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Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook

Bearbeitet von
Ulrich Fischer, Roland Gomeringer, Max Heinzler, Roland Kilgus, Friedrich Nher, Stefan Oesterle, Heinz
Paetzold, Andreas Stephan

1. Auflage 2013. Taschenbuch. 444 S. Paperback


ISBN 978 3 8085 1914 1
Format (B x L): 15,2 x 21,5 cm
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EUROPA-TECHNICAL BOOK SERIES


for the Metalworking Trades

Ulrich Fischer
Roland Gomeringer

Max Heinzler
Roland Kilgus

Friedrich Nher
Stefan Oesterle

Heinz Paetzold
Andreas Stephan

Mechanical and
Metal Trades
Handbook
3rd English edition

Europa-No.: 1910X

VERLAGEUROPALEHRMITTEL Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG


Dsselberger Strae 23 42781 Haan-Gruiten Germany

Original title:
Tabellenbuch Metall, 45th edition, 2011
Authors:
Ulrich Fischer
Roland Gomeringer
Max Heinzler
Roland Kilgus
Friedrich Nher
Stefan Oesterle
Heinz Paetzold
Andreas Stephan

Dipl.-Ing. (FH)
Dipl.-Gwl.
Dipl.-Ing. (FH)
Dipl.-Gwl.
Dipl.-Ing. (FH)
Dipl.-Ing.
Dipl.-Ing. (FH)
Dipl.-Ing. (FH)

Reutlingen
Mestetten
Wangen im Allgu
Neckartenzlingen
Balingen
Amtzell
Mhlacker
Marktoberdorf

Editor:
Ulrich Fischer, Reutlingen
Graphic design:
Design office of Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Ostfildern, Germany
The publisher and its affiliates have taken care to collect the information given in this book to the best of their
ability. However, no responsibility is accepted by the publisher or any of its affiliates regarding its content or
any statement herein or omission there from which may result in any loss or damage to any party using the
data shown above. Warranty claims against the authors or the publisher are excluded.
Most recent editions of standards and other regulations govern their use.
They can be ordered from Beuth Verlag GmbH, Burggrafenstr. 6, 10787 Berlin, Germany.
The content of the chapter Program structure of CNC machines according to PAL (page 412 to 424) complies
with the publications of the PAL Prfungs- und Lehrmittelentwicklungsstelle (Institute for the development of
training and testing material) of the IHK Region Stuttgart (Chamber of Commerce and Industry of the Stuttgart
region).

English edition: Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook


3rd edition, 2012
654321
All printings of this edition may be used concurrently in the classroom since they are unchanged,except for some
corrections to typographical errors and slight changes in standards.

ISBN 13 978-3-8085-1914-1
Cover design includes a photograph from TESA/Brown & Sharpe, Renens, Switzerland
All rights reserved. This publication is protected under copyright law. Any use other than those permitted by law
must be approved in writing by the publisher.
2012 by Verlag Europa-Lehrmittel, Nourney, Vollmer GmbH & Co. KG, 42781 Haan-Gruiten, Germany
http://www.europa-lehrmittel.de
Translation: Eva Schwarz, 76879 Ottersheim, Germany; www.technische-uebersetzungen-eva-schwarz.de
Typesetting: Satz+Layout Werkstatt Kluth GmbH, D-50374 Erftstadt, Germany; www.slw-kluth.de
Printed by: M.P. Media-Print Informationstechnologie GmbH, D-33100 Paderborn, Germany

Preface

1Mathematics

The Mechanical and Metal Trades Handbook is well-suited


for shop reference, tooling, machine building, maintenance
and as a general book of knowledge. It is also useful for educational purposes, especially in practical work or curricula
and continuing education programs.
Target Groups
Industrial and trade mechanics
Tool & die makers
Machinists
Millwrights
Draftspersons
Technical Instructors
Apprentices in above trade areas
Practitioners in trades and industry
Mechanical Engineering students

2Physics
2950

3Technical
Drawing

Notes for the user


The contents of this book include tables and formulae in
eight chapters, including Tables of Contents, Subject Index
and Standards Index.
The tables contain the most important guidelines, designs,
types, dimensions and standard values for their subject
areas.
Units are not specified in the legends for the formulae if several units are possible. However, the calculation examples
for each formula use those units normally applied in practice.
The Table of Contents in the front of the book is expanded
further at the beginning of each chapter in form of a partial
Table of Contents.
The Subject Index at the end of the book (pages 435444) is
extensive.
The Standards Index (pages 425434) lists all the current
standards and regulations cited in the book. In many cases
previous standards are also listed to ease the transition from
older, more familiar standards to new ones.
Changes in the 3rd edition
In the present edition, we have updated the cited standards
and restructured, updated, enhanced or added the following chapters in line with new developments in engineering:
Fundamentals of technical PAL programming system
mathematics
for NC turning and NC
Strength of materials
milling
Plastics
Steel types
Production management
Material testing
Forming
Machining processes
Welding
Injection molding (new)
GRAFCET
Acknowledgement
Special thanks to Alexander Huter, Vocational Training
Specialist Tool and Die, Ontario, for his input into the
English translation of this book. His assistance has been
extremely valuable.
November 2012

928

Authors and publisher

51110

4Material
Science
111200

5Machine
Elements
201268

TD

MS

ME

6Production
Engineering
PE
269366

7Automation and
Information Tech367424
nology

8
International Material
Comparison Chart,
Standards 425434

Table of Contents
1 Mathematics (M)
1.1


Units of measurement
SI base quantities and base units . . . . . . . . . 10
Derived quantities and their units . . . . . . . . 11
Non-SI units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2 Formulas
Formula symbols, mathematical symbols . .

Formulas, equations, graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transformation of formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Quantities and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Calculation with quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percentage and interest calculation . . . . . .
1.3 Angels and triangels
Types of angels, sum of angels in
a triangle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Theorem of intersecting lines,
Pythagorean theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Functions of right triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Functions of oblique triangles . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
14
15
16
17
17

18
18
19
19

1.4 Lengths

Division of lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Spring wire lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Rough lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
1.5 Areas

Angular areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Triangle, polygon, circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Circular sector, circular segment . . . . . . . . .
Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6 Volume and surface area



Cube, cylinder, pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

Truncated pyramid, cone,
Truncated cone, sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Volumes of composite solids . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.7 Mass

General calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Linear mass density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Area mass density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.8 Centroids

Centroids of lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Centroids of plane areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

2 Physics (P)

29

2.1 Motion

Uniform and accelerated motion . . . . . . . . . 30

Speeds on machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2.2 Forces
Representation, addition and resolution of
forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Types of forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Torque and levers, torque in gear drives . . 34
2.3



Work, power, efficiency


Mechanical work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34
Simple machines and energy . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Potential and kinetic energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Power and efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

2.4 Friction

Friction force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Coefficients of friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

Coefficients of rolling friction . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
2.5 Pressure in liquids and gases

Pressure, definition and types . . . . . . . . . . .
Buoyancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hydraulic power transmission . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure intensification,
flow velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Changes of state in gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

22
23
24
24

38
38
38
39
39

2.6 Strength of materials



Load cases, types of loading . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Material properties, stress limits . . . . . . . . .

Strength calculation, safety factors . . . . . .
Allowable stresses, modulus of
elasticity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tensile and compressive stress,
surface pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Shear, bending and torsional stress . . . . . .

Moments of area, section moduli . . . . . . . .

42
43
44

2.7 Thermodynamics
Temperature, linear expansion,
shrinkage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Quantity of heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Heat flux, heat of combustion . . . . . . . . . . . .

Net calorific values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

45
45
46
46

40
40
41
41

2.8 Electricity

Quantities and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

Ohms law, electrical resistance . . . . . . . . . 47

Current density, resistor circuit . . . . . . . . . . 48

Types of current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Electrical work and power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

Table of Contents

3 Technical Drawing (TD)51


3.1 Graphs

Cartesian coordinate system . . . . . . . . . . . 52

Graph types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
3.2 Basic geometric constructions

Lines and angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Tangents, circular arcs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Inscribed circles, ellipses . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cycloids, involute curves, parabolas . . . . .

54
55
56
57

3.3 Elements of drawing


Fonts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Preferred numbers, radii, scales . . . . . . . .

Drawing layout, bills of materials . . . . . . . .

Line types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

58
59
60
62

3.4 Representation

Projection methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sectional views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hatching . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

64
66
68
70

3.5 Dimensioning drawings


Dimensioning lines, dimension values . . . 71

Dimensioning rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72

Elements of drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

Tolerance specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

Types of dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Simplified presentation in drawings . . . . . 78

3.6 Machine elements, representation



Gear types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Roller bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Seals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Retaining rings, springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

79
80
81
82

3.7



Object elements
Bosses, object edges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thread runouts, thread undercuts . . . . . .
Threads, screw joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Center holes, knurls, undercuts . . . . . . . . .

83
84
85
86

3.8

Welding and soldering


Graphical symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Dimensioning examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91

3.9 Surfaces
Hardness specifications in drawings . . . . 92

Form deviations, roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Surface testing, surface indications . . . . 94
3.10 ISO tolerances and fits
Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Basic hole system, basic shaft system . . .

General tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Roller bearing fits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Fit recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Geometric tolerancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

98
102
106
106
107
108

4 Materials Science (MS)111


4.1 Materials

Material characteristics of solids . . . . . . . 112
Material characteristics of liquids
and gases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

Periodic table of the elements . . . . . . . . . . 114
4.2 Steels, designation system
Definition and classification of steel . . . . . 116

Standardization of steel products . . . . . . . 117

Designation system for steels . . . . . . . . . . . 118
4.3 Steels, steel types

Overwiew of steel products . . . . . . . . . . . .

Unalloyed steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Case hardened steels, quenched &
tempered steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Nitriding steels, free cutting steels . . . . . .

Tool steels, stainless steels . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Steels for bright steel products . . . . . . . . .

123
126
129
131
132
137

4.4 Steels, finished products



Sheet and strip metal, tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Linear mass density and area mass
density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151

4.5


Heat treatment
Iron-carbon phase diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Heat treatement of steels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Hardening of aluminium alloys . . . . . . . . . . 156

4.6 Cast iron materials



Designation andmaterial codes . . . . . . . . .157
Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

Cast iron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159

Malleable cast iron, cast steel . . . . . . . . . . 160
4.7

Foundry technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

4.8



Light alloys
Overview of aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Wrought aluminum alloys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
Aluminum profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168
Magnesium and titanium alloys . . . . . . . . .171

4.9

Heavy non-ferrous metals


Overview and designation system . . . . . . . 172
Copper and refined zinc alloys . . . . . . . . . . 174

4.10 Other metallic materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176


4.11 Plastics

Overview and designation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thermoset plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thermoplastics, elastomers . . . . . . . . . . . .
Plastics processing, testing of plastics . .

178
181
182
186

Table of Contents
4.12


Material testing
Overview, tensile test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Rotary bending test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Hardness test . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193

4.13 Corrosion, hazardous materials


Corrosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196

Hazardous materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

5 Machine Elements (ME)201


5.1 Threads

Types of threads, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Metric ISO threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Other types of threads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Thread tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

202
202
205
207

5.2 Bolts and screws



Overview, designations, property classes 208

Hexagon head bolts & screws . . . . . . . . . .211

Other bolts & screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Screw joint calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Locking fasteners, bolt and screw drive
systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .221
5.3 Countersinks
Countersinks for countersunk head
screws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223

Counterbores for cap screws . . . . . . . . . . . 224
5.4 Nuts
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Designations, property classes . . . . . . . . .

Hexagon nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Other nuts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

225
226
228
230

5.5 Washers

Overview, flat washers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

Washers for HV bolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

5.6 Pins and clevis pins


Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Grooved pins, grooved drive studs,
clevis pins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
5.7



Shaft-hub connections
Keys, gib-head keys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Feather keys, splined shaft joints . . . . . . . . 239
Metric tapers, morse tapers, steep tapers 240
Tool holding fixtures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

5.8



Other machine elements


Tension, compression and disc springs . 242
Grub screws, thrust pads, knobs . . . . . . . .245
T-slots and accessories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
Quick-release drilling fixture . . . . . . . . . . . . 248

5.9


Drive elements
Belts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253
Transmission ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

5.10 Bearings

Plain bearings, overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Plain bearing bushings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Antifriction bearings, overview . . . . . . . . .

Ball bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Roller bearings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Sealing elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lubricating oils . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Lubricating greases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

257
258
259
261
262
266
267
268

6 Production Engineering (PE)269


6.1




Quality management
Standards, terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quality planning, quality testing . . . . . . . . .
Statistical analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Statistical process control . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quality management of processes . . . . . .

6.2

EC Machinery Directive
EC Machinery Directive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
CE marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

270
272
273
275
276

6.3 Production organization


Overview; product breakdown
structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

Work planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282

Cost accounting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

6.4 Maintenance, repair & overhaul (MRO)


Maintenance, inspection, repair,
improvement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289

MRO concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

Documentation system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292
6.5 Machining processes

Overview; forces and power . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drilling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Turning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Milling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Indexable inserts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cooling lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Cuttin tool materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Grinding, honing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.6

293
298
301
305
308
311
315
317

Removal operations
Electric discharge machining . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Process parameters in EDM erosion . . . . 324

Table of Contents
6.7

Separation by cutting
Cutting force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325
Cutting tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

6.8 Forming
Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330

Deep drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
6.9

Injection molding
Injection molding tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Shrinkage, cooling, batching . . . . . . . . . . . 341

6.10 Joining

Welding processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Weld preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gas-shielded welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Arc welding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Beam cutting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Gas cylinders, identification . . . . . . . . . . . .

Brazing, bonded joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.11


343
345
346
348
350
352
354

Workplace and environmental protection


Safety colors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
Warning signs, safety signs . . . . . . . . . . . . 360
Sound and noise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366

7 Automation and Information Technology (A)367


7.1





Control engineering, basic terminology


Basic terminology, code letters, symbols 368
Analog controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Discontinuous and digital controllers . . . . 371
Binary logic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Numbering systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373
Information processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374

7.2 Electrical circuits



Circuit symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Designations in circuit plans . . . . . . . . . . . .

Circuit diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Safety precautions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

375
377
378
379
380

7.3 GRAFCET

Important basic terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Steps, transitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Branchings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

382
383
384
386

7.4 Programmable logical controllers PLC



PLC programming languages, overview . .

Ladder diagram (LD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Instruction list (IL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PLC programming languages,
comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Programming example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

388
389
390
391
392

8 Material Chart, Standards (S)


8.1 International material comparison
chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425

Subject Index

7.5 Hydraulics, pneumatics



Circuit symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Proportional valves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Circuit diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pneumatic control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Electro-pneumatic control . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Electro-hydraulic control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hydraulic fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Pneumatic cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Hydraulic pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tubes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

393
395
396
397
398
399
400
401
402
403

7.6


Handling and robot systems


Coordinate systems and axes . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Robot designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405
Grippers, job safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406

7.7








CNC technology
Coordinate axes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Program structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tool offset and cutter compensation . . . .
Program structure according to DIN . . . . .
Program structure according to PAL . . . . .
PAL functions for lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAL cycles for lathes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PAL functions for milling machines . . . . . .
PAL cycles for milling machines . . . . . . . . .

407
408
409
410
412
413
414
417
418

425434
8.2 Index of cited standards and other
regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430

435444

Standards and other Regulations


Standardization and standards terms
Standardization is the systematic achievement of uniformity of material and non-material objects, such as components, calculation methods, process flows and services for the benefit of the general public.
Standards term

Example

Explanation

Standard

DIN 7157

Part

DIN 30910-2

A standard is the published work of standardization, e.g. the selection of particular


fits in DIN 7157.
Standards can comprise several parts associated with each other. The part numbers are appended to the main standard number with hyphens. DIN 30910-2
describes sintered materials for filters for example, whereas Part 3 and 4 deal with
sintered materials for bearings and formed parts.

Supplement

DIN 743
Suppl. 1

A supplement contains information for a standard, however no additional specifications. The supplement DIN 743 Suppl. 1, for example, contains application
examples of load capacity calculations for shafts and axles described in DIN 743.

Draft

EDIN 743
(2008-10)

Draft standards are made available to the public for examination and commenting. The planned new version of DIN 743 on load-bearing calculations of shafts
and axes, for example, has been published since October 2008 as Draft E DIN 743.

Preliminary
standard

DIN V 66304
(1991-04)

A preliminary standard contains the results of standardization, which have not


been released as a standard because of certain provisos. DIN V 66304, for example,
discusses a format for exchange of standard part data for computer-aided design.

Issue date

DIN 76-1
(2004-06)

Date of publication which is made public in the DIN publication guide; this is the
date at which time the standard becomes valid. DIN 76-1, which sets undercuts
for metric ISO threads has been valid since June 2004 for example.

Types of standards and regulations (selection)


Type

Abbreviation

Explanation

Purpose and contents

International
Standards
(ISO standards)

ISO

International Organization for


Standardization, Geneva (O and S
are reversed in the abbreviation)

Simplifies the international exchange of


goods and services, as well as cooperation
in scientific, technical and economic areas.

European
Standards
(EN standards)

EN

European Committee for Standardization (Comit Europen de


Normalisation), Brussels

German
Standards
(DIN standards)

DIN

Deutsches Institut fr Normung e.V.,


Berlin (German Institute for
Standardization)

DIN EN

European standard for which the


German version has attained the
status of a German standard.

Technical harmonization and the associated


reduction of trade barriers for the advancement of the European market and the coalescence of Europe.
National standardization facilitates rationalization, quality assurance, environmental
protection and common understanding in
economics, technology, science, management and public relations.

DIN ISO

German standard for which an international standard has been adopted


without change.

DIN EN ISO

European standard for which an


international standard has been
adopted unchanged and the German version has the status of a German standard.
Printed publication of the VDE,
which has the status of a German
standard.
Verein Deutscher Ingenieure e.V.,
Dsseldorf (Association of German
Engineers)

DIN VDE
VDI Guidelines

VDI

VDE printed
publications

VDE

DGQ
publications

DGQ

REFA sheets

REFA

Verband Deutscher Elektrotechniker


e.V., Frankfurt (Association for
Electrical, Electronic & Information
Technologies)
Deutsche Gesellschaft fr Qualitt
e.V., Frankfurt (German Society for
Quality)
Association for Work Design, Industrial Organization and Corporate
Development REFA e.V., Darmstadt

These guidelines give an account of the current state of the art in specific subject areas
and contain, for example, concrete procedural guidelines for the performing calculations
or designing processes in mechanical or
electrical engineering.
Recommendations in the area of quality
technology.
Recommendations in the area of production and work planning.

Table of Contents

1Mathematics
Quantity Symbol

Lengths

Unit
Name Symbol
meter

Surface area

p d2
As = p d h + 2
4
Lateral surface area

AM = p d h

opposite side
sine =

hypotenuse
adjacent side
cosine =

hypotenuse
opposite side
tangent =

adjacent side

1.1


Units of measurement
SI base quantities and base units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Derived quantities and their units . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Non-SI units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

1.2 Formulas

Formula symbols, mathematical symbols . . . . . .

Formulas, equations, graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Transformation of formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Quantities and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Calculation with quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Percentage and interest calculation . . . . . . . . . . . .

13
14
15
16
17
17

1.3



18
18
19
19

Angels and triangels


Types of angels, sum of angels in a triangle . . . .
Theorem of intersecting lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functions of right triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Functions of oblique triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.6


kg
m' in m

d
y

Volume and surface area


Cube, cylinder, pyramid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Truncated pyramid, cone, truncated cone, sphere. . 26
Volumes of composite solids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

1.8 Centroids

Centroids of lines. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

Centroids of plane areas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

S S2
ys

S1
xs

22
23
24
24

1.7 Mass

General calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Linear mass density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Area mass density. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

1m

TD

1.4 Lengths

Division of lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

Spring wire lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

Rough lengths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.5 Areas

Angular areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Triangle, polygon, circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Circular sector, circular segment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ellipse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

MS

ME

PE

10

1.1 Units of measurement

Units of measurement
M

SI1)

Base quantities and base units

cf. DIN 1301-1 (2010-10), -2 (1978-02), -3 (1979-10)

Base
quantity

Length

Mass

Time

Electric
current

Base
units

meter

kilogram

second

ampere

kelvin

mole

candela

kg

mol

cd

Unit
symbol

Thermodynamic
temperature

Amount of
substance

Luminous
intensity

1)The

units for measurement are defined in the International System of Units SI (Systme International dUnits). It
is based on the seven basic units (SI units), from which other units are derived.

Base quantities, derived quantities and their units


Quantity

TD

Unit
Symbol Name Symbol

Remarks
Examples of application

Length, Area, Volume, Angle


Length

Area

A, S

MS
Volume

ME

Relationship

Plane
angle
(angle)

Solid angle

meter

1 m

1 mm
1 km

= 10 dm = 100 cm
= 1000 mm
= 1000 m
= 1000 m

square meter

m2

are
hectare

a
ha

1 m2

1 a
1 ha
100 ha

= 10000 cm2
Symbol S only for cross-sectional
= 1000000 mm2
areas
= 100 m2
= 100 a = 10000 m2 Are and hectare only for land
= 1 km2

cubic meter

m3

liter

, L

a, b, g
radian

rad

1 inch = 25.4 mm
In aviation and nautical applications
the following applies:
1 international nautical mile = 1852 m

1 m3 = 1000 dm3

= 1000000 cm3
1 = 1 L = 1 dm3 = 10 d =
0.001 m3
1 m
= 1 cm3

Mostly for fluids and gases

1 rad is the angle formed by the


intersection of a circle around the
center of 1 m radius with an arc of 1
m length.
In technical calculations instead of
a = 33 17* 27.6+, better use is a =
33.291.

degrees

minutes
seconds

*
+

1 rad = 1 m/m = 57.2957


= 180/p
1 = p rad =60*
180
1*
= 1/60 = 60+
= 1*/60 = 1/3600
1+

steradian

sr

1 sr = 1 m2/m2

An object whose extension measures


1 rad in one direction and perpendicularly to this also 1 rad, covers a solid
angle of 1 sr.

kilogram
gram

kg
g

1 kg = 1000 g
1 g
= 1000 mg

megagram
metric ton

Mg
t

Mass in the sense of a scale result or a


weight is a quantity of the type of mass
(unit kg).

PE
Mechanics
Mass

Mass for precious stones in carat (ct).

Linear mass
density

m*

kilogram
per meter

kg/m

1 kg/m = 1 g/mm

For calculating the mass of bars, profiles, pipes.

Area mass
density

m+

kilogram
per square
meter

kg/m2

1 kg/m2 = 0.1 g/cm2

To calculate the mass of sheet metal.

kilogram
per cubic
meter

kg/m3

1000 kg/m3 = 1 metric t/m3


= 1 kg/dm3
= 1 g/cm3
= 1 g/ml
= 1 mg/mm3

The density is a quantity independent


of location.

Density

1 metric t = 1000 kg = 1 Mg
0.2 g
= 1 ct

11

1.1 Units of measurement

Units of measurement
Quantities and Units (continued)
Quantity

Unit
Symbol Name Symbol

Remarks
Examples of application

Relationship

Mechanics
Moment
of inertia, 2nd
Moment of
mass

kilogram x
square
meter

kg m2 The following applies for a


homogenous body:
J = r r2 V

Force

newton

The force 1N effects a change in


m = 1 J
1 N = 1 kg 2
velocity of 1 m/s in 1 s in a 1 kg mass.
m
s
1 MN = 103 kN = 1000000 N

newton x
meter

Nm

1 N m = 1 kg 2m
s

1 N m is the moment that a force of


1 N effects with a lever arm of 1 m.

kilogram x
meter
per second

kg m/s 1 kg m/s = 1 N s

The momentum is the product of the


mass times velocity. It has the direction of the velocity.

pascal

Pa

newton
per square
millimeter

N/mm2

meter to the
fourth power
centimeter
to the fourth
power

m4

E, W

joule

P
G

Weight
Torque
Bending mom.
Torsional
mom.
Momentum

Pressure

FG, G
M
Mb
T

Mechanical
stress

s, t

Second
moment of
area

Energy, Work,
Quantity of
heat
Power
Heat flux

The moment of inertia (2nd moment


of mass) is dependent upon the total
mass of the body as well as its form
and the position of the axis of rotation.

1 Pa = 1 N/m2 = 0.01 mbar


1 bar = 100000 N/m2

= 10 N/cm2 = 105 Pa
1 mbar = 1 hPa
1 N/mm2 = 10 bar = 1 MN/m2

= 1 MPa
1 daN/cm2 = 0.1 N/mm2

Pressure refers to the force per unit


area. For gage pressure the symbol pg
is used (DIN 1314).
1 bar = 14.5 psi (pounds per square
inch )

1 m4 = 100000000 cm4

Previously: Geometrical moment of


inertia

1 J = 1 N m =1 W s

= 1 kg m2/s2

Joule for all forms of energy, kW h


preferred for electrical energy.

watt

1 W = 1 J/s =1 N m/s

= 1 V A = 1 m2 kg/s3

Power describes the work which is


achieved within a specific time.

seconds
minutes
hours
day
year

s
min
h
d
a

1 min = 60 s
1 h = 60 min = 3600 s
1 d = 24 h = 86400 s

3 h means a time span (3 hrs.),


3h means a point in time (3 oclock).
If points in time are written in mixed
form, e. g. 3h24m10s, the symbol min
can be shortened to m.

hertz

Hz

1 Hz = 1/s

1 Hz 1 cycle in 1 second.

cm4

TD

MS

ME

Time
Time,
Time span,
Duration

Frequency

f, v

Rotational
speed,
Rotational
frequency

Velocity

Angular
velocity
Acceleration

a, g

min1

1/s = 60/min = 60
1/min = 1 min1 = 1

60 s

The number of revolutions per unit of


time gives the revolution frequency,
also called rpm.

1 m/s

= 60 m/min
= 3.6 km/h
m/min 1 m/min = 1 m
60 s
km/h
1 km/h = 1 m
3.6 s
1/s
w=2pn
rad/s

Nautical velocity in knots (kn):


1 kn = 1.852 km/h

m/s2

Symbol g only for acceleration due to


gravity.
g = 9.81 m/s2 10 m/s2

1 per second

1/s

1 per minute

1/min

meters per
second
meters per
minute
kilometers per
hour
1 per second
radians per
second
meters per
second
squared

m/s

1 m/s2 = 1 m/s

1s

PE

miles per hour = 1 mile/h = 1mph


1 mph = 1.60934 km/h
For a rpm of n = 2/s the angular
velocity w = 4 p/s.

12

1.1 Units of measurement

Units of measurement
M

Quantities and units (continued)


Unit
Symbol Name

Quantity

Symbol

Remarks
Examples of application

Relationship

Electricity and Magnetism

Electric current
Electromotive
force
Electrical
resistance
Electrical
conductance
Specific
resistance
Conductivity

TD

MS

PE

ampere
volt

A
V

1 V = 1 W/1 A = 1 J/C

ohm

1 O = 1 V/1 A

siemens

1 S = 1 A/1 V = 1/O

ohm x
meter
siemens
per meter

O m 106 O m = 1 O mm2/m

g, k

The motion of an electrical charge is


called current. The electromotive force
is equal to the potential difference be
tween two points in an electric field. The
reciprocal of the electrical resistance is
called the electrical conductivity.

S/m

2
1

mm2
1
mm
r
r=
= in
in
k
m
k
m
m
1
m
k=
= 1 in
in
k
2
r
mm
r

mm2

Frequency

hertz

Hz

1 Hz
=1/s
1000 Hz = 1 kHz

Frequency of public electric utility:


EU 50 Hz, USA/Canada 60 Hz

Electrical energy

joule

1 J
= 1 W s =1 N m
1 kW h = 3.6 MJ
1 W h = 3.6 kJ

In atomic and nuclear physics the unit


eV (electron volt) is used.

Phase
difference

for alternating current:


cosj = P

UI

The angle between current and voltage


in inductive or capacitive load.

Elect. field strength


Elect. charge
Elect. capacitance
inductance

E
Q
C
L

volts per meter V/m


C
coulomb
farad
F
henry
H

F
Q
1 C = 1 A 1 s; 1 A h = 3.6 kC E = , C = , Q = I t
Q
U
1 F = 1 C/V
1 H = 1 V s/A

Power
Effective power

watt

1 W = 1 J/s = 1 N m/s

=1VA

In electrical power engineering:


Apparent power S in V A

Relationship

Remarks
Examples of application

Unit
Symbol Name

Quantity

ME

I
E

Symbol

Electricity and Magnetism


Thermodynamic
temperature
Celsius
temperature

T, Q

kelvin

0 K = 273.15C

t, h

degrees
Celsius

0C = 273.15 K
0C = 32F
0F = 17.77C

Quantity of
heat

joule

1 J = 1 W s =1 N m
1 kW h = 3600000 J = 3,6 MJ

1 kcal 4.1868 kJ

Net calorific
value

Hu

joule per
kilogram
Joule per
cubic meter

J/kg

1 MJ/kg = 1000000 J/kg

Thermal energy released per kg fuel


minus the heat of vaporization of the
water vapor contained in the exhaust
gases.

J/m3

MJ/m3

= 1000000

Kelvin (K) and degrees Celsius (C) are


used for temperatures and temperature differences.
t = T T0; T0 = 273.15 K
degrees Fahrenheit (F): 1.8F = 1C

J/m3

Non-SI units

Length

Area

1 inch (in) = 25.4 mm

1 sq.in

= 6.452 cm2

1 cu.in

= 16.39 cm3

1 oz

= 28.35 g

1 PSh

= 0.735 kWh

1 foot (ft) = 0.3048 m

1 sq.ft

= 9.29 dm2

1 cu.ft

= 28.32 dm3

1 lb

= 453.6 g

1 PS

= 735 W

= 1000 kg

1 kcal

= 4186.8 Ws

1 kcal

= 1.166 Wh

1 yard
(yd)

= 0.9144 m

1 nautical
mile
= 1.852 km
1 mile

Volume

Mass

Energy, Power

1 sq.yd = 0.8361 m2

1 cu.yd = 764.6 dm3

1 t

1 acre

1 gallon
1 (US) = 3.785

1 short
ton

= 907.2 kg

1 Karat

= 0.2 g

= 4046.856
m2

Pressure

= 1.6093 km 1 bar
1

= 14.5
pound/in2

N/mm2 =

 45.038
1
pound/in2

1 gallon
1 (UK) = 4.546
1 barrel = 158.8

1 pound/in3 = 27.68
g/cm3

1 kpm/s = 9.807 W
1 Btu

= 1055 Ws

1 hp

= 745.7 W

13

1.2 Formulas

Formula symbols, Mathematical symbols


Formula symbols
Formula
symbol

Meaning

cf. DIN 1304-1 (1994-03)


Formula
symbol

Meaning

Formula
symbol

Meaning

Length, Area, Volume, Angle





Length
w Width
h Height
s
Linear distance

r, R Radius
d, D Diameter
A, S
Area, Cross-sectional area
V Volume

a, b, g
W
l

F Force
FW, W
Gravitational force, Weight
M Torque
T
Torsional moment
M b
Bending moment
s
Normal stress
t
Shear stress
e
Normal strain
E
Modulus of elasticity

G
Shear modulus
, f
Coefficient of friction
W
Section modulus
I
Second moment of an area
W,E
Work, Energy
Wp, Ep
Potential energy
Wk, E k
Kinetic energy
P Power
n Efficiency

Planar angle
Solid angle
Wave length

Mechanics








m Mass
m*
Linear mass density
m+
Area mass density
r Density
J
Moment of inertia
p Pressure
pabs
Absolute pressure
pamb
Ambient pressure
pg
Gage pressure

TD

Time

t

T

n

Time, Duration
Cycle duration
Revolution frequency,
Speed

f, v Frequency
v, u Velocity
w
Angular velocity


a Acceleration

g
Gravitational acceleration

a
Angular acceleration

Q, V, qv Volumetric flow rate

L Inductance
R Resistance
r
Specific resistance
g, k
Electrical conductivity

X Reactance
Z Impedance
j
Phase difference
N
Number of turns

Electricity

Q
Electric charge, Quantity of
electricity

E
Electromotive force

C Capacitance

I
Electric current

MS

Heat
T, Q Thermodynamic
temperature
DT, Dt, Dh Temperature difference

t, h
Celsius temperature

a , a
Coefficient of l inear
expansion

Q
Heat, Quantity of heat
l
Thermal conductivity
a Heat transition coefficient
k Heat transmission
coefficient

G, Q
Heat flow
a
Thermal diffusivity
c Specific heat
Hnet
Net calorific value

f
n

Focal length
Refractive index

I
Q, W

LP
I

Acoustic pressure level


Sound intensity

ME

Light, Electromagnetic radiation


E Illuminance

Luminous intensity
Radiant energy

Acoustics

p
c

Acoustic pressure
Acoustic velocity

N Loudness
LN
Loudness level

Mathematical symbols 
Math.
symbol

Spoken

cf. DIN1302 (1999-12)


Math.
symbol

Spoken

Math.
symbol


,
a n


03

n
03

proportional
a to the n-th power, the n-th
power of a
square root of
n-th root of


x

o


absolute value of x
perpendicular to
is parallel to
parallel in the same direction

sin
cos
tan
cot



approx. equals, around,
about


equivalent to


and so on, etc.

6 infinity
= equal to

not equal to
def

is equal to by definition
==
< less than


less than or equal to

>
greater than


greater than or equal to
+ plus




, /, :,

S


Dx


%

minus
times, multiplied by
over, divided by, per, to
sigma (summation)

PE

log
lg
ln
e


parallel in the opposite direction (), [], {}
@ angle

triangle

p
9
congruent to

delta x (difference between
two values)
percent, of a hundred
per mil, of a thousand


AB

AB
a*, a+
a1, a2

Spoken
logarithm (general)
common logarithm
natural logarithm
Euler number (e = 2.718281)
sine
cosine
tangent
cotangent

parentheses, brackets
open and closed
pi (circle constant =
3.14159)
line segment AB
arc AB
a prime, a double prime
a sub 1, a sub 2

14

1.2 Formulas

Formulas, Equations, Graphs


M

Formulas
In most cases, the calculation of physical quantities is done with the help of formulas.
They consist of:
Formula symbols, e.g. vc for cutting velocity, d for diameter, n for speed
Operators (calculation rules), e.g. for multiplication, + for addition, for subtraction
and (fraction line) for division
Constants, e.g. p (pi) = 3.14159
Numbers, e.g. 10, 15

Formula for
cutting velocity

vc = p d n

The formula symbols (page 13) are wildcards for quantities. When solving m
athematical
problems, the known quantities with their units are filled in the formulas. Before or
during the calculation process, the units are converted in a way that
the calculation becomes feasible or
the result comprises the required unit.
Most quantities and units are standardized (page 10).
The result is always a numerical value accompanied by a unit, e.g. 4.5 m, 15 s

TD

Example:
What is the cutting velocity vc in m/min for d = 200 mm and n = 630/min?
vc = p d n = p 200 mm 630

1
1m
1
m
= p 200 mm
630
= 395.84
min
1000 mm
min
min

Numerical value equations

MS

Numerical value equations or numerical equations are formulas in which the typical
conversions of units have already been integrated. The following should be noted when
using equations:
The numerical values of the individual quantities may only be used in combination with
the designated unit.
The units are not carried along in the calculation.
The unit of the quantity to be obtained is predetermined.

Numerical value
equation for torque

M = 9550 P
n
Designated unit

Example:

ME

What is the torque M of an electrical motor with a driving power of P = 15 kW and a


speed of n = 750/min?
9550 P 9550 15
M=
=
N m = 191 N m
n
750

Designation

Unit

M Torque

Nm

Power

kW

Speed

1/min

Equations and graphs

PE

In functional equations, y is the function of x, with x as an independent and y as a


dependent variable. The number pairs (x, y) of a value table form a graph in the x-y
system of coordinates.
3

1st example:
y = 0.5 x + 1

example:
y = 0.5x+1

x
y

2
y

m = 0.5

1
2

costs or revenue

1
1

800 000
$
600 000

break-even
point (BEP)

revenue

200 000

los

it

f
pro

total
costs

400 000

2
x

variable costs
fixed costs

2000
4000 pieces 6000
quantity

Q
Ct
R

0
200000
0

y = f(x)
Linear function

0
1

2
2

3
2.5

2nd example:
Cost function and revenue function
Ct = 60 $/piece Q + 200000 $
R = 110 $/piece Q

b =1
1

2
0

Assigned function

4000
440000
440000

6000
560000
660000

Ct total costs dependent variable


Q quantity independent variable
Cf fixed costs y coordinate section
Cv variable costs gradient of the
function
R revenue dependent variable

y=mx+b

Examples:
Cost function

Ct = CV Q + Cf
Revenue function

R = R/piece Q

15

1.2 Formulas

Transformation of formulas
Transformation of formulas

Formulas and numerical equations are transformed so that the quantity to be obtained
stands alone on the left side of the equation. The value of the left side and right side of
the formula must not change during the transformation. The following rule applies to all
steps of the formula transformation.
Changes applied to the
left formula side

Changes applied to the


right formula side

Formula

P = F s
t
left side right side
of the = of the
formula formula

To be able to trace each step of the transformation, it is useful to mark it to the right next
to the formula:

t both sides of the formula are multiplied by t.


: F both sides of the formula are divided by F.

Transformations of sums

TD

Example: formula L = 1 + 2, transformation to find 2


1 L = 1 + 2

2 L 1 = 1+ 2 1

subtract 1

3 L 1 = 2

invert both sides

perform
subtraction

4 2 = L 1

transformed
formula

Transformations of products

MS

Example: formula A = b, transformation to find


1 A = b

: b

2 A= b
b
b

divide by b

3 A=
b

invert both sides

cancel b

4 =A
b

transformed
formula

Transformations of fractions
Example: formula n =

1 + s

, transformation to find s
1 + s
multiply by (1 + s)

4 n 1 n 1 + n s = n 1 : n subtract
divide by n

2 n (1 + s) = (1 + s)
(1 + s)

cancel (1 + s) on the
right side
solve the term in
brackets

5 s n = n 1
n
n

cancel n

3 n 1 + n s =

subtract n 1

6 s = n 1
n

transformed
formula

1 n=

ME

(1 + s)

n 1

PE

Transformations of roots

Example: formula c = 122222


a2 + b22, transformation to find a
a2 + b2
1 c = 122222

()2

square equation

4 a2 = c2 b2

2 c2 = a2 + b2

b2

subtract b2

2 b2
a22 = 12
c22
12
222

simplify the
expression

subtract,
invert both sides

2 b2
a = 12
c22
222

transformed
formula

3 c2 b2 = a2 + b2 b2

12 extract the root

16

1.2 Formulas

Quantities and units


M

Numerical values and units


Physical quantities, e.g. 125 mm, consist of a

Physical quantity

numerical value, which is determined by measurement or calculation, and a


unit, e.g. m, kg

10 mm
Numerical
value

Symbol

MS

Very large or very small numerical values may be represented in a simplified way
as decimal multiples or factors with the help of prefixes, e.g. 0.004 mm = 4 m.

Decimal multiples or factors of units


Prefix

TD

Units are standardized in accordance with DIN 1301-1 (page 10).

Unit

Power
of ten

Name

cf. DIN1301-1 (2004-10)

Mathematical
designation

Examples

tera

1012

trillion

12000000000000 N = 12 1012 N = 12 TN (teranewtons)

giga

109

billion

45000000000 W = 45 109 W = 45 GW (gigawatts)

mega

106

million

8500000 V = 8.5 106 V = 8.5 MV (megavolts)

kilo

103

thousand

12600 W = 12.6 103 W = 12.6 kW (kilowatts)

hecto

102

hundred

500 = 5 102 = 5 h (hectoliters)

da

deca

101

ten

32 m = 3.2 101 m = 3.2 dam (decameters)

100

one

1.5 m = 1.5 100 m

deci

101

tenth

0.5 = 5 101 = 5 d (deciliters)

centi

102

hundredth

0.25 m = 25 102 m = 25 cm (centimeters)

milli

103

thousandth

0.375 A = 375 103 A = 375 mA (milliamperes)

micro

106

millionth

0.000052 m = 52 106 m = 52 m (micrometers)

nano

109

billionth

0.000000075 m = 75 109 m = 75 nm (nanometers)

pico

1012

trillionth

0.000000000006 F = 6 1012 F = 6 pF (picofarads)

Conversion of units
Calculations with physical units are only possible if these units refer to the same base in this calculation. When
s olving mathematical problems, units often must be converted to basic units, e. g. mm to m, s to h, mm2 to m2. This
is done with the help of conversion factors that represent the value 1 (coherent units).

ME

Conversion factors for units (excerpt)


Quantity

Conversion factors, e. g.

Quantity

Conversion factors, e. g.

Length

1m
= 1 km
1 = 10 mm = 1000 mm =
1 cm
1m
1000 mm 1000 m

Time

1 = 60 min = 3600 s = 60 s = 1 min


1h
1h
1 min
60 s

Area

2
2
= 100 cm
=
1 = 100 mm
1 cm2
1 dm2

Angle

1 = 60 = 60 = 3600 = 1
1
1
1
60 s

Volume

3
3
= 1000 cm
=
1 = 1000 mm
1 cm3
1 dm3

Inch

1 inch = 25.4 mm; 1 mm =

PE

1 inches
25.4

1st example:
Convert volume V = 3416 mm3 to cm3.

Volume V is multiplied by a conversion factor. Its numerator has the unit cm3 and its denominator the unit
mm3.
V = 3416 mm3 =

1 cm3 3416 mm3 3416 cm3


=
= 3.416 cm3
1000 mm3
1000

2nd example:
The angle size specification a = 4216 is to be expressed in degrees ().
The partial angle 16 must be converted to degrees (). The value is multiplied by a conversion factor, the
numerator of which has the unit degree () and the denominator the unit minute ().

a = 42 + 16

1
16 1
= 42 +
= 42 + 0.267 = 42.267
60
60

17

1.2 Formulas

Calculation with quantities, Percentage and interest calculation


Calculation with quantities

Physical quantities are mathematically treated as products.

Rules for raising


to powers

Adding and subtracting


Numerical values that have the same unit are added or subtracted and the unit is
carried over to the result.

a base
m, n exponents

Example:
L = 1 + 2 3 mit 1 = 124 mm, 2 = 18 mm, 3 = 44 mm; L = ?

Multiplying
powers

L = 124 mm + 18 mm 44 mm = (124 + 18 44) mm = 98 mm

a2 a3 = a2+3

Multiplying and dividing


The numerical values and the units correspond to the factors of products.

Dividing
powers

Example:
F1 1 = F2 2 mit F1 = 180 N, 1 = 75 mm, 2 = 105 mm; F2 = ?
F2 =

a2
= a23
a3

N mm
F1 1 180 N 75 mm
=
= 128.57
= 128.57 N
105 mm
mm
2

Multiplying and dividing powers

Special cases

Powers that have the same base are multiplied or divided by adding or subtracting
their exponents.

a2 =

Example:
W=
W=

TD

A a2 with A = 15 cm2, a = 7.5 cm, e = 2.4 cm; W = ?


e

a1 = a

1
a2

MS

a0 = 1

15 cm2 (7.5 cm)2 = 15 56.25 cm2+2 = 351.56 cm41 = 351.56 cm3


2.4 cm
2.4 cm1

Percentage calculation
The percentage rate indicates the part of the base value in hundredths.
The base value is the value from which the percentage is to be calculated.
The percent value is the amount representing the percentage of the base value.
Prpercentage rate, in percentPvpercent valueBv base value

Percent value

ME

B P
Pv = v r
100 %

Example:
Weight of raw part: 250 kg (base value); material loss of 2% (percentage
rate); material loss in kg = ? (percent value)

Pv =

PE

B v Pr 250 kg 2 %
=
= 5 kg
100 %
100 %

Interest calculation
P principle
A amount accumulated

I interest
t
r interest rate per year

1st Example:
%
; t = 1/ 2 a; I = ?
a
%
%
P = $$ 2800.00;
; t = 1/ 2 a; I = ?
2800.00 r6 =a 6 0.5
a a
I =
= $ 84.00
%
100%
$ 2800.00
6 a 0.5 a
I =
% = $ 84.00
nd
2 P Example:
100%
= $ 4800.00;
r = 5.1 ; t = 50 d; I = ?
a
%.1 % ; t = 50 d; I = ?
P = $$ 4800.00;
=5
4800.00 r5.1
50 d
a a
I =
= $ 34.00
%d
$ 4800.00
50 d
100% 5.1
360
a a
I =
=
$ 34.00
d
100% 360
a

period in days,
interest period

Interest

I =

Prt
100% 360

P = $ 2800.00; r = 6

interest year (1 a) = 360 days (360 d)


1

360 d = 12 months
1 interest month = 30 days

18

1.3 Angels and Triangels

Types of angles, Theorem of intersecting lines, Angles in a triangle, Pythagorean theorem


M

Types of angles
g
straight line
g1, g2 parallel straight lines

g2

corresponding angles

b, d

opposite angles

a, d

alternate angles

a, g

adjacent angles

a, b

g1
g

If two parallels are intersected by a straight line, there


are geometrical interrelationships between the resulting
angles.

Corresponding angles

a=b
Opposite angles

b=d
Alternate angles

a=d
Adjacent angles

a + g = 180

Theorem of intersecting lines

TD

tto outer torsional stress

If two intersecting lines are intercepted by a pair of


parallels, the resulting segments form equal ratios.

tti inner torsional stress

a2
a1

Example:

to
ti

tti d
t d
= tti = to
D
tto D

b2

b1

D
d

MS

D = 40 mm, d = 30 mm,
tta = 135 N/mm2; tti = ?

Theorem of
intersecting lines

d
a1 b1 2
=
=
a2 b2 D
2
a1 a2
=
b1 b2

b1 b2
=
d D

135 N/mm2 30 mm
= 101. 25 N/mm2
40 mm

Sum of angles in a triangle


a, b, c sides of the triangle
a, b, g angles in the triangle

ME

a = 21, b = 95, g = ?

PE

a + b + g = 180

Example:

Sum of angles in
a triangle

g = 180 a b = 180 21 95 = 64

In every triangle, the


sum of the interior
angles equals 180.

Pythagorean theorem

b2
bc a

c2

In a right triangle the square on the hypotenuse is equal


to the sum of the squares on the sides meeting the right
angle.
a side
b side
c hypotenuse

Length of the
hypotenuse

1st example:

Square on the
hypotenuse

c = 35 mm; a = 21 mm; b = ?
b = c 2 a 2 = (35 mm)2 (21 mm)2 = 28 mm

c2 = a2 + b2

c = a2 + b2

2nd example:
CNC programm with R = 50 mm and I = 25 mm.
K=?

P2

c2

G0

3
R K

P1 X

= a2

+ b2

Length of the sides


meeting the right angle

R2 = I 2 + K 2

a = c 2 b2

K = R 2 I 2 = 502 mm2 252 mm2


K = 43.3 mm

b = c 2 a2

19

1.3 Angels and Triangels

Functions of triangles
Functions of right triangles (trigonometric functions)
c hypotenuse

a
adjacent
side of

b adjacent side of

c hypotenuse

a
adjacent
side of

c
hypotenuse (longest side)
a, b sides,
b is the adjacent side of a
a is the opposite side of a
a, b, g angles in the triangle, g = 90
sin
notation of sine
cos notation of cosine
tan
notation of tangent
sina sine of angle a

M
Trigonometric functions
opposite side
sine =

hypotenuse
adjacent side
cosine =

hypotenuse
opposite side
tangent =

adjacent side

Relations applying to angle a:

b opposite side of

1st example
L1 = 150 mm, L2 = 30 mm, L3 = 140 mm;
angle a = ?

L3 = 140mm

L1 = 150 mm

tan a =

L2= 30 mm

L1 + L2 180 mm
=
= 1. 286
L3
140 mm

Angle a = 52
2nd example
L1 = 150 mm, L2 = 30 mm, a = 52;
Length of the shock absorber L = ?
L=

L1 + L2 180 mm
=
= 228.42 mm
sin a
sin 52

sina = a cosa = b tana = a


c
c
b
Relations applying to angle b:
sinb = b cosb = a tanb = b
c
c
a
The calculation of an angle in
degrees () or as a circular
measure (rad) is done with the
help of inverse trigonometric
functions, e. g. arcsine.

TD

MS

Functions of oblique triangles (law of sines, law of cosines)

According to the law of sines, the ratios of


Law of sines
the sides correspond to the sine of their
a
:
b
:
c
= sina : sinb : sing
opposite angles in the triangle. If one side
and two angles are known, the other values
a = b = c
can be calculated with the help of this
sina sinb sing
function.
Side a
opposite angle sina
Side b
opposite angle sinb
There are many transformation
Hypothenuse c opposite angle sing
options:

a = b sina = c sina
sinb
sing

Example:

Fz

F = 800 N, a = 40, b = 38; Fz = ?, Fd = ?

40}

Fd

12}

Fz =

Fd =

=38

12}

}
40

10
2}

Fz

800 N sin38
= 766.24 N
sin 40

F
F
F sin g
= d Fd =
sin a sin g
sin a
800 N sin102
= 1217.38 N
sin 40

PE

c = a sing = b sing
sina
sinb

F
F
F sin b
= z Fz =
sin a sin b
sin a

Diagram of forces

Fd

b = a sinb = c sinb
sina
sing

The forces are calculated with the help


of the forces diagram.

ME

Law of cosines
a2

= b2 + c2 2 b c cosa
b2 = a2 + c2 2 a c cosb
c2 = a2 + b2 2 a b cosg

The calculation of an angle in degrees () Transformation, e. g.


2
2
2
or as a circular measure (rad) is done with
cosa = b + c a
the help of inverse trigonometric functions,
2bc
e. g. arcsine.

20

1.4 Lengths

Division of lengths, Arc length, Composite length


M

Sub-dividing lengths
total length
p spacing

Edge distance = spacing

n number of holes

Spacing

n number of holes
a, b edge distances

Spacing

Example:

total length
p spacing

Edge distance ) spacing

Example:

TD

bar length
s saw cutting width
z number of pieces r remaining length
s piece length

Subdividing into pieces

MS



Number of pieces

Example:
Remaining length



ME

r = z (s + s)

Arc length
a arc length
r radius

a angle at center
d diameter

Arc length



Example: Torsion spring




Example:

PE
Composite length
D outside diameter
dm mean diameter
1, 2 section lengths
a angle at center



Example (composite length, picture left):





D = 360 mm; t = 5 mm; a = 270; 2 = 70 mm;


dm = ?; L = ?




d inside diameter
t thickness
L composite length

Composite length

L = 1 + 2 +