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# No of zeroes in a factorial

## Formula : round(n/5) + round(n/25) + round(n/125)+.......+round(n/5^n)

Here, round function indicates that only the integer part of (n/5^n) should be taken.
Number of 5s = 100/5 + 100/25 + 100/125 + = 24 (Integer values only)
Number of 2s = 100/2 + 100/4 + 100/8 + 100/16 + 100/32 + 100/64 + 100/128 + =
97 (Integer values only)
Each pair of 2 and 5 will cause a trailing zero. Since we have only 24 5s, we can only
make 24 pairs of 2s and 5s thus the number of trailing zeros in 100 factorial is 24. No
need to calculate number of 2s. Just divide by 5 n calculate answer.

## Similarly, we can find maximum power of any number in a factorial.

To find the non zero digit
The generalized formula to find the non zero digit of N =

[N5]!2[N/5]Rem(N/5)!

http://www.campusgate.co.in/2013/10/finding-right-most-non-zero-digit-of.html

## In how many ways can 15 be written as a sum of 3 distinct natural numbers?

SOL: a+b+c = 15
as a b c are natural so a=a1 + 1 without restriction on a1
so it will be
a1+b1+c1=12
total no of ways is (12+2)C2
so a, b, c are distinct so we have to deduct the aab and aaa type
aaa type is 1 (4,4,4)
aab type is (0,0) (1,1) to (6,6) except (4,4)
so total 6 solution
6*3!/2! = 18
So total no of ab c type solution is 14C2 - 6 * 3 - 1
Now to get the unordered solution
14C2 - 6*3 -1
-----------------6
= 12

## property : sum of terms of type n(n!) Is (n+1)(n+1)!

4(4!)+5(5!)+6(6!)+7(7!)+.......+19(19!)

## 20!-1 -(4!-1) = 20!-4!

Q.) A box contains three pairs of blue gloves and two pairs of green gloves. Each pair consists of a
left-hand glove and a right-hand glove. Each of the gloves is separate from its mate and thoroughly
mixed together with the others in the box. If three gloves are randomly selected from the box,
what is the probability that a matched set (i.e., a left- and right-hand glove of the same color) will
be among the three gloves selected?
(A) 3/10
(B) 23/60
(C) 7/12
(D) 41/60
(E) 5/6

Let's calculate the opposite probability of NOT getting a matched set and subtract this
value from 1.
This could happen only if we pick all three same hand BLUE gloves; two same hand BLUE
gloves and any green glove; or two same hand GREEN gloves and any BLUE glove
BBB: 6/10*2/9*1/8=1/60 (after we pick a blue glove, 6/10, then there is 2 same hand
gloves left out of total 9 gloves - 2/9, and so on);
BBG: (6/10*2/9*4/8)*3=12/60, multiplying by 3 as this senario can occur in 3 different
ways: BBG, BGB, GBB;
GGB: (4/10*1/9*6/8)*3=6/60;
P=1-(1/60+12/60+6/60)=41/60.
EXTRA EXPLAANTION : Since it has to be sum of 3 distinct natural number so no number can be
greater than 12 .
Now lets say one of the number is 12 then the sum of other two number will be 3. So the problem
reduced to representing 3 using two distinct natural numbers. And there is only 1 way to achieve that 2
+ 1.
So using 12 as one of the number there is only one way to achieve sum 15
i.e. 12 , 1 and 2
Similarly you can think for other numbers
Hence by fixing one of the number whole set can be generated like this
12 (1,2)
11 (1,3)
10 (1,4)(2,3)
9 (1,5) (2,4)
8 (1,6) (2,5) (3,4)

7 (2,6) (3,5)
6 (4,5)

An unbiased die was rolled 7 times.Find the probability of the third 5 appearing in the
last roll.
third five in last so in first 6 u shud get two '2
so pro of 5 is 1/6
there are 6 places _ _ _ _ _ _
out of these 6 two shud b 5 and rest shud not be 5
so 1/6*1/6*5/6*5/6*5/6*5/6 this 6 can be arranged in 6c2 ways
and pro of last 5 is 1/6
so total 1/6*1/6*5/6*5/6*5/6*5/6 * 1/6 * 6c2=5^5/2*6^6
Sum of dates of last monday of previous month and first thursday of next month is
38.How many such months are possible?
Let the last month end on monday
Then the current month ends on friday which has 31 days
And so on ...so u have only 2 possibilities with 2 consecutive 31 days months

if lcm is a^x*b^y*c^z,then the number of distinct pairs is given by (2x+1)(2y+1)(2z+1).Here are x,y and z
are 4,3 and 5 respectively.

How many distinct pair of numbers exist whose lcm is 3^4 X 5^3 X 7^5 ???? ans : 693
What is the sum of the products: 1*2*3; 2*3*4; .; 50*51*52?
Product of last three terms and (last term + 1)/4
50*51*52*53/4=1756950

Two natural numbers, m and n, are such that their least common multiple is
300. How many pairs of these numbers ( m and n) are possible?

300=3*5^2*2^2
pairs = (2*1 +1)(2*2+1)(2*2 +1)= ans!

## if lcm(a,b) = a^p *b ^q *.. (prime factoriziation)

then lcm (a,b) pairs = (2*p +1) (2*q+1) *.... for ordered
for unordered = (ordered -1)/2
Q.) P and Q are playing a game in which they toss a biased coin alternately. The probability that
the coin shows a head is 0.2. The game continues until the coin shows head and the person on
whose turn a head shows wins the game. Find the probability that P wins the game. (Assume
that Q tosses the coin first) ............OPTIONS :- A) 4/9 B) 5/9 C) 1/2 D) 2/3
ans:
4/9
If
in
1st
turn
P
wins
:
0.8

0.2
If
in
2nd
turn
:
0.8

0.8

0.8

0.2
If
in
3rd
turn
(0.8)^5

0.2
and
so
on...
So overall probability... 0.8 0.2 + (0.8)^3 0.2......... An infinite GP.....
If LINGER is 123456 and FORCE is 56789, then FIERCE is

345667
456678
345677
556789
opt 5

Explanation : . Letters R, E are common to LINGER and FORCE, and numbers 6 and 5 are common to
their respective coding. Therefore, 5 and 6 will stand for RE but not respectively. Now, since word
FIERCE has double E, therefore, either of 5 and 6 will appear twice in its coding. Besides, coding of
FIERCE will have two numbers from coding of FORCE for letters F and C, and one number from coding
of LINGER for letter I. Hence, coding of FIERCE will be 456678.

## CUBES IMP QUESTIONS:

http://www.thecompetitionworld.com/2014/04/mentalcube-dice-test.html
but+identical+cubes&source=bl&ots=J_3_DZfyM8&sig=JyrWN345HnFEWxvB2nQoYTuBz4c
&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAmoVChMIm8O6woCGyAIVzp6OCh0xSgPS#v=onepage
&q=A%20large%20cube%20is%20painted%20on%20all%20six%20faces%20is%20cut
%20into%2027%20identical%20but%20small%20but%20identical%20cubes&f=false

Q) in what ratio must a person mix three kinds of tea costing Rs.60/kg, Rs.75/kg and Rs.100 /kg so
that the resultant mixture when sold at Rs.96/kg yields a profit of 20%?

Solution:
Option(C) is correct
The resultant mixture is sold at a profit of 20% at Rs.96/kg
i.e. 1.2 (cost) = Rs.96 Cost =96/1.2= Rs.80 / kg.
Let the three varieties be A, B, and C costing Rs.60, Rs.75 and Rs.100 respectively.
The mean price falls between B and C.
Hence the following method should be used to find the ratio in which they should be mixed.
Step 1:
Find out the ratio of Qa:Qc using alligation rule:

## Qa:Qc= 10080 : 8060 = 1:1

Step 2:
Find out the ratio of Qb:Qc using alligation rule:

## Qb:Qc= 10080 : 8075 = 4:1

Step 3:
Qc, the resultant ratio of variety c can be found by adding the value of Qc in step 1 and
step 2=1+1=2.

However, in CAT if you try and solve the problem using the above method, you will end up
spending more than 2, and may be 3 minutes on this problem, which is a criminal
mismanagement of time.
The best way to solve a problem of this kind in CAT is to go from the answer choices as shown
below
The resultant ratio Qa:Qb:Qc::1:4:2

## Q.) For number of integral solutions of circle of radius 5 or x^2 +

y2=25.
If the answer for a given r is denoted by N(r) then the following list shows the first few values
of N(r) for r an integer between 0 and 12 followed by the list of values

rounded to the

nearest integer:
1(r=0), 5(r=1), 13(r=2), 29(r=3), 49(r=4), 81(r=5), 113, 149, 197, 253, 317, 377, 441

## Q.) Which two months in a year have the same calendar?

Two months will have the same calender if the period between them is divisible by 7.
Now,
(a). June + July + Aug. + Sep. = 30 + 31 + 31 + 30 = 122 (not divisible by 7)
(b). Apr. + May + June + July + Aug. + Sep. + Oct. = 30 + 31 + 30 + 31 + 31 +30 + 31 = 213 (not
divisible by 7)
(c). Apr. + May + June = 30 + 31 + 30 = 91 (divisible by 7)
(d). October + November = 31 + 30 = 61 (not divisible by 7)

Q.) Three equal circles of radius 2 cm intersect each other in such a way that each circle passes
through the centres of the other two circles.
Find the common area between the three circles.

Q.) Find the ratio of the area of square inscribed in a semi circle of radius 3r units to the area of
another square inscribed in a circle of radius r units
A) 9:5
B) 5:9
C) 18:5
D) 5:18

Q.) If 70% of adult males of a community have brown eyes, 75% have dark hair, 85% are over
58" tall and 90% weigh more than 140 pounds, what percent at least have all four
characteristics?
(a) 60% (b) 45% (c) 20% (d) 48%

SOL: Required percentage = 100 [(100 70) + (100 75) + (100 85)+ (100 90)]
= 100 (30 + 25 + 15 + 10)
= 20%
Q.) find the range of values of k such that the roots of the equation
x^2 +2x + k(k+1) = 0 are of the same sign.

## SOL: Let the price be x

6/100 (x-120000)=5670
X=214500

## SOLN: START SOLVING SUCH QUESTIONS FROM TOP

2raise to 0= 1

2 raise to 1=2
2 raise to 2=4
2 raise to 4=16
q.) If the ratio of the sum to n terms of two arithmetic progressions is
2n + 15 : 3n + 20, then what is the ratio of the 18th terms of two progressions?
ans: better to visualize it a1/b1 = 17/23..a1+.a2/b1 + b2 = 19/26 = 38 /52 = (17 + 17 + 4 ) / 23 +
23 + 6....a1+ a2 + a3 /b1 + b2 + b3 = 17 + 21 + 21 + 4 / 23 + 29 + 29 + 6 = 63/87 = 21 / 29 use
formula for sum also.... 2*3 + 15 / 3 * 3 + 20 = 21/29...so a is 17 d1 = 4...b = 23 ...d2 =
6...a18/b18 = 17 + 17*4/23 + 23*6 = 85/125 = 17/25
q.) A company employed 100 workers to finish the work in 120 days. When four-fifths of the work
was completed in 80 days, the company wanted to reduce the number of workers. How many
workers can be let go without affecting the completion schedule of the completion of the work?
25
40
50
Ans: 100 workers do 4/ 5 of the wrk in 80 days .. so they do whole work in 100 days
1 worker do the whole wrk in 10000 days
So he ll do left out 1/ 5 wrk in 2000 days
Days left to do the remaining portion s 40
So workers needed is 2000/ 40 =50
So 50 can be left out
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Time Table for Non Working : http://iquanta.in/cat-2015-time-table-strategy/
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Chinese Remainder Theorem: http://iquanta.in/15chinese-remainder-3-variable/
Triangles_and_Perimeters: http://iquanta.in/triangles-and-perimeters/
Number_of_Paths_through_Grids : http://iquanta.in/number-of-paths-through-grids/
Number_of_Digits_In_Different_Bases : http://iquanta.in/number-of-digits-in-different-bases/

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PnC Basics: http://iquanta.in/permutations-combinations/

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