0 - 180.0

Deg

0.1

90.0

Rotor angle for the trip1 and trip2 signals

N1Limit

1 - 20

Count limit for the trip1 signal

N2Limit

1 - 20

Count limit for the trip2 signal

Table 185:
Name
ResetTime

Table 186:
Name

PSPPPAM Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

0.000 - 60.000

Step
0.001

Default
5.000

Description
Time without slip to reset all signals

PSPPPAM Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

MeasureMode

PosSeq
L1L2
L2L3
L3L1

PosSeq

Measuring mode (PosSeq, L1L2, L2L3,


L3L1)

InvertCTcurr

No
Yes

No

Invert current direction

GlobalBaseSel

1 - 12

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

400
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.15.6

Monitored data
Table 187:
Name

7.15.7

PSPPPAM Monitored data


Type

Values (Range)

Unit

Description

SFREQ

REAL

Hz

Slip frequency

SLIPZOHM

REAL

Ohm

Slip impedance in ohms

SLIPZPER

REAL

Slip impedance in
percent of ZBase

UCOS

REAL

kV

UCosPhi voltage

UCOSPER

REAL

UCosPhi voltage in
percent of UBase

Operation principle
If the generator is faster than the power system, the rotor movement in the impedance
and voltage diagram is from right to left and generating is signaled. If the generator is
slower than the power system, the rotor movement is from left to right and motoring
is signaled (the power system drives the generator as if it were a motor).
The movements in the impedance plane can be seen in Figure 202. The transient
behavior is described by the transient EMF's EA and EB, and by X'd, XT and the
transient system impedance ZS.

401
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Zone 1
EB

Zone 2

Xd

XT

XS

IED

EA

jX

A
XS

Pole slip
impedance
movement

XT

Apparent generator
impedance

Xd
B

IEC06000437_2_en.vsd
IEC06000437 V2 EN

Figure 202:

Movements in the impedance plain

where:
X'd

= transient reactance of the generator

XT

= short-circuit reactance of the step-up transformer

ZS

= impedance of the power system A

The detection of rotor angle is enabled when:

the minimum current exceeds 0.10 IN (IN is IBase parameter set under general
setting).
the maximum voltage falls below 0.92 UBase
the voltage Ucos (the voltage in phase with the generator current) has an angular
velocity of 0.2...8 Hz and
the corresponding direction is not blocked.

402
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

en07000004.vsd
IEC07000004 V1 EN

Figure 203:

Different generator quantities as function of the angle between the


equivalent generators

An alarm is given when movement of the rotor is detected and the rotor angle exceeds
the angle set for 'WarnAngle'.
Slipping is detected when:

a change of rotor angle of min. 50 ms is recognized


the slip line is crossed between ZA and ZB.

When the impedance crosses the slip line between ZB and ZC it counts as being in zone
1 and between ZC and ZA in zone 2. The entire distance ZA-ZB becomes zone 1 when
signal EXTZONE1 is high (external device detects the direction of the centre of
slipping).
After the first slip, the signals ZONE1 or ZONE2 and depending on the direction of
slip - either GEN or MOTOR are issued.
Every time pole slipping is detected, the impedance of the point where the slip line is
crossed and the instantaneous slip frequency are displayed as measurements.
Further slips are only detected, if they are in the same direction and if the rate of rotor
movement has reduced in relation to the preceding slip or the slip line is crossed in the
opposite direction outside ZA-ZB. A further slip in the opposite direction within ZAZB resets all the signals and is then signalled itself as a first slip.

403
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

The TRIP1 tripping command and signal are generated after N1 slips in zone 1,
providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle. The TRIP2 signal is generated after
N2 slips in zone 2, providing the rotor angle is less than TripAngle.
All signals are reset if:

the direction of movement reverses


the rotor angle detector resets without a slip being counted or
no rotor relative movement was detected during the time ResetTime.

Imin > 0.10 IBase

Ucos< 0.92 UBase

AND
START

AND
0.2 Slip.Freq. 8 Hz

startAngle
ZONE1

AND

Z cross line ZC - ZB

ZONE2

AND

Z cross line ZA - ZC

Counter
a
b

N1Limit

ab

TRIP1

AND

tripAngle

OR

TRIP

Counter
N2Limit

a
ab
b

AND

TRIP2

IEC07000005.vsd

IEC07000005 V2 EN

Figure 204:

Simplified logic diagram for pole slip protection PSPPPAM

404
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

7.15.8

Technical data
Table 188:

PSPPPAM technical data

Function

Range or value

Accuracy

Impedance reach

(0.00 - 1000.00)% of Zbase

2.0% of Ur/Ir

Zone 1 and Zone 2 trip counters

(1 - 20)

7.16

Out-of-step protection OOSPPAM

7.16.1

Identification
Function description
Out-of-step protection

IEC 61850
identification

IEC 60617
identification

OOSPPAM

ANSI/IEEE C37.2
device number
78

<

7.16.2

Functionality
The out-of-step protection OOSPPAM function in the IED can be used for both
generator protection and as well for line protection applications.
The main purpose of the OOSPPAM function is to detect, evaluate, and take the
required action during pole slipping occurrences in the power system.
The OOSPPAM function detects pole slip conditions and trips the generator as fast as
possible, after the first pole-slip if the center of oscillation is found to be in zone 1,
which normally includes the generator and its step-up power transformer. If the center
of oscillation is found to be further out in the power system, in zone 2, more than one
pole-slip is usually allowed before the generator-transformer unit is disconnected. A
parameter setting is available to take into account the circuit breaker opening time. If
there are several out-of-step relays in the power system, then the one which finds the
center of oscillation in its zone 1 should operate first.
Two current channels I3P1 and I3P2 are available in OOSPPAM function to allow the
direct connection of two groups of three-phase currents; that may be needed for very
powerful generators, with stator windings split into two groups per phase, when each
group is equipped with current transformers. The protection function performs a
simple summation of the currents of the two channels I3P1 and I3P2.

405
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection
7.16.3

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Function block
OOSPPAM
I3P1*
I3P2*
U3P*
BLOCK
BLKGEN
BLKMOT
EXTZ1

TRIP
TRIPZ1
TRIPZ2
START
GENMODE
MOTMODE
R
X
SLIPFREQ
ROTORANG
UCOSPHI

IEC12000188-3-en.vsd
IEC12000188 V3 EN

Figure 205:

7.16.4

OOSPPAM function block

Signals
Table 189:
Name

OOSPPAM Input signals


Type

Default

Description

I3P1

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group connection for three-phase current input 1

I3P2

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group connection for three-phase current input 2

U3P

GROUP
SIGNAL

Group connection for three-phase voltage input

BLOCK

BOOLEAN

Block of function

BLKGEN

BOOLEAN

Block operation in generating direction

BLKMOT

BOOLEAN

Block operation in motor direction

EXTZ1

BOOLEAN

Extension of zone1 reach to zone2 settings

Table 190:
Name

OOSPPAM Output signals


Type

Description

TRIP

BOOLEAN

Common trip, issued when either zone 1 or zone 2


give trip

TRIPZ1

BOOLEAN

Zone 1 trip

TRIPZ2

BOOLEAN

Zone 2 trip

START

BOOLEAN

Set when measured impedance enters lens


characteristic

GENMODE

BOOLEAN

Generator rotates faster than the system during


pole slip

MOTMODE

BOOLEAN

Generator rotates slower than the system during


pole slip

REAL

Real part of measured positive-sequence


impedance % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

REAL

Imaginary part of measured positive-seq


impedance % of UBase/(sqrt(3)*IBase)

Table continues on next page


406
Technical manual

Section 7
Impedance protection

1MRK 504 139-UEN B

Name

7.16.5
Table 191:
Name

Type

Description

SLIPFREQ

REAL

Slip frequency in Hz

ROTORANG

REAL

Rotor angle as estimated by the out-of-step


function

UCOSPHI

REAL

Estimated Ucos(Phi) voltage during pole slip, in V

Settings
OOSPPAM Group settings (basic)
Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

Operation

Off
On

Off

Operation Off / On

OperationZ1

Off
On

On

Operation Zone1 Off / On

ReachZ1

1.00 - 100.00

% ZFw

0.01

50.00

Percentage part of total forward


impedance; defines Z1 reach

OperationZ2

Off
On

On

Operation Zone2 Off / On

tBreaker

0.000 - 1.000

0.001

0.040

Breaker opening time; use default 0s


value if it is unknown

Table 192:
Name

OOSPPAM Group settings (advanced)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

NoOfSlipsZ1

1 - 20

Number of pole-slips in zone 1 required to


get zone 1 trip

NoOfSlipsZ2

1 - 60

Number of pole-slips in zone 2 required to


get zone 2 trip

tReset

1.000 - 60.000

0.001

6.000

Time without any slip required to


completely reset function

Table 193:
Name

OOSPPAM Non group settings (basic)


Values (Range)

Unit

Step

Default

Description

GlobalBaseSel

1 - 12

Selection of one of the Global Base Value


groups

ForwardR

0.00 - 1000.00

%ZB

0.01

1.00

Real part of total f