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ME 4332

Computer Aided Design and Manufacture

Precision Manufacturing Machines, Tools and


Work-holding Devices

Name: RC Wisidagama
Index No: 120735C
Date of Submission: 12th August 2016

PART 1
Layout

Figure 1 Workshop layout (Not to scale).


General Information
The die and mold center consists of 5 CNC machines, as shown in figure 1, namely,
Arix V1000 CNC Vertical Machining Center (VMC) with Fanuc controller
Hartford LG 1000 CNC Vertical Machining Center with Mitsubishi controller
King Spark E8/6NK CNC Sink EDM
King Spark W6 KWTS CNC Wire EDM
Arix TNC 430 CNC Turning Center (Lathe)
In addition, the Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM) room contains a De Meet/Schut 443
CMM unit, which can be used to check fine tolerances and for reverse engineering purposes.
Discussion - Selection of NC/CNC machines for different applications
Due to the availability of a large number of NC/CNC devices, this discussion will be limited to the
machines available in the Die and Mould Center.

NC/CNC milling operation

A milling machine can be simply defined as a device that can perform machining operations
simultaneously at least along two axes, using an end mill as a primary cutting tool. Depending on the
orientation of the spindle, they can be classified mainly as vertical or horizontal milling machines. In
NC/CNC milling, the main types are,
o NC/CNC Vertical Machining Center (VMC)
o NC/CNC Horizontal Machining Center (HMC)
o NC/CNC Boring Mill
VMCs are used in applications where most of machining is carried out on one face of the workpiece
during one setup, such as flat plate type jobs. In addition to the basic three axes, a fourth axis can be
created by installing a rotary head on the table, either horizontally or vertically, which may then be
used for indexing or controlled rotary motion. VMC is the most common type of machining center
available in workshops. HMCs are used for instances where machining must be carried out in
multiple surfaces of a part in a single setup. They usually include an indexing table and pallet
changer. Hence, they are usually priced higher than VMCs. No HMCs are available in the Die and
Mould center.
Boring mills usually contains a horizontal spindle axis and are similar to HMCs, exception being
that the primary purpose is boring. Large lengths can be bored at a given time due to the availability
of a specially designed quill to accommodate the tool.

NC/CNC turning operation

Turning operations are carried out by the use of a lathe, using an external tool to remove material
whilst the chucked axis-symmetric workpiece is being rotated around the spindle axis. A NC/CNC
lathe is usually known as a turning center. In addition to the traditional lathe operations such as
turning and boring, processes such as drilling, grooving, threading, knurling and burnishing may be
carried out with ease. The two basic types are horizontal and vertical, classified according to the
spindle axis. In addition, these devices may come in two, three, four or six axis forms, thus
providing features for machining of extremely complex geometries.

NC/CNC Electro-Discharge Machining (EDM) operations

The two most common types are the die sinking machining centers and wire EDM. They use the
principle of spark erosion of metals during an electrical discharge, where the workpiece is
surrounded by a dielectric fluid. Wire EDM is used in applications of generating contours even in
extremely thick workpieces.

Observations
Machine Specifications
Basic Information

Vertical Machining Centers

Machine

Power

Number

Supply

Travel (mm)

Transverse

Max Feed

Max

(m/min)

(m/min)

Spindle

Table

Controller
Type

Speed
(RPM)
X

Dimensions

T Slot

Load

(mm)

(mm)

capacity

VCC01

3 ph

102

620

610

24

24

16

10

10

10

8000

1260x560

18x5x100

(kg)
800

Fanuc

VCC02

AC
3 ph

0
100

510

630

30

30

24

na

na

na

8000

1150x510

na

700

Mitsubishi

AC

Electro Discharge Machining (EDM)


o Sink EDM
Machine

Power

Number

Supply

Travel (mm)

Maximum

Platen

Metal
Removal

Dimensions

Max

Max

Distance

Electrod

Workpiece roughnes

(mm)

e Mass

Mass (kg)

s finish

800

0.2

Rate

Best

(kg)

(mm3/min
)

EMC03

3 ph AC,

Work Tank (mm) Work table

800

600

500

680

460 - 950

1950x1050 x530

(mm)
1200x700

300

4.5 kVA,

m/RA

60 A

EDM

(max)
Machine

Power

Number

Supply

Travel (mm)
X
Y

Servo

Work

Electrode

Travel

Head

Guide

(mm)

Travel

Travel

(mm)

(mm)

Dimensions
Dielectric

Work table

Fluid

(mm)

Reservoir
Capacity (L)

EMC04

3 ph AC

o Wire

1200x700

Electrode

Max

Diameter

Workpiece

(mm)

Mass (kg)

Turning Centers
o Teach-In CNC Lathe
Machine

Power

Distance

Maximum swing over

Maximum

Number

Supply

between

cross slide (mm)

swing over

centers
TCC05

(mm)
1000

bed (mm)
265

430

PART 2
Observations
Cutting Tool Information
Type

End mill

Material

Carbide

No.

Diamete

Overall

Flute

Shank

Helix

of

Length (mm)

Length

Diameter

Angle

40
40

(mm)
4
4

(mm)
4
4

(deg)
45
45

flutes
2

1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0

12.0

14.0
16.0

20.0
Rough

10.0

carbide
Ball End Mill

Solid carbide

12.0
16.0
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
16.0

Chamfer
Cutters
Face Mill

Cutting fluid Information


o Caltex Chevron 3180 general purpose cutting fluid
o Transformer oil

o De-ionized water

Discussion Selection of tools and cutting fluids for CNC machining


Success in metal cutting depends on the selection of the proper cutting tool (material and geometry)
for a given work material. A wide range of cutting-tool materials are available with a variety of
properties, performance capabilities, and costs. These include high carbon steels and low /medium
alloy steels, high-speed steels, cast cobalt alloys, cemented carbides, cast carbides, coated carbides,
coated high-speed steels, ceramics, cermets, whisker-reinforced ceramics, sialons, sintered
polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (CBN), sintered polycrystalline diamond, and single-crystal
natural diamond. The elements which influence the decision are:
o Work material characteristics, hardness, chemical and metallurgical state,
o Part characteristics (geometry, accuracy, finish, and surface-integrity requirements)
o Machine tool characteristics, including the work holders (adequate rigidity with high
horsepower, and wide speed and feed ranges)
o Support systems (operators ability, sensors, controls, method of lubrication, and
chip removal)
In addition, the type of tool material also depends on,
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

High hardness
High hot hardness
Resistance to abrasion and wear due to severe sliding friction
Chipping of the cutting edges
High toughness (impact strength)
Strength to resist bulk deformation
Good chemical stability (inertness or negligible affinity with the work material)

The reduction in temperature greatly aids in retaining the hardness of the tool, thereby extending the
tool life or permitting increased cutting speed with equal tool life. In addition, the removal of heat
from the cutting zone reduces thermal distortion of the work and permits better dimensional control.
Coolant effectiveness is closely related to the thermal capacity and conductivity of the fluid used.
Water is very effective in this respect but presents a rust hazard to both the work and tools and also is
ineffective as a lubricant. Oils offer less effective coolant capacity but do not cause rust and have
some lubricant value. In practice, straight cutting oils or emulsion combinations of oil and water or
wax and water are frequently used. Various chemicals can also be added to serve as wetting agents
or detergents, rust inhibitors, or polarizing agents to promote formation of a protective oil film on
the work. The extent to which the flow of a cutting fluid washes the very hot chips away from the
cutting area is an important factor in heat removal. Thus the application of a coolant should be
copious
and of some velocity. The possibility of a cutting fluid providing lubrication between the chip and
the tool face is an attractive one. An effective lubricant can modify the process, perhaps producing a
cooler chip, discouraging the formation of a built-up edge on the tool, and promoting improved
surface finish. However, the extreme pressure at the toolchip interface and the rapid movement of

the chip away from the cutting edge make it virtually impossible to maintain a conventional
hydrodynamic lubricating film at the toolchip interface. Consequently, any lubrication action is
associated primarily with the formation of solid chemical compounds of low shear strength on the
freshly cut chip face, thereby reducing chiptool shear forces or friction. For example, carbon
tetrachloride is very effective in reducing friction in machining several different metals and yet
would hardly be classified as a good lubricant in the usual sense. Chemically active compounds,
such
as chlorinated or sulfurized oils, can be added to cutting fluids to achieve such a lubrication effect.
Extreme-pressure lubricants are especially valuable in severe operations, such as internal threading
(tapping), where the extensive toolwork contact results in high friction with limited access for a
fluid. In addition to functional effectiveness as coolant and lubricant, cutting fluids should be stable
in use and storage, noncorrosive to work and machines, and nontoxic to operating personnel. The
cutting fluid should also be restorable by using a closed recycling system that will purify the used
coolant

and

cutting oils.
PART 3
Work holding devices and methods
Observations
The typical work holding techniques used in the Die and Mould Center, as observed, are,
o
o
o
o
o
o
o

Vise with removable jaw plates to adjust for various geometries (Mechanical/Hydraulic)
3 jaw and 4 jaw chuck
Clamp sets
V blocks
T slots
Nuts and bolts
Specially designed jigs

Discussion Selection of work holding devices for different applications


In the design of the work holding devices, two primary functions must be considered: locating
and clamping. Locating refers to orienting and positioning the part in the machine tool with
respect to the cutting tools to achieve the required specifications. Clamping refers to holding or
maintaining the part in that location during the cutting operations (resisting the cutting forces). Jigs
and fixtures are specially designed and built work holding devices that hold the work during
machining or assembly operations. In addition, a jig determines a location dimension that is
produced by machining or fastening. A jig is a special work holding device that, through
built-in features, determines location dimensions that are produced by
machining or fastening operations. The key requirement of a jig is that it determines a

location dimension. Thus, jigs accomplish layout by means of their design. A fixture is a special
work holding device that holds work during machining or assembly operations
and establishes size dimensions. The key characteristic is that it is a special workholding
device, designed and constructed for a particular part or shape. A general-purpose device, such as a
chuck in a lathe or a clamp on a milling machine table, is usually not considered to be a fixture. Thus
a fixture has as its specific objective the facilitating of setup, or making the part holding easier.
Because many jigs hold the work while determining critical location dimensions, they usually meet
all the requirements of a fixture.
o Positive location - A fixture must, above all else, hold the workpiece precisely in space to
prevent each of 12 kinds of degrees of freedomlinear movement in either direction along
the X-, Y-, and Z-axes and rotational movement in either direction about each axis.
o Repeatability - Identical workpieces should be located by the work holder in precisely the
same space on repeated loading and unloading cycles. It should be impossible to load the
workpiece incorrectly. This is called fool proofing the jig or fixture.
o Adequate clamping forces - The work holder must hold the workpiece immobile
against the forces of gravity, centrifugal forces, inertial forces, and cutting forces but not
distort the part. Milling and broaching operations, in particular, tend to pull the workpiece
out of the fixture, and the designer must calculate these machining forces against the fixtures
holding capacity. The device must be rigid.
o Reliability - The clamping forces must be maintained during machine operation every time
the device is used. The mechanism must be easy to maintain and lubricate.
o Ruggedness - Work holders usually receive more punishment during the loading and
unloading cycle than during the machining operation. The device must endure impact and
abrasion for at least the life of the job. Elements of a device that are subject to damage and
wear should be easily replaceable.
o Design and construction ease - Work holders should use standard elements as much
as possible to allow the engineer to concentrate on function rather than on construction
details. Modular fixtures epitomize this design rule as the entire work holder is made from
standard elements, permitting a bolt-together approach for substantial time and cost savings
over custom work holders.
o Low profile - Work holder elements must be clear of the cutting-tool path. Designing lugs
on the part for clamping can simplify the fixture and allow proper tool clearance.
o Workpiece accommodation - Surface contours of castings or forgings vary from one
part to the next. The device should tolerate these variations without sacrificing positive
location or other design objectives.
o Ergonomics and safety - Clamps should be selected and positioned to eliminate pinch
points and facilitate ease of operation. The work holder elements should not obstruct the
loading or unloading of workpieces. In manual operations, the operator should not have to
reach past the tool to load or unload parts.

o Freedom from part distortion - Parts being machined can be distorted by gravity, the
machining forces, or the clamping forces. Once clamped into the device, the part must be
unstressed or, at least, undistorted. Otherwise, the newly machined surfaces take on any
distortions caused by the clamping forces.
o Flexibility - The work holding device can locate and restrain more than one type (design)
of part. Many different schemes are being proposed to provide work holder flexibility.
Modular vise fixturing, programmable clamps using air-activated plungers, part
encapsulation with a low-melting-point alloy, and NC-controlled clamping machines are
some of the more recently developed systems. Despite their flexibilities, these clamping
systems have some significant drawbacks. They are expensive, and the individual systems
may not integrate well into individual machine tools.
Clamping of the work is closely related to support of the work. Any clamping, of course, induces
some stresses into the part that can cause some distortion of the workpiece, usually elastic. If this
distortion is measurable, it will cause some inaccuracy in final dimensions. The obvious solution is
to spread the clamping forces over a sufficient area to reduce the stresses to a level that will not
produce appreciable distortion. The clamping forces should direct the work against the points of
location and work support. Clamped surfaces often have some irregularities that may produce force
components in an undesired direction. Consequently, clamping forces should be applied in directions
that will assure that the work will remain in the desired position. Whenever possible, jigs and
fixtures should be designed such that the forces induced by the cutting process act to hold the
workpiece in position against the supports. These forces are predictable, and proper utilization of
them can materially aid in reducing the magnitude of the clamping stresses required. In addition to
locating

the

work

properly,

the stops or work-supporting areas must be arranged so as to provide adequate support against the
cutting forces. As many operations as are possible and practical should be performed with each
clamping of the workpiece. This principle has both physical and economic aspects. Because some
stresses result from each clamping, with the possibility of accompanying distortion,
greater accuracy is achieved if multiple operations are performed with each clamping. From
the economic viewpoint, if the number of jigs or fixtures is reduced, less capital will be
required and less time will be spent handling the workpiece loading and unloading.
When jigs or fixtures are used in connection with chip-making operations, adequate
provision must be made for the easy removal of the chips. This is essential for several
reasons. First, if chips become packed around the tool, heat will not be carried away
and tool life can be decreased. Even though chips and dirt always have to be cleaned from the
locating and supporting surfaces by a worker or by automatic means, such as an air blast, the design
details should be such that chips and other debris will not readily adhere to, or be caught in or on, the
locating surfaces, corners, or overhanging elements and thereby prevent the work from seating

properly.

Such

condition results in distortion, high clamping stresses, and incorrect workpiece dimensions.
The cost of the work holders must be justified by the quantities of production involved,
and their primary purpose is to increase productivity and quality. While work is being
put into or being taken out of jigs and fixtures, the machines with which they are used
are not making chips. The loading and unloading time plus the machining time (also
called the run time) plus any delay times equals the cycle time for a part. The loading
and unloading time is greatly influenced by the choice of clamps.
The work holder is as critical as the machine tool and the cutting tool to the final
quality of the part. The use of the work holder eliminates manual layout of the desired
features of the part on the raw material. Manual layout requires a highly skilled worker
and is very time consuming. The work holder permits a less skilled person to achieve
quality and repeatable production with far greater efficiency
PART 4
3D model

Figure 2 3D model of the given part


Machining operations required

The part is to be made from a cubic stock of mild Carbon steel (exact alloy still unknown) of
dimensions 64 mm x 58 mm x 40 mm.
o Facing to flatten surfaces and enhance parallelism Planing machine
o Drilling through hole at center of diameter 25 mm , 4jaw chuck, Lathe, 5 mm drill bit, 10
mm drill bit, 20 mm drill bit, 25 mm drill bit,
o Drilling 35 mm hole on one side to a length of 20.1 mm 4 jaw chuck, Lathe
o Profile mill 29 mm hole VMC, end mill
o Use a slotting machine to generate the internal spline 4 jaw chuck, spline cutting tool,
rotary indexer
o Profile mill the external contour VMC, end mill

Justifications
o The planing machine is used to obtain flat parallel surfaces on the cubical workpiece to
minimise the utilisation of VMC so that other urgent jobs can be carried out.
o Drilling is carried out on manual lathe to reduce cost and unnecessary CNC machine time.
o Slotting machine is used to generate the internal spline due to availability of required spline
cutting tool and easy rotary indexing.
o Profile milling through VMC is used for external contour due to its complex shape.