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Geography Term 3?

CMR
Chapter 3 Gateway 1:
What are the global patterns of health and diseases?

Indicators used to measure health:


1) Infant Mortality Rate (LDCs have lower than DCs)
2) Life Expectancy Average number of years from birth to death that a person can
expect to live. (DCs around 80 and LDCs can be 50 due to lack of food and
sanitation)
3) Daily Calorie Intake Energy obtained from food consumption per day

How and why does the health of people differ between DCs and LDCs?

1) Social Factors
-

Diet Food and Drink people or community consumes (DC more meat)
Malnutrition is when the body does not get sufficient nutrients (LDCs)
Obesity is the condition of being overweight due to excess nutrients (DCs)

Lifestyle Lifestyle choices whether healthy (Balanced diet or physical activity)


or unhealthy (Smoking or Excessive drinking)
DCs v LDCs: Low physical activity v high, few smokers v high smokers

Education About how to live healthily and earn higher incomes to access
better medical services.

*Mothers with better health can lead to lower IMF

2) Economic Factors
-

Poverty and affluence Poverty is the condition of shortage of finances or


material resources. Affluence is opposite
Limits the purchasing power to afford basic health care
Poor education, lack of amenities
Rarely vaccinated

Investment in health care and access to health services


Resources by government, businesses and individual to address the health &
medical needs (DCs good but LDCs bad)

More public or private hospitals and facilities (Patient-bed ratio and doctor to
patient ratio high in DCs)
3) Environmental Factors
-

Living conditions characteristics of housing spaces and amenities


Slums lead to the spread of diseases

Access to safe drinking water Drinking, cooking or personal hygiene


WHO states that water source is less than 1km
Water borne diseases of lead poisoning, even containers containing water
must be clean

Proper sanitation Facilities for safe storage and disposal of waste


Lead to spread of diseases because sewage issues

What diseases cause more deaths on DCs and LDCs?


Degenerative Diseases
Functions of organ/tissue

Infectious Diseases
Bacteria and viruses

Affects DCs more


Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, Cancer

Affects LDCs more


Cholera, Malaria

Geography Term 3 CMR


Chapter 3 Gateway 2:
What influences the spread and impacts of infectious diseases?

What is the scale at which diseases occur?


1) Endemic A disease at low levels in a particular population
2) Epidemics When an infectious disease spreads rapidly. (Cholera)
3) Pandemics Is a disease which spreads across a large area (H1N1)

Severi
ty

Malaria:
-

Vector borne disease are diseases transmitted via living organisms (Mosquito)
Liver, Kidney failure, Anaemia
Expansion diffusion is when a disease spread outwards from its source
Africans are more vulnerable to Malaria

Factors contributing to the spread of Malaria


1) Socio economic factors
- Overcrowded living conditions diseases spread easily
- Lack of proper sanitation Water not disposed properly, stagnant water forms
(Rain)
- Limited provision of and access to health care Lack of services
2) Environmental factors
- Poor drainage and stagnant water Mosquitos breed quickly
- Effect of climate Temperature (Increase lifespan of mosquitos and expedite
the growth of parasites), rainfall/Precipitation (Breeding place) and humidity
(Mosquitos have a longer lifespan).
Monsoons create favourable conditions for mosquitos

Impacts of Malaria
1) Socio demographic impact
- Death rate Millions die from Malaria
- Infant mortality rates Many babies and mothers die from malaria
2) Economic Impact
- Burden of malaria on households Increased medical expenses
- Cost of health care Set aside funds to address the disease
- Loss of productivity Cannot work due to poor health. Productivity is the rate
at which goods or services are produced.

HIV/AIDs:

Sexual contact, Sharing of needles, Blood transfusion, Pregnant mother to baby


Spread by Expansion Diffusion (outwards from source) and Relocation
Diffusion (Relocate outside the geographical range).
Women are more vulnerable

Factors contributing to the spread of HIV/AIDs


1) Social factors
- Social stigma
- Education Not aware
- Lifestyle choices Drugs/ no condoms
- Lapses in medical practices Blood transfusion botched
2) Economic factors
- Vice trade Sex workers are more vulnerable
- Mobility Go overseas, lonely so find prostitutes

Impacts of HIV/AIDs
1) Socio demographic impact
- Life expectancy and infant mortality rate
- Orphan Crisis Africa (Nigeria)
Poverty and forced labour make them sex workers or child soldiers
2) Economic impacts
- Healthcare expenditure Expensive to treat (Antiretroviral drug)
- Slower economic growth Absenteeism, decline in labour, loss of skilled labour
and increased healthcare expenditure (Less money for education and foreign
talents)