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Arousing of the Factors

of Enlightenment
Characteristic, Function,
Manifestation, and Arousing

Arousing of the Factors of Enlightenment: Characteristic, Function, Manifestation,

and Arousing (based on Sayadaw U Panditas In this very life, p. 263-267
von pamokkha
Version 1.0: 12.09.2016 Alle Rechte vorbehalten, 2016 Mnchen

Because they lead to

enlightenment, therefore
they are called factors of

The 7 factors of


Courageous Effort,
Concentration, and

Characteristic: non-superficiality
Function: non-disappearance, or to keep
the object in view
Manifestation: confrontation

Ways of arousing: mindfulness and clear
comprehension, or broad-based
mindfulness, dissociation from
unmindful persons and association with
mindful persons, inclination of the mind
toward the development of mindfulness


Characteristic: intuitive knowledge of the nature of

dhammas, also of nibbana
Function: to dispel darkness
Manifestation: nonconfusion

Ways of arousing: direct perception, to ask questions
about Dhamma and meditation practice, cleanliness
of internal and external bases, balancing the
controlling faculties, avoiding unwise and associating
with wise persons, reflection on profound dhamma,
commitment to cultivating investigation

Characteristic: enduring patience in
the face of suffering and difficulty
Function: supporting the mental state
Manifestation: a bold and courageous

Ways of arousing: wise attention, reflection on the
fearsomeness of apaya or the states of misery one can fall into
in the absence of effort, reflection on the benefits of effort and
on trying to match the nobility of previous practitioners,
respect and appreciation for alms food or other supports one
has received, reflection on the sevenfold heritage of a noble
person and on the greatness of the Buddha, the Dhamma
which links the lineage of Buddhas to oneself, and sangha,
avoiding lazy persons and associating with energetic persons,
incline the mind toward developing energy


Characteristic: happiness, delight, and satisfaction

Function: lightness and energy of body and mind
Manifestation: physical sensations of lightness

Ways of arousing: wise attention to being effortful in bringing about
wholesome feelings of rapture connected with Buddha, Dhamma, and
sangha, recollection of the virtues of Buddha, Dhamma, sangha, ones
own moral purity and generosity, the virtues of devas and brahmas, on
the peace of cessation of the kilesas, either in nibbana, in the jhanas, or
in deep meditations one has experienced, avoiding the company of
rough, angry and coarse persons and cultivating friends who are warm,
loving and refined, reflect on the suttas and incline the mind toward
developing rapture

Characteristic: calmness of body and mind,
end of agitation
Function: to extract or suppress mental heat
due to restlessness, dissipation or remorse
Manifestation: nonagitation of body and mind

Ways of arousing: wise attentention directed toward
developing wholesome mental states, especially
meditative states, which allow tranquility, good food and
suitable weather, comfortable posture and maintaining a
balanced effort in practice, avoiding bad-tempered people
and associating with calm and gentle people, inclining the
mind toward the development of tranquility

Characteristic: nondispersal
Function: to collect the mind
Manifestation: peace and stillness

Ways of arousing: continuous wise attention aimed at developing
concentration, cleanliness of body and environment, balancing
the controlling faculities, sill in the concentration object, uplifting
the mind when it is depressed and calming the mind when it is
excited, bringing happiness to the mind when it is withered by
pain, continuous, balanced awareness, avoiding unconcentrated
and associating with concentrated people, reflecting on the peace
of the jhanic absorptions and inclining the mind toward the
development of concentration

Characteristic: the balancing of
opposed mental states
Function: to fill in where there is a lack
and to reduce excess
Manifestation: a state of ease and

Ways of arousing: wise attention; that is, continuous
mindfulness based on the intention to develop equanimity,
an equanimous attitude toward all living beings and a
balanced attitude toward nonliving objects, avoiding
people who are deeply possessive or lack equanimity and
associating with those who are not attached to beings or
possessions, inclining the mind toward developing