Sie sind auf Seite 1von 16

Indeterminate Forms

Example 1 :

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

Lim sin x
x 0 x

Soln.:

Method 1 :

= ()

=1
Method 2 : Since the series for sin x is given by

sin x = x ! +

Ans.:

= (

Example 2 :

Lim sin 2 x
x 0
x2

Soln.:

= ()

..

= ( ) = 1
Ans .:

1
1

+ ) = 1

Indeterminate Forms

Example 3 :

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

Lim
tan x
x 2 tan 3 x

Soln.:
/
/

= ()

= ( )

=
=

= ()

= ( )

.()

/ .()

0

0

()

= () (()) ( cos 3 = cos = 1)


=3
Ans.:

Example 4 :

Lim 1 2 2 2 3 2 ... x 2
x
6x3

Soln.:
Since, we know that 12 + 22 + 32 + + x2 =

Lim 1 2 3 ... x
x
6x3
2

= (

(+)(+)
.

)=()
2

(+)(+)

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

= (

(+)(+)

= (

++

) = ( )

)=()

= ( )=()

= () = =

Ans.:

Example 5 :

Lim log tan x


x 0 log x

Soln.:
Lim log tan x
x 0 log x
Lim log tan x
x 0 log x

= ( )

= . = .

= .= =()

= =() = 1

Ans.:

1
3

Solved Problems

Indeterminate Forms

Example 6 :

Problems on Derivatives

Lim
x 0

Solved Problems

x log x

Soln.:

Lim
x 0

Lim
x 0

x log x

x log x = (0 . )

( log 0 = )

=( )

Note that, we could have written it as

= ()

but then, the differentiation of (1/log x) is comparatively


difficult and hence we have considered form,

=( )

= / =

= ( x) = 0
Ans.:

Example 7 :

Lim
x

log
2 .cot
xa
a

(x a)

Soln.:
Lim
x

log
2 .cot
xa
a

(x a)

Lim
x

log
2 .cot
xa
a

(x a) = (0 . )

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

Here, it is easy to convert it to ()by writing cot (x a) as


1/tan (x a).

( )

() = ()

Ans.:

)( )

()

()

.( )

= (.) =()

()

Example 8 :

Lim
x 2

(1 sin x) tan x

Soln.:
Lim
x 2

(1 sin x) tan x

Lim
x 2

(1 sin x) tan x = (0 . )

()

= ()

Ans.:

= 0 1 = 0

Indeterminate Forms

Example 9 :

Problems on Derivatives

Lim
xa

ax
ax

.tan1

Solved Problems

a2 x 2

Soln.:

Lim
xa

ax
ax

ax
ax

Lim
xa

.tan1

.tan1

+
( )

= (

()(+)

(+)

( )

= (

( )

= (

= 2.(a + a)
= 2a
Ans.:

2a

= (0 . )

a2 x 2

( )

= (

a2 x 2

) = ()

(By rationalization)

(+)

).( a + x)

Indeterminate Forms

Example 10 :

Problems on Derivatives

Lim
x 1

Solved Problems

1
x

log x x 1

Soln.:

Lim
x 1

Lim
x 1

1
x

log x x 1

1
x

log x x 1

= ( )

In case of ( ) from, LCM converts the function into()


form.

()

= ()

(. +.)
()
+.

=()

Ans.:

+ +/

= + =

Example 11 :

Lim a
x
cot
x 0 x
a

Soln.:
Lim a
x
cot
x 0 x
a
Lim a
x
cot =
x 0 x
a

( )

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

= (

)= (
/

Solved Problems

(/)(/)
(/)

.( )+( )( )

) =()

( ).( )(.( ).( ))

= (

( )+( )( )

= (

(( ).( ))

=
Ans.:

) =()


(( ).( )+( ).( )( ).( ).( ))

= (

( )+( )+

( )()+()

(( ).( )+( ).( ).( ))

( )

=0

Example 12 :

Lim
1

2
x x log 1
x
x

Soln.:
Lim
1

2
x x log 1
x
x

Lim
x

2
x x log 1 =
x

( )

Put x = so that. as x , y 0
8

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

. ( + ) = ( )

= (

(+)

= (

)
+

)
+

) = ()

) = ()

) = ((+) . ())

=((+))

Ans.:

Example 13 :

Lim
x 0

xx

Soln.:
If a function is in the form of exponential function, then
) or (0/0) form
Lim
x 0

xx = l, say

That is, we assume the true value of the limit to be l. Now


9

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

taking logarithm we get,


l=

Lim
x 0

xx

log l=

Lim
x 0

xx = x log x

= ( . ( ( ))) =

( )

= ( . (

( )

))

(see Example 7)

= ( . ( )) = ( . ()) = 0

log l = 0

So that
Ans.:

l=l

10

Indeterminate Forms

Example 14 :

Problems on Derivatives

Lim
x 0

Solved Problems

(cos x)cotx

Soln.:
Let

= xLim
(cos x)cotx
0

log l= (. ) = ( * 0)

=(

)=

()

= (

= ()

= (. )

log l = 0

Ans.:

l=2
1

Example 15 :

Lim
x 0

logtanx tan 2x

Soln.:
logtanx tan 2x
Using the formula

logb a =

= = ()

11

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

).( )

(
)(. )

().( )

= (

= (()(. ))

.(.. )

= ( .(.. ) )

(.)

= ( (.) )

= (

(.)
()

=1
Ans.:

Example 16 :

Lim
x
2
xa
a

tan

x
2a

Soln.:
Let

l=

Lim
x
2
xa
a

tan

x
2a

log l=((( ))(( ))) = ( * 0)

( )

()


( )( )


( ).

( )

= (

)=

= .

12

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

So that l = e2/

log l=
e2/

Ans.:

Example 17 : If

Lim sin 2 x p sin x


x 0
x3

tends to a finite quantity, find

the value of p as well as the value of the limit.


Soln.:
(

) = k (finite), say

) = ()
) =(

This becomes() from only when 2 + q = 0


or

p = 2

= (

= (
=
=

==k

Ans.:

k = 1
p = 2 and k = 1
13

) = ()
)

(Dec2004)

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

Lim ax b sinh x
x 0
x3

Example 18 : If

= 1 . Find the values of a and


6

b.
Soln.:

=(
=

()

) = ()

This is possible only when a b = 0

a=b

= (

=(

) = ()

) x0

==

Solved Problems

b=1

14

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

Solved Problems

so that from a= b, we get


a=1
Ans.:

a=b=1

Example 19 : If

Lim aex be x c cos x


x 0
x sin x

1

2

Find the values of a,

b, c.
Soln.:
(

+ .

+ .

)=

This becomes() only when


a +b c= 0

(1)
+ .

= (

Again, put

)=

ab=0

(2)

+ .

= (
=

= or a+ b+ c = 1

(3)

To solve a, b, c eliminate b using equation (2) in equation


(1) and equation (3),
so that,
2a c= 0 and

2a+ c = 1

4a = 1 or

a =
15

Indeterminate Forms

Problems on Derivatives

And c = 2a

==

=(, , )

(a, b, c)

Ans.: a = , b = , c =

16

Solved Problems