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# Laplace Transforms

Gilles Cazelais
May 2006

Contents

1 Problems
1.1 Laplace Transforms . . . . . .
1.2 Inverse Laplace Transforms .
1.3 Initial Value Problems . . . .
1.4 Step Functions and Impulses
1.5 Convolution . . . . . . . . . .

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1
1
2
3
4
5

2 Solutions
2.1 Laplace Transforms . . . . . .
2.2 Inverse Laplace Transforms .
2.3 Initial Value Problems . . . .
2.4 Step Functions and Impulses
2.5 Convolution . . . . . . . . . .

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7
7
10
16
25
33

## A Formulas and Properties

39
A.1 Table of Laplace Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
A.2 Properties of Laplace Transforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
A.3 Trigonometric Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
B Partial Fractions
43
B.1 Partial Fractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
B.2 Cover-up Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
Bibliography

47

ii

CONTENTS

Chapter

Problems
1.1

Laplace Transforms

## 1. Find the Laplace transform of the following functions.

(a) f (t) = 4t2 2t + 3
(b) f (t) = 3 sin 5t 2 cos 3t
(c) f (t) = 3e2t + 5e3t

## (d) f (t) = e2t (4 cos 5t + 3 sin 5t)

(e) f (t) = t3 e2t + 2tet
(f ) f (t) = (1 + e3t )2

2. Use an appropriate trigonometric identity to find the following Laplace transforms. See page 41 for a list of trigonometric identities.


(a) L cos2 t
(b) L {sin 2t cos 2t}
(c) L {sin 3t cos 4t}

(d) L {sin(t + )}
(e) L {cos(t + )}


(f ) L e2t sin(3t + 6 )

## 3. The hyperbolic sine and hyperbolic cosine are defined by

et et
et + et
and cosh t =
.
2
2
Evaluate both L {sinh t} and L {cosh t}.
sinh t =

## 4. Find both L {cos t} and L {sin t} by starting from Eulers formula

ej = cos + j sin
and

L eat =

1
.
sa

CHAPTER 1. PROBLEMS

5. Use the frequency differentiation property (see page 40) to derive the following formulas.
2s
(a) L {t sin t} = 2
(s + 2 )2

(b) L {t cos t} =

s2 2
(s2 + 2 )2

6. Use the frequency shift property (see page 40) to find the following.
(a) L t e sin 3t


1.2

2t



(b) L t e3t cos 2t

## In problems 1 8, find the inverse Laplace transforms of the given functions.

1
1. F (s) = 4
s

5. F (s) =

s2
s2 + 2s + 5

2. F (s) =

s+5
s2 + 4

6. F (s) =

s+5
(s2 + 9)2

3. F (s) =

3s + 1
s2 + 5

7. F (s) =

1
s2 4s + 7

4. F (s) =

1
(s 3)5

8. F (s) =

5s + 2
(s2 + 6s + 13)2

In problems 9 16, use the method of partial fractions to find the given inverse
Laplace transforms. See page 43 for a refresher on partial fractions.
 2

s + 3s + 4


1
13. L
s+3
(s 2)3
9. L 1
2
s + 4s 5
 2



s +s+4
1
s
+
1
14. L
10. L 1
s3 + 9s
(2s 1)(s + 2


 2

3s + 2
1
s
+
s
+
5
15. L
11. L 1
s3 (s2 + 1)
s4 s2




1
2s + 1
1
1
12. L
16. L
(s + 1)(s2 + 4)
(s + 3)(s2 + 4s + 13)

1.3

## Use Laplace transforms to solve the following initial-value problems.

1. y 0 + 4y = et ,
0

2. y y = sin t,

y(0) = 2
y(0) = 1

3. y 00 + 3y 0 + 2y = t + 1,
4. y 00 + 4y 0 + 13y = 0,
5. y 00 + 4y = 4t + 8,

y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 0
y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 2

y(0) = 4, y 0 (0) = 1

6. y 00 + y 0 2y = 5e3t ,

y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 4

7. y 00 + y 0 2y = et ,

y(0) = 2, y 0 (0) = 3

8. y 00 2y 0 + y = et ,

y(0) = 3, y 0 (0) = 4

9. y 00 + 2y 0 + 2y = cos 2t,
10. y 00 + 4y = sin 3t,
11. y 00 + 2 y = cos t,

y(0) = 0, y 0 (0) = 1

y(0) = 2, y 0 (0) = 1
y(0) = 0, y 0 (0) = 0

## 12. y 00 + 2y 0 + 5y = 3et cos 2t,

y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 2

## 13. The differential equation for a mass-spring system is

mx00 (t) + x0 (t) + kx(t) = Fe (t).
Consider a mass-spring system with a mass m = 1 kg that is attached to a
spring with constant k = 5 N/m. The medium offers a damping force six
times the instantaneous velocity, i.e., = 6 N s/m.
(a) Determine the position of the mass x(t) if it is released with initial
conditions: x(0) = 3 m, x0 (0) = 1 m/s. There is no external force.
(b) Determine the position of the mass x(t) if it released with the initial
conditions: x(0) = 0, x0 (0) = 0 and the system is driven by an external
force Fe (t) = 30 sin 2t in newtons with time t measured in seconds.
14. The differential equation for the current i(t) in an LR circuit is
di
+ Ri = V (t).
dt
Find the current in an LR circuit if the initial current is i(0) = 0 A given that
L = 2 H, R = 4 , and V (t) = 5et volts with time t measured in seconds..
L

15. The differential equations for the charge q(t) in an LRC circuit is
q(t)
= V (t).
C
Find the charge and current in an LRC circuit with L = 1 H, R = 2 ,
C = 0.25 F and V = 50 cos t volts if q(0) = 0 C and i(0) = 0 A.
Lq 00 (t) + Rq 0 (t) +

CHAPTER 1. PROBLEMS

1.4

## 1. Find the Laplace transforms of the following functions.

t, 0 t < 1

0t<1
1,
(c) f (t) = 1, 1 t < 2

(a) f (t) = 3,
1t<2
0, t 2

2, t 2
(
(
sin t, 0 t <
0, 0 t < 3
(b) f (t) =
(d) f (t) = 2
0,
t
t , t3
2. Find the following inverse Laplace transforms.


2s

e
s+3
 2s 
e
(b) L 1
s2 + 4
(a) L

(c) L

(d) L

es
(s 1)(s + 2)

es
s(s2 + 1)

## In problems 3 9, use Laplace transforms to solve the initial-value problem.

(
1, 0 t 1
0
3. y + 2y = f (t), y(0) = 3, where f (t) =
0, t 1
(
0,
0t
4. y 00 + y = f (t), y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 0, where f (t) =
sin t, t
(
1,
0t3
00
0
0
5. y + y 2y = f (t), y(0) = 0, y (0) = 0, where f (t) =
1, t 3

1, 0 t < ,
00
0
6. y + 4y = f (t), y(0) = 0, y (0) = 2, where f (t) = 2, t < 2,

0, t 2
7. y 0 + 3y = (t 1),
00

y(0) = 2

8. y + 4y + 13y = (t ),

y(0) = 2, y 0 (0) = 1

9. y 00 + y = (t 2 ) + 2(t ),

y(0) = 3, y 0 (0) = 1

10. Find the Laplace transform of the periodic function f (t) with period T = 2a
defined over one period by
(
1, 0 t < a
f (t) =
0, a t < 2a.

1.5. CONVOLUTION

L

di
+ Ri = V (t).
dt

## Consider an LR circuit with L = 1 H, R = 4 and a voltage source (in volts)

(
2, 0 t < 1
V (t) =
0, t 1.
(a) Find the current i(t) if i(0) = 0.
(b) Compute the current at t = 1.5 seconds, i.e., compute i(1.5).
(c) Evaluate lim i(t).
t

## (d) Sketch the graph of the current as a function of time.

12. Consider the following function with a > 0 and  > 0.

0, 0 t < a

1
(t a) =
, at<a+

0, t a +
(a) Find L { (t a)}.
(b) Show that: lim L { (t a)} = eas .
0

1.5

Convolution



(a) L 1 t4
Z t

(b) L
cos d
0

(d) L

Z


cos sin(t ) d

## 2. Find the following inverse Laplace transforms by using convolution. Do not

use partial fractions.


1


1
(c) L
1
s(s2 + 1))
(a) L 1
s(s 1)




1
1
(b) L 1
(d) L 1
(s + 1)(s 3)
s2 (s2 + 1)

CHAPTER 1. PROBLEMS

## 3. Use convolution to derive the following formula.



sin t t cos t
1
1
=
L
2
2
2
(s + )
2 3
4. Solve for f (t) in the following equation.
f (t) = t + e2t +

e f (t ) d

5. Solve for f (t) in the following equation. Be sure to find all solutions.
t

f ()f (t ) d = t3

## 6. Solve for y(t) in the following initial-value problem.

y 0 (t) +

Z
0

e2 y(t ) d = 1,

y(0) = 0

Chapter

Solutions
2.1

Laplace Transforms

1. We use the table of Laplace transforms (see page 39) to answer this question.

8
2
3
(a) L {f (t)} = 4 L t2 2 L {t} + 3 L {1} = 3 2 +
s
s
s
15
2s
(b) L {f (t)} = 3 L {sin 5t} 2 L {cos 3t} = 2

s + 25 s2 + 9



3
5
(c) L {f (t)} = 3 L e2t + 5 L e3t =
+
s2 s+3




15
4(s + 2)
+
(d) L {f (t)} = 4 L e2t cos 5t +3 L e2t sin 5t =
(s + 2)2 + 25 (s + 2)2 + 25


6
2
(e) L {f (t)} = L t3 e2t + 2 L {tet } =
+
4
(s 2)
(s + 1)2
(f ) Since f (t) = (1 + e3t )2 = 1 + 2e3t + e6t , we have

 1
2
1
L {f (t)} = L {1} + 2L e3t + L e6t = +
+
.
s s3 s6
2. (a) Since cos2 t =

1 + cos 2t
, we have
2

1
L cos2 t = (L {1} + L {cos 2t})
2

1 1
s
=
+
.
2 s s2 + 4

(b) Starting from the identity sin 2 = 2 sin cos , if we let = 2t we get
sin 4t = 2 sin 2t cos 2t = sin 2t cos 2t =
7

1
sin 4t
2

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
and
L {sin 2t cos 2t} =

1
1
L {sin 4t} =
2
2

4
2
s + 16


=

s2

2
.
+ 16

(c) From the identity sin cos = 21 (sin( + ) + sin( )), we deduce
1
(sin(3t + 4t) + sin(3t 4t))
2
1
= (sin 7t + sin(t))
2
1
= (sin 7t sin t)
2

sin 3t cos 4t =

and
L {sin 3t cos 4t} =

1
2

1
7

s2 + 49 s2 + 1


.

(d) From the identity sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin , we deduce
sin(t + ) = sin t cos + cos t sin
and
L {sin(t + )} = cos L {sin t} + sin L {cos t}





s
= cos 2
+ sin 2
.
s + 2
s + 2
(e) From the identity cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin , we deduce
cos(t + ) = cos t cos sin t sin
and
L {cos(t + )} = cos L {cos t} sin L {sin t}




s

= cos 2
sin 2
.
s + 2
s + 2
(f ) Using the identity sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin , we deduce
e2t sin(3t + 6 ) = e2t (sin 3t cos 6 + cos 3t sin 6 )
= e2t (

3
1
2 sin 3t + 2 cos 3t)
3 2t
sin 3t + 21 e2t cos 3t
2 e

=
and
L e


2t

sin(3t +

6)





3
3
1
s+2
=
+
.
2
(s + 2)2 + 9
2 (s + 2)2 + 9

## 2.1. LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

3. Using L {eat } =

1
, we deduce
sa



1
L et L et
2

1
1
1
=

2 s s+


1 s + (s )
=
2
s2 2

= 2
s 2

L {sinh t} =

and



1
L et + L et
2

1
1
1
=
+
2 s s+


1 s++s
=
2
s2 2
s
= 2
.
s 2

L {cosh t} =

## 4. From Eulers formula, we get



L ejt = L {cos t} + jL {sin t} .
From L {eat } =

(2.1)

1
, we deduce
sa



L ejt =

1
1
=
s j
s j

s + j
s + j


=

s + j
.
s2 + 2

(2.2)

Since the real and imaginary parts in equations (2.1) and (2.2) are equal, we
conclude that
L {cos t} =

s2

s
+ 2

and L {sin t} =

s2

.
+ 2

## 5. We will use the property L {tf (t)} = F 0 (s).

. Therefore
+ 2


d

L {t sin t} = F 0 (s) =
ds s2 + 2
2s
= 2
.
(s + 2 )2

## (a) If f (t) = sin t, we have F (s) =

s2

10

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
s
. Therefore
s2 + 2


d
s
L {t cos t} = F 0 (s) =
ds s2 + 2
s2 2
.
= 2
(s + 2 )2

## 6. We use the frequency shift property L {eat f (t)} = F (s a).

(a) Since L {t sin 3t} =

(s2

6s
, we conclude that
+ 9)2
6(s 2)
6(s 2)
= 2
.
((s 2)2 + 9)2
(s 4s + 13)2



L te2t sin 3t =

s2 4
, we conclude that
(s2 + 4)2



L te3t cos 2t =

2.2

(s + 3)2 4
s2 + 6s + 5
=
.
((s + 3)2 + 4)2
(s2 + 6s + 13)2

## Inverse Laplace Transforms

 
3!
t3
1
L 1
=
4
3!
s
6




s+5
s
5
1
2. L 1
=
L
+ L
s2 + 4
s2 + 4
2
1. L

1
s4


5
2
= cos 2t + sin 2t
s2 + 4
2
( )




3s
+
1
s
1
5
3. L 1
= 3L 1
+ L 1
s2 + 5
s2 + 5
s2 + 5
5
L

4. L

1
(s 3)5


=

3s + 1
s2 + 5

1
L
4!

1
= 3 cos 5t + sin 5t
5

4!
(s 3)5


=

t4 e3t
24

## 5. By completing the square, we get

s2 + 2s + 5 = (s + 1)2 + 4.
Observe that

s2
(s + 1) 3
=
.
s2 + 2s + 5
(s + 1)2 + 4

Therefore,


s2
L 1
=L
s2 + 2s + 5

s+1
(s + 1)2 + 4

= et cos 2t
6. L

11

3
L
2

2
(s + 1)2 + 4

3 t
e sin 2t.
2






s+5
6s
1
1 1
1
+ 5L
= L
6
(s2 + 9)2
(s2 + 9)2
(s2 + 9)2




s+5
1
sin 3t 3t cos 3t
1
L
= t sin 3t + 5
(s2 + 9)2
6
2(33 )
=

5
5
1
t sin 3t +
sin 3t t cos 3t.
6
54
18

## 7. By completing the square, we get

s2 4s + 7 = (s 2)2 + 3.
Therefore,
L

1
2
s 4s + 7

1
= L
3

(
1

3
(s 2)2 + 3

1
= e2t sin 3t.
3
8. First we complete the square to get
s2 + 6s + 13 = (s + 3)2 + 4.
Observe that

5s + 2
5(s + 3) 13
=
.
(s2 + 6s + 13)2
((s + 3)2 + 4)2

## We now use the frequency shift theorem L {eat f (t)} = F (s a) to conclude

that




5(s + 3) 13
5s 13
1
3t
1
=e L
.
L
((s + 3)2 + 4)2
(s2 + 4)2


5s 13
Now lets focus on L 1
.
(s2 + 4)2






5s 13
5 1
4s
1
1
L 1
=
L

13L
(s2 + 4)2
4
(s2 + 4)2
(s2 + 4)2


5
sin 2t 2t cos 2t
= t sin 2t 13
4
2(2)3
5
13
13
= t sin 2t
sin 2t + t cos 2t
4
16
8

12

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Therefore,
L

5s + 2
2
(s + 6s + 13)2

3t

=e


5
13
13
t sin 2t
sin 2t +
t cos 2t .
4
16
8

## 9. We can factor the denominator to obtain

s2 + 4s 5 = (s 1)(s + 5).
The partial fractions decomposition is of the form
s+3
A
B
=
+
.
(s 1)(s + 5)
s1 s+5
Using the cover-up method we obtain A and B as follows.

2
s+3
s+3

=
and B =
A=





3

(s 1) (s + 5) s=1
(s 1) 
(s 
+
5)


=
s=5

1
3

Then,
L

s+3
(s 1)(s + 5)

2
= L
3
=

1
s1

1
+ L
3

1
s+5

2 t 1 5t
e + e .
3
3

## 10. The partial fractions decomposition is of the form

s+1
A
B
=
+
.
(2s 1)(s + 2)
2s 1 s + 2
Using the cover-up method we obtain A and B as follows.

s+1
3
s+1

A=
=
and B =



5
(2s 1) 
(s 
+
2)
(2s1) (s + 2) s=1/2


=
s=2

Then,
L

s+1
(2s 1)(s + 2)





3 1
1
1
1
L
+ L 1
5
2s 1
5
s+2




3
1
1
1
=
L 1
+ L 1
52
s 1/2
5
s+2

3 t/2 1 2t
e + e .
10
5

1
5

13

## 11. We start by factoring the denominator to get s4 s2 = s2 (s 1)(s + 1). The

partial fractions decomposition is of the form
C
s2 + s + 5
A
B
D
= + 2+
+
.
2
s (s 1)(s + 1)
s
s
s1 s+1
By multiplying both sides by s2 (s 1)(s + 1) we get
s2 + s + 5 = As(s 1)(s + 1) + B(s 1)(s + 1) + Cs2 (s + 1) + Ds2 (s 1).
To find the constants, lets assign values to s as follows.
s = 0 = 5 = 0 B + 0 + 0 = B = 5
s = 1 = 7 = 0 + 0 + 2C + 0 = C = 7/2
s = 1 = 5 = 0 + 0 + 0 2D = D = 5/2
s = 2 = 11 = 6A + 3B + 12C + 4D = A =
Then,

 2
s +s+5
1
= L
L
s4 s2

 
1
5L
s

= 1 5t +

1
s2

11 3B 12C 4D
= 1
6

7
+ L
2

7 t 5 t
e e .
2
2

## 12. The partial fractions decomposition is of the form

1
A
Bs + c
=
+ 2
.
2
(s + 1)(s + 4)
s+1
s +4
We can use the cover-up method to find A, B, C as follows.

1
1

A=
=



2
5
(s 
+ 1) (s + 4)

s=1

(Bs + C)|s=2j =
2Bj + C =
=
=


2


(s + 4) s=2j
(s + 1) 
1
1 + 2j


1 2j
1
1 + 2j 1 2j
1 2j
.
5
1

1
s1

5
L
2

1
s+1

14

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Since the real and imaginary parts are equal on both sides, we get
B=
Then,

L 1

1
(s + 1)(s2 + 4)


=
=

1
L
5

1
5

and C =

1
s+1

1
.
5

1
L
5

s
s2 + 4


+

1
L
52

2
s2 + 4

1 t 1
1
e cos 2t +
sin 2t.
5
5
10

## 13. The partial fractions decomposition is of the form

s2 + 3s + 4
A
B
C
=
+
+
.
3
2
(s 2)
s 2 (s 2)
(s 2)3
By multiplying both sides by (s 3)3 and expanding, we get
s2 + 3s + 4 = A(s 2)2 + B(s 2) + C
= A(s2 4s + 4) + Bs 2B + C
= As2 + (B 4A)s + (C 2B + 4A).
We conclude that
A = 1,

B 4A = 3 = B = 7,

Then,
 2

s + 3s + 4
1
L
=L
(s 2)3

1
s2

C 2B + 4A = 4 = C = 14.


+ 7L

1
(s 2)2

14
+ L
2!

2!
(s 2)3

## = e2t + 7te2t + 7t2 e2t .

14. We factor the denominator to get s3 + 9s = s(s2 + 9). The partial fractions
decomposition is of the form
A Bs + C
s2 + s + 4
= + 2
.
s(s2 + 9)
s
s +9
By multiplying both sides by s(s2 + 9) and expanding, we get
s2 + s + 4 = A(s2 + 9) + (Bs + C)s
= As2 + 9A + Bs2 + Cs
= (A + B)s2 + Cs + 9A.
We conclude that
9A = 4 = A = 4/9,

C = 1,

A + B = 1 = B = 5/9.

## 2.2. INVERSE LAPLACE TRANSFORMS

15

Then,
L

s2 + s + 4
s3 + 9s

4
= L
9
=

 
1
5
+ L
s
9

s
s2 + 9

1
+ L
3

3
s2 + 9

4 5
1
+ cos 3t + sin 3t.
9 9
3

## 15. The partial fractions decomposition is of the form

3s + 2
C
Ds + E
A
B
= + 2+ 3+ 2
.
s3 (s2 + 1)
s
s
s
s +1
By multiplying both sides by s3 (s2 + 1) and expanding, we get
3s + 2 = As2 (s2 + 1) + Bs(s2 + 1) + C(s2 + 1) + (Ds + E)s3
= As4 + As2 + Bs3 + Bs + Cs2 + C + Ds4 + Es3
0s4 + 0s3 + 0s2 + 3s + 2 = (A + D)s4 + (B + E)s3 + (A + C)s2 + Bs + C.
We conclude that
C=2
B=3
A + C = 0 = A = 2
B + E = 0 = E = 3
A + D = 0 = D = 2.
Then,
L

3s + 2
s3 (s2 + 1)

= 2 + 3t + t2 + 2 cos t 3 sin t.

## 16. First we complete the square to get s2 + 4s + 13 = (s + 2)2 + 9. We can look

for a partial fractions decomposition in the form
2s + 1
A
B(s + 2) + C
=
+
.
2
(s + 3)(s + 4s + 13)
s+3
(s + 2)2 + 9
Method 1. Lets multiply both sides by (s + 3)((s + 2)2 + 9) to get
2s + 1 = A((s + 2)2 + 9) + (B(s + 2) + C)(s + 3).
To find the constants A, B, and C, lets assign values to s as follows.
s = 3 = 5 = 10A + 0 = A = 1/2
s = 2 = 3 = 9A + C = C = 3 9A = 3/2
s = 1 = 1 = 10A + 2B + 2C = B = (3 10A 2C)/2 = 1/2

16

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Method 2. We can use the cover-up method to find A, B, and C.

1
2s + 1

= .
A=



2 + 4s + 13)
2

(s
+
3)
(s

s=3

## Since s2 + 4s + 13 = (s + 2)2 + 9 = 0 if s = 2 + 3j, then

(B(s + 2) + C)|s=2+3j

2s + 1
=
(
(
(13)
(+
(s + 3) (
(s2(+(4s

s=2+3j

2(2 + 3j) + 1
3Bj + C =
(2 + 3j) + 3
3 + 6j
=
1 + 3j



3 + 6j
1 3j
=
1 + 3j
1 3j
15j + 15
3Bj + C =
.
10
Since the real and imaginary parts are equal on both sides, we get
15
1
= B =
10
2

3B =

and C =

15
3
= .
10
2

Then,
1
2s + 1
=
(s + 3)(s2 + 4s + 13)
2






1
1
s+2
1
3
+
+
s+3
2 (s + 2)2 + 9
2 (s + 2)2 + 9

and
L

2.3

2s + 1
(s + 3)(s2 + 4s + 13)

1
1
= e3t + e2t (cos 3t + sin 3t) .
2
2

## 1. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.


L {y 0 (t)} + 4L {y(t)} = L et
Since y(0) = 2, we get
(sY (s) 2) + 4Y (s) =

1
.
s1

## Solving for Y (s) gives

Y (s) =

2
1
2s 1
+
=
.
s + 4 (s + 4)(s 1)
(s + 4)(s 1)

17

## Using partial fractions, we obtain





9
1
1
1
Y (s) =
+
.
5 s+4
5 s1
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
y(t) =

9 4t 1 t
e
+ e
5
5

## 2. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.

L {y 0 (t)} L {y(t)} = L {sin t}
Since y(0) = 1, we get
(sY (s) 1) Y (s) =

s2

1
.
+1

Y (s) =

1
s2 + 2
1
+
=
.
2
s 1 (s 1)(s + 1)
(s 1)(s2 + 1)

## Using partial fractions, we obtain







1
1
s
1
1
3

.
Y (s) =
2 s1
2 s2 + 1
2 s2 + 1
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
y(t) =

3 t 1
1
e cos t sin t
2
2
2

## 3. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.

L {y 00 (t)} + 3L {y 0 (t)} + 2L {y(t)} = L {t} + L {1}
Since y(0) = 1 and y 0 (0) = 0, we get
(s2 Y (s) s 0) + 3(sY (s) 1) + 2Y (s) =

1
1
+ .
s2
s

## Solving for Y (s) and simplifying gives

s+3
1
1
+ 2 2
+
2
+ 3s + 2 s (s + 3s + 2) s(s + 3s + 2)
s3 + 3s2 + s + 1
= 2
.
s (s + 1)(s + 2)

Y (s) =

s2

18

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Using partial fractions, we obtain
 
 




1 1
1 1
1
3
1

Y (s) =
+2

.
2 s2
4 s
s+1
4 s+2
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
y(t) =

1
1
3
t + 2et e2t
2
4
4

## 4. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.

L {y 00 (t)} + 4L {y 0 (t)} + 13L {y(t)} = 0
Since y(0) = 1 and y 0 (0) = 2, we get
(s2 Y (s) s 2) + 4(sY (s) 1) + 13Y (s) = 0.
Solving for Y (s) gives
Y (s) =

s2

s+6
.
+ 4s + 13

## By completing the square of the denominator, we get

s2 + 4s + 13 = (s + 2)2 + 9.
Therefore,
Y (s) =

(s + 2) + 4
s+2
4
=
+
(s + 2)2 + 9
(s + 2)2 + 9 3

3
(s + 2)2 + 9


.

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.

y(t) = e2t cos 3t +

4 2t
e
sin 3t
3

## 5. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.

L {y 00 (t)} + 4L {y(t)} = 4L {t} + L {8}
Since y(0) = 4 and y 0 (0) = 1, we get
(s2 Y (s) 4s + 1) + 4Y (s) =

4
8
+ .
2
s
s

## Solving for Y (s) gives

Y (s) =

4s 1
4
8
4s3 s2 + 8s + 4
+ 2 2
+
=
.
2
2
s + 4 s (s + 4) s(s + 4)
s2 (s2 + 4)

19

## Using partial fractions, we obtain

 


1
1
s
2
Y (s) = 2 + 2
+2 2
2
.
s
s
s +4
s +4
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
y(t) = t + 2 + cos 2t sin 2t
6. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.

L {y 00 (t)} + L {y 0 (t)} 2L {y(t)} = 5L e3t
Since y(0) = 1 and y 0 (0) = 4, we get
(s2 Y (s) s + 4) + (sY (s) 1) 2Y (s) =

5
.
s3

## Solving for Y (s) and simplifying gives

s3
5
+ 2
+ s 2 (s + s 2)(s 3)
(s 3)2 + 5
= 2
(s + s 2)(s 3)
s2 6s + 14
.
=
(s + 2)(s 1)(s 3)

Y (s) =

s2

## Using partial fractions, we obtain







1
1
1
3
1
Y (s) = 2

+
.
s+2
2 s1
2 s3
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
y(t) = 2e2t

3 t 1 3t
e + e
2
2

## 7. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.


L {y 00 (t)} + L {y 0 (t)} 2L {y(t)} = L et
Since y(0) = 2 and y 0 (0) = 3, we get
(s2 Y (s) 2s 3) + (sY (s) 2) 2Y (s) =

1
.
s1

## Solving for Y (s) and simplifying gives

2s + 5
1
+
s2 + s 2 (s2 + s 2)(s 1)
(2s + 5)(s 1) + 1
= 2
(s + s 2)(s 1)
2s2 + 3s 4
=
.
(s + 2)(s 1)2

Y (s) =

20

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Using partial fractions, we obtain






2
1
20
1
1
1
.
Y (s) =
+
+
9 s+2
9 s1
3 (s 1)2
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
2
20 t 1 t
y(t) = e2t +
e + te
9
9
3

## 8. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.


L {y 00 (t)} 2L {y 0 (t)} + L {y(t)} = L et
Since y(0) = 3 and y 0 (0) = 4, we get
(s2 Y (s) 3s 4) 2(sY (s) 3) + Y (s) =

1
.
s1

## Solving for Y (s) and simplifying gives

3s 2
1
+
s2 2s + 1 (s2 2s + 1)(s 1)
3(s 1) + 1
1
=
+
2
(s 1)
(s 1)3




1
1
1
2!
=3
+
+
.
s1
(s 1)2
2! (s 1)3

Y (s) =

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.

y(t) = 3et + tet +

1 2 t
t e
2

## 9. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.

L {y 00 (t)} + 2L {y 0 (t)} + 2L {y(t)} = L {cos 2t}
Since y(0) = 0 and y 0 (0) = 1, we get
(s2 Y (s) 1) + 2sY (s) + 2Y (s) =

s2

s
.
+4

## Solving for Y (s) and simplifying gives

1
s
+ 2
+ 2s + 2 (s + 2s + 2)(s2 + 4)
s2 + s + 4
= 2
(s + 2s + 2)(s2 + 4)

Y (s) =

s2

21

## Using partial fractions, we obtain





1
s+8
1
s4
Y (s) =

10 s2 + 2s + 2
10 s2 + 4
By completing the square, we get
s2 + 2s + 2 = (s + 1)2 + 1.
Therefore,


1
(s + 1) + 7
Y (s) =

10 (s + 1)2 + 1


s+1
1
+
=
10 (s + 1)2 + 1



1
s4
10 s2 + 4






7
1
1
s
4
2

+
10 (s + 1)2 + 1
10 s2 + 4
10 2 s2 + 4

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.

y(t) =

7 t
1
1
1 t
e cos t +
e sin t
cos 2t + sin 2t
10
10
10
5

10. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.
L {y 00 (t)} + 4L {y(t)} = L {sin 3t}
Since y(0) = 2 and y 0 (0) = 1, we get
(s2 Y (s) 2s 1) + 4Y (s) =

s2

3
.
+9

## Solving for Y (s) gives

Y (s) =

3
2s + 1
+
.
s2 + 4 (s2 + 4)(s2 + 9)

## Using partial fractions, we obtain

(s2

3
3
3
=

.
2
2
2
+ 4)(s + 9)
5(s + 4) 5(s + 9)

Therefore,
2s + 1
3
3
+

s2 + 4 5(s2 + 4) 5(s2 + 9)






s
4
2
1
3
=2 2
+

.
s +4
5 (s2 + 4)
5 s2 + 9

Y (s) =

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.

y(t) = 2 cos 2t +

4
1
sin 2t sin 3t
5
5

22

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS

11. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.
L {y 00 (t)} + 2 L {y(t)} = L {cos t}
Since y(0) = 0 and y 0 (0) = 0, we get
s2 Y (s) + 2 Y (s) =

s2

s
.
+ 2

Y (s) =

s
1
=
2
(s2 + 2 )2

2s
(s2 + 2 )2


.

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.

y(t) =

1
t sin t
2

12. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.


L {y 00 (t)} + 2L {y 0 (t)} + 5L {y(t)} = 3L et cos 2t
Since y(0) = 1 and y 0 (0) = 2, we get
(s2 Y (s) s 2) + 2(sY (s) 1) + 5Y (s) =

3(s + 1)
.
(s + 1)2 + 4

## Solving for Y (s) gives

Y (s) =

s+4
3(s + 1)
+
.
s2 + 2s + 5 (s2 + 2s + 5)((s + 1)2 + 4)

## Since s2 + 2s + 5 = (s + 1)2 + 4, we obtain

(s + 1) + 3
3(s + 1)
+
2
(s + 1) + 4 ((s + 1)2 + 4)2


s+1
3
2
3(s + 1)
=
+
+
.
2
2
(s + 1) + 4 2 (s + 1) + 4
((s + 1)2 + 4)2

Y (s) =

Taking the inverse Laplace transform and using frequency shift property
L

{F (s a)} = eat L

{F (s)}

we get


3
3(s + 1)
y(t) = et cos(2t) + et sin(2t) + L 1
2
((s + 1)2 + 4)2


3s
3
= et cos(2t) + et sin(2t) + et L 1
2
(s2 + 4)2


3
3
4s
= et cos(2t) + et sin(2t) + et L 1
.
2
4
(s2 + 4)2

23

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.

y(t) = et cos(2t) +

3 t
3
e sin(2t) + tet sin(2t)
2
4

## 13. The differential equation of the mass-spring system is

x00 (t) + 6x0 (t) + 5x(t) = Fe (t).
(a) We have Fe (t) = 0 and the initial conditions are
x(0) = 3

and x0 (0) = 1.

## Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the DE to get

(s2 X(s) 3s 1) + 6(sX(s) 3) + 5X(s) = 0.
Solving for X(s) gives
X(s) =

3s + 19
3s + 19
=
.
+ 6s + 5
(s + 1)(s + 5)

s2

X(s) =

4
1

.
s+1 s+5

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.

x(t) = 4et e5t
(b) We have Fe (t) = 30 sin 2t and the initial conditions are
x(0) = 0

and x0 (0) = 0.

## Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the DE to get



2
s2 X(s) + 6sX(s) + 5X(s) = 30 2
.
s +4
Solving for X(s) gives
X(s) =

60
60
=
.
(s2 + 6s + 5)(s2 + 4)
(s + 1)(s + 5)(s2 + 4)

## Using partial fractions, we obtain









1
15
1
72
s
12
2

+
.
X(s) = 3
s+1
29 s + 5
29 s2 + 4
29 2 s2 + 4
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
x(t) = 3et

15 5t 72
6
e

cos 2t +
sin 2t
29
29
29

24

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS

## 14. The differential equation of the LR circuit is

2i0 (t) + 4i(t) = 5et
with initial condition i(0) = 0. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of
the DE to get
5
2sI(s) + 4I(s) =
.
s+1
Solving for I(s) gives
5
I(s) =
.
(2s + 4)(s + 1)
Using partial fractions, we obtain
5
5
I(s) =

.
2(s + 1) 2(s + 2)
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
i(t) =

5 t 5 2t
e e
2
2

## 15. The differential equation of the LRC circuit is

q 00 (t) + 2q 0 (t) + 4q(t) = 50 cos t
with initial condition q 0 (0) = 0 and q(0) = 0. Take the Laplace transform
on both sides of the DE to get
50s
.
s2 Q(s) + 2sQ(s) + 4Q(s) = 2
s +1
Solving for Q(s) gives
Q(s) =

50s
.
(s2 + 1)(s2 + 2s + 4)

## Using partial fractions, we obtain





50 3s + 2
3s + 8
50
Q(s) =

.
13 s2 + 1
13 s2 + 2s + 4
By completing the square, we get
s2 + 2s + 4 = (s + 1)2 + 3.
Therefore




50 3s + 2
50 3(s + 1) + 5
Q(s) =

13 s2 + 1
13 (s + 1)2 + 3






150
s
100
1
150
s+1
250
=
+

13 s2 + 1
13 s2 + 1
13 (s + 1)2 + 3
13 3
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
q(t) =

150
100
150 t
250
cos t +
sin t
e cos 3t et sin 3t
13
13
13
13 3

3
(s + 1)2 + 3

!
.

2.4

## 1. We will use the following time shift property.

L {f (t) U(t a)} = eas L {f (t + a)}
(a) We have f (t) = 1 + 2 U(t 1) 5 U(t 2). Then,
L {f (t)} =

1 2es
5e2s
+

.
s
s
s

## (b) We have f (t) = sin t sin t U(t ). Then,

L {f (t)} = L {sin t} L {sin t U(t )}
1
es L {sin(t + )}
= 2
s +1
1
= 2
es L { sin t}
s +1
=

s2

1
es
+ 2
.
+1 s +1

## (c) We have f (t) = t t U(t 1) + U(t 1) U(t 2). Then,

L {f (t)} = L {t} L {t U(t 1)} + L { U(t 1)} L { U(t 2)}
1
es
e2s
s

e
L
{t
+
1}
+

s2
s

 s s
1
1
1
e
e2s
s
= 2 e
+
+

s
s2
s
s
s
=

1
es
e2s
2
.
2
s
s
s

## (d) We have f (t) = t2 U(t 3). Then,



L {f (t)} = L t2 U(t 3)


= e3s L (t + 3)2


= e3s L t2 + 6t + 9


2
6
9
= es
.
+
+
s3
s2
s
2. We will use the following time shift property.


L 1 eas F (s) = f (t a) U(t a)

25

26

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
(a) If F (s) =

1
, then f (t) = e3t . Therefore,
s+3
 2s 
e
1
L
= e3(t2) U(t 2).
s+3



1
1
2
(b) If F (s) = 2
=
, then f (t) = 12 sin 2t. Therefore,
s +4
2 s2 + 4
 2s 
e
1
L 1
= sin 2(t 2) U(t 2)
s2 + 4
2
=

## (c) Let F (s) =

1
. Using partial fractions, we get
(s 1)(s + 2)


1
1
1

.
F (s) =
3 s1 s+2

Since f (t) = L
L

1
sin 2t U(t 2).
2

## {F (s)} = 31 (et e2t ), then

es
(s 1)(s + 2)


=


1  (t1)
e
e2(t1) U(t 1).
3

1
. Using partial fractions, we get
+ 1)

s(s2

F (s) =
Since f (t) = L

1
s
2
.
s s +1

## {F (s)} = 1 cos t, then



es
1
L
= (1 cos(t )) U(t )
s(s2 + 1)
= (1 + cos t) U(t ).

3. The IVP is
y 0 (t) + 2y(t) = 1 U(t 1),

y(0) = 3.

## Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the DE to get

(sY (s) 3) + 2Y (s) =

1 es

.
s
s

Y (s) =


3
1
+
1 es .
s + 2 s(s + 2)

## 2.4. STEP FUNCTIONS AND IMPULSES

Let G(s) =

27

1
. Using partial fractions we obtain
s(s + 2)



1 1
1
1
G(s) =

= g(t) =
1 e2t .
2 s s+2
2

Since
Y (s) =

3
+ G(s) es G(s),
s+2

we conclude that
y(t) = 3e2t + g(t) g(t 1) U(t 1)

 1
1
1 e2(t1) U(t 1)
1 e2t
= 3e2t +
2
2


1 5 2t 1
=
+ e

## 1 e2(t1) U(t 1).

2 2
2
We can also express y(t) as a piecewise defined function as follows.
(
1
+ 52 e2t ,
0t<1
y(t) = 25 2t
1 2(t1)
+2e
, t1
2 e
4. The IVP is
y 00 (t) + y(t) = sin t U(t ),

y(0) = 1, y 0 (0) = 0.

## Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the DE to get

(s2 Y (s) s) + Y (s) = L {sin t U(t )}
= es L {sin(t + )}
= es L { sin t}
=

es
.
s2 + 1

## Solving for Y (s) gives

Y (s) =
Since
L

s
es

.
s2 + 1 (s2 + 1)2

1
2
(s + 1)2


=

sin t t cos t
,
2

we get

sin(t ) (t ) cos(t )
U(t )
2


sin t (t ) cos t
= cos t +
U(t ).
2


y(t) = cos t

28

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
We can also express y(t) as a piecewise defined function as follows.
(
cos t,
0t<
y(t) =
(1 21 (t )) cos t + 21 sin t, t

5. The IVP is
y 00 (t) + y 0 (t) 2y(t) = 1 2 U(t 3),

y(0) = 0, y 0 (0) = 0.

## Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the DE to get

s2 Y (s) + sY (s) 2Y (s) =

1 2e3s

.
s
s

## Solving for Y (s) gives

Y (s) =
Let G(s) =

1 2e3s
1 2e3s
=
.
2
s(s + s 2)
s(s 1)(s + 2)

1
. Using partial fractions we obtain
s(s 1)(s + 2)

G(s) =

1
1
1
1
1
1
+

= g(t) = et + e2t .
3(s 1) 6(s + 2) 2s
3
6
2

Since
Y (s) = G(s) 2e3s G(s),
we conclude that
1
1
1
y(t) = et + e2t
3
6
2


2 (t3) 1 2(t3)
e
+ e
1 U(t 3).
3
3

## We can also express y(t) as a piecewise defined function as follows.

(
1 t
e + 1 e2t 1 ,
0t<3
 1
y(t) = 13 t 6 (t3) 2 1 2t
2(t3)
e

2e
+
e

2e
+
,
t3
3
6
2
6. The IVP is
y 00 (t) + 4y(t) = 1 + U(t ) 2 U(t 2),

y(0) = 0, y 0 (0) = 2.

## Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the DE to get

(s2 Y (s) 2) + 4Y (s) =

1 es
2e2s
+

.
s
s
s

Y (s) =

s2

2
1 + es 2e2s
+
.
+4
s(s2 + 4)

## 2.4. STEP FUNCTIONS AND IMPULSES

Let G(s) =

29

1
. Using partial fractions we obtain
s(s2 + 4)


1 1
s
1
G(s) =
2
= g(t) = (1 cos 2t) .
4 s s +4
4

Since
Y (s) =

s2

2
+ G(s) + es G(s) 2e2s G(s)
+4

we conclude that
y(t) = sin 2t +

1
1
(1 cos 2t) + (1 cos 2(t )) U(t )
4
4
1
(1 cos 2(t 2)) U(t 2).
2

y(t) = sin 2t +

1
1
1
(1 cos 2t) + (1 cos 2t) U(t ) (1 cos 2t) U(t 2)
4
4
2

## sin 2t + 4 (1 cos 2t) ,

y(t) = sin 2t + 21 (1 cos 2t) ,

sin 2t,

function as follows.
0t<
t < 2
t 2

## 7. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.

L {y 0 (t)} + 3L {y(t)} = L {(t 1)}
Since y(0) = 2, we get
(sY (s) 2) + 3Y (s) = es .
Solving for Y (s) gives
2
es
+
.
s+3 s+3
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives the answer.
Y (s) =

## y(t) = 2e3t + e3(t1) U(t 1)

8. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.
L {y 00 (t)} + 4L {y 0 (t)} + 13L {y(t)} = L {(t )}
Since y(0) = 2 and y 0 (0) = 1, we get
(s2 Y (s) 2s 1) + 4(sY (s) 2) + 13Y (s) = es .

30

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Solving for Y (s) gives
Y (s) =

s2

2s + 9
es
+ 2
.
+ 4s + 13 s + 4s + 13

## By completing the square, we get

s2 + 4s + 13 = (s + 2)2 + 9.
Therefore,
es
2s + 9
+
(s + 2)2 + 9 (s + 2)2 + 9
2(s + 2) + 5
es
=
+
(s + 2)2 + 9 (s + 2)2 + 9






3
3
s+2
5
es
=2
+
+
.
(s + 2)2 + 9
3 (s + 2)2 + 9
3
(s + 2)2 + 9

Y (s) =

## Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives

1
5
y(t) = 2e2t cos 3t + e2t sin 3t + e2(t) sin 3(t ) U(t ).
3
3
Since sin 3(t ) = sin 3t, we obtain the answer
5
1
y(t) = 2e2t cos 3t + e2t sin 3t e2(t) sin 3t U(t ).
3
3
9. Take the Laplace transform on both sides of the differential equation.


L {y 00 (t)} + L {y(t)} = L (t 2 ) + 2 L {(t )}
Since y(0) = 3 and y 0 (0) = 1, we get

## (s2 Y (s) 3s + 1) + Y (s) = e 2 s + 2es .

Solving for Y (s) gives

3s 1 e 2 s + 2es
Y (s) = 2
+
s +1
s2 + 1







s
1
1
1
s
=3 2
2
+ e 2 s
+
2e
.
s +1
s +1
s2 + 1
s2 + 1
Taking the inverse Laplace transform gives
y(t) = 3 cos t sin t + sin(t 2 ) U(t 2 ) + 2 sin(t ) U(t ).
Since
sin(t 2 ) = cos t

and

sin(t ) = sin t,

y(t) = 3 cos t sin t cos t U(t 2 ) 2 sin t U(t ).

31

1
L {f (t)} =
1 esT
Since

(
1, 0 t < a
f (t) =
0, a t < 2a

## and T = 2a, we have

L {f (t)} =

1
1 e2as

1
=
1 e2as

2a

est f (t) dt

Z

a
st

2a

f (t) dt +

st


f (t) dt

a
2a


a
1
st
st
=
e (1) dt +
e (0) dt
1 e2as
a
Z a0
1
=
est dt
1 e2as 0



1
1 eas
=
1 e2as
s



as
e
1
1

=
)
s
(1 + eas )
(1

eas
Z

1
.
s(1 + eas )

11. Since V (t) = 2 2 U(t 1), the differential equation of the LR circuit is
i0 (t) + 4i(t) = 2 2 U(t 1)
with initial conditions i(0) = 0. Take the Laplace transform on both sides
of the DE to get
2 2es
sI(s) + 4I(s) =
.
s
s
Solving for I(s) gives
I(s) =
Let G(s) =

2
2es

.
s(s + 4) s(s + 4)

2
. Using partial fractions, we obtain
s(s + 4)



1 1
1
1
G(s) =

= g(t) =
1 e4t .
2 s s+4
2

Since
I(s) = G(s) es G(s),
we can take the inverse Laplace transform to get the current.

32

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
(a)
i(t) =


 1
1
1 e4(t1) U(t 1)
1 e4t
2
2

(
i(t) =

1
2
1
2


1 e4t ,
0t<1

4(t1)
4t
e
e
, t1

i(1.5) =


1  4(1.51)
e
e4(1.5) 0.0664.
2

## At t = 1.5 seconds, the current is about 0.0664 A.

(c) For t 1, we have
i(t) =


1  4(t1)
e
e4t .
2

Therefore,
lim i(t) = 0.

## (d) The graph of i(t) is the following.

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.0
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

Observe that the current i(t) is continuous even though the voltage is
discontinuous at t = 1.
12. We have
(t a) =

1
1
U(t a) U(t (a + )).

2.5. CONVOLUTION

33





1 eas
1 e(a+)s
L { (t a)} =

s


as
s
e
1e
=
.
s

## (b) We will use lH

opitals rule to compute the limit.


eas 1 es
0 s



as
e
1 es
=
lim
0
s



as
s
e
se
=
lim
0
s
1
as
e
=
(s)
s
as
=e

2.5

Convolution

## 1. We will use the convolution theorem.

L {f (t) g(t)} = F (s)G(s)
 
 4 1 4!
24
= 6
(a) L 1 t = L {1} L t =
s s5
s
Z t
(b) Observe that
cos d = 1 cos t.


Z


cos d

= L {1 cos t}

= L {1} L {cos t}


1
s
=
2
s s + 1
1
= 2
s +1

## (c) L {e sin t} = L {e } L {sin t} =

t

1
s1



1
s2 + 1


=

1
(s 1)(s2 + 1)

34

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
t

## (d) Observe that

0

Z


cos sin(t ) d

= L {cos t sin t}



s
1
=
s2 + 1
s2 + 1
s
=
2
(s + 1)2

## 2. We will use the convolution theorem.

Z
{F (s)G(s)} = f (t) g(t) =

f ()g(t ) d
0

1
1
and G(s) =
, then
s
s1

f (t) = L

{F (s)} = 1

and g(t) = L

{G(s)} = et .

Therefore,


1
s(s 1)

=L

{F (s)G(s)}

= f (t) g(t)
= 1 et
Z t
=
e d
0
t
= e
0

= e 1.

1
1
and G(s) =
, then
s+1
s3

f (t) = L

{F (s)} = et

and g(t) = L

{G(s)} = e3t .

2.5. CONVOLUTION

35

Therefore,
L

1
(s + 1)(s 3)

=L

{F (s)G(s)}

= f (t) g(t)
= et e3t
Z t
=
e(t) e3 d
0
Z t
t
=e
e4 d
0
t

 t
e4
4 0

e4t 1
4

=e

= et
=

e3t et
.
4

1
1
and G(s) = 2
, then
s
s +1

f (t) = L

{F (s)} = 1

and g(t) = L

{G(s)} = sin t.

Therefore,


1
2
s(s + 1)

=L

{F (s)G(s)}

= f (t) g(t)
= 1 sin t
Z t
=
sin d
0
t

= cos
0

= 1 cos t.

1
1
and G(s) =
, then
s
s(s2 + 1)

f (t) = L

## {F (s)} = 1 and g(t) = L

{G(s)} = 1 cos t.

36

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Therefore,
L

1
s2 (s2 + 1)

=L

{F (s)G(s)}

= f (t) g(t)
= 1 (1 cos t
Z t
=
1 cos d
0
t

= ( sin )
0

= t sin t.
1
, then
s2 + 1


Z t
1
=
sin
t

sin
t
=
L 1
sin sin(t ) d
(s2 + 1)2
0

3. Since L {sin t} =

sin sin =


1
cos( ) cos( + )
2

## with = and = t , we get


1
cos( (t )) cos( + (t ))
2

1
=
cos(2 t) cos t .
2

sin sin(t ) =

Therefore,
L

1
(s2 + 1)2


=

1
2

(cos(2 t) cos t) d
0


 t

1 sin(2 t)
=
cos t
2
2


 0

1 sin t
1 sin(t)
=
t cos t
0
2
2
2
2
1
= (sin t t cos t)
2
We can now apply the scaling property
L {f (t)} =

1 s
F

2.5. CONVOLUTION

37
1
2

## (sin t t cos t) to get


1
1
(sin t t cos t) = 
2

1

s 2

2
+1

3
.
(s2 + 2 )2

L

1
(s2 + 2 )2


=

sin t t cos t
.
2 3

## 4. First observe that

t

e f (t ) d = et f (t).

## The equation is then equivalent to

f (t) = t + e2t + et f (t).
Take Laplace transform on both sides to get
F (s) =

1
1
F (s)
+
+
.
2
s
s2 s+1

F (s) =

1
1
s+1
+ 3+
2
s
s
s(s 2)

1/2
3/2
s+1
=
+
.
s(s 2)
s
s2
Therefore,
1
1
1
F (s) = 2 + 3
s
s
2

 


1
3
1
+
s
2 s2

f (t) = t +

t2
1 3
+ e2t
2
2 2

## 5. The equation is of the form

f (t) f (t) = t3 .

38

CHAPTER 2. SOLUTIONS
Take Laplace transform to get

6
6
F (s) F (s) = F (s) = 4 = F (s) = 2 .
s
s
2

## By taking the inverse Laplace transform we obtain the two answers

f (t) = 6t.
6. First observe that
t

## The equation is then equivalent to

y 0 (t) + e2t y(t) = 1.
Since y(0) = 0, we can take Laplace transform on both sides to get
sY (s) +

Y (s)
1
= .
s+2
s

Y (s) =

s+2
.
s(s + 1)2

Y (s) =

2
2
1

.
s s + 1 (s + 1)2

y(t) = 2 2et tet

Appendix

A.1

## Table of Laplace Transforms

f (t)

L {f (t)} = F (s)

f (t)

1
s

eat

1
sa

tn

n!
sn+1

eat tn

n!
(s a)n+1

sin t

s2 + 2

cos t

s
s2 + 2

eat sin t

(s a)2 + 2

eat cos t

sa
(s a)2 + 2

t sin t
sin t t cos t
2 3
(t)

L {f (t)} = F (s)

(s2

2s
+ 2 )2

t cos t

s2 2
(s2 + 2 )2

(s2

1
+ 2 )2

U(t a)

eas
s

(t a)

eas

39

40

A.2

## Properties of Laplace Transforms

1. Definition
F (s) = L {f (t)} =

est f (t) dt

2. Linearity
L {f (t) + g(t)} = L {f (t)} + L {g(t)}
3. Time differentiation
L {f 0 (t)} = sF (s) f (0)

## L {f 00 (t)} = s2 F (s) sf (0) f 0 (0)

n
o
L f (n) (t) = sn F (s) sn1 f (0) f (n1) (0)
4. Frequency differentiation
L {tn f (t)} = (1)n F (n) (s)
5. Time shift
L {f (t) U(t a)} = eas L {f (t + a)}


L 1 eas F (s) = f (t a) U(t a)
6. Frequency shift


L eat f (t) = F (s a)
7. Convolution
Z

f (t) g(t) =

## f ()g(t ) d = L {f (t) g(t)} = F (s)G(s)

8. Integration
L

Z


f () d

F (s)
s

9. Periodic function
f (t) has period T = L {f (t)} =

1
1 esT

10. Scaling
L {f (t)} =

1 s
F

Z
0

est f (t) dt

## A.3. TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

A.3

41

Trigonometric Identities

1. Pythagorean Identities
sin2 + cos2 = 1

1 + tan2 = sec2

1 + cot2 = csc2

2. Symmetry Identities
sin() = sin

tan() = tan

cos() = cos

## 3. Sum and Difference Identities

sin( + ) = sin cos + cos sin
cos( + ) = cos cos sin sin
tan + tan
tan( + ) =
1 tan tan

## sin( ) = sin cos cos sin

cos( ) = cos cos + sin sin
tan tan
tan( ) =
1 + tan tan

4. Double-Angle Identities
cos 2 = cos2 sin2
= 1 2 sin2

## sin 2 = 2 sin cos

2 tan
tan 2 =
1 tan2

= 2 cos2 1
5. Power-Reducing Identities
cos2 =

1 + cos 2
2

sin2 =

1 cos 2
2

6. Product-To-Sum Identities

1
sin( ) + sin( + )
2

1
cos( ) cos( + )
sin sin =
2

1
cos cos =
cos( ) + cos( + )
2
sin cos =

42

## APPENDIX A. FORMULAS AND PROPERTIES

Appendix

Partial Fractions
B.1

Partial Fractions

## Consider a function F (s) expressed as a quotient of two polynomials

F (s) =

P (s)
Q(s)

where Q(s) has a degree smaller than the degree of P (s). The method of partial
fractions can be summarized as follows.
1. Completely factor Q(s) into factors of the form
(ps + q)m

## where as2 + bs + c is an irreducible quadratic.

2. For each factor of the form (ps + q)m , the partial fractions decomposition
must include the following m terms.
A1
A2
Am
+
+ +
.
2
ps + q (ps + q)
(ps + q)m
3. For each factor of the form (as2 + bs + c)n , the partial fractions decomposition must include the following n terms.
B1 s + C1
B2 s + C2
Bn s + Cn
+
+ +
.
2
2
2
as + bs + c (as + bs + c)
(as2 + bs + c)n
4. Find the values of all the constants.
43

44

## APPENDIX B. PARTIAL FRACTIONS

B.2

Cover-up Method

There are several different ways to determine the constants in a partial fractions decomposition. When the denominator has distinct roots, we can use the
cover-up method. Lets illustrate it with some examples.
Example 1. Consider
s2 + 5s + 4
A
B
C
=
+
+
(s 1)(s 3)(s + 2)
s1 s3 s+2

(B.1)

## To find A, we could use the following two steps.

1. Multiply both sides of equation (B.1) by (s 1)(s 3)(s + 2) to obtain
s2 + 5s + 4 = A(s 3)(s + 2) + B(s 1)(s + 1) + C(s 1)(s 3).
2. Set s = 1 and solve for A.
1 + 5 + 4 = A(2)(3) + 0 + 0 = A =

5
3

The cover-up method combines these two steps in a single one as follows. To
find A, we cover up (s 1) and set s = 1 in the left-hand side of (B.1).

5
s2 + 5s + 4

=
A=



3
(s 
1) (s 3)(s + 2)

s=1

and set s = 3.

s2 + 5s + 4
14

B=
=




5

(s 1) 
(s 3) (s + 2)
s=3

s2 + 5s + 4

C=


(s 1)(s 3) 
(s 
+
2)

=
s=2

2
15

45

## If the denominator includes irreducible quadratics terms, the cover-up method

works if we use complex numbers as in the following examples.
Example 2. Consider
s
A
Bs + C
=
+ 2
.
(s + 1)(s2 + 4)
s+1
s +4
Since s + 1 = 0 if s = 1, then

1
s

=
A=



2
5
(s 
+ 1) (s + 4) s=1

Since s2 + 4 = 0 if s = 2j, then
(Bs + C)|s=2j

=


2

(s + 1) 
(s + 4) s=2j
s

2j
1 + 2j


2j
1 2j
=
(1 + 2j) 1 2j
2j + 4
=
.
5

2Bj + C =

The real and imaginary parts of the complex numbers on both sides are equal.
We conclude that
2
1
2B =
= B =
5
5
and
4
C= .
5

46

## APPENDIX B. PARTIAL FRACTIONS

Example 3. Consider
F (s) =

s2
.
(s + 2)(s2 + 6s + 13)

## By completing the square, we get

s2 + 6s + 13 = (s + 3)2 + 4.
We can look for a partial fractions decomposition of F (s) in the form
s2
A
B(s + 3) + C
=
+
.
(s + 2)(s2 + 6s + 13)
s+2
(s + 3)2 + 4
Observe that by using B(s + 3) + C instead Bs + C, we make it a little bit easier
since we do not have to solve a linear system to find B and C.
Since s + 2 = 0 if s = 2, then

4

A=
=



2 + 6s + 13)
5

(s
+
2)
(s

s=2
s2

## Since s2 + 6s + 13 = (s + 3)2 + 4 = 0 if s = 3 + 2j, then

(B(s + 3) + C)|s=3+2j

=
(
2 ((((
(s (+ 6s + 13) s=3+2j
(s + 2) (
s2

(3 + 2j)2
(3 + 2j) + 2
5 12j
=
1 + 2j


5 12j 1 2j
=
1 + 2j 1 2j
2j 29
2Bj + C =
.
5

2Bj + C =

The real and imaginary parts of the complex numbers on both sides are equal.
We conclude that
2
1
2B =
= B =
5
5
and
29
C= .
5

Bibliography

[1] Johnson W.E., Kohler L., Elementary Differential Equations with Boundary Value Problems, Second Edition, Addison Wesley, (2006).
[2] Simmons George F., Differential Equations with Applications and Historical
Notes, Second Edition, McGraw Hill, (1991).
[3] Wikipedia contributors, Laplace transform, Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laplace transform, (May
2006).
[4] Washington Allyn J., Basic Technical Mathematics with Calculus, Eight